WorldWideScience

Sample records for human heat balance

  1. Heat balance model for a human body in the form of wet bulb globe temperature indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Mochida, Tohru; Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Kuwabara, Kohei; Horiba, Yosuke; Sawada, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the empirically derived wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index to a rational thermal index based on the heat balance for a human body. We derive the heat balance model in the same form as the WBGT for a human engaged in moderate intensity work with a metabolic heat production of 174W/m 2 while wearing typical vapor-permeable clothing under shady and sunny conditions. Two important relationships are revealed based on this derivation: (1) the natural wet bulb and black globe temperature coefficients in the WBGT coincide with the heat balance equation for a human body with a fixed skin wettedness of approximately 0.45 at a fixed skin temperature; and (2) the WBGT can be interpreted as the environmental potential to increase skin temperature rather than the heat storage rate of a human body. We propose an adjustment factor calculation method that supports the application of WBGT for humans dressed in various clothing types and working under various air velocity conditions. Concurrently, we note difficulties in adjusting the WBGT by using a single factor for humans wearing vapor-impermeable protective clothing. The WBGT for shady conditions does not need adjustment depending on the positive radiant field (i.e., when a radiant heat source exists), whereas that for the sunny condition requires adjustments because it underestimates heat stress, which may result in insufficient human protection measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The human heat balance in the city of Novi Sad (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis is based on the human heat balance according to the bioclimatic man-environment heat exchange model created by Krzysztof Błażejczyk. The final result of the human heat balance model points to biothermal weather situations for the outdoor recreational needs. In this analysis, middles daily meteorological data (of climatological station of Novi Sad were used for two extreme months, January and July. In this work, it is analyzed two periods, the first is for 1992-2010. and the second is for year 2010. The aim is to show how weather can be evaluated for recreational needs which the health resource of Novi Sad and to point out the shortcomings when it comes to multi-year analysis. The objective of this article has been to present a bioclimatic analysis of city Novi Sad and how weather variables come together in order to give a climate meaning on human organism.

  3. Balancing of solar heating options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, W.B.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation many options are presently competing. This study aims at providing more rational criteria for selection between these options.The options considered are; insulation of the walls, regeneration of the heat in the waste air, double glazing, attached sunspace at the

  4. Spreadsheet eases heat balance, payback calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that a generalized Lotus type spreadsheet program has been developed to perform the heat balance and simple payback calculations for various turbine-generator (TG) inlet steam pressures. It can be used for potential plant expansions or new cogeneration installations. The program performs the basic heat balance calculations that are associated with turbine-generator, feedwater heating process steam requirements and desuperheating. The printout, shows the basic data and formulation used in the calculations. The turbine efficiency data used are applicable for automatic extraction turbine-generators in the 30-80 MW range. Simple payback calculations are for chemical recovery boilers and power boilers used in the pulp and paper industry. However, the program will also accommodate boilers common to other industries

  5. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M

    1997-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  8. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux; surface energy balance; Bowen's ratio; sensible and latent ... The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat ... When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil ...

  9. Heider balance in human networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, P.; Kułakowski, K.

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a continuous dynamics was proposed to simulate dynamics of interpersonal relations in a society represented by a fully connected graph. The final state of such a society was found to be identical with the so-called Heider balance (HB), where the society is divided into two mutually hostile groups. In the continuous model, a polarization of opinions was found in HB. Here we demonstrate that the polarization occurs also in Barabási-Albert networks, where the Heider balance is not necessarily present. In the second part of this work we demonstrate the results of our formalism, when applied to reference examples: the Southern women and the Zachary club.

  10. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  11. Water and heat balances in Doñana wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramos-Fuertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of the study of water balance and surface heat balance in the Doñana marshlands. The study was based on a broad base of hydrometeorological data taken at 10 minute intervals from 2006 to 2011 by a network of six measuring stations located in areas of vegetation-free marsh. This information is used to characterize, at different time scales, the thermal behavior of the marsh by analyzing its hydrometeorology centering on the surface heat fluxes. Thus, we have modeled and analyzed the heat flux between the water and flooded soil and the processes of heat transfer between the water surface and the atmosphere. Special attention has been paid to evaporation, on which the marsh draining process depends.

  12. Basins of attraction in human balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Victoria A.; Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Spano, Mark L.

    2017-12-01

    Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older adults, accounting for a large proportion of fractures, emergency department visits, and urgent hospitalizations. Human balance and gait research traditionally uses linear or qualitative tests to assess and describe human motion; however, human motion is neither a simple nor a linear process. The objective of this research is to identify and to learn more about what factors affect balance using nonlinear dynamical techniques, such as basin boundaries. Human balance data was collected using dual force plates for leans using only ankle movements as well as for unrestricted leans. Algorithms to describe the basin boundary were created and compared based on how well each method encloses the experimental data points as well as captures the differences between the two leaning conditions.

  13. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  14. Solar energy and global heat balance of a city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Claude-Alain [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The global energy balance of a city involves numerous energy flows and is rather complex. It includes, among others, the absorbed solar radiation and the energy fuels on one hand, and the heat loss to the environment --- by radiation, convection and evaporation --- on the other hand. This balance generally results in a temperature in the town that is slightly higher than in the surrounding country. Using solar energy saves imported fuels on one hand, but increases the absorption of solar radiation on the other hand. Simple, steady state models are used to assess the change of heat released to the environment when replacing the use of classical fuels by solar powered plants, on both the global and city scale. The conclusion is that, in most cases, this will reduce the heat released to the environment. The exception is cooling, for which a good solar alternative does not exist today. (Author)

  15. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  16. Thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Eligiusz

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents new type of thermal flow converter with the pulse frequency output. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of pulse frequency modulator with thermal feedback loop, stabilizing temperature of sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures balancing of heat amount supplied in impulses to the sensor and heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output impulses is proportional to the heat transfer coefficient from sensor to environment. According to the King's law, the frequency of those impulses is a function of medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of presented solution is total integration of thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. Sensor and conditioning system are not the separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in form of thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The advantage of such system is easiness of converting the frequency signal to the digital form, without using any additional analogue-to-digital converters. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor input, which with use of standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into numerical value of high precision. Moreover, the frequency signal has higher resistance to interference than the voltage signal and may be transmitted to remote locations without the information loss.

  17. Heat storage in forest biomass improves energy balance closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation very well. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy covariance

  18. Analysis on the heat balance between CEFR and the primary loop system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangbo; Yang Hongyi; Li Jing; Wang Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    The heat balance ability of reactor is very important to design and operation. Special heat balance analysis and calculation software shall be available. This article analyzes and calculates in details the heat source and cooling power of the main cooling system of the primary loop in China Experimental Faster Reactor (CEFR), and develops a calculation code. By using the steady state heat balance data of 26.5% Pn and 40% Pn in CEFR during power start-up, the heat balance ability of the primary loop is verified. The results show that the calculation model is reliable, and can provide technical support to building heat balance in CEFR operation. (authors)

  19. Heat balance characteristics and water use efficiency of soybean community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Im, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study seasonal evapotranspiration above soybean canopy and its relationship with dry matter production by the Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The soybean ''Paldalkong'' was sown with the space of 40 * 10 cm at Suwon on May 27, 1988. The daily net radiation ranged from 59 to 76 percents of the total shortwave radiation under cloudless conditions, which was lower than cloud overcast condition with record 63 to 83 percents. The latent heat flux under overcast condition was sometimes larger than the sum of net radiation, implying transportation of energy by advection of ambient air

  20. Ground source heat pump performance in case of high humidity soil and yearly balanced heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schibuola, Luigi; Tambani, Chiara; Zarrella, Angelo; Scarpa, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GSHPs are simulated in case of humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer. • Humid soil and yearly balanced heat transfer imply higher compactness of GSHPs. • Resulting GSHPs are compared with other traditional and innovative HVAC systems. • GSHPs score best, especially in case of inverter-driven compressors. - Abstract: Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are spreading also in Southern Europe, due to their high energy efficiency both in heating and in cooling mode. Moreover, they are particularly suitable in historical cities because of difficulties in the integration of heating/cooling systems into buildings subjected to historical preservation regulations. In these cases, GSHP systems, especially the ones provided with borehole heat exchangers, are a suitable solution instead of gas boilers, air-cooled chillers or cooling towers. In humid soils, GSHP systems are even more interesting because of their enhanced performance due to higher values of soil thermal conductivity and capacity. In this paper, GSHP systems operating under these boundary conditions are analyzed through a specific case study set in Venice and related to the restoration of an historical building. With this analysis the relevant influences of soil thermal conductivity and yearly balanced heat transfer in the design of the borehole field are shown. In particular, the paper shows the possibility to achieve higher compactness of the borehole field footprint area when yearly balanced heat transfer in the borehole field is expected. Then, the second set of results contained in the paper shows how GSHP systems designed for high humidity soils and yearly balanced heat loads at the ground side, even if characterized by a compact footprint area, may still ensure better performance than other available and more common technologies such as boilers, air-cooled chillers, chillers coupled with cooling towers and heat pumps and chillers coupled with lagoon water. As a consequence

  1. THERMOREGULATION IN CHILDREN: EXERCISE, HEAT STRESS & FLUID BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawnda A. Morrison

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the specific physiological strategies of thermoregulation in children, a brief literary update relating exercise to heat stress in girls and boys as well as a discussion on fluid balance strategies for children who are performing exercise in the heat. Both sport performance and thermoregulation can be affected by the body’s water and electrolyte content. The recommendations for pre-pubertal fluid intake have been generalized from adult literature, including a limited concession for the physiological differences between adults and children. Considering these body fluid shifts, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are thought to be an essential tool in combating dehydration as a result of active hyperthermia (i.e. exercise, thus we examine current hydration practices in exercising children. Finally, this review summarizes research which examines the relationship between cognition and hypohydration on young athletes’ performance.

  2. Evaluating infant core temperature response in a hot car using a heat balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew J; Duzinski, Sarah V; Dolinak, David; Null, Jan; Iyer, Sujit S

    2015-03-01

    Using a 1-year old male infant as the model subject, the objectives of this study were to measure increased body temperature of an infant inside an enclosed vehicle during the work day (8:00 am-4:00 pm) during four seasons and model the time to un-compensable heating, heat stroke [>40 °C (>104 °F)], and critical thermal maximum [>42 °C (>107.6 °F)]. A human heat balance model was used to simulate a child's physiological response to extreme heat exposure within an enclosed vehicle. Environmental variables were obtained from the nearest National Weather Service automated surface observing weather station and from an observational vehicular temperature study conducted in Austin, Texas in 2012. In all four seasons, despite differences in starting temperature and solar radiation, the model infant reached heat stroke and demise before 2:00 pm. Time to heat stroke and demise occurred most rapidly in summer, at intermediate durations in fall and spring, and most slowly in the winter. In August, the model infant reached un-compensable heat within 20 min, heat stroke within 105 min, and demise within 125 min. The average rate of heating from un-compensable heat to heat stroke was 1.7 °C/h (3.0 °F/h) and from heat stroke to demise was 4.8 °C/h (8.5 °F/h). Infants left in vehicles during the workday can reach hazardous thermal thresholds quickly even with mild environmental temperatures. These results provide a seasonal analogue of infant heat stroke time course. Further effort is required to create a universally available forensic tool to predict vehicular hyperthermia time course to demise.

  3. Power balance in an Ohmically heated fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.; Roberts, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified power-balance equation (zero-dimensional model) is used to study the performance of an Ohmically heated fusion reactor with emphasis on a pulsed reversed-field pinch concept (RFP). The energy confinement time tausub(E) is treated as an adjustable function, and empirical tokamak scaling laws are employed in the numerical estimates, which are supplemented by 1-D ATHENE code calculations. The known heating rates and energy losses are represented by the net energy replacement time tausub(W), which is exhibited as a surface in density (n) and temperature (T) space with a saddle point (nsub(*), Tsub(*)), the optimum ignition point. It is concluded that i) ignition by Ohmic heating is more practicable for the RFP reactor than for a tokamak reactor with the same tausub(E), (ii) if at fixed current the minor radius can be reduced or at fixed minor radius the current can be increased, then it is found that Ohmic ignition becomes more likely when present tokamak scaling laws are used. More definitive estimates require, however, a knowledge of tausub(E), which can only be obtained by establishing a reliable set of experimental RFP scaling laws and, in particular, by extending RFP experiments closer to the reactor regime. (author)

  4. Heat-balance integral method for heat transfer in superfluid helium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouy Bertrand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat-balance integral method is used to solve the non-linear heat diffusion equation in static turbulent superfluid helium (He II. Although this is an approximate method, it has proven that it gives solutions with fairly good accuracy in non-linear fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Using this method, it has been possible to develop predictive solutions that reproduce analytical solution and experimental data. We present the solutions of the clamped heat flux case and the clamped temperature case in a semi-infinite using independent variable transformation to take account of temperature dependency of the thermophysical properties. Good accuracy is obtained using the Kirchhoff transform whereas the method fails with the Goodman transform for larger temperature range.

  5. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  6. Isothermal sinusoidal analysis of balanced compound Vuilleumier heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Vuilleumier heat pumps with balanced compounding which have been under investigation for about fifteen years but have not yet reached the stage of commercial utilization. Previously published analytical treatment based upon isothermal treatment of the variable-volume spaces resulted in closed form solution of considerable complexity of the coupled differential equations but applied only to free piston machines. In contrast, the procedure presented here is based on previously demonstrated sinusoidal excursions of the reciprocators. It is of the same order of accuracy, but much more simple and usable. It was found that there is only negligible difference between the results of the present and the previous approach. Additionally, the treatment presented here is applicable to kinematic machines, as well as to free piston machines. For the latter design, an equation for the natural frequency is also derived. Ideal proportions and practical expressions for the energy streams are derived. Gas forces are plotted versus displacement and it is shown that they are equivalent to a linear spring, which is of importance for the concept of a free-piston design

  7. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Heat transfer from humans wearing clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this monograph the effects of clothing on human heat transfer are described. The description is based on the physics of heat and mass transfer, depending on the design of the clothing, the climate, and the activity of the wearer. The resulting model has been stepwise implemented in computer

  9. An experimental investigation on ground heat flow balance issue for a GCHP

    OpenAIRE

    Jiufa Chen; Hongqi Zheng; Qin Xue; Erming An; Weilai Qiao

    2010-01-01

    For a ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP), it is vital to keep the ground heat flow balanced in order to achieve sustainable energy-saving operation. However, the importance of this issue has not been well studied. Focused on the heat flow balance issue, this paper made an exclusive experimental study using a newly installed GCHP system with the designed cooling capacity 1960 kW and heating capacity 1590 kW. The GCHP system was equipped with a data acquisition system and had temperature sensors i...

  10. Energy balance in TM-1-MH Tokamak (ohmical heating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, J.; Koerbel, S.; Kryska, L.; Kopecky, V.; Dadalec, V.; Datlov, J.; Jakubka, K.; Magula, P.; Zacek, F.; Pereverzev, G. V.

    1981-10-01

    Plasma in the TM-1-MH Tokamak was experimentally studied in the parameter range: tor. mg. field B = 1,3 T, plasma current I sub p = 14 kA, electron density N sub E 3.10 to the 19th power cubic meters. The two numerical codes are available for the comparison with experimental data. TOKATA-code solves simplified energy balance equations for electron and ion components. TOKSAS-code solves the detailed energy balance of the ion component.

  11. Delay effects in the human sensory system during balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Gabor

    2009-03-28

    Mechanical models of human self-balancing often use the Newtonian equations of inverted pendula. While these mathematical models are precise enough on the mechanical side, the ways humans balance themselves are still quite unexplored on the control side. Time delays in the sensory and motoric neural pathways give essential limitations to the stabilization of the human body as a multiple inverted pendulum. The sensory systems supporting each other provide the necessary signals for these control tasks; but the more complicated the system is, the larger delay is introduced. Human ageing as well as our actual physical and mental state affects the time delays in the neural system, and the mechanical structure of the human body also changes in a large range during our lives. The human balancing organ, the labyrinth, and the vision system essentially adapted to these relatively large time delays and parameter regions occurring during balancing. The analytical study of the simplified large-scale time-delayed models of balancing provides a Newtonian insight into the functioning of these organs that may also serve as a basis to support theories and hypotheses on balancing and vision.

  12. Application of heat-balance integral method to conjugate thermal explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilov Vasily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate thermal explosion is an extension of the classical theory, proposed and studied recently by the author. The paper reports application of heat-balance integral method for developing phase portraits for systems undergoing conjugate thermal explosion. The heat-balance integral method is used as an averaging method reducing partical differential equation problem to the set of first-order ordinary differential equations. The latter reduced problem allows natural interpretation in appropriately chosen phase space. It is shown that, with the help of heat-balance integral technique, conjugate thermal explosion problem can be described with a good accuracy by the set of non-linear first-order differential equations involving complex error function. Phase trajectories are presented for typical regimes emerging in conjugate thermal explosion. Use of heat-balance integral as a spatial averaging method allows efficient description of system evolution to be developed.

  13. Seasonal mixed layer heat balance of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Foltz, G.R.; Vialard, J.; PraveenKumar, B.; McPhaden, M.J.

    from a long-term moored buoy are used in conjunction with satellite, in situ, and atmospheric reanalysis datasets to analyze the seasonal mixed layer heat balance in the thermocline ridge region of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. This region...

  14. Calibration of the heat balance model for prediction of car climate

    OpenAIRE

    Jícha Miroslav; Fišer Jan; Pokorný Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the authors refer to development a heat balance model to predict car climate and power heat load. Model is developed in Modelica language using Dymola as interpreter. It is a dynamical system, which describes a heat exchange between car cabin and ambient. Inside a car cabin, there is considered heat exchange between air zone, interior and air-conditioning system. It is considered 1D heat transfer with a heat accumulation and a relative movement Sun respect to the car cabin, whil...

  15. Body segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and 3D displacement and the estimation of heat balance during locomotion in hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alan; Collard, Mark; Nelson, Andrew

    2008-06-18

    The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be approached.

  16. Body segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and 3D displacement and the estimation of heat balance during locomotion in hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cross

    Full Text Available The conventional method of estimating heat balance during locomotion in humans and other hominins treats the body as an undifferentiated mass. This is problematic because the segments of the body differ with respect to several variables that can affect thermoregulation. Here, we report a study that investigated the impact on heat balance during locomotion of inter-segment differences in three of these variables: surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. The approach adopted in the study was to generate heat balance estimates with the conventional method and then compare them with heat balance estimates generated with a method that takes into account inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement. We reasoned that, if the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement affect heat balance during locomotion is correct, the estimates yielded by the two methods should be statistically significantly different. Anthropometric data were collected on seven adult male volunteers. The volunteers then walked on a treadmill at 1.2 m/s while 3D motion capture cameras recorded their movements. Next, the conventional and segmented methods were used to estimate the volunteers' heat balance while walking in four ambient temperatures. Lastly, the estimates produced with the two methods were compared with the paired t-test. The estimates of heat balance during locomotion yielded by the two methods are significantly different. Those yielded by the segmented method are significantly lower than those produced by the conventional method. Accordingly, the study supports the hypothesis that inter-segment differences in surface area, skin temperature and rate of movement impact heat balance during locomotion. This has important implications not only for current understanding of heat balance during locomotion in hominins but also for how future research on this topic should be

  17. Human balance, the evolution of bipedalism and dysequilibrium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoyles, John R

    2006-01-01

    A new model of the uniqueness, nature and evolution of human bipedality is presented in the context of the etiology of the balance disorder of dysequilibrium syndrome. Human bipedality is biologically novel in several remarkable respects. Humans are (a) obligate, habitual and diverse in their bipedalism, (b) hold their body carriage spinally erect in a multisegmental "antigravity pole", (c) use their forelimbs exclusively for nonlocomotion, (d) support their body weight exclusively by vertical balance and normally never use prehensile holds. Further, human bipedalism is combined with (e) upper body actions that quickly shift the body's center of mass (e.g. tennis serves, piggy-back carrying of children), (f) use transient unstable erect positions (dance, kicking and fighting), (g) body height that makes falls injurious, (h) stiff gait walking, and (i) endurance running. Underlying these novelties, I conjecture, is a species specific human vertical balance faculty. This faculty synchronizes any action with a skeletomuscular adjustment that corrects its potential destabilizing impact upon the projection of the body's center of mass over its foot support. The balance faculty depends upon internal models of the erect vertical body's geometrical relationship (and its deviations) to its support base. Due to the situation that humans are obligate erect terrestrial animals, two frameworks - the body- and gravity-defined frameworks - are in constant alignment in the vertical z-axis. This alignment allows human balance to adapt egocentric body cognitions to detect body deviations from the gravitational vertical. This link between human balance and the processing of geometrical orientation, I propose, accounts for the close link between balance and spatial cognition found in the cerebral cortex. I argue that cortical areas processing the spatial and other cognitions needed to enable vertical balance was an important reason for brain size expansion of Homo erectus. A novel

  18. Heat balance structure of canopies at extreme precipitation in view of long-term records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnowska, J.; Gąsiorek, E.; Łabędzki, L.; Musiał, E.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing frequency of extreme weather conditions is attributed to the global variations in climate. Heat balance of substrate is one of the processes affecting the climate. Variations of heat balance in spring wheat during the growing seasons (April-August) and in potatoes during the growing seasons (May-September) with maximal and minimal precipitation are confronted here with long term changes of the balance. Two regions Wroclaw-Swojec (1964-2000) and Bydgoszcz (1945-2003) were involved in the study [pl

  19. Field test and sensitivity analysis of a sensible heat balance method to determine ice contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content impacts winter vadose zone hydrology. It may be possible to estimate changes in soil ice content with a sensible heat balance (SHB) method, using measurements from heat pulse (HP) sensors. Feasibility of the SHB method is unknown because of difficulties in measuring soil thermal pro...

  20. Energy balance in the TCA tokamak plasma with Alfven wave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ning; Qu Wenxiao; Huang Li; Long Yongxing; Qiu Xiaoming

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in TCA tokamak plasma with Alfven wave heating is studied, in which the equivalent electron thermal conductivity is determined by using the profile consistency principle. The results are in good agreement with experiments. It is shown that this method is applicable to various devices and other heating methods

  1. The calculation for energy balance of heating plasmas by Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yongxing; Ding Ning; He Qibing; Qu Wenxiao; Huang Lin; Qiu Xiaoming

    1992-10-01

    A numerical method for computing the energy balance of heating tokamak plasmas by Alfven waves is introduced. The results are in agreement with experiments. This method is not only simpler and more distinct but also considerably saving time in computation. It also can be used in kinetic problems with other types of radio frequency (RF) heating

  2. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were ... mate source of energy for all physical and bio- logical processes ... May) account for major thunderstorm activity in the state and winter ...

  3. Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  4. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  5. Model predictive control to Maintain ATES balance using heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.; Boxem, G.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    A rapidly growing amount of sustainable office buildings in the Netherlands is using an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system. An ATES system uses a well pump to extract cold groundwater for cooling with the use of a heat pump if necessary. An essential condition for optimal ATES operation is

  6. Heat fluxes and energy balance in the FTU machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, M.; Ferro, C.; Franzoni, G.; Maddaluno, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on the FTU limiter are routinely measured and energy losses via conduction/convection are inferred. A quite small fraction of the input power (4 to 8%) has been measured from mushrooms temperature increase. Numerical evaluation and comparison with thermocouples located at different radial positions in the S.O.L. suggest a long energy decay length λ e . The power loads inferred from the estimated λE in the actual geometry of the limiter and first wall lead to a global energy balance close to be satisfied. (author)

  7. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  8. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  9. MHTGR steam generator on-line heat balance, instrumentation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapka, R.E.; Howard, W.W.; Etzel, K.T.; Basol, M.; Karim, N.U.

    1991-09-01

    Instrumentation is used to measure the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) steam generator dissimilar metal weld temperature during start-up testing. Additional instrumentation is used to determine an on-line heat balance which is maintained during the 40 year module life. In the process of calibrating the on-line heat balance, the helium flow is adjusted to yield the optimum boiling level in the steam generator relative to the dissimilar metal weld. After calibration is complete the weld temperature measurement is non longer required. The reduced boiling level range results in less restrictive steam generator design constraints

  10. Heat balance studies on sea ice near Syowa Station, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa,Nobuyoshi; Kobayashi,Shun'ichi; Ohta,Tetsuo; Kawaguchi,Sadao

    1982-01-01

    Heat balance studies were carried out on the Antarctic sea ice surface in the austral spring and summer of 1980. The surface albedo of sea ice covered by a thin snow-layer was kept nearly constant (around 0.8) in spring, but in summer it was reduced to the same value as that of bare ice owing to the change of the surface properties with a great increase in the amount of absorbed net radiation. Variations of heat balance components were presented for every 10 days and two seasons in this paper.

  11. Validation of a robotic balance system for investigations in the control of human standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Huryn, Thomas P; Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Croft, Elizabeth A; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that human body sway during standing approximates the mechanics of an inverted pendulum pivoted at the ankle joints. In this study, a robotic balance system incorporating a Stewart platform base was developed to provide a new technique to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in standing balance. The robotic system, programmed with the mechanics of an inverted pendulum, controlled the motion of the body in response to a change in applied ankle torque. The ability of the robotic system to replicate the load properties of standing was validated by comparing the load stiffness generated when subjects balanced their own body to the robot's mechanical load programmed with a low (concentrated-mass model) or high (distributed-mass model) inertia. The results show that static load stiffness was not significantly (p > 0.05) different for standing and the robotic system. Dynamic load stiffness for the robotic system increased with the frequency of sway, as predicted by the mechanics of an inverted pendulum, with the higher inertia being accurately matched to the load properties of the human body. This robotic balance system accurately replicated the physical model of standing and represents a useful tool to simulate the dynamics of a standing person. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Electron Heat Flux in Pressure Balance Structures at Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Sakurai, Takashi; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common feature in the high-latitude solar wind near solar minimum. Rom previous studies, PBSs are believed to be remnants of coronal plumes and be related to network activity such as magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. We investigated the magnetic structures of the PBSs, applying a minimum variance analysis to Ulysses/Magnetometer data. At 2001 AGU Spring meeting, we reported that PBSs have structures like current sheets or plasmoids, and suggested that they are associated with network activity at the base of polar plumes. In this paper, we have analyzed high-energy electron data at Ulysses/SWOOPS to see whether bi-directional electron flow exists and confirm the conclusions more precisely. As a result, although most events show a typical flux directed away from the Sun, we have obtained evidence that some PBSs show bi-directional electron flux and others show an isotropic distribution of electron pitch angles. The evidence shows that plasmoids are flowing away from the Sun, changing their flow direction dynamically in a way not caused by Alfven waves. From this, we have concluded that PBSs are generated due to network activity at the base of polar plumes and their magnetic structures axe current sheets or plasmoids.

  13. Heat Pumps in Private Residences used for Grid Balancing by Demand Response Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Increased production of renewable energy as wind energy will give a fluctuating production which requires flexible energy storages. Heat capacity in single-family houses with electrical heating using heat pumps represents a storage which can be used to balance the electricity supply. It is assumed....... The minimization results in a power consumption schedule and a temperature schedule for each house. A number of control structures are described aiming to obtain this optimum by communicating references to either house temperature or heat pump power or by offering the consumer an hour by hour price. By simulation...... the schemes are compared by there ability to time shift consumption and to avoid consumer discomfort. Additionally the necessary information exchange for the schemes is discussed. Comparisons indicate that it is possible to use heat pump heated private houses to move power consumption within a time interval...

  14. Calibration of the heat balance model for prediction of car climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    In the paper, the authors refer to development a heat balance model to predict car climate and power heat load. Model is developed in Modelica language using Dymola as interpreter. It is a dynamical system, which describes a heat exchange between car cabin and ambient. Inside a car cabin, there is considered heat exchange between air zone, interior and air-conditioning system. It is considered 1D heat transfer with a heat accumulation and a relative movement Sun respect to the car cabin, whilst car is moving. Measurements of the real operating conditions of gave us data for model calibration. The model was calibrated for Škoda Felicia parking-summer scenarios.

  15. Calibration of the heat balance model for prediction of car climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors refer to development a heat balance model to predict car climate and power heat load. Model is developed in Modelica language using Dymola as interpreter. It is a dynamical system, which describes a heat exchange between car cabin and ambient. Inside a car cabin, there is considered heat exchange between air zone, interior and air-conditioning system. It is considered 1D heat transfer with a heat accumulation and a relative movement Sun respect to the car cabin, whilst car is moving. Measurements of the real operating conditions of gave us data for model calibration. The model was calibrated for Škoda Felicia parking-summer scenarios.

  16. Human genome and open source: balancing ethics and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has been completed thanks to a massive use of computer techniques, as well as the adoption of the open-source business and research model by the scientists involved. This model won over the proprietary model and allowed a quick propagation and feedback of research results among peers. In this paper, the author will analyse some ethical and legal issues emerging by the use of such computer model in the Human Genome property rights. The author will argue that the Open Source is the best business model, as it is able to balance business and human rights perspectives.

  17. Radiogenic heat production and the earth's heat balance. A source of arguments in geoscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The terrestrial heat flow into interstellar space amounts to approx. 32 TW on the basis of an average heat flow density of 63 mW per sq.m. of earth surface. The loss flow derives part of the energy from the residual heat of the nascent phase of the earth (approx. 40%) and the other part from the natural disintegration of longlived radionuclides, i.e. radiogenic heat production (roughly 60%). This concept met with broad consensus in the geosciences until the 1980s. In 1993, Pollack et al. concluded from the evaluation of recent measured data that heat loss via the oceanic crust of the earth was clearly higher, which raises the loss flow to a total of 44 TW. This is contradicted by Hoffmeister and Criss, who conclude from a modified geochemical model that the total heat loss of 31 TW is fully compensated by radiogenic heat production. In 2001, C. Herndon introduced a new idea into the discussion. According to his thesis, planetary differentiation caused a nuclear georeactor to be created in the center of the earth, whose continuous thermal power of approx. 3 TW contributes to compensating heat losses. Physicists and geoscientists hope to be able to derive new findings on this thesis and on the distribution of radiogenic heat production in the interior of the earth from the planned geo-neutrino experiment in Homestake, USA. (orig.)

  18. Sensible heat balance measurements of soil water evaporation beneath a maize canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the water budget in a cropped field. Few methods are available for continuous and independent measurement of soil water evaporation. A sensible heat balance (SHB) approach has recently been demonstrated for continuously determining soil water evapo...

  19. Targets of balancing selection in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrés, Aida M; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Balancing selection is potentially an important biological force for maintaining advantageous genetic diversity in populations, including variation that is responsible for long-term adaptation to the environment. By serving as a means to maintain genetic variation, it may be particularly relevant...... to maintaining phenotypic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, its prevalence and specific targets in the human genome remain largely unknown. We have analyzed the patterns of diversity and divergence of 13,400 genes in two human populations using an unbiased single-nucleotide polymorphism data set......, a genome-wide approach, and a method that incorporates demography in neutrality tests. We identified an unbiased catalog of genes with signatures of long-term balancing selection, which includes immunity genes as well as genes encoding keratins and membrane channels; the catalog also shows enrichment...

  20. Water-tunnel studies of heat balance in swimming mako sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, D; Sepulveda, C; Graham, J B

    2001-12-01

    The mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) has specialized vascular networks (retia mirabilia) forming counter-current heat exchangers that allow metabolic heat retention in certain regions of the body, including the aerobic, locomotor red muscle and the viscera. Red muscle, white muscle and stomach temperatures were measured in juvenile (5-13.6 kg) makos swimming steadily in a water tunnel and exposed to stepwise square-wave changes in ambient temperature (T(a)) to estimate the rates of heat transfer and to determine their capacity for the activity-independent control of heat balance. The rates of heat gain of red muscle during warming were significantly higher than the rates of heat loss during cooling, and neither the magnitude of the change in T(a) nor the direction of change in T(a) had a significant effect on red muscle latency time. Our findings for mako red muscle are similar to those recorded for tunas and suggest modulation of retial heat-exchange efficiency as the underlying mechanism controlling heat balance. However, the red muscle temperatures measured in swimming makos (0.3-3 degrees C above T(a)) are cooler than those measured previously in larger decked makos. Also, the finding of non-stable stomach temperatures contrasts with the predicted independence from T(a) recorded in telemetry studies of mako and white sharks. Our studies on live makos provide new evidence that, in addition to the unique convergent morphological properties between makos and tunas, there is a strong functional similarity in the mechanisms used to regulate heat transfer.

  1. A public data set of human balance evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana A. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to create a public data set with results of qualitative and quantitative evaluations related to human balance. Subject’s balance was evaluated by posturography using a force platform and by the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Tests. In the posturography test, we evaluated subjects standing still for 60 s in four different conditions where vision and the standing surface were manipulated: on a rigid surface with eyes open; on a rigid surface with eyes closed; on an unstable surface with eyes open; on an unstable surface with eyes closed. Each condition was performed three times and the order of the conditions was randomized. In addition, the following tests were employed in order to better characterize each subject: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International; International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version; and Trail Making Test. The subjects were also interviewed to collect information about their socio-cultural, demographic, and health characteristics. The data set comprises signals from the force platform (raw data for the force, moments of forces, and centers of pressure of 163 subjects plus one file with information about the subjects and balance conditions and the results of the other evaluations. All the data is available at PhysioNet and at Figshare.

  2. The Development of 1Balance: A Connected Medical Device for Measuring Human Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Sjöman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Prototyping (iterative loops of design–build–test is a proven method of efficiently developing new products. Developing products not only quickly, but that are also fit for purpose, implies engaging the end users and iterating the technology at hand. However, there is currently little research on how engineering design can approach developing connected devices. The purpose of this paper is to distinguish and discuss design approaches that are suitable for connected devices. Internet of Things devices consist of both the physical products themselves and the data that is coming out of the products, which we define as the external and internal data, respectively. They both can be prototyped separately, but since the data acquired can influence the design of the device and vice versa, we propose to link these two together in the product development process. This issue becomes more apparent when designing networks of sensors, e.g., for complex artificial intelligence (AI databases. We explain the principle by describing the development of 1Balance through six different prototypes for human balance measurement. Technologically quantifying balance is an underused approach for objectively evaluating the state of a human’s performance. The authors have developed a mobile application for monitoring balance as a physiological signal (amount of sway via a compact wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor strapped to the body of the subject for the duration of the measurement. We describe the design process for developing this connected medical device, as well as how the acquired data was used to improve the design of the product. In conclusion, we propose conceptually connecting the external and internal data prototyping loops.

  3. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Li, Hongwei; Li, Xiaopeng; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the actual heat demand. This results in 15–30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance, and stabilize indoor temperatures. The feasibility and the energy consumption reduction of this approach were verified by means of simulation and a field test. By moving the system from centrally planned heat delivery to demand-driven heat delivery, excess heat loss can be significantly reduced. Results show that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO_2, 0.1 kg SO_2, and 0.03 kg NO_x per heating square meter for a typical case in Harbin. - Highlights: • Two real cases reflect the temperature and flow control situation of heating systems in China. • Pre-set radiator valves with automatic balancing valves create dynamic hydraulic balance. • IDA-ICE simulation shows 17% heat saving and 48% pump electricity saving. • This approach can improve the comfort level of multi-storey/high-rise residential buildings. • This approach can reduce excess heat supply and bring out positive environmental impacts.

  4. New calculation method to solve moisture balance in the room with regenerator heat recovery and infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Drivsholm, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates moisture related performance of a regenerator heat exchanger located in a decentralized ventilation unit for residential building application. The decentralized ventilation solutions have recently become a more and more popular alternative to centralized ventilation systems...... in air handling units (AHUs). In the case of regenerator heat exchanger, the higher the heat recovery efficiency obtained the higher risk that condensation might occur. This condensation might form small droplets on the surface of the regenerator that might not be possible to drain in the short switching...... time of the regenerator and consequently might be evaporated in the next cycle back to the building and cause elevated humidity conditions in the indoor spaces. Due to the fact that the traditionally used dilution equation must not be used to solve moisture balance in the room with regenerator heat...

  5. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  6. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the a......A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...... that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...

  7. Characteristic evaluations of BWR uprate method based on heat balance shift concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitou, Kazuaki; Aoyama, Motoo; Shiina, Kouji; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Reactor power uprate of nuclear power plants is an efficient plant operating method. Most BWR plants need the exchange of high pressure turbines when plant thermal power increases over 5% because main steam flow rate exceeds the limitation of inlet steam flow rate of a high pressure turbine. Therefore, the new power uprate method named heat balance shift power uprate method has been developed. This method decreases feedwater temperature with increasing plant thermal power not to increase main steam flower rate. This study clarified that the heat balance shift method could increase plant electric power up to 2.8% compared with conventional power uprate method without the exchange of a high pressure turbine. (author)

  8. Computerized heat balance models to predict performance of operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, C.L.; Carter, J.C.; Schaefer, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of computerized heat balance models has greatly enhanced the decision making ability of TVA's Division of Nuclear Power. These models are utilized to predict the effects of various operating modes and to analyze changes in plant performance resulting from turbine cycle equipment modifications with greater speed and accuracy than was possible before. Computer models have been successfully used to optimize plant output by predicting the effects of abnormal condenser circulating water conditions. They were utilized to predict the degradation in performance resulting from installation of a baffle plate assembly to replace damaged low-pressure blading, thereby providing timely information allowing an optimal economic judgement as to when to replace the blading. Future use will be for routine performance test analysis. This paper presents the benefits of utility use of computerized heat balance models

  9. Development of a Pattern Recognition Methodology for Determining Operationally Optimal Heat Balance Instrumentation Calibration Schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Beran; John Christenson; Dragos Nica; Kenny Gross

    2002-12-15

    The goal of the project is to enable plant operators to detect with high sensitivity and reliability the onset of decalibration drifts in all of the instrumentation used as input to the reactor heat balance calculations. To achieve this objective, the collaborators developed and implemented at DBNPS an extension of the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) pattern recognition methodology pioneered by ANAL. The extension was implemented during the second phase of the project and fully achieved the project goal.

  10. Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: heat transfer loop and balance of plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Murray, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance of plant design for the Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and results are presented. The Pulse*Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar approximately 11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5 m thick plenum of droplets around an 8 m diameter inner chamber. The reactor and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17 m diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops with flow rates of 5.5 m 3 /s each are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. Power balance calculations based on an improved electrical conversion efficiency revealed a net electrical output of 1260 MWe to the bus bar and a resulting net efficiency of 39%. Suggested balance-of-plant layouts are also presented

  11. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  12. Paralysis and heart failure precede ion balance disruption in heat-stressed European green crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lisa B; Overgaard, Johannes; MacMillan, Heath A

    2017-08-01

    Acute exposure of ectotherms to critically high temperatures causes injury and death, and this mortality has been associated with a number of physiological perturbations including impaired oxygen transport, loss of ion and water homeostasis, and neuronal failure. It is difficult to discern which of these factors, if any, is the proximate cause of heat injury because, for example, loss of ion homeostasis can impair neuromuscular function (including cardiac function), and conversely impaired oxygen transport reduces ATP supply and can thus reduce ion transport capacity. In this study we investigated if heat stress causes a loss of ion homeostasis in marine crabs and examined if such loss is related to heart failure. We held crabs (Carcinus maenas) at temperatures just below their critical thermal maximum and measured extracellular (hemolymph) and intracellular (muscle) ion concentrations over time. Analysis of Arrhenius plots for heart rates during heating ramps revealed a breakpoint temperature below which heart rate increased with temperature, and above which heart rate declined until complete cardiac failure. As hypothesised, heat stress reduced the Nernst equilibrium potentials of both K + and Na + , likely causing a depolarization of the membrane potential. To examine whether this loss of ion balance was likely to cause disruption of neuromuscular function, we exposed crabs to the same temperatures, but this time measured ion concentrations at the individual-specific times of complete paralysis (from which the crabs never recovered), and at the time of cardiac failure. Loss of ion balance was observed only after both paralysis and complete heart failure had occurred; indicating that the loss of neuromuscular function is not caused by a loss of ion homeostasis. Instead we suggest that the observed loss of ion balance may be linked to tissue damage related to heat death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  14. Wind Turbines and Heat Pumps. Balancing wind power fluctuations using flexible demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Derszi, Z.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    In order to overcome portfolio imbalance for traders of variable power from wind we have built an 'Imbalance Reduction System' (IRS) and performed a real-world field test with it, in which imbalance is minimized within a real-time electricity market portfolio, consisting of wind power and industrial and residential consumers and producers (Combined Heat and Power for district heating; residential heat pumps; industrial cold store; emergency generators). IRS uses the PowerMatcher concept, a coordination system for supply and demand of electricity in a which multi-agent system is combined with microeconomic principles. IRS appears to offer opportunities for embedding less predictable generators such as wind power more smoothly in the portfolio. We describe the context and operation of the Imbalance Reduction System and discuss a number of results from the performed field test. Also we introduce a business model for the balance responsible party, based on the e3-value method

  15. The role of domestic biomass in electricity, heat and grid balancing markets in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panos, Evangelos; Kannan, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss Energy Strategy targets to reduce per capita energy consumption, to decrease the share of fossil energy and to replace nuclear electricity generation by gains in efficiency and renewable energy sources. In view of the above objectives, we evaluated the prospects of biomass in stationary applications and grid balancing from an energy system perspective. We quantify a number of “what-if” scenarios using a cost-optimisation bottom-up model, with detailed representation of biomass production and use pathways, electricity and heat sectors, and grid ancillary services markets. The scenario analysis shows that domestic biomass can contribute 5–7% in electricity and 14–21% in heat production by 2050, depending on natural gas prices and climate policy intensity. Pooling of biogenic driven cogeneration plants can provide about 22–44% of the total secondary control power in 2050. Generally, biogenic technologies complement other assets in heat, electricity and ancillary services markets such as heat pumps, new renewable sources and hydropower. - Highlights: • Development and application of the Swiss TIMES electricity and heat system model. • Bioenergy supplies 5–7% of electricity and 14–21% of heat by 2050. • Biogenic gas driven CHP can provide 22–44% of secondary control power in 2050.

  16. A three-region conduction-controlled rewetting analysis by the Heat Balance Integral Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Conduction-controlled rewetting of two-dimensional objects is analyzed by the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM) considering three distinct regions: a dry region ahead of wet front, the sputtering region immediately behind the wet front and a continuous film region further upstream. The HBIM yields solutions for wet front velocity, sputtering length and temperature field with respect to wet front. Employing this method, it is seen that heat transfer mechanism is dependent upon two temperature parameters. One of them characterizes the initial wall temperature while the other specifies the range of temperature for sputtering region. Additionally, the mechanism of heat transfer is found to be dependent on two Biot numbers comprising a convective heat transfer in the wet region and a boiling heat transfer in the sputtering region. The present solution exactly matches with the one-dimensional analysis of K.H. Sun, G.E. Dix, C.L. Tien [Cooling of a very hot vertical surface by falling liquid film, ASME J. Heat Transf. 96 (1974) 126-131] for low Biot numbers. Good agreement with experimental results is also observed. (authors)

  17. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour John AL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. Results We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93, is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Conclusion Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  18. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollox, Edward J; Armour, John A L

    2008-04-16

    In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93), is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  19. Internal thermotopography and shifts in general thermal balance in man under special heat transfer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodinskiy, S. M.; Gramenitskiy, P. M.; Kuznets, Y. I.; Ozerov, O. Y.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Groza, P.; Kozlovskiy, S.; Naremski, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal regulation for astronauts working in pressure suits in open space provides for protection by a system of artificial heat removal and compensation to counteract possible changes in the heat regulating function of the human body that occur under the complex effects of space flight conditions. Most important of these factors are prolonged weightlessness, prolonged limitation of motor activity, and possible deviations of microclimatic environmental parameters.

  20. Does attenuated skin blood flow lower sweat rate and the critical environmental limit for heat balance during severe heat exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does attenuated skin blood flow diminish sweating and reduce the critical environmental limit for heat balance, which indicates maximal heat loss potential, during severe heat stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Isosmotic hypovolaemia attenuated skin blood flow by ∼20% but did not result in different sweating rates, mean skin temperatures or critical environmental limits for heat balance compared with control and volume-infusion treatments, suggesting that the lower levels of skin blood flow commonly observed in aged and diseased populations may not diminish maximal whole-body heat dissipation. Attenuated skin blood flow (SkBF) is often assumed to impair core temperature (T c ) regulation. Profound pharmacologically induced reductions in SkBF (∼85%) lead to impaired sweating, but whether the smaller attenuations in SkBF (∼20%) more often associated with ageing and certain diseases lead to decrements in sweating and maximal heat loss potential is unknown. Seven healthy men (28 ± 4 years old) completed a 30 min equilibration period at 41°C and a vapour pressure (P a ) of 2.57 kPa followed by incremental steps in P a of 0.17 kPa every 6 min to 5.95 kPa. Differences in heat loss potential were assessed by identifying the critical vapour pressure (P crit ) at which an upward inflection in T c occurred. The following three separate treatments elicited changes in plasma volume to achieve three distinct levels of SkBF: control (CON); diuretic-induced isosmotic dehydration to lower SkBF (DEH); and continuous saline infusion to maintain SkBF (SAL). The T c , mean skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, mean laser-Doppler flux (forearm and thigh; LDF mean ), mean local sweat rate (forearm and thigh; LSR mean ) and metabolic rate were measured. In DEH, a 14.2 ± 5.7% lower plasma volume resulted in a ∼20% lower LDF mean in perfusion units (PU) (DEH, 139 ± 23 PU; CON, 176 ± 22 PU; and SAL

  1. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  2. Monitoring the latent and sensible heat fluxes in vineyard by applying the energy balance model METRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Piqueras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.

  3. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to <1% of anthropogenic heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  4. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  5. Stem heat balance method to estimate transpiration of young orange and mango plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vellame,Lucas M.; Coelho Filho,Maurício A.; Paz,Vital P. S.; Coelho,Eugênio F.

    2010-01-01

    The present study had as its main objective the evaluation of the heat balance method in young orange and mango plants under protected environment. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, BA. Later on, estimates of sap flow were conducted for two mango plants cultivated in pots of 15 and 50 L installed on weighting platforms of 45 and 140 kg; sap flow was determined in three orange plants, two of which were also installed on weighing platforms. The val...

  6. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  7. HEAT-INDUCED CHANGES IN ALDOSTERONE LEVEL AND MINERAL BALANCE IN EGYPTIAN BUFFALO CALVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NESSIM, M.Z.; KAMAL, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Eight male buffalo calves (13 months old) were used in the present study. The animals were maintained in metabolic cages inside a climatic chamber for 2 weeks under mild climate at 21 0 C and 73% RH for 6 hours daily as an adjustment period followed by 7 days at the same climatic conditions as a control period then followed by a heat exposure period for 7 days at 35-42 0 C and 40-50 % RH for 6 hours daily. The animals were fed individually on concentrates and wheat straw. Plasma aldosterone was estimated on the first day after 6 hours of each mild and hot exposure periods. Sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium balances were estimated on the last three days of control and heat exposure periods. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded daily during both periods. The rectal temperature was raised (P 0 C by the end of 6 hours heat exposure period. The respiration rate was increased (P<0.01) at the end of 6 hours of heat exposure from 25 to 110.81 breaths/minute. Aldosterone was increased (P<0.05) from 5.79 to 37.11 pg/ml whereas sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were decreased (P<0.01) by 19.16 %, 40.70%, 46.05 %, 35.69 % and 48.99%, respectively.

  8. Heat balance in agricultural biogas installations and the factors to be taken into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, M

    1955-09-01

    The installations described are those which agricultural wastes, e.g. stable manure, are digested by fermentation to yield combustible gas (e.g., 58% CH/sub 4/) and humus. Two kinds of fermentation are discussed, mesophil (M) with a working temp. of 30/sup 0/ and thermophil (T) with a working temp. of 50/sup 0/. Construction of the containers based on the desired output is discussed and the method of calculation of the thickness of insulating material is illustrated. Parameters for the calculations of heat balance are drawn from published data on actual installations, largely municipal disposal plants, some in the U.S. Of several possible methods, it is preferred to heat the fermenters by injecting low-pressure steam obtained by burning some of the gas. The efficiency of such a heating device is expected to be 80%. Heat losses included bringing new charges of stable manure or other wastes up to operating temp., make-up for radiation losses, and power requirements for chopping, pumping, and the like. These are calculated to use roughly /sup 1///sub 3/ of the CH/sub 4/ produced. The sample computation gave 66.85% theoretical recovery of the thermal energy of the CH/sub 4/ produced in the M process and 68.67% in the T.

  9. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    test hypotheses they developed about how people walk. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to define Human Locomotor Control W911NF-14-R-0009...An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination...Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Report Title Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination across

  10. Hazardous waste incinerators under waste uncertainty: balancing and throughput maximization via heat recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-09-01

    Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: Heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, M.W.; Blink, J.A.; Curlander, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance-of-plant design for the Pulse Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and the results are presented. The Pulse Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar about11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li 17 Pb 83 coolant, which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5-m-thick plenum of droplets around a 8-m-diameter inner chamber. The bell jar and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17-m-diameter pool of Li 17 Pb 83 coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops, each with a flow rate of 5.5 m 3 /s, are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. Liquid metal is pumped to the top of the pool, where it flows downward through eight vertical steam generators. Double-walled tubes are used in the steam generators to assure tritium containment without intermediate heat transfer loops. Each pump is a mixed flow type and has a required NPSH of 3.4 m, a speed of 278 rpm, and an impeller diameter of 1.2 m. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. The design minimizes the total cost (heat exchanger area plus pumping) for the plant lifetime. The power required for the pumps is 36 MWe. Each resulting steam generator is 12 m high and 1.6 m in diameter, with 2360 tubes. The steam generators and pumps fit easily in the pool between the reactor chamber and the pool wall

  12. Pre evaluation for heat balance of prototype sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Woong; Kim, De Hee; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Eui Kwang; Lee, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    Under the long term advanced SFR R and D plan, the design of prototype reactor has been carried out toward the construction of the prototype SFR plant by 2028. The R and D efforts in fluid system design will be focused on developing a prototype design of primary heat transport system(PHTS), intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), decay heat removal system(DHRS), steam generation system(SGS), and related auxiliary system design for a prototype reactor as shown in Fig. 1. In order to make progress system design, top tier requirements for prototype reactor related to design parameters of NSSS and BOP should be decided at first. The top tier requirement includes general design basis, capacity and characteristics of reactor, various requirements related to safety, performance, securities, economics, site, and etc.. Extensive discussion has been done within Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) for the decision of top tier requirements of the prototype reactor. The core outlet temperature, which should be described as top tier requirements, is one of the critical parameter for system design. The higher core exit temperature could contribute to increase the plant efficiency. However, it could also contribute to decrease the design margin for structure and safety. Therefore various operating strategies based on different core outlet temperatures should be examined and evaluated. For the prototype reactor two core outlet temperatures are taken into accounted. The lower temperature is for the operation condition and the higher temperature is for the system design and licensing process of the prototype reactor. In order to evaluate the operability of prototype reactor designed based on higher temperature, the heat balance calculations have been performed at different core outlet temperature conditions. The electrical power of prototype reactor was assumed to be 100MWe and reference operating conditions were decided based on existing available data. The

  13. Associations between heat exposure, vigilance, and balance performance in summer tree fruit harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Krenz, Jennifer; Calkins, Miriam; Ryan, Dawn; Carmona, Jose; Pan, Mengjie; Zemke, Anna; Sampson, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    We sought to evaluate potential mediators of the relationship between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between maximum work-shift Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT max ) and post-shift vigilance (reaction time) and postural sway (total path length) in a cross-sectional sample of 46 Washington State tree fruit harvesters in August-September 2015. The mean (SD) WBGT max was 27.4 (3.2)°C in August and 21.2 (2.0)°C in September. The mean pre-work-shift participant urine specific gravity indicated minimal dehydration. Twenty-four percent of participants exhibited possible excessive sleepiness. There was no association between WBGT max and post-shift reaction time or total path length. Heat exposure was not associated with impaired vigilance or balance in this study, in which the overall mean (SD) WBGT max was 25.9 (4.2)°C. However, the study identified opportunities to ensure adequate pre-work-shift hydration and to optimize sleep and work-shift timing in order to reduce occupational injury and heat-related illness risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation losses and global energy balance for Ohmically heated discharges in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.R.; Behringer, K.; Niedermeyer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Global energy balance, radiation profiles and dominant impurity radiation sources are compared for Ohmically heated limiter and divertor discharges in the ASDEX tokamak. In discharges with a poloidal stainless-steel limiter, total radiation from the plasma is the dominant energy loss channel. The axisymmetric divertor reduces this volume-integrated radiation to 30-35% of the heating power and additional Ti-gettering halves it again to 10-15%. Local radiation losses in the plasma centre, which are mainly due to the presence of iron impurity ions, are reduced by about one order of magnitude. In high-current (Isub(p) = 400 kA) and high-density (nsub(e)-bar = 6 x 10 13 cm -3 ) ungettered divertor discharges, up to 55% of the heating power is dumped into a cold-gas target inside the divertor chambers. The bolometrically detected volume power losses in the chambers can mainly be attributed to neutral hydrogen atoms with kinetic energies of a few eV. In this parameter range, the divertor plasma is dominated by inelastic molecular and atomic processes, the main process being Franck-Condon dissociation of H 2 molecules. (author)

  15. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR - Part 2 -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae; Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, reverse engineering was performed on SCMHR proposed by NGNP to reconstruct it into PEPSE. This model was used to analyze sensitivity of key variables. The paper also presented a concept design of thermal cycle, where heat of nuclear reactor is partially used for hydrogen production and remaining heat is used to generate power through IHX. This study introduces the results of concept designs on thermal cycle constructed using methods that are somewhat different from the previous results. As for the first method, efficiency under main steam condition proposed by NGNP was analyzed using ultra supercritical steam cycle, which exhibits highest efficiency among commercial technologies available. Another method was to prepare heat balance using supercritical CO 2 cycle, which has recently been commercialized in small scale and is undergoing R and D efforts for scale-up. As a part of concept design for high temperature gas reactor, this paper attempts different types of electricity generation cycle design and compares their advantages and disadvantages. A reference model was developed to change original design of NGNP. Sensitivity analysis can be performed according to changing performance of facility and external conditions. A Rankine cycle model operated under SC or USC condition was created by adding to a previous study to carry out key sensitivity analysis. Data for future design will be prepared through supplementary study, and the ultimate objective is to make contribution to optimal design of high temperature gas reactor

  16. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR - Part 2 -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Company Ltd., Seouul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the paper, reverse engineering was performed on SCMHR proposed by NGNP to reconstruct it into PEPSE. This model was used to analyze sensitivity of key variables. The paper also presented a concept design of thermal cycle, where heat of nuclear reactor is partially used for hydrogen production and remaining heat is used to generate power through IHX. This study introduces the results of concept designs on thermal cycle constructed using methods that are somewhat different from the previous results. As for the first method, efficiency under main steam condition proposed by NGNP was analyzed using ultra supercritical steam cycle, which exhibits highest efficiency among commercial technologies available. Another method was to prepare heat balance using supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle, which has recently been commercialized in small scale and is undergoing R and D efforts for scale-up. As a part of concept design for high temperature gas reactor, this paper attempts different types of electricity generation cycle design and compares their advantages and disadvantages. A reference model was developed to change original design of NGNP. Sensitivity analysis can be performed according to changing performance of facility and external conditions. A Rankine cycle model operated under SC or USC condition was created by adding to a previous study to carry out key sensitivity analysis. Data for future design will be prepared through supplementary study, and the ultimate objective is to make contribution to optimal design of high temperature gas reactor.

  17. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D; Kennedy, Chris A

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to heating in all cities. Heat flux density from human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai-the world's most densely populated megacity-at 6.5 W m -2 , surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m -2 ) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m -2 ). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  18. Particle and heat balance analysis in scrape-off and divertor regions of the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Shoji, T.; Tamai, H.; Miura, Y.; Takenaga, H.; Maeda, H.

    1995-01-01

    Particle and heat balance in the scrape-off layer and the divertor region were studied in the JFT-2M tokamak. Using particle and energy conservation laws, particle and heat diffusivities perpendicular to the flux surface were evaluated just outside the magnetic separatrix. It was found that the particle diffusivity decreases with increasing electron density in the scrape-off layer and decreases by a factor of 2-3 in the H-mode phase as compared with that in L-mode. The heat diffusivity has almost the same dependence on the electron density. The ratio of the heat diffusivity to the particle diffusivity is about 2. ((orig.))

  19. STYLE, Steam Cycle Heat Balance for Turbine Blade Design in Marine Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, J.B.; Dines, W.R.

    1970-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme carries out iterative steam cycle heat balance calculations for a wide variety of steam cycles including single reheat, live steam reheat and multistage moisture separation. Facilities are also available for including the steam-consuming auxiliaries associated with a marine installation. Though no attempt is made to carry out a detailed turbine blading design the programme is capable of automatically varying the blading efficiency from stage to stage according to local steam volume flow rate, dryness fraction and shaft speed. 2 - Method of solution: 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Steam pressures to lie within range 0.2 to 5,000 lb/square inch abs steam temperatures to lie within range 50 to 1600 degrees F. Not more than 40 points per turbine expansion line; Not more than 10 expansion lines; Not more than 15 feed heaters. UNIVAC 1108 version received from FIAT Energia Nucleare, Torino, Italy

  20. Balance-of-plant options for the Heat-Pipe Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berte, M.; Capell, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Heat-Pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space fission power system with the potential for utilizing various option for balance-of-plant options. The following options have been studied: a low-power thermoelectric design (14-kWe output), a small Brayton cycle system (60--75 kWe), and a large Brayton cycle system (250 kWe). These systems were analyzed on a preliminary basis, including mass, volume, and structure calculations. These analyses have shown that the HPS system can provide power outputs from 10--250 kWe with specific powers of ∼ 14 W/kg for a 14-kWe model to ∼ 100 W/kg for a 250-kWe model. The system designs considered in this study utilize a common component base to permit easy expansion and development

  1. Heat balance in main lakes of central Italy; Bilancio termico dei principali laghi dell`Italia Centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, L.; Baldini, E.; Battella, C.; Fratarcangeli, S.; Pompei, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    A thermodynamic model for predicting the thermal stratification of water of deep lakes and the components of the heat balance of lacustrine systems was developed in the frame of the researches on predictive limnology. The model has been applied to Bracciano, Bolsena and Trasimeno lakes. The validation of the temperature results demonstrated the reliability of the model and, as consequence, of the thermal balances of the lakes. The calculated yearly evaporation is about 800 mm.

  2. Human stick balancing: Tuning Lèvy flights to improve balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Juan Luis; Milton, John G.

    2004-09-01

    State-dependent, or parametric, noise is an essential component of the neural control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. High-speed motion analysis in three dimensions demonstrates that the controlling movements made by the fingertip during stick balancing can be described by a Lévy flight. The Lévy index, α, is approximately 0.9; a value close to optimal for a random search. With increased skill, the index α does not change. However, the tails of the Lévy distribution become broader. These observations suggest a Lévy flight that is truncated by the properties of the nervous and musculoskeletal system; the truncation decreasing as skill level increases. Measurements of the cross-correlation between the position of the tip of the stick and the fingertip demonstrate that the role of closed-loop feedback changes with increased skill. Moreover, estimation of the neural latencies for stick balancing show that for a given stick length, the latency increases with skill level. It is suggested that the neural control for stick balancing involves a mechanism in which brief intervals of consciously generated, corrective movements alternate with longer intervals of prediction-free control. With learning the truncation of the Lévy flight becomes better optimized for balance control and hence the time between successive conscious corrections increases. These observations provide the first evidence that changes in a Lévy flight may have functional significance for the nervous system. This work has implications for the control of balancing problems ranging from falling in the elderly to the design of two-legged robots and earthquake proof buildings.

  3. Temporal trends in human vulnerability to excessive heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Scott C.; Allen, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Over recent decades, studies have examined various morbidity and mortality outcomes associated with heat exposure. This review explores the collective knowledge of the temporal trends of heat on human health, with regard to the hypothesis that humans are less vulnerable to heat events presently than in the past. Using Web of Science and Scopus, the authors identified all peer-reviewed articles that contained keywords on human impact (e.g. mortality, morbidity) and meteorological component (e.g. heat, heatwave). After sorting, a total of 71 articles, both case studies and epidemiological studies, contained explicit assessments of temporal trends in human vulnerability, and thus were used in this review. Most of the studies utilized mortality data, focused on the developed world, and showed a general decrease in heat sensitivity. Factors such as the implementation of a heat warning system, increased awareness, and improved quality of life were cited as contributing factors that led to the decreased impact of heat. Despite the overall recent decreases in heat vulnerability, spatial variability was shown, and differences with respect to health outcomes were also discussed. Several papers noted increases in heat’s impact on human health, particularly when unprecedented conditions occurred. Further, many populations, from outdoor workers to rural residents, in addition to the populations in much of the developing world, have been significantly underrepresented in research to date, and temporal changes in their vulnerability should be assessed in future studies. Moreover, continued monitoring and improvement of heat intervention is needed; with projected changes in the frequency, duration, and intensity of heat events combined with shifts in demographics, heat will remain a major public health issue moving forward.

  4. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  5. Thermal power calibrations of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor by the calorimetric and the heat balance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Rezende, Hugo Cesar; Souza, Rose Mary Gomes do Prado

    2009-01-01

    Since the first nuclear reactor was built, a number of methodological variations have been evolved for the calibration of the reactor thermal power. Power monitoring of reactors is done by means of neutronic instruments, but its calibration is always done by thermal procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the thermal power calibration carried out on March 5th, 2009 in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor. It was used two procedures: the calorimetric and heat balance methods. The calorimetric procedure was done with the reactor operating at a constant power, with primary cooling system switched off. The rate of temperature rise of the water was recorded. The reactor power is calculate as a function of the temperature-rise rate and the system heat capacity constant. The heat balance procedure consists in the steady-state energy balance of the primary cooling loop of the reactor. For this balance, the inlet and outlet temperatures and the water flow in the primary cooling loop were measured. The heat transferred through the primary loop was added to the heat leakage from the reactor pool. The calorimetric method calibration presented a large uncertainty. The main source of error was the determination of the heat content of the system, due to a large uncertainty in the volume of the water in the system and a lack of homogenization of the water temperature. The heat balance calibration in the primary loop is the standard procedure for calibrating the power of the IPR-R1 TRIGA nuclear reactor. (author))

  6. Accounting of the Power Balance for Neutral-beam heated H-Mode Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the dependence of power balance on input power, shape, and plasma current was conducted for neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Measurements of heat to the divertor strike plates and divertor and core radiation were taken over a wide range of plasma conditions. The different conditions were obtained by inducing a L-mode to H-mode transition, changing the divertor configuration [lower single null (LSN) vs. double-null (DND)] and conducting a NBI power scan in H-mode. 60-70% of the net input power is accounted for in the LSN discharges with 20% of power lost as fast ions, 30-45% incident on the divertor plates, up to 10% radiated in the core, and about 12% radiated in the divertor. In contrast, the power accountability in DND is 85-90%. A comparison of DND and LSN data show that the remaining power in the LSN is likely to be directed to the upper divertor

  7. Slow brushing reduces heat pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljencrantz, J; Strigo, I; Ellingsen, D M; Krämer, H H; Lundblad, L C; Nagi, S S; Leknes, S; Olausson, H

    2017-08-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents are unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors optimized for signalling affective, gentle touch. In three separate psychophysical experiments, we examined the contribution of CT afferents to pain modulation. In total, 44 healthy volunteers experienced heat pain and CT optimal (slow brushing) and CT sub-optimal (fast brushing or vibration) stimuli. Three different experimental paradigms were used: Concurrent application of heat pain and tactile (slow brushing or vibration) stimulation; Slow brushing, applied for variable duration and intervals, preceding heat pain; Slow versus fast brushing preceding heat pain. Slow brushing was effective in reducing pain, whereas fast brushing or vibration was not. The reduction in pain was significant not only when the CT optimal touch was applied simultaneously with the painful stimulus but also when the two stimuli were separated in time. For subsequent stimulation, the pain reduction was more pronounced for a shorter time interval between brushing and pain. Likewise, the effect was more robust when pain was preceded by a longer duration of brush stimulation. Strong CT-related pain reduction was associated with low anxiety and high calmness scores obtained by a state anxiety questionnaire. Slow brushing - optimal for CT activation - is effective in reducing pain from cutaneous heating. The precise mechanisms for the pain relief are as yet unknown but possible mechanisms include inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons at the level of the dorsal horn as well as analgesia through cortical mechanisms. Slow brushing stimuli - optimal for activation of C-tactile fibres - can reduce pain from cutaneous heating. No such effect was seen with fast brushing or vibration. These observations indicate the role of C-tactile fibres in pain modulation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  8. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  9. Cross-Modal Calibration of Vestibular Afference for Human Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E Héroux

    Full Text Available To determine how the vestibular sense controls balance, we used instantaneous head angular velocity to drive a galvanic vestibular stimulus so that afference would signal that head movement was faster or slower than actual. In effect, this changed vestibular afferent gain. This increased sway 4-fold when subjects (N = 8 stood without vision. However, after a 240 s conditioning period with stable balance achieved through reliable visual or somatosensory cues, sway returned to normal. An equivalent galvanic stimulus unrelated to sway (not driven by head motion was equally destabilising but in this situation the conditioning period of stable balance did not reduce sway. Reflex muscle responses evoked by an independent, higher bandwidth vestibular stimulus were initially reduced in amplitude by the galvanic stimulus but returned to normal levels after the conditioning period, contrary to predictions that they would decrease after adaptation to increased sensory gain and increase after adaptation to decreased sensory gain. We conclude that an erroneous vestibular signal of head motion during standing has profound effects on balance control. If it is unrelated to current head motion, the CNS has no immediate mechanism of ignoring the vestibular signal to reduce its influence on destabilising balance. This result is inconsistent with sensory reweighting based on disturbances. The increase in sway with increased sensory gain is also inconsistent with a simple feedback model of vestibular reflex action. Thus, we propose that recalibration of a forward sensory model best explains the reinterpretation of an altered reafferent signal of head motion during stable balance.

  10. Exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from the human brain in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, G. I.; Møller, K.; Nielsen, B.; Secher, N. H.; Febbraio, M. A.; Nybo, L.

    2004-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that in response to physical stress the human brain has the capacity to release heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in vivo. Therefore, 6 humans (males) cycled for 180 minutes at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake, and the cerebral Hsp72 response was determined on the basis of the internal jugular venous to arterial difference and global cerebral blood flow. At rest, there was a net balance of Hsp72 across the brain, but after 180 minutes of exercise, we were...

  11. Effect of preexercise soup ingestion on water intake and fluid balance during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Neil M; Sullivan, Zebblin M; Warnke, Nicole R; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether chicken noodle soup before exercise increases ad libitum water intake, fluid balance, and physical and cognitive performance compared with water. Nine trained men (age 25 ± 3 yr, VO2peak 54.2 ± 5.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1; M ± SD) performed cycle exercise in the heat (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.9 ± 0.4 °C) for 90 min at 50% VO2peak, 45 min after ingesting 355 ml of either commercially available bottled water (WATER) or chicken noodle soup (SOUP). The same bottled water was allowed ad libitum throughout both trials. Participants then completed a time trial to finish a given amount of work (10 min at 90% VO2peak; n = 8). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Stroop color-word task before, every 30 min during, and immediately after the time trial. Ad libitum water intake throughout steady-state exercise was greater in SOUP than with WATER (1,435 ± 593 vs. 1,163 ± 427 g, respectively; p SOUP than in WATER (87.7% ± 7.6% vs. 74.9% ± 21.7%, respectively; p = .09), possibly due to a change in free water clearance (-0.32 ± 1.22 vs. 0.51 ± 1.06 ml/min, respectively; p = .07). Fluid balance tended to be improved with SOUP (-106 ± 603 vs. -478 ± 594 g, p = .05). Likewise, change in plasma volume tended to be reduced in SOUP compared with WATER (p = .06). Only mild dehydration was achieved (SOUP throughout the entire trial (treatment effect; p = .04). SOUP before exercise increased ad libitum water intake and may alter kidney function.

  12. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40),

  13. Theoretical investigation of heat balance in direct injection (DI) diesel engines for neat diesel fuel and gasoline fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgun, O.; Sahin, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the presented study is to evaluate energy balance theoretically in direct injection (DI) diesel engines at different conditions. To analyze energy balance, a zero-dimensional multi-zone thermodynamic model has been developed and used. In this thermodynamic model, zero-dimensional intake and exhaust approximations given by Durgun, zero-dimensional compression and expansion model given by Heywood and quasi-dimensional phenomenological combustion model developed by Shahed and then improved Ottikkutti have been used and developed with new approximations and assumptions. By using the developed model, complete diesel engine cycle, engine performance parameters and exhaust emissions can be determined easily. Also, by using this model energy balance can be analyzed for neat diesel fuel and for light fuel fumigation easily. In the presented study, heat balance has been investigated theoretically for three different engines and various numerical applications have been conducted. In the numerical applications two different turbocharged DI diesel engines and a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine have been used. From these numerical applications, it is determined that, what portion of available fuel energy is converted to useful work, what amount of fuel energy is lost by exhaust gases or lost by heat transfer. In addition, heat balance has been analyzed for gasoline fumigation and some numerical results have been given. Brake effective power and brake specific fuel consumption increase and brake effective efficiency decreases for gasoline fumigation for turbocharged diesel engines used in numerical applications. Combustion duration increases with increasing fumigation ratio and thus heat transfer to the walls increases. Because exhaust temperature increases, exhaust losses also increases for fumigation case

  14. Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.

  15. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  16. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2017-01-01

    to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building......Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... modelled in the IDA-ICE software, along with a self-developed mathematical hydraulic model to simulate its heat performance and hydraulic performance with various control scenarios. In contrast to the situation with no pressure or flow control, this solution achieves the required flow distribution...

  17. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life

  18. Rotated balance in humans due to repetitive rotational movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Madera Milla, J.; López Diaz De Durana, A.; Cordente Martínez, C. A.; Rodríguez Romo, G.; Sillero Quintana, M.; Sampedro Molinuevo, J.

    2010-03-01

    We show how asymmetries in the movement patterns during the process of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet stance can be modeled by a set of coupled vector fields for the derivative with respect to time of the angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In our model, which is an adaption of the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004), the critical curve, defining the set of maximum angles one can lean to and still correct to regain balance, can be rotated and skewed so as to model the effects of a repetitive training of a rotational movement pattern. For the purposes of our study a rotation and a skew matrix is applied to the critical curve of the model. We present here a linear stability analysis of the modified model, as well as a fit of the model to experimental data of two characteristic "asymmetric" elite athletes and to a "symmetric" elite athlete for comparison. The new adapted model has many uses not just in sport but also in rehabilitation, as many work place injuries are caused by excessive repetition of unaligned and rotational movement patterns.

  19. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper.

  20. Earth in the balance. Ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Gore

    2007-01-01

    This book is the translation of the original American edition ''earth in the balance''. When Earth in the Balance first came out, it caused quite a stir and for good reason. It convincingly makes the case that a crisis of epidemic proportions is nearly upon us and that if the world does not get its act together soon and agree to some kind of 'Global Marshall Plan' to protect the environment, we're all up a polluted creek without a paddle. Myriad plagues are upon us, but the worst include the loss of biodiversity, the depletion of the ozone layer, the slash-and-burn destruction of rain forests, and the onset of global warming. None of this is new, of course, nor was it new in 1992. But most environmentalists will still get a giddy feeling reading such a call to action as written by a prominent politician. The book is arranged into three sections: the first describes the plagues; the second looks at how we got ourselves into this mess; and the final chapters present ways out. Gore gets his points across in a serviceable way, though he could have benefited from a firmer editor's hand; at times the analogies are arcane and the pacing is odd kind of like a Gore speech that climaxes at weird points and then sinks just as the audience is about to clap. Still, at the end you understand what's been said. Gore believes that if we apply some American ingenuity, the twin engines of democracy and capitalism can be rigged to help us stabilize world population growth, spread social justice, boost education levels, create environmentally appropriate technologies, and negotiate international agreements to bring us back from the brink. For example, a worldwide shift to clean, renewable energy sources would create huge economic opportunities for companies large and small to design, build, and maintain solar panels, wind turbines, fuel cells, and other eco friendly innovations

  1. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases : looking beyond the heat shock response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR) - and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases - has often been suggested as a

  2. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, A.

    1992-01-01

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs

  3. Adaptive control of dynamic balance in human gait on a split-belt treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurke, Tom J W; Lamoth, Claudine J C; Vervoort, Danique; van der Woude, Lucas H V; den Otter, Rob

    2018-05-17

    Human bipedal gait is inherently unstable and staying upright requires adaptive control of dynamic balance. Little is known about adaptive control of dynamic balance in reaction to long-term, continuous perturbations. We examined how dynamic balance control adapts to a continuous perturbation in gait, by letting people walk faster with one leg than the other on a treadmill with two belts (i.e. split-belt walking). In addition, we assessed whether changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control coincide with changes in energy use during split-belt adaptation. In nine minutes of split-belt gait, mediolateral margins of stability and mediolateral foot roll-off changed during adaptation to the imposed gait asymmetry, especially on the fast side, and returned to baseline during washout. Interestingly, no changes in mediolateral foot placement (i.e. step width) were found during split-belt adaptation. Furthermore, the initial margin of stability and subsequent mediolateral foot roll-off were strongly coupled to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance throughout the gait cycle. Consistent with previous results net metabolic power was reduced during split-belt adaptation, but changes in mediolateral dynamic balance control were not correlated with the reduction of net metabolic power during split-belt adaptation. Overall, this study has shown that a complementary mechanism of relative foot positioning and mediolateral foot roll-off adapts to continuously imposed gait asymmetry to maintain dynamic balance in human bipedal gait. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Energy balance of droplets impinging onto a wall heated above the Leidenfrost temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunand, P.; Castanet, G.; Gradeck, M.; Maillet, D.; Lemoine, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Measurement techniques are combined to characterize the heat lost due to liquid vaporization. • The wall heat flux is estimated by infrared thermography associated with inverse heat conduction. • The liquid heating is characterized by the two-color Laser-Induced Fluorescence thermometry. • Results reveal how the heat fluxes vary with the droplet sizes and the Weber number. -- Abstract: This work is an experimental study aiming at characterizing the heat transfers induced by the impingement of water droplets (diameter 80–180 μm) on a thin nickel plate heated by electromagnetic induction. The temperature of the rear face of the nickel sample is measured by means of an infrared camera and the heat removed from the wall due to the presence of the droplets is estimated using a semi-analytical inverse heat conduction model. In parallel, the temperature of the droplets is measured using the two-color Laser-Induced Fluorescence thermometry (2cLIF) which has been extended to imagery for the purpose of these experiments. The measurements of the variation in the droplet temperature occurring during an impact allow determining the sensible heat removed by the liquid. Measurements are performed at wall conditions well above the Leidenfrost temperature. Different values of the Weber numbers corresponding to the bouncing and splashing regimes are tested. Comparisons between the heat flux removed from the wall and the sensible heat gained by the liquid allows estimating the heat flux related to liquid evaporation. Results reveal that the respective level of the droplet sensible heat and the heat lost due to liquid vaporization can vary significantly with the droplet sizes and the Weber number

  5. Human rights and public health : towards a balanced relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This contribution attempts to scope the multiple and complex relationships between measures to protect health and the protection of human rights. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning and current understandings of the notion of ‘public health’, after which it explores how ‘public

  6. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic Balance of Excitation and Inhibition in Human and Monkey Neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Nima; Peyrache, Adrien; Telenczuk, Bartosz; Le van Quyen, Michel; Halgren, Eric; Cash, Sydney S.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Destexhe, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Balance of excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of in vivo network activity and is important for its computations. However, its presence in the neocortex of higher mammals is not well established. We investigated the dynamics of excitation and inhibition using dense multielectrode recordings in humans and monkeys. We found that in all states of the wake-sleep cycle, excitatory and inhibitory ensembles are well balanced, and co-fluctuate with slight instantaneous deviations from perfect balance, mostly in slow-wave sleep. Remarkably, these correlated fluctuations are seen for many different temporal scales. The similarity of these computational features with a network model of self-generated balanced states suggests that such balanced activity is essentially generated by recurrent activity in the local network and is not due to external inputs. Finally, we find that this balance breaks down during seizures, where the temporal correlation of excitatory and inhibitory populations is disrupted. These results show that balanced activity is a feature of normal brain activity, and break down of the balance could be an important factor to define pathological states.

  8. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    In the recent decades, extreme temperature events and derived hazards are frequent and trigger noteworthy impacts in Romania, especially over the large urban areas. The cities produce significant disturbances of many elements of the regional climate, and generates adverse effects such as Urban Heat Islands (UHI). This presentation condenses the outputs of an ongoing research project (REDBHI) developed through (2013-2017) focused on developing a methodology for monitoring and forecasting indoor climate and energy challenges related to the intensity of UHI of Bucharest (Romania), based on relevant urban climate zones (UCZs). Multi-criteria correlations between the UHI and architectural, urban and landscape variables were determined, and the vulnerability of buildings expressed in the form of transfer function between indoor micro-climate and outdoor urban environment. The vulnerability of civil buildings was determined in relation with the potential for amplifying the thermal hazards intensity through the anthropogenic influence. The project REDBHI aims at developing innovative and original products, with direct applicability, which can be used in any urban settlement and have market potential with regards to energy design and consulting. The concrete innovative outcomes consist of a) localization of the Bucharest UCZs according to the UHI intensity, identifying reference buildings and sub-zones according to urban anthropic factors and landscape pattern; b) typology of representative buildings with regards to energy consumption and CO2 emitted as a result of building exploitation; c) 3D modelling of the reference buildings and of the thermal/energy reaction to severe climatic conditions d) empirical validation of the dynamic thermal/energy analysis; d) development of an pilot virtual studio capable to simulate climate alerts, analyse scenarios and suggest measures to mitigate the UHI effects, and disseminate the outcomes for educational purposes; e) compendium of

  9. Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Johnson, John M

    2016-04-01

    Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss. These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Statically vs dynamically balanced gait: Analysis of a robotic exoskeleton compared with a human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbareschi, Giulia; Richards, Rosie; Thornton, Matt; Carlson, Tom; Holloway, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In recent years exoskeletons able to replicate human gait have begun to attract growing popularity for both assistive and rehabilitative purposes. Although wearable robots often need the use of external support in order to maintain stability, the REX exoskeleton by REX Bionics is able to self-balance through the whole cycle. However this statically balanced gait presents important differences with the dynamically balanced gait of human subjects. This paper will examine kinematic and kinetic differences between the gait analysis performed on a subject wearing the REX exoskeleton and human gait analysis data as presented in literature. We will also provide an insight on the impact that these differences can have for both rehabilitative and assistive applications.

  11. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  12. Analysis of heat balance on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using multi-stage steam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    2006-01-01

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1 100 MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure. (author)

  13. The heat source of Ruapehu crater lake; deductions from the energy and mass balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, A. W.; Bibby, H. M.; Scott, B. J.; McGuinness, M. J.

    1991-05-01

    Regular observations of temperature, outflow rates and water chemistry of Crater Lake, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand have been made for the last 25 years. These data have been used to derive a model of the dynamics of the lake, and determine the input of energy, mass, and chloride from the volcano to the Crater Lake. The recent, relatively quiescent state of the volcano, when virtually no heat has been input to the lake, has also enabled an assessment to be made of the surface heat loss characteristics, which play an important role in the model of the lake. The modelling suggests that since about 1982 the ratio of the volcanic heat to mass added to the base of the lake is about 6 MJ/kg, which is not compatible with heating of the lake by magmatic steam alone. Thus, only about 50% of the heating has been by magmatic steam. It is suggested that heat could be transferred from a magmatic source to the region below the lake by a heat-pipe mechanism, commonly associated with geothermal systems. The simultaneous upward movement of vapour phase, and downward movement of liquid phase from condensed vapour allows efficient heat transfer without overall mass transfer. The permeability necessary to supply the required heat is of the order of 10 darcy, and is consistent with a rubble filled vent. For at least the last five years, there has been a characteristic pattern in the Crater Lake temperature record, with alternate heating and cooling phases. The heating phase generally lasts for one or two months, while the cooling phase lasts for six months to a year. A possible explanation for this cyclic behaviour is the presence of a layer of liquid sulphur under Crater Lake, acting as a partial barrier between the heat-pipe and the lake. The unusual variations of the viscosity of liquid sulphur with temperature will mean that at temperatures greater than 160°C, the layer of sulphur becomes highly viscous and would block any upwards steam flow and hence stop the heat input to Crater

  14. Evaluation of three energy balance-based evaporation models for estimating monthly evaporation for five lakes using derived heat storage changes from a hysteresis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, Z.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    The heat storage changes (Qt) can be a significant component of the energy balance in lakes, and it is important to account for Qt for reasonable estimation of evaporation at monthly and finer timescales if the energy balance-based evaporation models are used. However, Qt has been often neglected in

  15. Setup of Design Concept for the Secondary System of the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor and Development of Computational Code for the heat balance setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. K.; Seong, S. H.; Kim, S. O.; Eoh, J. H.; Han, J. W.; Cha, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    KAERI developed KALIMER-600 on it own way and now is designing the 600MWe actual sized plant for SFR. Nowadays, it is emphasizing the necessity of the evaluation for NSSS design as a part of the verification for SFR design validity. In other words, it means that should be precede the setup of the heat balance and preliminary design for SFR BOP. Turbine composition was configurated to refer SAMCHEON-PO fossil plant which have similar steam condition. The heat balance of SFR BOP was deduced to based on the NSSS boundary condition of the 600MWe actual sized plant. The algorithm of the heat balance calculation program was developed to refer preliminary heat balance data. and then, the setup of the heat balance for SFR BOP was evaluated. In the performance analysis for the preliminary heat balance of the SFR BOP, it was demonstrated that turbine characteristics are similar to reference plant, such as the SAMCHEON-PO fossil plant and the PFBR of the India

  16. Balancing humans in the biosphere: escaping the overpopulation trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, R

    1990-07-01

    Cultural evolution has allowed humans to change their behaviors and adapt to new conditions much faster than biological evolution. The most critical of these is the overpopulation trap, caused by the imbalance between the short-term incentives to have children and the longterm social and ecological costs of having too many. This process of short-run incentives getting out of sync with longterm goals has been called social traps, as the decision maker is trapped by the local conditions into making a bad decision viewed from a longer perspective. The biological and cultural incentives to procreate combined with rapid reductions in mortality have changed the long-run ecological cost structure. The elimination of social traps requires intervention by education (about the longterm, distributed impacts), insurance, superordinate authority (legal systems, government, religion), and converting the trap to a trade-off. In a sense, this is an extension of the polluter pays principle. Summary suggestions: establish a hierarchy of goals for national and global ecological economic planning and management, sustainability should be the primary longterm goal, replacing the current GNP growth mania; develop better global ecological economic models about the interrelated impacts of population, per capita resource use, and wealth distribution; adjust current incentives to reflect long-run, global costs, including uncertainty; and allow no further decline in the stock of natural capital by taxing natural capital consumption. The US population in 1986 was about 240 million. Current technology and consumption patterns from renewable energy alone could sustain about 85 million people, or about 35% of the current population, or with a more equitable distribution 170 million at a high quality life style on renewable energy alone.

  17. A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ABILITY OF THE ARRESTER TO ABSORB ENERGY WITHOUT BREAKING THE HEAT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Shevchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The aim of this study is to obtain a method for determining the capacity surge arrester nonlinear absorb energy without breaking the heat balance in modes of long-term application of operating voltage, which allows for analysis of their work in terms of violations as electricity. Methodology. For values of the energy passing through the arrester must be able to determine the current value for the voltage value in the area of leakage current-voltage characteristics. We have carried out calculations of the energy passing everywhere arrester for certain periods of time based on the current-voltage characteristics obtained experimentally. Analysis of the experimental current-voltage characteristics of resistors and literature led to the important conclusion that the dielectric properties of the ceramic varistor affect the value of active power losses in the arrester only when the active component of the leakage current is very small. This is confirmed by the characteristics of different classes of varistor voltage. This property of varistors and surge arresters shows the need to consider how the dielectric and conductive properties of the varistor ceramics in the analysis of work in the area of the arrester leakage current-voltage characteristic. These results demonstrate the need to clarify the mathematical model and the method for determining the energy dissipates in the area of the arrester leakage current CVC with their account. Results. The study, an improved mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester during its working life. The study obtained the method, of evaluation capacity surge arrester, maintains heat balance throughout working life. Based on experimentally obtained current-voltage characteristic of the varistors is defined voltage at which surge arrester starts conducting active current. This allowed to receive specified mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester and develop a method

  18. Application of the heat-balance and refined integral methods to the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Timothy G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider approximate travelling wave solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The heat-balance integral method is first applied to the problem, using two different quartic approximating functions, and then the refined integral method is investigated. We examine two types of solution, chosen by matching the wave speed to that of the exact solution and by imposing the same area. The first set of solutions is generally better with an error that is fixed in time. The second set of solutions has an error that grows with time. This is shown to be due to slight discrepancies in the wave speed.

  19. Responses of human hip abductor muscles to lateral balance perturbations during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A.L.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lateral stability during gait is of utmost importance to maintain balance. This was studied on human subjects walking on a treadmill who were given 100-ms perturbations of known magnitude and timing with respect to the gait cycle by means of a computer-controlled pneumatic device. This method has

  20. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  2. The theoretical and experimental evaluation of the heat balance in perfused tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crezee, J.; Mooibroek, J.; Lagendijk, J. J.; van Leeuwen, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate treatment planning is necessary for the successful application of hyperthermia in the clinic. The validity of four different bioheat models or combinations of models is evaluated: the conventional bioheat transfer equation, the limited effective conductivity model, a mixed heat

  3. Downscaling Satellite Land Surface Temperatures in Urban Regions for Surface Energy Balance Study and Heat Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Bah, A.; Prakash, S.; Nouri, N.; Blake, R.

    2017-12-01

    A great percentage of the world's population reside in urban areas that are exposed to the threats of global and regional climate changes and associated extreme weather events. Among them, urban heat islands have significant health and economic impacts due to higher thermal gradients of impermeable surfaces in urban regions compared to their surrounding rural areas. Therefore, accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions are required to predict these extreme events. High spatial resolution Land surface temperature (LST) in the scale of street level in the cities can provide wealth of information to study surface energy balance and eventually providing a reliable heat index. In this study, we estimate high-resolution LST maps using combination of LandSat 8 and infrared based satellite products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and newly launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R). Landsat 8 provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. However, MODIS and GOES-R have lower spatial resolution (1km and 4km respectively) with much higher temporal resolution. Several statistical downscaling methods were investigated to provide high spatiotemporal LST maps in urban regions. The results reveal that statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can provide reliable estimations of LST downscaling with 2K accuracy. Other methods also were tried including aggregating (up-scaling) the high-resolution data to a coarse one to examine the limitations and to build the model. Additionally, we deployed flux towers over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops in New York City to monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. This

  4. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Omstedt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances wereanalysed over 52 years. The modelling uses a process-orientedapproach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum,heat and salt conservation; turbulence is modelled using a two-equation model. The results indicate that calculated temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well. The water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin was controlled by the difference between inflows and outflows through the Sicily Channel and by net precipitation. The freshwater component displayed a negative trend over the study period, indicating increasing salinity in the basin.The heat balance was controlled by heat loss from the water surface, solar radiation into the sea and heat flow through the Sicily Channel. Both solar radiation and net heat loss displayed increasing trends, probably due to decreased total cloud cover. In addition, the heat balance indicated a net import of approximately 9 W m-2 of heat to the Eastern Mediterranean Basin from the Western Basin.

  5. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  6. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schoetter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP, such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB, parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  7. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae [Hyundai Engineering Company Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A gas cooled reactor has the advantage of being able to create a higher temperature coolant than a water cooled reactor. We can take advantage of supplying electricity as well as process heat. Recently, taking the export opportunity of a commercial nuclear power plants in UAE, Middle East area where politically stable and resource-rich seems promising for further nuclear business. Even if construction cost is more expensive than water cooled reactors, a high temperature gas cooled reactor is an attractive option from the viewpoint of safety. It can reduce the domestic use of fossil fuels and secure power and water, which is the most important part of people's daily life. All- Electrical Mode (AEM) operates only for the purpose of electricity generation. Rated Cogeneration Mode (RCM) uses approximately 60% of the total flow as process heat. We use a part flow exiting the high pressure turbine of end portion to the process heat, and the flow channel to a heat exchanger and a deaerator is changed at this time. Turbine Bypass Mode (TBM) will be used to supply the process heat by blocking all flow to the turbines.

  8. Heat Balance Study on Integrated Cycles for Hydrogen and Electricity Generation in VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Il; Yoo, Yeon Jae; Heo, Gyunyoung; Park, Soyoung; Kang, Yeon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    A gas cooled reactor has the advantage of being able to create a higher temperature coolant than a water cooled reactor. We can take advantage of supplying electricity as well as process heat. Recently, taking the export opportunity of a commercial nuclear power plants in UAE, Middle East area where politically stable and resource-rich seems promising for further nuclear business. Even if construction cost is more expensive than water cooled reactors, a high temperature gas cooled reactor is an attractive option from the viewpoint of safety. It can reduce the domestic use of fossil fuels and secure power and water, which is the most important part of people's daily life. All- Electrical Mode (AEM) operates only for the purpose of electricity generation. Rated Cogeneration Mode (RCM) uses approximately 60% of the total flow as process heat. We use a part flow exiting the high pressure turbine of end portion to the process heat, and the flow channel to a heat exchanger and a deaerator is changed at this time. Turbine Bypass Mode (TBM) will be used to supply the process heat by blocking all flow to the turbines

  9. Searching for ancient balanced polymorphisms shared between Neanderthals and Modern Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Henriques Viscardi

    Full Text Available Abstract Hominin evolution is characterized by adaptive solutions often rooted in behavioral and cognitive changes. If balancing selection had an important and long-lasting impact on the evolution of these traits, it can be hypothesized that genes associated with them should carry an excess of shared polymorphisms (trans- SNPs across recent Homo species. In this study, we investigate the role of balancing selection in human evolution using available exomes from modern (Homo sapiens and archaic humans (H. neanderthalensis and Denisovan for an excess of trans-SNP in two gene sets: one associated with the immune system (IMMS and another one with behavioral system (BEHS. We identified a significant excess of trans-SNPs in IMMS (N=547, of which six of these located within genes previously associated with schizophrenia. No excess of trans-SNPs was found in BEHS, but five genes in this system harbor potential signals for balancing selection and are associated with psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders. Our approach evidenced recent Homo trans-SNPs that have been previously implicated in psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, suggesting that a genetic repertoire common to the immune and behavioral systems could have been maintained by balancing selection starting before the split between archaic and modern humans.

  10. The electrohydraulic balance of the solar heat storage with autonomous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Marahtanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper emphasizes an increasingly important role of alternative power sources nowadays. At the same time, a solar collector (suntrap is one of the most frequent techniques to use the solar energy. It is an absorber that picks up solar radiation and heats a heat carrier circulating in the close loop. Then the heat is transferred to the heat accumulator that is integrated in the hot-tap water system (HWS.The paper presents a prospective circuit of the solar collector. It differs from the traditional one because, in addition to absorbing panel, it uses photoconverters to generate electric power for the circulating pump. The advantage of this system is that for operation such a solar energy converter has no need in external power sources, i.e. it is autonomous. The need to calculate the essential thermo-physical parameters that ensure no-break system operation was stated as a main objective of the work.The suggested circuit has a photocell panel to convert solar radiation into dc voltage of 12 V. In case of a lack of the solar energy an accumulator battery can be used for feeding. To ensure the no-break supply of power an adaptor is offered.To calculate a density distribution of solar radiation a sine law is offered depending on the time of day and geographical locality. This dependence was used to obtain the expressions for calculating the water temperature in boiler over daytime.Further, the calculations have been done for the operating conditions under which an efficient heat exchange will be provided with the minimum consumption of electric power for the heat carrier circulation in the first loop. For this purpose, a pump power was calculated depending on consumption and hydraulic losses of head in the pipeline. As a minimum required consumption the value has been chosen at which a laminar flow regime changes to the turbulent one because of the most efficient heat exchange being both in collector and in heat accumulator

  11. IRAS observations of dust heating and energy balance in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    The equilibrium process dust emission in the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud is studied. The luminosity of the cloud is found to closely match the luminosity of the clouds's known embedded and external radiation sources. There is no evidence for a large population of undetected low-luminosity sources within the cloud and unknown external heating is also only a minor source of energy. Most of the cloud's luminosity is emitted in the mid-to-far-IR. Dust temperature maps indicate that the dust is not hot enough to heat the gas to observed temperatures. A simple cloud model with a radiation field composed of flux HD 147889, S1, and Sco OB2 associations predicts the observed IRAS 60 to 100 micron in-band flux ratios for a mean cloud density n(H2) = 1400. Flattened 12 and 25 micron observations show much extended emission in these bands, suggesting stochastic heating of very small grains or large molecules.

  12. Effect of human skin grafts on whole-body heat loss during exercise heat stress: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Gagnon, Daniel; Stapleton, Jill; Crandall, Craig G; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-01-01

    When exposed to heat stress, increases in cutaneous blood flow and sweating in well-healed grafted skin are severely attenuated, which could impair whole-body heat loss if skin grafts cover a large portion of total body surface area (TBSA). It is unknown to what extent whole-body heat loss is impaired when skin grafts cover a significant (eg, >50%) proportion of TBSA. The authors examined whole-body heat exchange during and after 60 min of cycling exercise in the heat (35°C; 25% relative humidity), at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (~400 W) in a woman (age, 36 years; mass, 78.2 kg) with well-healed (17+ years) skin grafts covering 75% of TBSA. Her responses were compared with two noninjured control subjects. Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange were measured by direct calorimetry. While exercising in the same ambient conditions and at the same rate of heat production, relative evaporative heat loss of nongrafted skin in the grafted subject (ie, evaporative heat loss per m) was nearly twice that of the control subjects. However, total rate of evaporative heat loss reached only 59% of the amount required for heat balance in the skin-grafted subject compared with 92 ± 3% in controls. Thus, the increase in core temperature was 2-fold greater for the grafted (1.22°C) vs control (0.61 ± 0.19°C) individuals. This case study demonstrates that a large area of grafted skin greatly diminishes maximum evaporative heat loss during exercise in the heat, making a compensable environment for control subjects uncompensable for skin-grafted individuals.

  13. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  14. Impact of balancing-side tooth contact on clenching induced mandibular displacements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Yugami, K; Yaka, T; Ai, M

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated mandibular displacements during clenching in the lateral mandibular position in relation to lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve healthy human subjects (mean=26.7 years) volunteered for this study. Acrylic occlusal devices were fabricated for the lower working-side canine, working-side second molar and balancing-side second molar in order to simulate a dominant canine guidance, working-side interference (WI), balancing-side interference (BI) and bilateral balanced occlusion (BO). Vertical displacements of the mandible were recorded by linear variable differential transformers during submaximal clenching in the right lateral position. The four experimental occlusal conditions were revealed to have a significant effect on mandibular displacement patterns (ANOVA, P experimental conditions. These results suggest that the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular (TM) joints caused by the elevation of the mandible varies in a predictable manner depending upon lateral occlusal relationships.

  15. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  17. Heat flux estimates of power balance on Proto-MPEX with IR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showers, M., E-mail: mshower1@vols.utk.edu [Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Donovan, D. C. [Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a precursor linear plasma device to the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will study plasma material interactions (PMIs) for future fusion reactors. This paper will discuss the initial steps performed towards completing a power balance on Proto-MPEX to quantify where energy is lost from the plasma, including the relevant diagnostic package implemented. Machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX’s performance may be identified, increasing its PMI research capabilities.

  18. Heat flux estimates of power balance on Proto-MPEX with IR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showers, M.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J.; Donovan, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a precursor linear plasma device to the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will study plasma material interactions (PMIs) for future fusion reactors. This paper will discuss the initial steps performed towards completing a power balance on Proto-MPEX to quantify where energy is lost from the plasma, including the relevant diagnostic package implemented. Machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX’s performance may be identified, increasing its PMI research capabilities.

  19. Change of water environment in the inner bay in consideration of heat balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Akira; Miyaike, Katsuto

    1983-01-01

    The study on the effect of warm water discharged from large capacity thermal and nuclear power stations on the local climate around the power stations is necessary for promoting the development of power resources in harmony with natural environment. In this study, Mikawa Bay was selected as the object of research, and the simulation analysis of water temperature was carried out by the water column model, based on the result of analysis of the local weather and sea observation data. Thus, the amount of heat exchange between the atmosphere and sea water in natural sea area was grasped, and how the change in the amount of heat exchange when the thermal load due to warm water discharge was imposed is ranked in natural sea environment was examined. The variation of surface water temperature in Mikawa Bay tended to be large in summer and small in winter. It was clarified that the factor controlling the water temperature in the bay was the variation of climatic factors. In the sea area where the effect of open sea water was relatively small, the variation of water temperature was able to be expressed by the water column model. The change in the amount of heat exchange in the range of warm water diffusion with 2 deg C temperature rise was determined. (Kato, I.)

  20. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases: looking beyond the heat shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H

    2014-04-01

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR)--and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases--has often been suggested as a therapeutic strategy. However, most data on activating the HSR or its downstream targets in mouse models of diseases associated with aggregate formation have been rather disappointing. The human chaperonome consists of many more heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are not regulated by the HSR, however, and researchers are now focusing on these as potential therapeutic targets. In this Review, we summarize the existing literature on a set of aggregation diseases and propose that each of them can be characterized or 'barcoded' by a different set of HSPs that can rescue specific types of aggregation. Some of these 'non-canonical' HSPs have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo, in mouse models of protein-aggregation disease. Interestingly, several of these HSPs also cause diseases when mutated--so-called chaperonopathies--which are also discussed in this Review.

  1. Auto white balance method using a pigmentation separation technique for human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2017-02-01

    The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.

  2. Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan AVLAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

  3. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Remigiusz; Jacobsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis , two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a se...

  4. Heat balance calculation and feasibility analysis for initial startup of Fuqing nuclear turbine unit with non-nuclear steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liu; Xiao Bo; Song Yumeng

    2014-01-01

    Non-nuclear steam run up compared with nuclear steam run up, can verify the design, manufacture, installation quality of the unit, at the same time shorten the follow-up duration of the entire group ready to start debugging time. In this paper, starting from the first law of thermodynamics, Analyzed Heat balance Calculation and Feasibility analysis for Initial startup of Fuqing nuclear Turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam, By the above calculation, to the system requirements and device status on the basis of technical specifications, confirmed the feasibility of Non-nuclear steam running up in theory. After the implementation of the Non-nuclear turn of Fuqing unit, confirmed the results fit with the actual process. In summary, the Initial startup of Fuqing turbine unit with Non-nuclear steam is feasible. (authors)

  5. Leatherbacks swimming in silico: modeling and verifying their momentum and heat balance using computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Peter N; Bonazza, Riccardo; Jones, T Todd; Wyneken, Jeanette; Porter, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    As global temperatures increase throughout the coming decades, species ranges will shift. New combinations of abiotic conditions will make predicting these range shifts difficult. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling places bounds on an animal's niche through analyzing the animal's physical interactions with the environment. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling is flexible enough to accommodate these new combinations of abiotic conditions. However, this approach is difficult to implement for aquatic species because of complex interactions among thrust, metabolic rate and heat transfer. We use contemporary computational fluid dynamic techniques to overcome these difficulties. We model the complex 3D motion of a swimming neonate and juvenile leatherback sea turtle to find power and heat transfer rates during the stroke. We combine the results from these simulations and a numerical model to accurately predict the core temperature of a swimming leatherback. These results are the first steps in developing a highly accurate mechanistic niche model, which can assists paleontologist in understanding biogeographic shifts as well as aid contemporary species managers about potential range shifts over the coming decades.

  6. Leatherbacks swimming in silico: modeling and verifying their momentum and heat balance using computational fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Dudley

    Full Text Available As global temperatures increase throughout the coming decades, species ranges will shift. New combinations of abiotic conditions will make predicting these range shifts difficult. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling places bounds on an animal's niche through analyzing the animal's physical interactions with the environment. Biophysical mechanistic niche modeling is flexible enough to accommodate these new combinations of abiotic conditions. However, this approach is difficult to implement for aquatic species because of complex interactions among thrust, metabolic rate and heat transfer. We use contemporary computational fluid dynamic techniques to overcome these difficulties. We model the complex 3D motion of a swimming neonate and juvenile leatherback sea turtle to find power and heat transfer rates during the stroke. We combine the results from these simulations and a numerical model to accurately predict the core temperature of a swimming leatherback. These results are the first steps in developing a highly accurate mechanistic niche model, which can assists paleontologist in understanding biogeographic shifts as well as aid contemporary species managers about potential range shifts over the coming decades.

  7. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  8. Heat shock proteins on the human sperm surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaby-Hansen, Soren; Herr, John C

    2010-01-01

    The sperm plasma membrane is known to be critical to fertilization and to be highly regionalized into domains of head, mid- and principal pieces. However, the molecular composition of the sperm plasma membrane and its alterations during genital tract passage, capacitation and the acrosome reaction remains to be fully dissected. A two-dimensional gel-based proteomic study previously identified 98 human sperm proteins which were accessible for surface labelling with both biotin and radioiodine. In this report twelve dually labelled protein spots were excised from stained gels or PDVF membranes and analysed by mass spectrometry (MS) and Edman degradation. Seven members from four different heat shock protein (HSP) families were identified including HYOU1 (ORP150), HSPC1 (HSP86), HSPA5 (Bip), HSPD1 (HSP60), and several isoforms of the two testis-specific HSP70 chaperones HSPA2 and HSPA1L. An antiserum raised against the testis-specific HSPA2 chaperone reacted with three 65kDa HSPA2 isoforms and three high molecular weight surface proteins (78-79kDa, 84kDa and 90-93kDa). These proteins, together with seven 65kDa HSP70 forms, reacted with human anti-sperm IgG antibodies that blocked in vitro fertilization in humans. Three of these surface biotinylated human sperm antigens were immunoprecipitated with a rabbit antiserum raised against a linear peptide epitope in Chlamydia trachomatis HSP70. The results indicate diverse HSP chaperones are accessible for surface labelling on human sperm. Some of these share epitopes with C. trachomatis HSP70, suggesting an association between genital tract infection, immunity to HSP70 and reproductive failure. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  10. Particle balance studies in TEXTOR during experiments of pellet injection, helium injection, and ICR-heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, T.; Finken, K.H.; Gray, D.S.; Winter, J.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis based on the particle conservation law has been carried out to observe the global fuelling process in tokamak discharges. The response of the net recycling flux from the first wall is investigated in the tokamak TEXTOR, using calibrated signals of the gas feed rate, the neutral gas pressure in the vessel, the total amount of electrons, and the particle removal rates by the ALT-II belt-pump limiter and by a main pump unit. Net absorption (pumping) of hydrogen by the wall is observed for almost all tokamak discharges since a new wall conditioning technique called siliconisation is employed. The net absorption or fuelling depending on the discharge condition influenced by injection of pellets, by helium gas injection combined with neutral beam injection, and by rf heating can be interpreted in terms of the particle-induced desorption effect with depth profile taken into consideration. ((orig.))

  11. Power cycle heat balance software for personal computer (PC)2TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockh, P. von; Rodriguez, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the PC-based power cycle balance of plant software (PC)trademark (Power Cycle on Personal Computer). It is designed to assist nuclear, fossil, and industrial power plants so that steam cycles can be simulated, analyzed and optimized. First, the cycle model is developed on the screen. The elements of the power cycle are taken from a tool box containing all components of a modern power cycle. The elements are connected by using a mouse. The next step is the input of the design values of the components or data taken from performance tests. This entire input sequence is guided by the program. Based on the input data, the physical behavior of each component is simulated according to established physical rules. Part load operation or other off-design conditions can be calculated. The program is designed for use by power plant engineers and power engineering firms to optimize new power cycles, perform problem-solving analyses, optimize component retrofit, and train power plant engineers and operators. It also can be used by universities to educate engineering students

  12. Multi-objective synthesis of work and heat exchange networks: Optimal balance between economic and environmental performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Viviani C.; Ravagnani, Mauro A.S.S.; Jiménez, Laureano; Caballero, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-objective optimization model for the simultaneous WHEN synthesis. • A multistage superstructure allows power and thermal integration of process streams. • Simultaneous minimization of environmental impacts and total annualized cost. • Alternative set of Pareto solutions is presented to support decision-makers. - Abstract: Sustainable and efficient energy use is crucial for lessening carbon dioxide emissions in industrial plants. This paper introduces a new multi-objective optimization model for the synthesis of work and heat exchange networks (WHENs), aiming to obtain the optimal balance between economic and environmental performance. The proposed multistage superstructure allows power and thermal integration of process gaseous streams, through the simultaneous minimization of total annualized cost (TAC) and environmental impacts (EI). The latter objective is determined by environmental indicators that follow the life cycle assessment (LCA) principles. The WHEN superstructure is optimized as a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming (moMINLP) model and solved with the GAMS software. Results show a decrease of ∼79% in the heat transfer area and ∼32% in the capital cost between the solutions found for single problem optimizations. These results represent a diminution of ∼23.5% in the TAC, while EI is increased in ∼99.2%. As these solutions can be impractical for economic or environmental reasons, we present a set of alternative Pareto-optimal solutions to support decision-makers towards the implementation of more environment-friendly and cost-effective WHENs.

  13. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. Models can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most models of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study models that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research model linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also

  14. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Diagnosis of upper-ocean heat and salt balances using least squares with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2017-06-01

    Heat and salt balances in the upper 200 m are examined using data from Seaglider spatial surveys June 2008 to January 2010 surrounding a NOAA surface mooring at Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W). A least-squares approach is applied to repeat Seaglider survey and moored measurements to solve for unknown or uncertain monthly three-dimensional circulation and vertical diffusivity. Within the surface boundary layer, the estimated heat and salt balances are dominated throughout the surveys by turbulent flux, vertical advection, and for heat, radiative absorption. When vertically integrated balances are considered, an estimated upwelling of cool water balances the net surface input of heat, while the corresponding large import of salt across the halocline due to upwelling and diffusion is balanced by surface moisture input and horizontal import of fresh water. Measurement of horizontal gradients allows the estimation of unresolved vertical terms over more than one annual cycle; diffusivity in the upper-ocean transition layer decreases rapidly to the depth of the maximum near-surface stratification in all months, with weak seasonal modulation in the rate of decrease and profile amplitude. Vertical velocity is estimated to be on average upward but with important monthly variations. Results support and expand existing evidence concerning the importance of horizontal advection in the balances of heat and salt in the Gulf of Alaska, highlight time and depth variability in difficult-to-measure vertical transports in the upper ocean, and suggest avenues of further study in future observational work at OSP.

  15. Dynamic Simulation of Human Thermoregulation and Heat Transfer for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas R.; Nelson, David A.; Bue, Grant; Kuznetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Models of human thermoregulation and heat transfer date from the early 1970s and have been developed for applications ranging from evaluating thermal comfort in spacecraft and aircraft cabin environments to predicting heat stress during EVAs. Most lumped or compartment models represent the body as an assemblage cylindrical and spherical elements which may be subdivided into layers to describe tissue heterogeneity. Many existing models are of limited usefulness in asymmetric thermal environments, such as may be encountered during an EVA. Conventional whole-body clothing models also limit the ability to describe local surface thermal and evaporation effects in sufficient detail. A further limitation is that models based on a standard man model are not readily scalable to represent large or small subjects. This work describes development of a new human thermal model derived from the 41-node man model. Each segment is divided into four concentric, constant thickness cylinders made up of a central core surrounded by muscle, fat, and skin, respectively. These cylinders are connected by the flow of blood from a central blood pool to each part. The central blood pool is updated at each time step, based on a whole-body energy balance. Results show the model simulates core and surface temperature histories, sweat evaporation and metabolic rates which generally are consistent with controlled exposures of human subjects. Scaling rules are developed to enable simulation of small and large subjects (5th percentile and 95th percentile). Future refinements will include a clothing model that addresses local surface insulation and permeation effects and developing control equations to describe thermoregulatory effects such as may occur with prolonged weightlessness or with aging.

  16. A Balanced-Fed Dual Inverted-F Antenna with Reduced Human Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced-fed dual inverted-F antenna with reduced human body effects for WLAN applications at 2.45 GHz is presented. In order to reduce the influence by a close proximity or a touch of a human body, the proposed antenna employs an impedance matching using a lumped LC-balun which has the simple and compact structure applying for mobile handsets. The resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is fixed at 2.45 GHz regardless of the close proximity of a human body. By applying for the L-shape ground plane, the proposed antenna has the wide impedance bandwidth of about 150 MHz and the peak realized gain of about 4 dBi.

  17. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Müller Schmied

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971–2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (−6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean. Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  19. Complexity and dynamics of switched human balance control during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Salam; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Loram, Ian

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we use a combination of numerical simulations, time series analysis, and complexity measures to investigate the dynamics of switched systems with noise, which are often used as models of human balance control during quiet standing. We link the results with complexity measures found in experimental data of human sway motion during quiet standing. The control model ensuring balance, which we use, is based on an act-and-wait control concept, that is, a human controller is switched on when a certain sway angle is reached. Otherwise, there is no active control present. Given a time series data, we determine how does it look a typical pattern of control strategy in our model system. We detect the switched nonlinearity in the system using a frequency analysis method in the absence of noise. We also analyse the effect of time delay on the existence of limit cycles in the system in the absence of noise. We perform the entropy and detrended fluctuation analyses in view of linking the switchings (and the dead zone) with the occurrences of complexity in the model system in the presence of noise. Finally, we perform the entropy and detrended fluctuation analyses on experimental data and link the results with numerical findings in our model example.

  20. A population balance approach considering heat and mass transfer-Experiments and CFD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepper, Eckhard; Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Schmidtke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    in the simulations. For a better quantitative reproduction, reliable models for the heat transfer at high Reynolds number as well as for bubble breakup and coalescence are needed.

  1. Modelling the water and heat balances of the Mediterranean Sea using a two-basin model and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaltout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-basin model of the water and heat balances of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (WMB and EMB, respectively over the 1958–2010 period using available meteorological and hydrological data. The results indicate that the simulated temperature and salinity in both studied Mediterranean sub-basins closely follow the reanalysed data. In addition, simulated surface water in the EMB had a higher mean temperature (by approximately 1.6°C and was more saline (by approximately 0.87 g kg−1 than in the WMB over the studied period. The net evaporation over the EMB (1.52 mm day−1 was approximately 1.7 times greater than over the WMB (0.88 mm day−1. The water balance of the Mediterranean Sea was controlled by net inflow through the Gibraltar Strait and Sicily Channel, the net evaporation rate and freshwater input. The heat balance simulations indicated that the heat loss from the water body was nearly balanced by the solar radiation to the water body, resulting in a net export (import of approximately 13 (11 W m−2 of heat from the WMB (to the EMB.

  2. Neural correlates of heat-evoked pain memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Gui, Peng; Li, Lei; Ku, Yixuan; Bodner, Mark; Fan, Gaojie; Zhou, Yong-Di; Dong, Xiao-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The neural processes underlying pain memory are not well understood. To explore these processes, contact heat-evoked potentials (CHEPs) were recorded in humans with electroencephalography (EEG) technique during a delayed matching-to-sample task, a working memory task involving presentations of two successive painful heat stimuli (S-1 and S-2) with different intensities separated by a 2-s interval (the memorization period). At the end of the task, the subject was required to discriminate the stimuli by indicating which (S-1 or S-2) induced more pain. A control task was used, in which no active discrimination was required between stimuli. All event-related potential (ERP) analysis was aligned to the onset of S-1. EEG activity exhibited two successive CHEPs: an N2-P2 complex (∼400 ms after onset of S-1) and an ultralate component (ULC, ∼900 ms). The amplitude of the N2-P2 at vertex, but not the ULC, was significantly correlated with stimulus intensity in these two tasks, suggesting that the N2-P2 represents neural coding of pain intensity. A late negative component (LNC) in the frontal recording region was observed only in the memory task during a 500-ms period before onset of S-2. LNC amplitude differed between stimulus intensities and exhibited significant correlations with the N2-P2 complex. These indicate that the frontal LNC is involved in maintenance of intensity of pain in working memory. Furthermore, alpha-band oscillations observed in parietal recording regions during the late delay displayed significant power differences between tasks. This study provides in the temporal domain previously unidentified neural evidence showing the neural processes involved in working memory of painful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Evaluation of refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in heat cascading systems under the carbon dioxide emissions constraint: the proposal of the energy cascade balance table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both heat cascading systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. It is necessary to introduce heat cascading systems in the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of heat cascading is the multi-stage use of thermal energy by temperature level. This paper introduces three energy policies for introducing the heat cascading systems. The author develops an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Carbon dioxide emission constraints result in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature heat is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustion waste heat could reduce electric power for the turbo compression refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator. In addition, this study proposes an energy cascade balance table with respect to the temperature level

  4. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  5. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Junsu; Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance

  6. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Junsu [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance.

  7. Balancing human and technical reliability in the design of advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human factors exigencies are often overseen during the early design phases of NPP. ► Optimization of reactors safety is only based on technical reliability considerations. ► The search for more technical reliability often leads to more system complexity. ► System complexity is a major contributor to the operator's poor performance. ► Our method enables to assess plant complexity and it's impact on human performance. - Abstract: The strong influence of human factors (HF) on the safety of nuclear facilities is nowadays recognised and the designers are now enforced to consider HF requirements in the design of new facilities. Yet, this consideration of human factors requirements is still more or less restricted to the latest phases of the projects, essentially for the design of human-system interfaces (HSI's) and control rooms, although the design options influencing at most the human performance in operation are indeed fixed during the very early phases of the new reactors projects. The main reason of this late consideration of HF is that there exist few methods and models for anticipating the influence of fundamental design options on the future performance of operation teams. This paper describes a set of new tools permitting (i) determination of the impact of the fundamental process design options on the future activity of the operation teams and (ii) assessment of the influence of these operational constraints on teams performance. These tools are intended to guide the design of future 4th generation (GEN4) reactors, within the frame of a global risk-informed design approach, considering technical and human reliability exigencies in a balanced way.

  8. Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD of human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Klaus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian, anxiety (passion flower or depression (St. John's wort. NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG current source density (CSD recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition. In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration Clinical

  9. Heat effects on drug delivery across human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jinsong; Ghosh, Priyanka; Li, S. Kevin; Newman, Bryan; Kasting, Gerald B.; Raney, Sam G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. Areas covered This review provides an overview of the underlying mechanisms and the observed effects of heat on the skin and on transdermal/topical drug delivery, thermoregulation and heat tolerability. The designs of several in vitro and in vivo heat effect studies and their results are reviewed. Expert opinion There is substantial evidence that elevated temperature can increase transdermal/topical drug delivery. However, in vitro and in vivo methods reported in the literature to study heat effects of transdermal/topical drug products have utilized inconsistent study conditions, and in vitro models require better characterization. Appropriate study designs and controls remain to be identified, and further research is warranted to evaluate in vitro-in vivo correlations and the ability of in vitro models to predict in vivo effects. The physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the drug(s) and the drug product, as well as dermal clearance and heat gradients may require careful consideration. PMID:26808472

  10. Balancing the roles of humans and machines in power plant control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.

    1989-05-01

    A number of factors are leading to a re-examination of the balance between the roles of the operators and the machine in controlling nuclear power plants. Some of these factors are: the advent of new and advanced computer technologies; increased plant complexity, placing heavy workloads and stress on the control room operator; and increasing concerns about the role of human reliability in industrial mishaps. In light of the changing control aspects, we examine the meaning of automation, we discuss a proposed model of the control process, the concept of control within a few defined reactor states, a decision-making sequence; and we identify some possible problem areas in implementing new control technologies. Significant benefits should come from the new control methods and these opportunities should be exploited as soon as prudence allows, taking great care that the safety of the plants is improved

  11. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    both circumstances. No cerebral net exchange of Na(+) or K(+) was evident. Likewise, no significant net-exchange of water over the brain was demonstrated and the arterial and jugular venous hemoglobin concentrations were similar. CONCLUSION: Challenging exercise in hypoxia for 30 min affected muscle......Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... intense exercise is carried out in hypoxia and monitored the influence of muscle metabolism for changes in arterial variables. METHODS: On two separate days, in random order, 30 min cycling exercise was performed in either hypoxia (10% O2) or normoxia at an intensity that was exhaustive in the hypoxic...

  12. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  13. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN PUNE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Mr. Lambodar Saha

    2017-01-01

    Various strategic practices have already been established to promote the value of Human Resource Management in organizations. The Human Resource Management function is now considered as a strategic tool in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies to attain its objectives. Automobile Industries are chosen as subjects for this study with specific aspects relating to various strategic human resource management practices and its impact on work-life balance and to determine ...

  14. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  15. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.

  17. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gokcumen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵. Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003 and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285 statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European

  18. Effect of heat treatment at 600 degree C for 10 hours on human BMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, H.; Hachiya, Y.; Muramatsu, K.; Narita, Y.; Kawai, T.

    1999-01-01

    Viral infection are an extremely serious in allogeneic bone transplantations. While it is essential to kill viruses such as HIV in allogeneic bone graft, the osteoinductive activity must be preserved. Heat treatment of allogeneic bone graft at 60 degree C for 10 hours is effective in killing viruses such as HIV, but it is unclear to what extent the activity of human bone morphogenetic protein (hBMP) is preserved. In this experiment crude hBMP was extracted from both heated and non-heated human bones which were decalcified by the Urist method. Gelatin capsules containing 5mg of crude hBMP were transplanted into the thigh muscles of 5 week old mice. Human bone samples heated in a water bath at 60 degree C for 10 hours and non-heated samples were each transplanted into 5 mice. At 20 days after transplantation, the heterotopic bone formation was compared by evaluation of X-ray and histologicic analysis. X-rays showed heterotopic bone formation in both heated and non-heated samples. Further, histologic analysis showed that peripheral osteoid tissue had developed into laminar bone formation and interlaminar bone marrow was observed. Heterotopic bone formation was induced by crude hBMP from heated bones in a similar way to crude hBMP from non-heated bones observed in X-ray. There was no significant difference in histologic analysis. The crude hBMP, extracted from bones which were heat-treated at 60 degree C for 10 hours induced heterotopic bone formation similar to that in non-heated bone observed by X-ray and histologic analysis at 20 days after transplantation. This demostrates that the heat-treated bone preserved osteoinduction

  19. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate

  20. Human Body Exergy Balance: Numerical Analysis of an Indoor Thermal Environment of a Passive Wooden Room in Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Isawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a “human body system and a built environmental system” coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions.

  1. Acute volume expansion preserves orthostatic tolerance during whole-body heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David M; Low, David A; Wingo, Jonathan E; Brothers, R Matthew; Hastings, Jeff; Davis, Scott L; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-03-01

    Whole-body heat stress reduces orthostatic tolerance via a yet to be identified mechanism(s). The reduction in central blood volume that accompanies heat stress may contribute to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute volume expansion prior to the application of an orthostatic challenge attenuates heat stress-induced reductions in orthostatic tolerance. In seven normotensive subjects (age, 40 +/- 10 years: mean +/- S.D.), orthostatic tolerance was assessed using graded lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) until the onset of symptoms associated with ensuing syncope. Orthostatic tolerance (expressed in cumulative stress index units, CSI) was determined on each of 3 days, with each day having a unique experimental condition: normothermia, whole-body heating, and whole-body heating + acute volume expansion. For the whole-body heating + acute volume expansion experimental day, dextran 40 was rapidly infused prior to LBNP sufficient to return central venous pressure to pre-heat stress values. Whole-body heat stress alone reduced orthostatic tolerance by approximately 80% compared to normothermia (938 +/- 152 versus 182 +/- 57 CSI; mean +/- S.E.M., P body heating completely ameliorated the heat stress-induced reduction in orthostatic tolerance (1110 +/- 69 CSI, P stress results in many cardiovascular and neural responses that directionally challenge blood pressure regulation, reduced central blood volume appears to be an underlying mechanism responsible for impaired orthostatic tolerance in the heat-stressed human.

  2. Calorimetric study on human erythrocyte glycolysis. Heat production in various metabolic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakami, S; de Verdier, C H

    1976-06-01

    The heat production of human erythrocytes was measured on a flow microcalorimeter with simultaneous analyses of lactate and other metabolites. The heat production connected with the lactate formation was about 17 kcal (71 kJ) per mol lactate formed which corresponded to the sum of heat production due to the formation of lactate from glucose and the heat production due to neutralization. The heat production rate increased as the pH of the suspension increased, corresponding to the increase in lactate formation. Glycolytic inhibitors such as fluoride and monoiodoacetate caused a decrease in the rate of heat production, whereas arsenate induced a large transient increase in heat production associated with a transient increase in lactate formation. Decrease in pyruvate concentration was usually associated with increase in heat production, although the decreased pyruvate concentration was coupled with formation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. When inosine, dihydroxyacetone or D-glyceraldehyde was used as a substrate, an increase in the heat production rate was observed. Addition of methylene blue caused an oxygen uptake which was accompanied by a remarkable increase in heat production rate corresponding to about 160 kcal (670 kJ) per mol oxygen consumed. The value for heat production in red cells in the above-mentioned metabolic conditions was considered in relation to earlier known data on free energy and enthalpy changes of the different metabolic steps in the glycolytic pathway.

  3. The balance between safety and productivity and its relationship with human factors and safety awareness and communication in aircraft manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, N.; Melis, Damien Jose; Kourousis, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the findings of a pilot research survey which assessed the degree of balance between safety and productivity, and its relationship with awareness and communication of human factors and safety rules in the aircraft manufacturing environment. Methods: The study was

  4. Adaptations and mechanisms of human heat acclimation: Applications for competitive athletes and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S; Sawka, M N

    2015-06-01

    Exercise heat acclimation induces physiological adaptations that improve thermoregulation, attenuate physiological strain, reduce the risk of serious heat illness, and improve aerobic performance in warm-hot environments and potentially in temperate environments. The adaptations include improved sweating, improved skin blood flow, lowered body temperatures, reduced cardiovascular strain, improved fluid balance, altered metabolism, and enhanced cellular protection. The magnitudes of adaptations are determined by the intensity, duration, frequency, and number of heat exposures, as well as the environmental conditions (i.e., dry or humid heat). Evidence is emerging that controlled hyperthermia regimens where a target core temperature is maintained, enable more rapid and complete adaptations relative to the traditional constant work rate exercise heat acclimation regimens. Furthermore, inducing heat acclimation outdoors in a natural field setting may provide more specific adaptations based on direct exposure to the exact environmental and exercise conditions to be encountered during competition. This review initially examines the physiological adaptations associated with heat acclimation induction regimens, and subsequently emphasizes their application to competitive athletes and sports. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of inhomogeneous surface heat capacity on the estimation of radiative response coefficients in a two-zone energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Choi, Yong-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Observationally constrained values of the global radiative response coefficient are pivotal to assess the reliability of modeled climate feedbacks. A widely used approach is to measure transient global radiative imbalance related to surface temperature changes. However, in this approach, a potential error in the estimate of radiative response coefficients may arise from surface inhomogeneity in the climate system. We examined this issue theoretically using a simple two-zone energy balance model. Here, we dealt with the potential error by subtracting the prescribed radiative response coefficient from those calculated within the two-zone framework. Each zone was characterized by the different magnitude of the radiative response coefficient and the surface heat capacity, and the dynamical heat transport in the atmosphere between the zones was parameterized as a linear function of the temperature difference between the zones. Then, the model system was forced by randomly generated monthly varying forcing mimicking time-varying forcing like an observation. The repeated simulations showed that inhomogeneous surface heat capacity causes considerable miscalculation (down to -1.4 W m-2 K-1 equivalent to 31.3% of the prescribed value) in the global radiative response coefficient. Also, the dynamical heat transport reduced this miscalculation driven by inhomogeneity of surface heat capacity. Therefore, the estimation of radiative response coefficients using the surface temperature-radiation relation is appropriate for homogeneous surface areas least affected by the exterior.

  6. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors (2) analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Ohmori, S.; Mori, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)(1)-(6). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from the condensers and extracted steam from the turbines. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative- Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative- Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  7. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (2) Analysis of heat balance of innovative-simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Mitchitsugu

    2004-01-01

    It is possible to established simplified systems and reduced space and equipments using high-efficiency Steam Injector (SI) instead of low-pressure feed water heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condenser and extracted steam from turbine. It can get a higher pressure than supplied steam pressure, so it can reduce the feedwater pumps. The maintenance and reliability are still higher because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency is compared with the electric power of 1100MWe class original BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to the original BWR one. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (author)

  8. Molecular mechanisms of anti-aging hormetic effects of mild heat stress on human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh I S; Eskildsen-Helmond, Yvonne E G; Beedholm, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    of cellular responsiveness to mild and severe heat stress. Furthermore, we are also undertaking comparative studies using non-aging immortal cell lines, such as SV40-transformed human fibroblasts, spontaneous osteosarcoma cells, and telomerase-immortalized human bone marrow cells for establishing differences...

  9. A contrastive analysis of laser heating between the human and guinea pig cochlea by numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyin; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Ji; Wang, Qiuling

    2016-05-23

    The photo-thermal effect has been hypothesised to be one of the most possible biophysical mechanisms for laser-cochlea stimulation. However, there is a lack of studies to date for direct assessing laser heating in humans due to the large body of evidence required to demonstrate safety and efficacy. Instead, the majority focus on animals like the guinea pig, from which a number of valuable results have been gained. However, in light of the increasing need to improve laser safety, it has became necessary to find out whether studies on animals can shed light on safe laser parameters in the human cochlea. Hence, we conducted this contrastive analysis of laser heating between the human and guinea pig cochlea with the aim of assisting further investigations in this field. In this work, a 3D symmetrical model was adopted to simplify the spiraled cochlea. With attention focused on the effect of heat conduction, the time-dependent heat equation was solved using finite element method with the COMSOL Script. In the simulations, cochleae with different sizes and various boundary thermal conditions were utilized. Laser heating in both cochleae has a similar trend. In the first stage, or at the beginning of the laser heating, both cochleae increased their temperatures rapidly. In the second stage in which the laser heating reached a quasi-steady stage, the peak temperatures began to rise slowly as more laser pulses were applied. However, three differences of the laser heating were observed. The first is regarding the temperature rise. The results show that laser heating in guinea pig is higher than that in human under the same laser parameters. The second difference is the fluctuation of temperature rise at the center of the modiolus. There is a larger fluctuation of temperature rise in the guinea pig cochlea, compared with that in the human cochlea. The third one is the time for reaching a steady thermal state. The results show that the guinea pig cochlea takes longer time to

  10. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziurdzia, P; Brzozowski, I; Bratek, P; Gelmuda, W; Kos, A

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed

  11. Digitalis-like activity in human plasma: Relation to blood pressure and sodium balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Yamada, K.; Ishii, M.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    PURPOSE: On the assumption that renal tubular cells are more important as the target cells for a natriuretic factor than blood cells, we used a well-characterized cultured renal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), cells to monitor the circulating digitalis-like factor in human plasma and examine its role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of plasma on binding of radioactive ouabain to monolayered MDCK cells in order to determine the level of a circulating digitalis-like factor. First, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding to MDCK cells in the presence of plasma from 71 outpatients (34 normotensive subjects and 37 hypertensive patients) after incubation for 4 hours. Second, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding after incubation of cells with plasma from 16 hospitalized subjects (eight normotensive subjects and eight hypertensive patients) receiving low and high sodium diets. RESULTS: In Study 1, ouabain binding was lower by 30% with plasma from hypertensive patients than with plasma from normotensive subjects (p less than 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between individual subject's systolic or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.34, p less than 0.01 or r = -0.29, p less than 0.01). In Study 2, ouabain binding was also significantly reduced by 25% in the presence of plasma from hypertensive subjects as compared with plasma from normotensive subjects irrespective of sodium intake (p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation was also found for all subjects between either systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.58, p less than 0.01, r = -0.51, p less than 0.01, or r = -0.55, p less than 0.01, respectively).

  12. Rapid recent human evolution and the accumulation of balanced genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    All evolutionary change can be traced to alterations in allele frequencies in populations over time. DNA sequencing on a massive scale now permits us to follow the genetic consequences as our species has diverged from our close relatives and as we have colonized different parts of the world and adapted to them. But it has been difficult to disentangle natural selection from many other factors that alter frequencies. These factors include mutation and intragenic reciprocal recombination, gene conversion, segregation distortion, random drift, and gene flow between populations (these last two are greatly influenced by splits and coalescences of populations over time). The first part of this review examines recent studies that have had some success in dissecting out the role of natural selection, especially in humans and Drosophila. Among many examples, these studies include those that have followed the rapid evolution of traits that may permit adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan and Andean populations. In some cases, directional selection has been so strong that it may have swept alleles close to fixation in the span of a few thousand years, a rapidity of change that is also sometimes encountered in other organisms. The second part of the review summarizes data showing that remarkably few alleles have been carried completely to fixation during our recent evolution. Some of the alleles that have not reached fixation may be approaching new internal equilibria, which would indicate polymorphisms that are maintained by balancing selection. Finally, the review briefly examines why genetic polymorphisms, particularly those that are maintained by negative frequency dependence, are likely to have played an important role in the evolution of our species. A method is suggested for measuring the contribution of these polymorphisms to our gene pool. Such polymorphisms may add to the ability of our species to adapt to our increasingly complex and challenging environment.

  13. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  15. Humans as a Source of Heat and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This is the first part of a planned research into the effect of the human being on the indoor climate. The results are among other things intended for CFD calculations. This part deals with the influence from breathing, smoking, bioeffluents and vapour. The results are mainly based on measurement...

  16. Fetal calf serum heat inactivation and lipopolysaccharide contamination influence the human T lymphoblast proteome and phosphoproteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of fetal calf serum (FCS heat inactivation and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS contamination on cell physiology have been studied, but their effect on the proteome of cultured cells has yet to be described. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heat inactivation of FCS and LPS contamination on the human T lymphoblast proteome. Human T lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCRF-CEM cells were grown in FCS, either non-heated, or heat inactivated, having low ( Results A total of four proteins (EIF3M, PRS7, PSB4, and SNAPA were up-regulated when CCRF-CEM cells were grown in media supplemented with heat inactivated FCS (HE as compared to cells grown in media with non-heated FCS (NHE. Six proteins (TCPD, ACTA, NACA, TCTP, ACTB, and ICLN displayed a differential phosphorylation pattern between the NHE and HE groups. Compared to the low concentration LPS group, regular levels of LPS resulted in the up-regulation of three proteins (SYBF, QCR1, and SUCB1. Conclusion The present study provides new information regarding the effect of FCS heat inactivation and change in FCS-LPS concentration on cellular protein expression, and post-translational modification in human T lymphoblasts. Both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS were shown to modulate the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in basic cellular functions, such as protein synthesis, cytoskeleton stability, oxidative stress regulation and apoptosis. Hence, the study emphasizes the need to consider both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS as factors that can influence the T lymphoblast proteome.

  17. Muscular heat and mechanical pain sensitivity after lengthening contractions in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queme, Fernando; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Mechanical sensitivity of muscle nociceptors was previously shown to increase 2 days after lengthening contractions (LC), but heat sensitivity was not different despite nerve growth factor (NGF) being upregulated in the muscle during delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The discrepancy of these results and lack of other reports drove us to assess heat sensitivity during DOMS in humans and to evaluate the effect of NGF on the heat response of muscle C-fibers. Pressure pain thresholds and pain intensity scores to intramuscular injection of isotonic saline at 48°C and capsaicin were recorded in humans after inducing DOMS. The response of single unmyelinated afferents to mechanical and heat stimulations applied to their receptive field was recorded from muscle-nerve preparations in vitro. In humans, pressure pain thresholds were reduced but heat and capsaicin pain responses were not increased during DOMS. In rats, the mechanical but not the heat sensitivity of muscle C-fibers was increased in the LC group. NGF applied to the receptive field facilitated the heat sensitivity relative to the control. The absence of facilitated heat sensitivity after LC, despite the NGF sensitization, may be explained if the NGF concentration produced after LC is not sufficient to sensitize nociceptor response to heat. This article presents new findings on the basic mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia during DOMS, which is a useful model to study myofascial pain syndrome, and the role of NGF on muscular nociception. This might be useful in the search for new pharmacologic targets and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Operation method study based on the energy balance of an independent microgrid using solar-powered water electrolyzer and an electric heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Seizi; Rengarajan, Balaji

    2011-01-01

    A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was examined in this work with the aims of abating greenhouse gas emissions by spreading the use of green energy, providing energy backup systems for disaster, and increasing the energy utilization efficiency with the use of exhaust heat. This paper analyzed the energy supply to six houses in a cold region. The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEFCs), and heat pumps. To investigate the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment in the arrangement, a distributed system with two or more sets of equipment and a central system with one set of equipment were analyzed by a genetic algorithm. By introducing the prior energy need pattern of a cold region into the proposed system, the operation method and equipment capacity based on the power and heat balance were clarified. By introducing the partial load performance of a water electrolyzer and a PEFC into the analysis program, the operation method of each system was investigated. It was found that the area of a solar cell of a distributed system could be reduced by 12% as compared to a central system. -- Highlights: → A completely energy-independent microgrid (green microgrid) was planned. → The green microgrid consisted of photovoltaics, water electrolyzers, PEM-FCs, and heat pumps. → Operation of a concentrated system and a distributed system. → Investigate of the operation method and the capacity of each piece of equipment.

  19. Energy consumption for heat based on the Energy Balance. Update 2010; Het energieverbruik voor warmte afgeleid uit de Energiebalans. Update 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segers, R.

    2012-04-15

    In 2008 the Dutch Expertise Centre for Heat asked Statistics Netherlands and ECN to provide indications of how much energy is used for heat for various applications and sectors. That resulted in a report, published in 2009 with the same title as this report, which is an update of the 2009 report. The aim is to indicate how energy use for heat can be derived from the Energy Balance of Statistics Netherlands. The energy use is compared to the energy use for three other applications: electricity, transport fuels and feedstocks. Moreover, it is also indicated how the amount of renewable heat can be derived from renewable energy statistics [Dutch] Het Expertisecentrum Warmte heeft in 2008 aan het CBS en het ECN gevraagd om aan te geven hoeveel energie er wordt gebruikt voor warmte voor verschillende toepassingen en sectoren. Dat heeft geresulteerd in het 2009 rapport 'Het energieverbruik voor warmte afgeleid uit de Energiebalans'. De meest recente cijfers in dat rapport hebben betrekking op het jaar 2006. Voorliggend document is een nieuwe update met cijfers over 2010.

  20. Effect of short-term exercise-heat acclimation on ventilatory and cerebral blood flow responses to passive heating at rest in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    Hyperthermia induces hyperventilation and cerebral hypoperfusion in resting humans. We tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise-heat acclimation would alleviate those effects. Twenty healthy male subjects were divided into two groups that performed exercise training in the heat (TR-HEAT, n = 10) or cold (TR-COLD, n = 10). Before and after the training, the subjects in both groups participated in passive-heat tests at rest. Training was performed at 37°C (TR-HEAT) or 10°C (TR-COLD) and entailed four 20-min bouts of cycling at 50% peak oxygen uptake separated by 10-min recoveries daily for 6 consecutive days. After TR-HEAT, esophageal temperature was lowered when measured before and during passive heating, as was the esophageal temperature threshold for cutaneous active vasodilation, whereas plasma volume was increased (all P heat acclimation were not all induced by TR-COLD (all P > 0.05). TR-HEAT had no significant effect on passive heating-induced increases in minute ventilation, even when evaluated as the esophageal temperature threshold for increases in minute ventilation and the slope relating minute ventilation to esophageal temperature (all P > 0.05). By contrast, TR-HEAT attenuated the passive heating-induced reduction in the cerebral vascular conductance index (middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity/mean arterial pressure) (all P heating (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that in resting heated humans, short-term heat acclimation achieved through moderate-intensity exercise training (i.e., 50% peak oxygen uptake) in the heat does not influence hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation, but it does potentially attenuate cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Dynamic changes in parameters of redox balance after mild heat stress in aged laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; De Vos, D; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the metabolic responses of laying hens induced by high temperature at later laying stage, nine 60-wk-old laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were employed in the present study. The hens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 21 d and blood samples were obtained before and at 1, 7, 14 and 21 d of heat exposure. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in blood during heat exposure were estimated by the ex vivo spin-trapping method. Body temperature and plasma concentrations of glucose, urate, creatine kinase (CK), triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), corticosterone (CORT), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), ferric/reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Plasma levels of glucose, CK and CORT were not significantly influenced by heat exposure at any time point. The circulating concentrations of T(3) were decreased while plasma T(4) levels changed in the opposite way. The formation of ROS was significantly augmented by heat exposure in laying hens though the body temperature was not significantly altered. The enhanced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems acted in concert to alleviate the heat stress evoked oxidative damage.

  2. Heat Exchange in “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment” System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of simulation and calculation of thermal processes in the system called “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment” under low temperature conditions. It considers internal heat sources and convective heat transfer between calculated elements. Overall this is important for the Heat Transfer Theory. The article introduces complex heat transfer calculation method and local thermophysical parameters calculation method in the system called «Human body - Thermal protection - Environment», considering passive and active thermal protections, thermophysical and geometric properties of calculated elements in a wide range of environmental parameters (water, air). It also includes research on the influence that thermal resistance of modern materials, used in special protective clothes development, has on heat transfer in the system “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment”. Analysis of the obtained results allows adding of the computer research data to experiments and optimizing of individual life-support system elements, which are intended to protect human body from exposure to external factors.

  3. Peripheral and central components of habituation of heat pain perception and evoked potentials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffrath, Wolfgang; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2007-12-05

    For the neurophysiological examination of nociceptive pathways, contact-heat evoked potentials (contact-heat EPs) are elicited by repetitive brief noxious heat stimuli. Suppression of heat responses in primary nociceptive neurons during repetitive stimulation has been shown in animal models in vivo and in vitro. We now investigated whether heat pain and contact-heat EPs in humans display equivalent signs of habituation. Heat pain and EPs were elicited in 16 volunteers with a contact thermode (30 degrees Cs(-1)). Heat pulses at three intensities (pain threshold, moderate noxious and maximum available) were applied to the right forearm either by moving the thermode after each pulse to variable locations or when fixed to one location (inter-stimulus intervals 8-10s). Contact-heat EPs consisted of an early negativity in temporal leads (N1), followed by a biphasic response at the vertex (N2-P2). Pain ratings and contact-heat EPs (N1 and N2-P2 components) displayed significant temperature dependence. N2-P2 correlated positively with ratings. With stimulation at variable locations, both measures slowly decreased with time constants tau of 2 min (ratings) and 12 min (EPs). With stimulation at a fixed location, habituation was much faster for both, ratings (tau=10s) and EPs (tau=33 s). As a consequence, both measures were significantly reduced (pheat pain perception and contact-heat EPs display signs of rapid habituation when stimulation is restricted to a fixed location and thus, reflect fatigue of peripheral nociceptive neurons. Habituation within the central nervous system is slower and less pronounced.

  4. Thermoreceptive innervation of human glabrous and hairy skin: a contact heat evoked potential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Matre, Dagfinn; Sokolik, Alexander; Lorenz, Jürgen; Casey, Kenneth L

    2005-06-01

    The human palm has a lower heat detection threshold and a higher heat pain threshold than hairy skin. Neurophysiological studies of monkeys suggest that glabrous skin has fewer low threshold heat nociceptors (AMH type 2) than hairy skin. Accordingly, we used a temperature-controlled contact heat evoked potential (CHEP) stimulator to excite selectively heat receptors with C fibers or Adelta-innervated AMH type 2 receptors in humans. On the dorsal hand, 51 degrees C stimulation produced painful pinprick sensations and 41 degrees C stimuli evoked warmth. On the glabrous thenar, 41 degrees C stimulation produced mild warmth and 51 degrees C evoked strong but painless heat sensations. We used CHEP responses to estimate the conduction velocities (CV) of peripheral fibers mediating these sensations. On hairy skin, 41 degrees C stimuli evoked an ultra-late potential (mean, SD; N wave latency: 455 (118) ms) mediated by C fibers (CV by regression analysis: 1.28 m/s, N=15) whereas 51 degrees C stimuli evoked a late potential (N latency: 267 (33) ms) mediated by Adelta afferents (CV by within-subject analysis: 12.9 m/s, N=6). In contrast, thenar responses to 41 and 51 degrees C were mediated by C fibers (average N wave latencies 485 (100) and 433 (73) ms, respectively; CVs 0.95-1.35 m/s by regression analysis, N=15; average CV=1.7 (0.41) m/s calculated from distal glabrous and proximal hairy skin stimulation, N=6). The exploratory range of the human and monkey palm is enhanced by the abundance of low threshold, C-innervated heat receptors and the paucity of low threshold AMH type 2 heat nociceptors.

  5. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  6. Effect of a patent foramen ovale in humans on thermal responses to passive cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James T; Hay, Madeline W; Hardin, Alyssa M; White, Matthew D; Lovering, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Humans with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) have a higher esophageal temperature (T esoph ) than humans without a PFO (PFO-). Thus the presence of a PFO might also be associated with differences in thermal responsiveness to passive cooling and heating such as shivering and hyperpnea, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine whether thermal responses to passive cooling and heating are different between PFO- subjects and subjects with a PFO (PFO+). We hypothesized that compared with PFO- subjects PFO+ subjects would cool down more rapidly and heat up slower and that PFO+ subjects who experienced thermal hyperpnea would have a blunted increase in ventilation. Twenty-seven men (13 PFO+) completed two trials separated by >48 h: 1 ) 60 min of cold water immersion (19.5 ± 0.9°C) and 2 ) 30 min of hot water immersion (40.5 ± 0.2°C). PFO+ subjects had a higher T esoph before and during cold water and hot water immersion ( P heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is found in ~25-40% of the population. The presence of a PFO appears to be associated with a greater core body temperature and blunted ventilatory responses during passive heating. The reason for this blunted ventilatory response to passive heating is unknown but may suggest differences in thermal sensitivity in PFO+ subjects compared with PFO- subjects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Multicompartment Ecosystem Mass Balances as a Tool for Understanding and Managing the Biogeochemical Cycles of Human Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Baker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen remains a ubiquitous pollutant in surface and groundwater throughout the United States, despite 30 years of pollution control efforts. A detailed multicompartment N balance for the Central Arizona-Phoenix ecosystem is used to illustrate how an ecosystem-level approach can be used to develop improved N management strategies. The N balance is used to demonstrate how nitrate in pumped groundwater used for crop irrigation could be used to reduce inputs of commercial fertilizer and decrease N leaching to aquifers. Effectively managing N pollution also will require an understanding of the complex factors that control the N balance, including targeted regulations, individual human behavior, land-use conversion, and other ecosystem management practices that affect the N balance. These sometimes countervailing factors are illustrated with several scenarios of wastewater treatment technology and population growth in the Phoenix area. Management of N eventually must be coupled to management of other elements, notably carbon, phosphorus, and salts. We postulate that an ecosystem framework for pollution management will result in strategies that are more effective, fairer, and less expensive than current approaches.

  8. Induction of Heat Shock Protein Expression in Cervical Epithelial Cells by Human Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Jeremias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The 70kD heat shock protein (Hsp70, induced when cells are subjected to environmental stress, prevents the denaturation and incorrect folding of polypeptides and may expedite replication and transmission of DNA and RNA viruses. We analyzed whether messenger RNA (mRNA for Hsp70 was expressed following exposure of a cultured human cervical cell line (HeLa cells to human semen or in cervical cells from sexually active women.

  9. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...... of the computational manikin has all surface features of a human being; (2) the geometry is an exact copy of an experimental thermal manikin, enabling detailed comparisons between calculations and experiments....

  10. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angadi, S.V.; Cutforth, H.W.; McConkey, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r 2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h -1 ), and over longer periods of 1 d (r 2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d -1 ), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r 2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36 o C, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r 2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in

  11. Sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information of the left and right leg during human balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, Jantsje; Pasma, J.H.; Boonstra, Tjitske; Campfens, S.F.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Kooij, Herman

    2012-01-01

    To keep balance, information from different sensory systems is integrated to generate corrective torques. Current literature suggests that this information is combined according to the sensory reweighting hypothesis, i.e., more reliable information is weighted more strongly than less reliable

  12. Thermometry, calorimetry, and mean body temperature during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Jay, Ollie

    2013-10-01

    Heat balance in humans is maintained at near constant levels through the adjustment of physiological mechanisms that attain a balance between the heat produced within the body and the heat lost to the environment. Heat balance is easily disturbed during changes in metabolic heat production due to physical activity and/or exposure to a warmer environment. Under such conditions, elevations of skin blood flow and sweating occur via a hypothalamic negative feedback loop to maintain an enhanced rate of dry and evaporative heat loss. Body heat storage and changes in core temperature are a direct result of a thermal imbalance between the rate of heat production and the rate of total heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. The derivation of the change in body heat content is of fundamental importance to the physiologist assessing the exposure of the human body to environmental conditions that result in thermal imbalance. It is generally accepted that the concurrent measurement of the total heat generated by the body and the total heat dissipated to the ambient environment is the most accurate means whereby the change in body heat content can be attained. However, in the absence of calorimetric methods, thermometry is often used to estimate the change in body heat content. This review examines heat exchange during challenges to heat balance associated with progressive elevations in environmental heat load and metabolic rate during exercise. Further, we evaluate the physiological responses associated with heat stress and discuss the thermal and nonthermal influences on the body's ability to dissipate heat from a heat balance perspective.

  13. Evaluation of three energy balance-based evaporation models for estimating monthly evaporation for five lakes using derived heat storage changes from a hysteresis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zheng; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    The heat storage changes (Q t) can be a significant component of the energy balance in lakes, and it is important to account for Q t for reasonable estimation of evaporation at monthly and finer timescales if the energy balance-based evaporation models are used. However, Q t has been often neglected in many studies due to the lack of required water temperature data. A simple hysteresis model (Q t = a*Rn + b + c* dRn/dt) has been demonstrated to reasonably estimate Q t from the readily available net all wave radiation (Rn) and three locally calibrated coefficients (a-c) for lakes and reservoirs. As a follow-up study, we evaluated whether this hysteresis model could enable energy balance-based evaporation models to yield good evaporation estimates. The representative monthly evaporation data were compiled from published literature and used as ground-truth to evaluate three energy balance-based evaporation models for five lakes. The three models in different complexity are De Bruin-Keijman (DK), Penman, and a new model referred to as Duan-Bastiaanssen (DB). All three models require Q t as input. Each model was run in three scenarios differing in the input Q t (S1: measured Q t; S2: modelled Q t from the hysteresis model; S3: neglecting Q t) to evaluate the impact of Q t on the modelled evaporation. Evaluation showed that the modelled Q t agreed well with measured counterparts for all five lakes. It was confirmed that the hysteresis model with locally calibrated coefficients can predict Q t with good accuracy for the same lake. Using modelled Q t as inputs all three evaporation models yielded comparably good monthly evaporation to those using measured Q t as inputs and significantly better than those neglecting Q t for the five lakes. The DK model requiring minimum data generally performed the best, followed by the Penman and DB model. This study demonstrated that once three coefficients are locally calibrated using historical data the simple hysteresis model can offer

  14. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  15. Skin cooling maintains cerebral blood flow velocity and orthostatic tolerance during tilting in heated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Witkowski, Sarah; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. The purpose of this project was to identify whether skin-surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance. Nine subjects were exposed to 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilting in each of four conditions: normothermia (NT-tilt), heat stress (HT-tilt), normothermia plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (NT-tilt(cool)), and heat stress plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (HT-tilt(cool)). Heating and cooling were accomplished by perfusing 46 and 15 degrees C water, respectively, though a tube-lined suit worn by each subject. During HT-tilt, four of nine subjects developed presyncopal symptoms resulting in the termination of the tilt test. In contrast, no subject experienced presyncopal symptoms during NT-tilt, NT-tilt(cool), or HT-tilt(cool). During the HT-tilt procedure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) decreased. However, during HT-tilt(cool), MAP, total peripheral resistance, and CBFV were significantly greater relative to HT-tilt (all P heat-stressed humans.

  16. Association between human and animal thermal comfort indices and physiological heat stress indicators in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2018-06-06

    Warm summer episodes have a significant effect on the overall health and well-being of young cattle; however, it is not known which temperature measure should be used for estimating heat stress in dairy calves. In this study, generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the relationships between thermal comfort indices and animal-based heat stress indicators in sixteen Holstein bull calves that were housed in individual calf hutches. Data were collected under continental weather characteristics over a 5-day period: day 1 (lower-temperature day), days 2 and 3 (heat stress days), and a 2-day post-stress period. Relative humidity, ambient temperature, the heat index, the humidex and five different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were used as thermal indices. Physiological variables monitored included respiratory rate, rectal temperature, ear skin temperature and heart rate. The heat index and the humidex measuring human thermal comfort were more closely associated with physiological measures than were the ambient temperature or the THIs (in case of heat index: R 2 = 0.87 for respiratory rate, R 2 = 0.63 for rectal temperature, R 2 = 0.70 for ear skin temperature, and R 2 = 0.78 for heart rate, respectively; in case of humidex: R 2 = 0.85 for respiratory rate, R 2 = 0.60 for rectal temperature, R 2 = 0.68 for ear skin temperature, and R 2 = 0.75 for heart rate, respectively). Based on our results, parameters of human outdoor comfort seem better to estimate heat stress in dairy calves in a continental region than those of THIs or ambient temperature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  18. EFFECT OF HEAT PRECONDITIONING BY MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Saga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min that was randomly applied to one of the subject's arms (MW; the other arm was used as a control (CON. One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1. One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2. After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, range of motion (ROM of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05 for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise

  19. Comparative evaluation of human heat stress indices on selected hospital admissions in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven

    2017-08-01

    To find appropriate regression model specifications for counts of the daily hospital admissions of a Sydney cohort and determine which human heat stress indices best improve the models' fit. We built parent models of eight daily counts of admission records using weather station observations, census population estimates and public holiday data. We added heat stress indices; models with lower Akaike Information Criterion scores were judged a better fit. Five of the eight parent models demonstrated adequate fit. Daily maximum Simplified Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (sWBGT) consistently improved fit more than most other indices; temperature and heatwave indices also modelled some health outcomes well. Humidity and heat-humidity indices better fit counts of patients who died following admission. Maximum sWBGT is an ideal measure of heat stress for these types of Sydney hospital admissions. Simple temperature indices are a good fallback where a narrower range of conditions is investigated. Implications for public health: This study confirms the importance of selecting appropriate heat stress indices for modelling. Epidemiologists projecting Sydney hospital admissions should use maximum sWBGT as a common measure of heat stress. Health organisations interested in short-range forecasting may prefer simple temperature indices. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Using the balanced scorecard to mobilize human resources in organizational transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Harber, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    Traditionally, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has been an effective tool in linking measurement to strategy. However, what is least understood is how the BSC can be used to redefine organizational relationships, re-engineer fundamental processes and transform organizational culture, for superior performance in an organization with the same people, services and technology that previously delivered dismal performance. This paper highlights the process and uses York Central Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as an illustrative example.

  1. Use of Diplomatic Assurances in Terrorism-related Cases: In search of a Balance between Security Concerns and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Research Fellow Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and intern Federico Rojas analyse the different policies on diplomatic assurances in a number of countries that are representative of a certain trend and attempt to clarify the criteria that have to be fulfilled before assurance may be used. Key in the whole discussion surrounding the use of diplomatic assurances is finding the right balance between national security concerns and human rights obligations. The outcomes of the Expert Meeting on this topic, that took place on 22 March 2011, have been incorporated in this paper.

  2. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Owen D; Mack, Steven J; Lancaster, Alex K; Single, Richard M; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing the strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 indicate that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online.

  3. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  4. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  5. Impacts of Human Induced Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Water Balance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, M.; Yang, D.; Tang, J.; Lei, H.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced plant biomass accumulation in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration could dampen the future rate of increase in CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, many experiments around the world reported that nitrogen availability could limit the sustainability of the ecosystems' response to elevated CO2. In the recent 20 years, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, has increased sharply about 25% in China and meanwhile, China has the highest carbon emission in the world, implying a large opportunity to increase vegetation greenness and ecosystem carbon sequestration. Moreover, the water balance of the ecosystem will also change. However, in the future, the trajectory of increasing nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel use is to be controlled by the government policy that shapes the energy and industrial structure. Therefore, the historical and future trajectories of nitrogen deposition are likely very different, and it is imperative to understand how changes in nitrogen deposition will impact the ecosystem carbon sequestration and water balance in China. We here use the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) to analyze how the change of nitrogen deposition has influenced and will influence the ecosystem carbon and water cycle in China at a high spatial resolution (0.1 degree). We address the following questions: 1) what is the contribution of the nitrogen deposition on historical vegetation greenness? 2) How does the change of nitrogen deposition affect the carbon sequestration? 3) What is its influence to water balance? And 4) how different will be the influence of the nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon and water cycling in the future?

  6. Bringing human resources to the table: utilization of an HR balanced scorecard at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Erickson, Eric; Rivers, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    Rather than viewing HR as a critical driver of organizational strategy and outcomes, most health care organizations see HR as a drain on the organization's bottom line. Only by aligning HR with the organizational strategy will HR leaders truly get a seat at the leadership table. HR professionals can overcome impediments and gain a seat at the table by learning the language of business and the ways in which organizational leaders use data to drive their decisions. This article shows how Mayo Clinic uses the popular Balanced Scorecard approach to align its measures of HR performance to the organization's strategic plan.

  7. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Kimura, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress. PMID:26157054

  8. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  9. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; Macfall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2012-04-07

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  11. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. Calorimetry Minisensor for the Localised Measurement of Surface Heat Dissipated from the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2016-11-06

    We have developed a calorimetry sensor that can perform a local measurement of the surface heat dissipated from the human body. The operating principle is based on the law of conductive heat transfer: heat dissipated by the human body passes across a thermopile located between the individual and a thermostat. Body heat power is calculated from the signals measured by the thermopile and the amount of power dissipated across the thermostat in order to maintain a constant temperature. The first prototype we built had a detection area measuring 6 × 6 cm², while the second prototype, which is described herein, had a 2 × 2 cm² detection area. This new design offers three advantages over the initial one: (1) greater resolution and three times greater thermal sensitivity; (2) a twice as fast response; and (3) it can take measurements from smaller areas of the body. The sensor has a 5 mW resolution, but the uncertainty is greater, up to 15 mW, due to the measurement and calculation procedure. The order of magnitude of measurements made in healthy subjects ranged from 60 to 300 mW at a thermostat temperature of 28 °C and an ambient room temperature of 21 °C. The values measured by the sensor depend on the ambient temperature and the thermostat's temperature, while the power dissipated depends on the individual's metabolism and any physical and/or emotional activity.

  13. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  14. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Niu

    Full Text Available During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage.

  15. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    , enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated......The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training...

  16. BALANCE CAPACITY WITH VARIABILITY CAUSED BY HUMAN FACTOR: AN APPLICATION IN A LINE WITH MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sandes Mendes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The variation in processing times due to the human factor between the working stations of a production line can generate queues resulting in a higher cost to the productive process. The objective of this study was to apply Monte Carlo simulation to balance the capacity of a production line with stations suffering variability in processing time due to the human factor. Simulations of the current situation of the production line were performed by comparing it with a proposal to align capacity with the production restriction in order to reduce inventories process while maintaining full capacity of the line. To develop the study, the selection involves the case of a company’s production line in the metal industry that produces machinery and products for metalworking area. The results allowed pointing suggestions for the company to reduce in-process inventory, keeping then total capacity of the line.

  17. Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on growth factors in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelz, Rangmar; Hihn, Eva; Hamprecht, Klaus; Dietz, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard; Poets, Christian; Elmlinger, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, and epidermal-growth-factor-concentrations in a subgroup of 35 samples from 22 mothers. Two heating methods were applied: Short-term (5 s) pasteurisation at 62, 65, and 72 degrees C, and long-term Holder-Pasteurisation (30 min) at 63 degrees C. IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured by RIA, and EGF by ELISA. Heating for 30 min decreased significantly IGF-1 by 39.4%, IGF-2 by 9.9%, IGFBP-2 by 19.1%, and IGFBP-3 by 7.0%. In contrast, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were not altered significantly when using a short heating duration of 5 s, irrespective of the level of temperature, except for IGF-2 at 62 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.041) and IGFBP-2 at 72 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.025). Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62-72 degrees C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

  18. Influence of Prolonged Storage Process, Pasteurization, and Heat Treatment on Biologically-active Human Milk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Chin Chang

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status.

  19. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  20. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  1. Selective activation of human heat shock gene transcription by nitrosourea antitumor drugs mediated by isocyanate-induced damage and activation of heat shock transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R A; Abravaya, K; Seidenfeld, J; Morimoto, R I

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of cultured human tumor cells with the chloroethylnitrosourea antitumor drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) selectively induces transcription and protein synthesis of a subset of the human heat shock or stress-induced genes (HSP90 and HSP70) with little effect on other stress genes or on expression of the c-fos, c-myc, or beta-actin genes. The active component of BCNU and related compounds appears to be the isocyanate moiety that causes carbamoylation of proteins and nucleic acids. Transcriptional activation of the human HSP70 gene by BCNU is dependent on the heat shock element and correlates with the level of heat shock transcription factor and its binding to the heat shock element in vivo. Unlike activation by heat or heavy metals, BCNU-mediated activation is strongly dependent upon new protein synthesis. This suggests that BCNU-induced, isocyanate-mediated damage to newly synthesized protein(s) may be responsible for activation of the heat shock transcription factor and increased transcription of the HSP90 and HSP70 genes. Images PMID:2052560

  2. Nonlinear dynamics analysis of the human balance control subjected to physical and sensory perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Mohammed N; Mahmood-Reza, Azghani

    2017-01-01

    Postural control after applying perturbation involves neural and muscular efforts to limit the center of mass (CoM) motion. Linear dynamical approaches may not unveil all complexities of body efforts. This study was aimed at determining two nonlinear dynamics parameters (fractal dimension (FD) and largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE)) in addition to the linear standing metrics of balance in perturbed stance. Sixteen healthy young males were subjected to sudden rotations of the standing platform. The vision and cognition during the standing were also interfered. Motion capturing was used to measure the lower limb joints and the CoM displacements. The CoM path length as a linear parameter was increased by elimination of vision (pnonlinear metric FD was decreased due to the cognitive loads (pnonlinear metrics of the perturbed stance showed that a combination of them may properly represent the body behavior.

  3. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanler, R.J.; Abrams, S.A.; Garza, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  4. Heat training increases exercise capacity in hot but not in temperate conditions: a mechanistic counter-balanced cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Stefanie; Flück, Daniela; Hüppin, Fabienne; Stravs, Alexander; Hilty, Matthias P; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to determine the mechanisms facilitating exercise performance in hot conditions following heat training. In a counter-balanced order, seven males (V̇o2max 61.2 ± 4.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were assigned to either 10 days of 90-min exercise training in 18 or 38°C ambient temperature (30% relative humidity) applying a cross-over design. Participants were tested for V̇o2max and 30-min time trial performance in 18 (T18) and 38°C (T38) before and after training. Blood volume parameters, sweat output, cardiac output (Q̇), cerebral perfusion (i.e., middle cerebral artery velocity [MCAvmean]), and other variables were determined. Before one set of exercise tests in T38, blood volume was acutely expanded by 538 ± 16 ml with an albumin solution (T38A) to determine the role of acclimatization induced hypervolemia on exercise performance. We furthermore hypothesized that heat training would restore MCAvmean and thereby limit centrally mediated fatigue. V̇o2max and time trial performance were equally reduced in T38 and T38A (7.2 ± 1.6 and 9.3 ± 2.5% for V̇o2max; 12.8 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 2.8% for time trial). Following heat training both were increased in T38 (9.6 ± 2.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1%, respectively), whereas both V̇o2max and time trial performance remained unchanged in T18. As expected, heat training augmented plasma volume (6 ± 2%) and mean sweat output (26 ± 6%), whereas sweat [Na(+)] became reduced by 19 ± 7%. In T38 Q̇max remained unchanged before (21.3 ± 0.6 l/min) to after (21.7 ± 0.5 l/min) training, whereas MCAvmean was increased by 13 ± 10%. However, none of the observed adaptations correlated with the concomitant observed changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  6. Improved numerical modelling of heat transfer in human tissue exposed to RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prishvin, Mikheil; Zaridze, Revaz; Bit-Babik, Georgi; Faraone, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A novel numerical model to simulate thermal response of human body tissues exposed to RF energy is presented in this article. It is based on a new algorithm for the construction of a realistic blood vessel network, a new model of blood flow velocity distribution and an approach to solve the bio-heat equation in human tissue with variable and initially unknown blood temperature distribution. The algorithm generates a discrete 3D representation of both arterial and venous vascular networks and a continuous blood velocity vector field for arbitrary enclosed geome tries required to represent the complex anatomy of human body and blood flow. The results obtained in this article by applying the developed method to realistic exposure con ditions demonstrates relative difference in thermal response of the exposed tissue compared to results obtained by conventional bio-heat equation with constant blood perfusion and temperature. The developed technique may provide more accurate and realistic modelling in thermal dosimetry studies of human body RF exposure.

  7. The human growth and the healthy environment as a condition of balanced development for the course of human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koukoumpliakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising standard of living has evoked an important burden in the natural environment leading to an immense deterioration of nature. The pollution of the atmosphere and seas, the industrial waste, the climatic changes, the chaotic built-up extension threaten the health of all of us. The responsibility for the pollution of the environment is allocated in everybody. The State is accountable not only for the political planning and the policy that practises, but also for the frame it shapes for the citizens to follow. The improvement of the quality of environment must be combined with the economic progress and growth. The intensity of environmental problems worries the International Community, while the saving and growth of new green forms of energy appear as imperative need. We find already ourselves in a progressive but continuous growth, which has the conditions to develop in the future with spectacular rhythm.The methodology of present work is recommended for: a bibliographic research, mainly Greek, b comparison of the facts that are exported from research, connecting them with the given facts. This comparison leads to the necessary coexistence of a healthy environment and a viable growth.In the results of the research the essential conditions of coexistence are presented between these two. Thus we realise that: a the configuration of an evener environmental conscience is required via the education which would guarantee the balanced and sustainable growth, b the change of perception of people as lords of nature is considered necessary and its replacement by the awareness that the nature does not constitute an inexhaustible resource.With that in mind we conclude that: a the research is required to lead to alternative sources of energy such as the creation of Aeolian parks. It is estimated that more investments in other types of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal and hydroelectric can constitute also advisable solutions. The use of

  8. Prostaglandins with antiproliferative activity induce the synthesis of a heat shock protein in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, M.G.; Garaci, E.; Amici, C.

    1989-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)A 1 and J 2 were found to potently suppress the proliferation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells and to induce the synthesis of a 74-kDa protein (p74) that was identified as a heat shock protein related to the major 70-kDa heat shock protein group. p74 synthesis was stimulated at doses of PGA 1 and PGJ 2 that inhibited cell replication, and its accumulation ceased upon removal of the PG-induced proliferation block. PGs that did not affect K562 cell replication did not induce p74 synthesis. p74 was found to be localized mainly in the cytoplasm of PG-treated cells, but moderate amounts were found also in dense areas of the nucleus after PGJ 2 treatment. p74 was not necessarily associated with cytotoxicity or with inhibition of cell protein synthesis. The results described support the hypothesis that synthesis of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins is associated with changes in cell proliferation. The observation that PGs can induce the synthesis of heat shock proteins expands our understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds whose regulatory role is well known in many physiological phenomena, including the control of fever production

  9. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. ► tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. ► tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA Met (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA Met was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  10. Balancing the needs and preferences of humans against concerns for fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kadri, S.

    2009-01-01

    How can stakeholders within the fisheries community engage in constructive ethical discussions? Drawing on experiences from previous debates surrounding the human use of animals, this paper presents a proactive approach whereby stakeholders can create a framework for ethical discussion of capture...

  11. Design of an optimal automation system : Finding a balance between a human's task engagement and exhaustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel; van Lambalgen, Rianne

    2011-01-01

    In demanding tasks, human performance can seriously degrade as a consequence of increased workload and limited resources. In such tasks it is very important to maintain an optimal performance quality, therefore automation assistance is required. On the other hand, automation can also impose

  12. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [fr

  13. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  14. Modeling the basin of attraction as a two-dimensional manifold from experimental data: Applications to balance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.; Stirling, James R.; Cordente Martínez, Carlos A.; Díaz de Durana, Alfonso López; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Romo, Gabriel Rodríguez; Molinuevo, Javier Sampedro

    2010-03-01

    We present a method of modeling the basin of attraction as a three-dimensional function describing a two-dimensional manifold on which the dynamics of the system evolves from experimental time series data. Our method is based on the density of the data set and uses numerical optimization and data modeling tools. We also show how to obtain analytic curves that describe both the contours and the boundary of the basin. Our method is applied to the problem of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet vertical stance using data of an elite athlete. Our method goes beyond the statistical description of the experimental data, providing a function that describes the shape of the basin of attraction. To test its robustness, our method has also been applied to two different data sets of a second subject and no significant differences were found between the contours of the calculated basin of attraction for the different data sets. The proposed method has many uses in a wide variety of areas, not just human balance for which there are many applications in medicine, rehabilitation, and sport.

  15. Measuring center of pressure signals to quantify human balance using multivariate multiscale entropy by designing a force platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Sue, Pei-Der; Abbod, Maysam F; Jiang, Bernard C; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2013-08-08

    To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP), known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS), has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI) system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad) to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test) and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test) with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test) and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test). The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance.

  16. Measuring Center of Pressure Signals to Quantify Human Balance Using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy by Designing a Force Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP, known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS, has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test. The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance.

  17. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation in heat-stressed resting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Kenny, Glen P; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether graduated compression induced by stockings enhances cutaneous vasodilation in passively heated resting humans. Nine habitually active young men were heated at rest using water-perfusable suits, resulting in a 1.0 °C increase in body core temperature. Heating was repeated twice on separate occasions while wearing either (1) stockings that cause graduated compression (pressures of 26.4 ± 5.3, 17.5 ± 4.4, and 6.1 ± 2.0 mmHg at the ankle, calf, and thigh, respectively), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without causing compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance during heating was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate heat-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Body core (esophageal), skin, and mean body temperatures were measured continuously. Compared to the Control, forearm vascular conductance during heating was higher with graduated compression stockings (e.g., 23.2 ± 5.5 vs. 28.6 ± 5.8 units at 45 min into heating, P = 0.001). In line with this, graduated compression stockings resulted in a greater sensitivity (27.5 ± 8.3 vs. 34.0 ± 9.4 units °C -1 , P = 0.02) and peak level (25.5 ± 5.8 vs. 29.7 ± 5.8 units, P = 0.004) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with mean body temperature. In contrast, the mean body temperature threshold for increases in forearm vascular conductance did not differ between the Control and graduated compression stockings (36.5 ± 0.1 vs. 36.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.85). Our results show that graduated compression associated with the use of stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation by modulating sensitivity and peak level of cutaneous vasodilation in relation to mean body temperature. However, the effect of these changes on whole-body heat loss remains unclear.

  18. Water dynamics in mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit during the young and mature fruit seasons as measured by the stem heat balance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, H.; Sakuratani, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water flows in the stem and peduncle of mango fruit were monitored, and the surface transpiration from the fruit was measured during the fruit-growing season. The stem heat balance method was used on the peduncle to monitor the inward water flow during the nighttime, and the reverse water flow from the fruit during the daytime when the stem transpiration water flow increased. This diurnal fluctuation pattern in the water flow was more evident in mature fruit than in young fruit. In mature fruit, the daily water loss due to the reverse flow was estimated to be 3% of the fruit weight. The reverse flow water loss and transpired water loss were compensated for by nocturnal inward water flow, through the peduncle, of 30 g over 15 h. These results were well supported by measurements of fruit dimensions, which indicated a circadian rhythm of contraction and expansion. The reverse flow amounted to 80% of the water loss from the daytime contraction of the fruit, a much greater proportion than the fruit surface transpiration

  19. Experimental characterization of the BSD MAPA for heating of the human thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerquin-Kern, J.L.; Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.; Glatstein, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors began a series of experiments in order to characterize a Mini-Annular Phased Array (MAPA) applicator from the BSD Medical Corp. prior to possible clinical implementation at NIH. Heating patterns have been measured in simple cylindrical phantoms as well as a full-sized phantom-filled half-mannequin which is representative of the part of the human body that is below the waist. Implantable electric field probes have been used as well as non-perturbing temperature probes in these tests. The authors describe the relationship of measurements of the external electric field to changes in the heating pattern caused by lateral displacement of the phantom relative to the MAPA. The dependence of usable bandwidth upon phantom size and position, as well as upon the degree of bolus filling, is also described. Several recent tests made using two different types of helical coil applicators with the phantom-filled half-mannequin are also described for comparison

  20. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (pmilk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response.

  3. Effect of using heat-inactivated serum with the Abbott human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungkind, D L; DiRenzo, S A; Young, S J

    1986-01-01

    The Abbott enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) antibody was evaluated to determine the effect of using heat-inactivated (56 degrees C for 30 min) serum as the sample. Each of 58 nonreactive serum samples gave a higher A492 value when tested after heat inactivation. Ten of the samples became reactive after heating. Heat-inactivated serum should not be used in the current Abbott HTLV-III antibody test, because thi...

  4. The sense of balance in humans: Structural features of otoconia and their response to linear acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Kniep

    Full Text Available We explored the functional role of individual otoconia within the otolith system of mammalians responsible for the detection of linear accelerations and head tilts in relation to the gravity vector. Details of the inner structure and the shape of intact human and artificial otoconia were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, including decalcification by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA to discriminate local calcium carbonate density. Considerable differences between the rhombohedral faces of human and artificial otoconia already indicate that the inner architecture of otoconia is not consistent with the point group -3m. This is clearly confirmed by decalcified otoconia specimen which are characterized by a non-centrosymmetric volume distribution of the compact 3+3 branches. This structural evidence for asymmetric mass distribution was further supported by light microscopy in combination with a high speed camera showing the movement of single otoconia specimen (artificial specimen under gravitational influence within a viscous medium (artificial endolymph. Moreover, the response of otoconia to linear acceleration forces was investigated by particle dynamics simulations. Both, time-resolved microscopy and computer simulations of otoconia acceleration show that the dislocation of otoconia include significant rotational movement stemming from density asymmetry. Based on these findings, we suggest an otolith membrane expansion/stiffening mechanism for enhanced response to linear acceleration transmitted to the vestibular hair cells.

  5. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The model of vertical water and heat transfer in the "soil-vegetation-atmosphere" system (SVAT) for vegetation covered territory has been developed, allowing assimilating satellite remote sensing data on land surface condition as well as accounting for heterogeneities of vegetation and meteorological characteristics. The model provides the calculation of water and heat balance components (such as evapotranspiration Ev, soil water content W, sensible and latent heat fluxes and others ) as well as vertical soil moisture and temperature distributions, temperatures of soil surface and foliage, land surface brightness temperature for any time interval within vegetation season. To describe the landscape diversity soil constants and leaf area index LAI, vegetation cover fraction B, and other vegetation characteristics are used. All these values are considered to be the model parameters. Territory of Kursk region with square about 15 thousands km2 situated in the Black Earth zone of Central Russia was chosen for investigation. Satellite-derived estimates of land surface characteristics have been constructed under cloud-free condition basing AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and EOS Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data. The developed technologies of AVHRR data thematic processing have been refined providing the retrieval of surface skin brightness temperature Tsg, air foliage temperature Ta, efficient surface temperature Ts.eff and emissivity E, as well as derivation of vegetation index NDVI, B, and LAI. The linear regression estimators for Tsg, Ta and LAI have been built using representative training samples for 2003-2009 vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data thematic processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the above vegetation seasons. The error statistics of Ta, Ts.eff and Тsg derivation has been investigated for various samples using comparison with in-situ measurements that has given RMS errors in the

  6. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sensory-Motor Adaptation to Space Flight: Human Balance Control and Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Gravity, which is sensed directly by the otolith organs and indirectly by proprioceptors and exteroceptors, provides the CNS a fundamental reference for estimating spatial orientation and coordinating movements in the terrestrial environment. The sustained absence of gravity during orbital space flight creates a unique environment that cannot be reproduced on Earth. Loss of this fundamental CNS reference upon insertion into orbit triggers neuro-adaptive processes that optimize performance for the microgravity environment, while its reintroduction upon return to Earth triggers neuro-adaptive processes that return performance to terrestrial norms. Five pioneering symposia on The Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space were convened between 1965 and 1970. These innovative meetings brought together the top physicians, physiologists, and engineers in the vestibular field to discuss and debate the challenges associated with human vestibular system adaptation to the then novel environment of space flight. These highly successful symposia addressed the perplexing problem of how to understand and ameliorate the adverse physiological effects on humans resulting from the reduction of gravitational stimulation of the vestibular receptors in space. The series resumed in 2002 with the Sixth Symposium, which focused on the microgravity environment as an essential tool for the study of fundamental vestibular functions. The three day meeting included presentations on historical perspectives, vestibular neurobiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurotransmitter systems, theoretical considerations, spatial orientation, psychophysics, motor integration, adaptation, autonomic function, space motion sickness, clinical issues, countermeasures, and rehabilitation. Scientists and clinicians entered into lively exchanges on how to design and perform mutually productive research and countermeasure development projects in the future. The problems posed by long duration

  8. Climate extremes in urban area and their impact on human health: the summer heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Shanghai, which is particularly prone to heat waves, recorded the hottest summer in over 50 years. During the event, the maximum number of daily deaths was 317, 42% above the non-heat day average, even though an heat warning system in operation. In this study results from the analysis of heat waves events in Italian cities is presented. Indices representative of extremely hot conditions have been taken into account and results of the analysis of indices such as the number of summer days (SU), number of tropical nights (TR), maxima and minima of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (TXx, TXn, TNx, TNn, respectively), exceedances over fixed thresholds is presented. Results show a clear increase in the past decades of the numbers of days affected by heat events. Some considerations are also presented about the impact on human health of the longest events occurred in the Country.

  9. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  10. Balancing the principles: why the universality of human rights is not the Trojan horse of moral imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semplici, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the 'global' level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most relevant international declarations and documents, is not exempt from the charge. However, the refusal of a top-down conception of the universal as a sort of product for exportation should not be confused with a relativistic landscape, where all the cows can be indifferently black or white. This contribution aims at outlining an approach, which reconciles universalism as enshrined in founding human rights declarations with respect for cultural diversity. In order to do so, two conceptual frameworks are discussed: the 'tool-kit' model and the morals/ethics difference. The example of the right to quality health care confirms the argument that striking a balance between cherishing pluralism and defending some fundamental rights and obligations does not amount to an assertion of moral imperialism.

  11. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...... the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into consideration - What...

  12. Fragile Balance: Human Mediums and Technical Media in Oliver Lodges Presidential Address of 1891

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Schuettpelz, Ehler Voss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the work of the Victorian physicist and radio pioneer Oliver Lodge (1851–1940 in the context of what we call the mediumistic trial of the long 19th century. We are focusing on a short moment in the early 1890s when Lodge’s radio experiments were part of a common expansion into physical and psychical research. By rigorously applying David Bloors heuristic "principle of symmetry", we demonstrate how Oliver Lodge lived in a world of systems-building and Empire-building that enabled him to categorize human mediums, electromagnetic entities and technical media as parts of an indeterminate but unified field of experimental settings. Though this historical moment was to become a unique tipping point in the initial convergence and later divergence of physical and psychical research, it reveals some general aspects of the mediumistic trial in the long 19th century, namely the existence of a common interface between religious and secularist positions and aspirations.

  13. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI's ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI's long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  14. Th1 and Th2-like protein balance in human inflammatory radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Lucas Rodrigues; de Sousa, Adriana Alkmim; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Vilela, Daniel Nogueira; Pereira, Camila Santos; Batista Domingos, Patrícia Luciana; Viana, Agostinho Gonçalves; Jham, Bruno Correia; Batista de Paula, Alfredo Maurício; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Chronic dental periapical lesions result from chronic inflammation of periapical tissues caused by continuous antigenic stimulation from infected root canals. Recent findings have suggested that T helper (Th) 1 and Th2-like cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms regulating these immunoinflammatory pathways have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) protein levels in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. Archived samples of cysts (n = 52) and granulomas (n = 27) were sectioned and submitted to immunohistochemistry to evaluate the tissue expression of IL-4, IL-12, and IFN-γ. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P cysts. IL-4 expression was stronger in periapical granulomas than in radicular cysts. IL-12 was not detected in any of the samples. Our study showed that IFN-γ protein levels are increased in radicular cysts, whereas IL-4 expression is stronger in samples of periapical granulomas. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and to facilitate the development of more effective periapical disease management strategies. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  16. VIP/PACAP receptor mediation of cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Dean L; Zhao, Joan L; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M

    2010-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is implicated in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans. VIP and the closely related pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) act through several receptor types: VIP through VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and PACAP through VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 receptors. We examined participation of VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptors in cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress by testing the effects of their specific blockade with PACAP6-38. PACAP6-38 dissolved in Ringer's was administered by intradermal microdialysis at one forearm site while a control site received Ringer's solution. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) calculated. A 5- to 10-min baseline period was followed by approximately 70 min of PACAP6-38 (100 microM) perfusion at one site in normothermia and a 3-min period of body cooling. Whole body heating was then performed to engage cutaneous active vasodilation and was maintained until CVC had plateaued at an elevated level at all sites for 5-10 min. Finally, 58 mM sodium nitroprusside was perfused through both microdialysis sites to effect maximal vasodilation. No CVC differences were found between control and PACAP6-38-treated sites during normothermia (19 +/- 3%max untreated vs. 20 +/- 3%max, PACAP6-38 treated; P > 0.05 between sites) or cold stress (11 +/- 2%max untreated vs. 10 +/- 2%max, PACAP6-38 treated, P > 0.05 between sites). PACAP6-38 attenuated the increase in CVC during whole body heating when compared with untreated sites (59 +/- 3%max untreated vs. 46 +/- 3%max, PACAP6-38 treated, P < 0.05). We conclude that VPAC2 and/or PAC1 receptor activation is involved in cutaneous active vasodilation in humans.

  17. Esmolol acutely alters oxygen supply-demand balance in exercising muscles of healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, David N; Luck, J Carter; Maman, Stephan R; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists (β blockers) reduce systemic O 2 delivery and blood pressure (BP) during exercise, but the subsequent effects on O 2 extraction within the active limb muscles are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of the fast-acting, β 1 selective blocker esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and leg muscle O 2 saturation (near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) during submaximal leg ergometry. Our main hypothesis was that esmolol would augment exercise-induced reductions in leg muscle O 2 saturation. Eight healthy adults (6 men, 2 women; 23-67 year) performed light and moderate intensity bouts of recumbent leg cycling before (PRE), during (β 1 -blocked), and 45 min following (POST) intravenous infusion of esmolol. Oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), BP, and O 2 saturation (SmO 2 ) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were measured continuously. Esmolol attenuated the increases in HR and systolic BP during light (-12 ± 9 bpm and -26 ± 12 mmHg vs. PRE) and moderate intensity (-20 ± 10 bpm and -40 ± 18 mmHg vs. PRE) cycling (all P Exercise-induced reductions in SmO 2 occurred to a greater extent during the β 1 -blockade trial in both the VL (P = 0.001 vs. PRE) and MG muscles (P = 0.022 vs. PRE). HR, SBP and SmO 2 were restored during POST (all P exercising muscles of healthy humans. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  19. Passive heat therapy improves endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure in sedentary humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Vienna E; Howard, Matthew J; Francisco, Michael A; Ely, Brett R; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-15

    A recent 30 year prospective study showed that lifelong sauna use reduces cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality; however, the specific cardiovascular adaptations that cause this chronic protection are currently unknown. We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of repeated hot water immersion ('heat therapy') on various biomarkers of cardiovascular health in young, sedentary humans. We showed that, relative to a sham group which participated in thermoneutral water immersion, heat therapy increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced arterial stiffness, reduced mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure, and reduced carotid intima media thickness, with changes all on par or greater than what is typically observed in sedentary subjects with exercise training. Our results show for the first time that heat therapy has widespread and robust effects on vascular function, and as such, could be a viable treatment option for improving cardiovascular health in a variety of patient populations, particularly those with limited exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. Intermittent hot water immersion ('heat therapy') results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular haemodynamics, such as cardiac output and vascular shear stress, that are similar to exercise, and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health which could be utilized by patients with low exercise tolerance and/or capabilities. We sought to comprehensively assess the effects of 8 weeks of heat therapy on biomarkers of vascular function in young, sedentary subjects. Twenty young, sedentary subjects were assigned to participate in 8 weeks (4-5 times per week) of heat therapy (n = 10; immersion in a 40.5°C bath sufficient to maintain rectal temperature ≥ 38.5°C for 60 min per session) or thermoneutral water

  20. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie Daniels

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10. Donor milk samples (N = 50 were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001, and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001 and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001. Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives.

  1. Small heat shock proteins potentiate amyloid dissolution by protein disaggregases from yeast and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Duennwald

    Full Text Available How small heat shock proteins (sHsps might empower proteostasis networks to control beneficial prions or disassemble pathological amyloid is unknown. Here, we establish that yeast sHsps, Hsp26 and Hsp42, inhibit prionogenesis by the [PSI+] prion protein, Sup35, via distinct and synergistic mechanisms. Hsp42 prevents conformational rearrangements within molten oligomers that enable de novo prionogenesis and collaborates with Hsp70 to attenuate self-templating. By contrast, Hsp26 inhibits self-templating upon binding assembled prions. sHsp binding destabilizes Sup35 prions and promotes their disaggregation by Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. In yeast, Hsp26 or Hsp42 overexpression prevents [PSI+] induction, cures [PSI+], and potentiates [PSI+]-curing by Hsp104 overexpression. In vitro, sHsps enhance Hsp104-catalyzed disaggregation of pathological amyloid forms of α-synuclein and polyglutamine. Unexpectedly, in the absence of Hsp104, sHsps promote an unprecedented, gradual depolymerization of Sup35 prions by Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. This unanticipated amyloid-depolymerase activity is conserved from yeast to humans, which lack Hsp104 orthologues. A human sHsp, HspB5, stimulates depolymerization of α-synuclein amyloid by human Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Thus, we elucidate a heretofore-unrecognized human amyloid-depolymerase system that could have applications in various neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elfaitouri

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60 occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD (the Training set with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24% of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001. IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity.

  3. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples ( N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t -test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity ( p pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  4. Thermal response of rat fibroblasts stably transfected with the human 70-kDa heat shock protein-encoding gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.C.; Li, Ligeng; Liu, Yunkang; Mak, J.Y.; Chen, Lili; Lee, W.M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The major heat shock protein hsp70 is synthesized by cells of a wide variety of organisms in response to heat shock or other environmental stresses and is assumed to play an important role in protecting cells from thermal stress. The authors have tested this hypothesis directly by transfecting a constitutively expressed recombinant human hsp70-encoding gene into rat fibroblasts and examining the relationship between the levels of human hsp70 expressed and thermal resistance of the stably transfected rat cells. Successful transfection and expression of the gene for human hsp70 were characterized by RNA hybridization analysis, low-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and immunoblot analysis. When individual cloned cell lines were exposed to 45C and their thermal survivals were determined by colony-formation assay, they found that the expression of human hsp70 conferred heat resistance to the rat cells. These results reinforce the hypothesis that hsp70 has a protective function against thermal stress

  5. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  6. Effect of heat treatment of wood on the morphology, surface roughness and penetration of simulated and human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekola, J; Lassila, L V J; Nganga, S; Ylä-Soininmäki, A; Fleming, G J P; Grenman, R; Aho, A J; Vallittu, P K

    2014-01-01

    Wood has been used as a model material for the development of novel fiber-reinforced composite bone substitute biomaterials. In previous studies heat treatment of wood was perceived to significantly increase the osteoconductivity of implanted wood material. The objective of this study was to examine some of the changing attributes of wood materials that may contribute to improved biological responses gained with heat treatment. Untreated and 140°C and 200°C heat-treated downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were used as the wood materials. Surface roughness and the effect of pre-measurement grinding were measured with contact and non-contact profilometry. Liquid interaction was assessed with a dipping test using two manufactured liquids (simulated blood) as well as human blood. SEM was used to visualize possible heat treatment-induced changes in the hierarchical structure of wood. The surface roughness was observed to significantly decrease with heat treatment. Grinding methods had more influence on the surface contour and roughness than heat treatment. The penetration of the human blood in the 200°C heat-treated exceeded that in the untreated and 140°C heat-treated materials. SEM showed no significant change due to heat treatment in the dry-state morphology of the wood. The results of the liquid penetration test support previous findings in literature concerning the effects of heat treatment on the biological response to implanted wood. Heat-treatment has only a marginal effect on the surface contour of wood. The highly specialized liquid conveyance system of wood may serve as a biomimetic model for the further development of tailored fiber-composite materials.

  7. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  8. Balance, functional mobility, and fall occurrence in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Erika Pedreira da; Sá, Katia Nunes; Nunes, Rebeca Freitas Reis; Ribeiro Junior, Antônio Carlos; Lira, Síntia Freitas Bastos; Pinto, Elen Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) may lead to reduced functional mobility and balance. It is important to establish specific parameters that identify these changes and predict the risk of falls in these patients. The aim was to compare balance, functional mobility, and occurrence of falls among patients with and without HAM/TSP and to suggest values to predict the risk of falls in these patients. A cross-sectional study in patients with and without HAM/TSP involved balance assessments based on the berg balance scale (BBS) and functional mobility evaluation based on the timed up and go (TUG) test. From reports of falls, the sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff points for the risk of falls assessed by these instruments were established using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve; 5% alpha was considered. We selected 42 participants: 29 with HAM/TSP and 13 without HAM/TSP. There was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of falls, balance, and functional mobility between the groups (prisk of falls were defined as 50 points for the BBS and 12.28 seconds for the TUG test. Patients with HAM/TSP present reduced functional mobility and balance in relation to those without HAM/TSP. The risk of falls increased for these patients can be evaluated by the values ​​of 50 points using the BBS and 12.28 seconds using the TUG test.

  9. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  10. Human body heat for powering wearable devices: From thermal energy to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielen, Moritz; Sigrist, Lukas; Magno, Michele; Hierold, Christofer; Benini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A complete system optimization for wearable thermal harvesting from body heat to the application is proposed. • State-of-the-art thermal harvesters and DC-DC converters are compared and classified. • Extensive simulation and experiments are carried out to characterize the harvesting performance. • A case study demonstrates the feasibility to supply a multi-sensor wearables only from body heat. - Abstract: Energy harvesting is the key technology to enable self-sustained wearable devices for the Internet of Things and medical applications. Among various types of harvesting sources such as light, vibration and radio frequency, thermoelectric generators (TEG) are a promising option due to their independence of light conditions or the activity of the wearer. This work investigates scavenging of human body heat and the optimization of the power conversion efficiency from body core to the application. We focus on the critical interaction between thermal harvester and power conditioning circuitry and compare two approaches: (1) a high output voltage, low thermal resistance μTEG combined with a high efficiency actively controlled single inductor DC-DC converter, and (2) a high thermal resistance, low electric resistance mTEG in combination with a low-input voltage coupled inductors based DC-DC converter. The mTEG approach delivers up to 65% higher output power per area in a lab setup and 1–15% in a real-world experiment on the human body depending on physical activity and environmental conditions. Using off-the-shelf and low-cost components, we achieve an average power of 260 μW (μTEG) to 280 μW (mTEG) and power densities of 13 μW cm"−"2 (μTEG) to 14 μW cm"−"2 (mTEG) for systems worn on the human wrist. With the small and lightweight harvesters optimized for wearability, 16% (mTEG) to 24% (μTEG) of the theoretical maximum efficiency is achieved in a worst-case scenario. This efficiency highly depends on the application specific conditions

  11. Viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts in milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and coconut water as storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B D M; Lückemeyer, D D; Reyes-Carmona, J F; Felippe, W T; Simões, C M O; Felippe, M C S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various storage media at 5 °C for maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF). Plates with PDLF were soaked in recently prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), skimmed milk, whole milk, Save-A-Tooth(®) system's HBSS (Save), natural coconut water, industrialized coconut water or tap water (negative control) at 5 °C for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Minimum essential medium (MEM) at 37 °C served as the positive control. PDL cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Data were statistically analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Scheffé test (α=5%). The greatest number of viable cells was observed for MEM. Skimmed and whole milk, followed by natural coconut water and HBSS, were the most effective media in maintaining cell viability (Pmilk had the greatest capacity to maintain PDLF viability when compared with natural coconut water, HBSS, Save, industrialized coconut water and tap water. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  12. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  13. Mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of regorafenib in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Cleton, Adriaan; Lettieri, John

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of regorafenib in healthy volunteers. In addition, in vitro metabolism of regorafenib in human hepatocytes was investigated. Four healthy male subjects received one 120 mg oral dose of regorafenib containing approximately 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) [ 14 C]regorafenib. Plasma concentrations of parent drug were derived from HPLC-MS/MS analysis and total radioactivity from liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Radiocarbon analyses used HPLC with fraction collection followed by LSC for all urine samples, plasma, and fecal homogenate extracts. For the in vitro study, [ 14 C]regorafenib was incubated with human hepatocytes and analyzed using HPLC-LSC and HPLC-HRMS/MS. Regorafenib was the major component in plasma, while metabolite M-2 (pyridine N-oxide) was the most prominent metabolite. Metabolites M-5 (demethylated pyridine N-oxide) and M-7 (N-glucuronide) were identified as minor plasma components. The mean concentration of total radioactivity in plasma/whole blood appeared to plateau at 1-4 h and again at 6-24 h post-dose. In total, 90.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the excreta within a collection interval of 12 days, most of which (71.2%) was eliminated in feces, while excretion via urine accounted for 19.3%. Regorafenib (47.2%) was the most prominent component in feces and was not excreted into urine. Excreted metabolites resulted from oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation. Regorafenib was eliminated predominantly in feces as well as by hepatic biotransformation. The multiple biotransformation pathways of regorafenib decrease the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

  14. Bioanalysis works in the IAA AMS facility: Comparison of AMS analytical method with LSC method in human mass balance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji; Isono, Yoshimi; Setani, Kaoru; Sakai, Kumiko; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Gunji, Shinobu; Matsui, Takao

    2007-01-01

    Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA) is the first Contract Research Organization in Japan providing Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analysis services for carbon dating and bioanalysis works. The 3 MV AMS machines are maintained by validated analysis methods using multiple control compounds. It is confirmed that these AMS systems have reliabilities and sensitivities enough for each objective. The graphitization of samples for bioanalysis is prepared by our own purification lines including the measurement of total carbon content in the sample automatically. In this paper, we present the use of AMS analysis in human mass balance and metabolism profiling studies with IAA 3 MV AMS, comparing results obtained from the same samples with liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Human samples such as plasma, urine and feces were obtained from four healthy volunteers orally administered a 14 C-labeled drug Y-700, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, of which radioactivity was about 3 MBq (85 μCi). For AMS measurement, these samples were diluted 100-10,000-fold with pure-water or blank samples. The results indicated that AMS method had a good correlation with LSC method (e.g. plasma: r = 0.998, urine: r = 0.997, feces: r = 0.997), and that the drug recovery in the excreta exceeded 92%. The metabolite profiles of plasma, urine and feces obtained with HPLC-AMS corresponded to radio-HPLC results measured at much higher radioactivity level. These results revealed that AMS analysis at IAA is useful to measure 14 C-concentration in bioanalysis studies at very low radioactivity level

  15. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI) for balancing nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Joseph; Selhub, Jacob; Shpaizer, Adi; Rabkin, Boris; Shacham, Inbal; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-08-01

    Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS) which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA). MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs), producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee) consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI) which represents the capacity in percent of 100g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI). The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS-rPOSI=0). The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R 2 =0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI for balancing nutrition and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kanner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs, producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI which represents the capacity in percent of 100 g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200 g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI. The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS–rPOSI=0. The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R2=0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health. Keywords: Stomach, Red-meat, Lipid-peroxidation, Malondialdehyde – MDA, Postprandial, Polyphenols

  17. Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Fibroblast Cells under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Mizuno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, resonant coupling wireless power transfer (WPT technology has been attracting attention and has been widely researched for practical use. Moreover, dosimetric evaluation has also been discussed to evaluate the potential health risks of the electromagnetic field from this WPT technology based on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines. However, there has not been much experimental evaluation of the potential health risks of this WPT technology. In this study, to evaluate whether magnetic resonant coupling WPT induces cellular stress, we focused on heat shock proteins (Hsps and determined the expression level of Hsps 27, 70 and 90 in WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells using a western blotting method. The expression level of Hsps under conditions of magnetic resonant coupling WPT for 24 h was not significantly different compared with control cells, although the expression level of Hsps for cells exposed to heat stress conditions was significantly increased. These results suggested that exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT did not cause detectable cell stress.

  18. Morphological response of human rotavirus to ultra-violet radiation, heat and disinfectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.G.; Hufton, P.; Kurzawska, E.; Molloy, C.; Morgan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The morphological damage induced in human rotavirus particles by exposure to UV radiation (254 nm) increased progressively with length of treatment. Exposure of the virus in suspension to 9000 ergs/cm 2 /s removed the smooth capsid layer from 50% of particles after 1 min and from all the virions within 10 min. By this time, the number of stain-penetrated or empty particles increased markedly, along with the appearance of virus-derived debris in the form of disrupted and isolated capsomeres. After treatment for 120 min no intact virus particles were observed. The action of wet (100 0 C) or dry (60 0 C) heat resulted in changes similar to those effected by UV radiation. Sodium hypochlorite, cetrimide and 70% ethanol induced a rapid loss of the outer capsid layer, but, compared with UV radiation or heat, a slower increase in the number of stain-penetrated particles was noted. Chlorhexidine and phenol had effects on virus structure only after extended periods of exposure, whilst glutaraldehyde treatment had little influence on virus morphology. Glutaraldehyde 2% v/v would appear to be most suitable for the disinfection of rotavirus-containing electron microscope grids before their examination. (author)

  19. Regulation of average 24h human plasma leptin level; the influence of exercise and physiological changes in energy balance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggel-Leijssen, D.P.; van Baak, M.A.; Tenenbaum, R.; Campfield, L.A.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of short-term moderate physiological changes in energy flux and energy balance, by exercise and over- or underfeeding, on a 24h plasma leptin profile, were investigated. DESIGN: Subjects were studied over 24h in four randomized conditions: no exercise/energy balance (energy

  20. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  1. Energy balance and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, R.

    1982-01-01

    The energy balance of the outer atmospheres of solarlike stars is discussed. The energy balance of open coronal regions is considered, discussing the construction and characteristics of models of such regions in some detail. In particular, the temperature as a function of height is considered, as are the damping length dependence of the global energy balance in the region between the base of the transition region and the critical point, and the effects of changing the amount of coronal heating, the stellar mass, and the stellar radius. Models of coronal loops are more briefly discussed. The chromosphere is then included in the discussion of the energy balance, and the connection between global energy balance and global thermal stability is addressed. The observed positive correlations between the chromospheric and coronal energy losses and the pressure of the transition region is qualitatively explained

  2. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C.; Sherwood, Steven C.; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  3. Changes in relative fit of human heat stress indices to cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal hospitalizations across five Australian urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, James; Alexander, Lisa; Lewis, Sophie C; Sherwood, Steven C; Bambrick, Hilary

    2018-03-01

    Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression. We then added 15 heat stress indices to these models, ranking their goodness of fit using the Akaike information criterion. Admissions for each health outcome were nearly always higher in hot or humid conditions. Contrary to our hypothesis that location would determine the best-fitting heat stress index, we found that the best indices were related largely by health outcome of interest, rather than location as hypothesized. In particular, heatwave and temperature indices had the best fit to cardiovascular admissions, humidity indices had the best fit to respiratory admissions, and combined heat-humidity indices had the best fit to renal admissions. With a few exceptions, the results were similar across all five cities. The best-fitting heat stress indices appear to be useful across several Australian cities with differing climates, but they may have varying usefulness depending on the outcome of interest. These findings suggest that future research on heat and health impacts, and in particular hospital demand modeling, could better reflect reality if it avoided "all-cause" health outcomes and used heat stress indices appropriate to specific diseases and disease groups.

  4. Quantifying canal leakage rates using a mass-balance approach and heat-based hydraulic conductivity estimates in selected irrigation canals, western Nebraska, 2007 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The water supply in areas of the North Platte River Basin in the Nebraska Panhandle has been designated as fully appropriated or overappropriated by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR). Enacted legislation (Legislative Bill 962) requires the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) and the NDNR to develop an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) to balance groundwater and surface-water supply and demand in the NPNRD. A clear understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems is critical for the development of a successful IMP. The primary source of groundwater recharge in parts of the NPNRD is from irrigation canal leakage. Because canal leakage constitutes a large part of the hydrologic budget, spatially distributing canal leakage to the groundwater system is important to any management strategy. Surface geophysical data collected along selected reaches of irrigation canals has allowed for the spatial distribution of leakage on a relative basis; however, the actual magnitude of leakage remains poorly defined. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPNRD, established streamflow-gaging stations at upstream and downstream ends from two selected canal reaches to allow a mass-balance approach to be used to calculate daily leakage rates. Water-level and sediment temperature data were collected and simulated at three temperature monitoring sites to allow the use of heat as a tracer to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of canal bed sediment. Canal-leakage rates were estimated by applying Darcy's Law to modeled vertical hydraulic conductivity and either the estimated or measured hydraulic gradient. This approach will improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of canal leakage in varying geologic settings identified in capacitively coupled resistivity surveys. The high-leakage potential study reach of the Tri-State Canal had two streamflow-gaging stations and two temperature monitoring

  5. Regulation of the oxidative balance with coenzyme Q10 sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to radiation and temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontiñán-Rubio, Javier; Santiago-Mora, Raquel María; Nieva-Velasco, Consuelo María; Ferrín, Gustavo; Martínez-González, Alicia; Gómez, María Victoria; Moreno, María; Ariza, Julia; Lozano, Eva; Arjona-Gutiérrez, Jacinto; Gil-Agudo, Antonio; De la Mata, Manuel; Pesic, Milica; Peinado, Juan Ramón; Villalba, José M; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis; Pérez-García, Víctor M; Alcaín, Francisco J; Durán-Prado, Mario

    2018-05-18

    To investigate how the modulation of the oxidative balance affects cytotoxic therapies in glioblastoma, in vitro. Human glioblastoma U251 and T98 cells and normal astrocytes C8D1A were loaded with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ). Mitochondrial superoxide ion (O 2 - ) and H 2 O 2 were measured by fluorescence microscopy. OXPHOS performance was assessed in U251 cells with an oxytherm Clark-type electrode. Radio- and chemotherapy cytotoxicity was assessed by immunostaining of γH2AX (24 h), annexin V and nuclei morphology, at short (72 h) and long (15 d) time. Hif-1α, SOD1, SOD2 and NQO1 were determined by immunolabeling. Catalase activity was measured by classic enzymatic assay. Glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity were quantified using commercial kits. CoQ did not affect oxygen consumption but reduced the level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 while shifted to a pro-oxidant cell status mainly due to a decrease in catalase activity and SOD2 level. Hif-1α was dampened, echoed by a decrease lactate and several key metabolites involved in glutathione synthesis. CoQ-treated cells were twofold more sensitive than control to radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in short and long-term clonogenic assays, potentiating TMZ-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting non-transformed astrocytes. CoQ acts as sensitizer for cytotoxic therapies, disarming GBM cells, but not normal astrocytes, against further pro-oxidant injuries, being potentially useful in clinical practice for this fatal pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of heat-illness symptoms with the prediction of human vascular response in hot environment under resting condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Yogender; Karan, Bhuwan Mohan; Das, Barsa Nand; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2008-04-01

    The thermoregulatory control of human skin blood flow is vital to maintain the body heat storage during challenges of thermal homeostasis under heat stress. Whenever thermal homeostasis disturbed, the heat load exceeds heat dissipation capacity, which alters the cutaneous vascular responses along with other body physiological variables. Whole body skin blood flow has been calculated from the forearm blood flow. Present model has been designed using electronics circuit simulator (Multisim 8.0, National Instruments, USA), is to execute a series of predictive equations for early prediction of physiological parameters of young nude subjects during resting condition at various level of dry heat stress under almost still air to avoid causalities associated with hot environmental. The users can execute the model by changing the environmental temperature in degrees C and exposure time in minutes. The model would be able to predict and detect the changes in human vascular responses along with other physiological parameters and from this predicted values heat related-illness symptoms can be inferred.

  7. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  8. Intelligent Integration between Human Simulated Intelligence and Expert Control Technology for the Combustion Process of Gas Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to being poor in control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace, this paper explored a sort of strong robust control algorithm in order to improve the control quality of the combustion process of gas heating furnace. The paper analyzed the control puzzle in the complex combustion process of gas heating furnace, summarized the cybernetics characteristic of the complex combustion process, researched into control strategy of the uncertainty complex control process, discussed the control model of the complex process, presented a sort of intelligent integration between human-simulated intelligence and expert control technology, and constructed the control algorithm for the combustion process controlling of gas heating furnace. The simulation results showed that the control algorithm proposed in the paper is not only better in dynamic and steady quality of the combustion process, but also obvious in energy saving effect, feasible, and effective in control strategy.

  9. Vasomotion in human skin before and after local heating recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry. A method for induction of vasomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1989-01-01

    neurogenic origin. A method for induction of regular amplified alpha-oscillations was discovered and evaluated. When heating the skin locally to 42 degrees C the blood cell flux increased and the pre-heating alpha- and beta-oscillations disappeared. During the post-heating period, amplified regular rhythmic......Rhythmical variations in blood cell flux in human skin have been studied using laser Doppler flowmetry. The fluctuations in blood cell flux could be divided into two different categories named alpha- and beta-oscillations with a median frequency of 6.8 min-1 and 1.5 min-1, respectively...... alpha-oscillations appeared. At the end of the post-heating period beta-oscillations re-appeared....

  10. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2* Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue11The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  11. Soil Thermal Balance Analysis for a Ground Source Heat Pump System in a Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable and high energy efficiency technology providing air conditioning and domestic hot water, the ground source heat pump system (GSHPS has been extensively used worldwide in recent years. Compared with conventional systems, GSHPSs with heat recovery reject less heat into the soil and extract more heat from it, which can help reduce soil thermal imbalance in hot-summer and cold-winter regions. In this paper, conventional GSHPS, and GSHPS with different heat recovery ratios, in a typical city were compared based on thermal imbalance ratios, average soil temperatures and soil temperature increases. The transient system simulation software was used to simulate the operation performance of GSHPS. The thermal imbalance ratio and soil temperature decreased with increasing heat recovery ratio. After 20 years of operation, the soil thermal imbalance ratios of the GSHPS were 29.2%, 21.1%, 16%, and 5.2%, and the soil temperature rises were 8.78 °C, 5.25 °C, 3.44 °C, and 0.34 °C, while the heat recovery ratios were 0, 18%, 30% and 53%, respectively. Consequently, a GSHPS with heat recovery is a potentially efficient and economical approach for buildings in hot-summer and cold-winter regions.

  12. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  13. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  14. Mercury stable isotope fractionation in a tropical ecosystem including human hair: New insights for an isotope balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Laure; Sonke, Jeroen; Maurice, Laurence; Behra, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Mercury contamination is an environmental problem in the Amazon basin still relevant today as impacts on human health are poorly studied. In Bolivia, indigenous people have elevated methylmercury concentrations (between 2719 and 23701 ng.g-1) in their hair. This highly toxic molecule is formed after methylation of inorganic Hg released by chemical and physical weathering and from human activities. The aim of our study is to propose a first isotope balance in a Bolivian Amazon ecosystem, through variations in Hg isotopic compositions. The discovery of mass-independent fracionation (MIF) of odd-isotopes in our organic samples (fish and human hair) opened a new way of research in tracing the sources and the processes involved in the cycle of Hg. Four types of samples are studied: liquid Hg0 from gold mining, sediment samples, fish coming from the Beni River basin (from the main channel and an associated floodplain lake) and hair from gold miners and fish-eating native populations. Hg isotopic compositions were analyzed on a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune MC-ICP-MS at the LMTG after sample digestion by HCl/HNO3 or by H2O2/HNO3 for fish samples, at 120°C. The δ202Hg values (relative to NIST 3133) are signicantly different with respect to the external precision on UM-Almaden#2 of 0.18 ‰ (2σ, n = 42): -0.34 ± 0.02 ‰ for liquid mercury, between -1.33 and -0.81 ‰ for bottom and floodplain sediments (n=18), between -0.87 and 2.22 ‰ for miners hair (n=26), +1.29 ± 0.41 ‰ for native hair (n=13) and between -0.91 and -0.21 ‰ for fish samples (n=53). A large mass-independent isotope fractionation (MIF) was observed for odd isotope ratios in all hair samples and fish samples whereas weak anomalies were measured for sediment samples: - ∆199Hg anomaly: -0.12 to -0.04 ‰ for sediment, -0.22 to +0.63 ‰ for fish samples and +0.13 to +1.63 ‰ for hair - ∆201Hg anomaly: -0.12 to -0.02 ‰ for sediment, -0.21 to +0.43 ‰ for fish samples and +0.06 to +1.25 ‰ for hair

  15. Balance, functional mobility, and fall occurrence in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pedreira da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP may lead to reduced functional mobility and balance. It is important to establish specific parameters that identify these changes and predict the risk of falls in these patients. The aim was to compare balance, functional mobility, and occurrence of falls among patients with and without HAM/TSP and to suggest values to predict the risk of falls in these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in patients with and without HAM/TSP involved balance assessments based on the berg balance scale (BBS and functional mobility evaluation based on the timed up and go (TUG test. From reports of falls, the sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff points for the risk of falls assessed by these instruments were established using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve; 5% alpha was considered. RESULTS: We selected 42 participants: 29 with HAM/TSP and 13 without HAM/TSP. There was a statistically significant difference in the occurrence of falls, balance, and functional mobility between the groups (p<0.05. Good accuracy was determined for the BBS (77% and TUG test (70% and the cutoff points for the risk of falls were defined as 50 points for the BBS and 12.28 seconds for the TUG test. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HAM/TSP present reduced functional mobility and balance in relation to those without HAM/TSP. The risk of falls increased for these patients can be evaluated by the values of 50 points using the BBS and 12.28 seconds using the TUG test.

  16. A mathematical model of endovascular heat transfer for human brain cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan Carlos; Yon, Steven; Magers, Mike; Dobak, John

    2000-11-01

    Selective cooling of the brain has been shown to exhibit protective effects in cerebral ischemia, trauma, and spinal injury/ischemia. A multi-compartment, unsteady thermal model of the response of the human brain to endovascular cooling is discussed and its results compared to recent experimental data conducted with sheep and other mammals. The model formulation is based on the extension of the bioheat equation, originally proposed by Pennes(1) and later modified by Wissler(2), Stolwijk(3) and Werner and Webb(4). The temporal response of the brain temperature and that of the various body compartments to the cooling of the blood flowing through the common carotid artery is calculated under various scenarios. The effect of the boundary conditions as well as the closure assumptions used in the model, i.e. perfusion rate, metabolism heat production, etc. on the cooling rate of the brain are systematically investigated. (1) Pennes H. H., “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperature in the resting forearm.” J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 93-122, 1948. (2) Wissler E. H., “Steady-state temperature distribution in man”, J. Appl. Physiol., 16: 764-740, 1961. (3) Stolwick J. A. J., “Mathematical model of thermoregulation” in “Physiological and behavioral temperature regulation”, edited by J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge and A. J. Stolwijk, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfiels, Ill., 703-721, 1971. (4) Werner J., Webb P., “A six-cylinder model of human thermoregulation for general use on personal computers”, Ann. Physiol. Anthrop., 12(3): 123-134, 1993.

  17. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  18. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  19. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body’s local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W(t) = A0 + ∑Aiexp(−t/τi). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm2) varies depending on the sensor’s thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100–250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants. PMID:29182567

  20. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2017-11-28

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body's local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W ( t ) = A ₀ + ∑A i exp( -t / τ i ). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm²) varies depending on the sensor's thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100-250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants.

  1. [The effect of heat stress on the cytoskeleton and cell cycle of human umbilical vein endothelial cell in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhiguo; Shao, Yu; Geng, Yan; Chen, Jinghe; Su, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of heat stress on the cytoskeleton and cell cycle of human umbilical vein endothelial cell ( HUVEC ) in vitro. HUVEC was cultured in vitro in 5%CO(2) medium at 37 centigrade ( control group ) or 43 centigrade ( heat stress group ) for 1 hour. Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 staining was used to determine the effect of heat stress on the cytoskeleton. The cells in heat stress group were subsequently cultured at 37 centigradein 5%CO(2) medium after heat stress for 1 hour, and cell cycle of HUVEC was determined at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours with flow cytometry. Under light microscopy normal cytoskeleton was observed in control group, but thicker and shorter cytoskeleton was found after a rise of temperature, and stress fibers were found in heat stress group. The DNA content of HUVEC at all time points in G0/G1 stage was 38.07%-55.19% after heat stress. The DNA content in control group was 48.57%, and it was 54.06%, 55.19%, 48.23%, 38.07%, and 41.03% at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours in G0/G1 stage in heat stress group. DNA content in S phase was 35.33%-48.18%. The DNA content in control group was 44.62%, and it was 35.33%, 39.50%, 42.50%, 48.18%, and 47.99% at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours in S stage in heat stress group. DNA content in G2/M phase was 5.31%-13.75%. The DNA content in control group was 6.81, and it was 10.61%, 5.31%, 9.27%,13.75%, and 10.98% at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 hours in G2/M stage in heat stress group. It was demonstrated that compared with control group, the DNA content in G0/G1 stage was significantly increased when the HUVEC were separated from heat stress within 6 hours, and it recovered at a similar level as control group at 12 hours. Heat stress can change the cytoskeleton of HUVEC, and cause stagnation at G0/G1 stage in cell cycle.

  2. Head balance of coniferous forest in years with extreme precipitation and its long-term changes in the regions of Bydgoszcz and Wroclaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnowska, J.; Gąsiorek, E.; Łabędzki, L.; Musiał, E.

    2005-01-01

    Climate changes, particularly visible in the last decades of the 20th century have paramount influence on human economic activity. Heat balance is one of the factors affecting the climate. That impact is noticeable when variations in heat balance components are examined e.g. in coniferous forest. This paper presents analyses of these variations during the growing season (III-X) in the years with maximal and minimal precipitation sums. The study shows also the changes in heat balance components in Wroclaw-Swojec in the years 1964-2000 and in Bydgoszcz in the years 1945-2003 [pl

  3. Microcalorimetric measurements of heat production in human erythrocytes. IV. Comparison between different calorimetric techniques, suspension media, and preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Wadsö, I

    1976-10-01

    Heat production in human erythrocytes from healthy subjects has been measured under different experimental conditions. Simultaneous measurements were made on the same samples using different types of microcalorimeters: a static ampoule calorimeter, an air perfusion calorimeter, and a flow calorimeter. Obtained heat effect values for specified standard conditions, P degrees, were within uncertainty limits the same for the different calorimeters. Cells were suspended either in autologous plasma or in a phosphate buffer. P degrees values for buffer suspensions were significantly higher than those for plasma suspensions. Erythrocyte samples prepared by the column adsorption technique gave higher P degrees values than those obtained by a conventional centrifugation procedure.

  4. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat...... stressed) subjects participated in this protocol. Changes in regional blood volume during heat stress and time control were estimated using technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and gamma camera imaging. Whole-body heating increased internal temperature (> 1.0 degrees C), cutaneous vascular...... conductance (approximately fivefold), and heart rate (52 +/- 2 to 93 +/- 4 beats min(-1)), while reducing central venous pressure (5.5 +/- 07 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg) accompanied by minor decreases in mean arterial pressure (all P heat stress reduced the blood volume of the heart (18 +/- 2%), heart...

  5. Managing the Risky Humanity of Academic Workers: Risk and Reciprocity in University Work-Life Balance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Randell-Moon, Holly

    2015-01-01

    University work-life balance policies increasingly offer academic workers a range of possible options for managing the competing demands of work, family, and community obligations. Flexible work arrangements, family-friendly hours and campus facilities, physical well-being and mental health programs typify strategies for formally acknowledging the…

  6. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Effect of different bulking agents on water variation and thermal balance and their respective contribution to bio-generated heat during long-term storage sludge biodrying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Cui, Chongwei; He, Junguo; Tang, Jian

    2018-04-17

    Biodrying was first used for the post-treatment of long-term storage sludge with vinasse as bulking agents. The effect of different bulking agents on water and heat variation and their respective contributions to bio-generated heat during storage sludge biodrying were investigated. Three different bulking agents (beer lees and distillers grains, with conventional straw used for comparison) were mixed with storage sludge for biodrying for an 18-day period. The results revealed the treatment with beer lees as bulking agent achieved the best performance with the highest water removal capacity (658 g kg -1 initial water). The extent of organic degradation in the mixture was related to the degradation ability of the bulking agents. The degradation of C- and H-containing materials (e.g., carboxylic acid) accounted for volatile solids (VS) loss. Water and thermal analyses showed that evaporation was the main way of water loss (accounting for 90%), while evaporation heat was the main component of heat consumption (accounting for 56.67-60.62%).The biodegradation of bulking agents contributed a high proportion of the bio-generated heat consumed by water evaporation (82.35-86.67%).

  8. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  9. Temperature and blood flow distribution in the human leg during passive heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Scott T; Trangmar, Steven J; González-Alonso, José

    2016-05-01

    The influence of temperature on the hemodynamic adjustments to direct passive heat stress within the leg's major arterial and venous vessels and compartments remains unclear. Fifteen healthy young males were tested during exposure to either passive whole body heat stress to levels approaching thermal tolerance [core temperature (Tc) + 2°C; study 1; n = 8] or single leg heat stress (Tc + 0°C; study 2; n = 7). Whole body heat stress increased perfusion and decreased oscillatory shear index in relation to the rise in leg temperature (Tleg) in all three major arteries supplying the leg, plateauing in the common and superficial femoral arteries before reaching severe heat stress levels. Isolated leg heat stress increased arterial blood flows and shear patterns to a level similar to that obtained during moderate core hyperthermia (Tc + 1°C). Despite modest increases in great saphenous venous (GSV) blood flow (0.2 l/min), the deep venous system accounted for the majority of returning flow (common femoral vein 0.7 l/min) during intense to severe levels of heat stress. Rapid cooling of a single leg during severe whole body heat stress resulted in an equivalent blood flow reduction in the major artery supplying the thigh deep tissues only, suggesting central temperature-sensitive mechanisms contribute to skin blood flow alone. These findings further our knowledge of leg hemodynamic responses during direct heat stress and provide evidence of potentially beneficial vascular alterations during isolated limb heat stress that are equivalent to those experienced during exposure to moderate levels of whole body hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Hales, David [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Gordon, Andy [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Spencer, Melinda [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program

    2016-02-18

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP)research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH. Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  11. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  12. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide modulates heat nociception in the human brain - An fMRI study in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Becerra, Lino; Larsson, Henrik B.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we recorded...... cortex. Sumatriptan injection reversed these changes. Conclusion: The changes in BOLD-signals in the brain after CGRP infusion suggests that systemic CGRP modulates nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal pain pathways in response to noxious heat stimuli....

  14. Need for a well-balanced sunscreen to protect human skin from both Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin exposure to sunlight can cause many adverse effects. It is now recognized that both Ultraviolet A (UVA and UVB wavelengths are responsible for the detrimental effects of solar radiation on skin. With our increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of UVA, the need for effective, well-balanced photoprotection has become more crucial. Numerous clinical studies showed that well-balanced sunscreen, with a SPF/UVAPF ratio ≤ 3, provide the most effective protection against pigmentation (especially on dark skin, DNA damage, UV-induced skin immunosuppression and photodermatoses. The calculation of UVA protection required in Asia revealed its particular importance in India, and gives clear evidence that the SPF value alone is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen.

  15. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  16. The effects of the 1996–2012 summer heat events on human mortality in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Výberči Dalibor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of summer heat events on the mortality of the Slovak population, both in total and for selected population sub-groups, are the foci of this study. This research is the first of its kind, focusing on a given population, and therefore one priority was to create a knowledge base for the issue and to basically evaluate existing conditions for the heat-mortality relationship in Slovakia. This article also aims to fill a void in current research on these issues in Europe. In addition to overall effects, we focused individually on the major historical heat events which occurred in the summers of 2007, 2010 and 2012. During the heat events, a non-negligible negative response in mortality was recorded and fatal effects were more pronounced during particularly strong heat events and periods which lasted for two or more days. In general, females and the elderly were the most sensitive groups in the population and mortality was characterized by several specific effects in individual population groups. The most extreme heat periods were commonly followed by a deficit in mortality, corresponding to a short-term mortality displacement, the pattern of which varied in specific cases. In general, displaced mortality appeared to compensate for a large part of heat-induced excess deaths.

  17. Um modelo para a determinação do equilíbrio térmico de bovinos em ambientes tropicais A heat balance model for cattle in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma equação com base na teoria da transferência térmica foi apresentada para estimativa da termólise em bovinos expostos a um ambiente tropical especificado por temperatura e umidade do ar, radiação solar e vento. As variáveis do animal (taxa de sudação, temperatura retal, frequência respiratória, temperatura da superfície cutânea, coloração do pelame e peso corporal foram consideradas em conjunto com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura do ar e umidade, radiação solar, velocidade do vento e temperatura do globo. A equação permite a predição de: (1 o nível de termogênese metabólica necessária para equilibrar as perdas térmicas sob condições ambientais especificadas; (2 a combinação de fatores ambientais que proporcionam determinado fluxo de calor entre um dado animal e o seu ambiente.An equation based on heat transfer theory was presented to estimate the rate of heat loss from cattle exposed to a tropical environment, specified by the air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed. The animals' variables (sweating rate, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, surface temperature, haircoat color, and body weight were considered together with environmental variables (air temperature and humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and globe temperature. The equation allows the prediction of (a the metabolic heat production level necessary to balance heat losses under specified environmental conditions; (b the combination of environmental factors that provide a determined heat flux between a given animal and its environment.

  18. Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Miyaji, Akane; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. Findings Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P ETCO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35°C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50°C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the s...

  19. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohonen, K

    1983-02-01

    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  20. Towards exoskeletons with balance capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Herman; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Vlutters, Mark; González-Vargas, José; Ibáñez, Jaime; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.; van der Kooij, Herman; Pons, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Current exoskeletons replay pre-programmed trajectories at the actuated joints. Towards the employment of exoskeletons with more flexible and adaptive behavior, we investigate human balance control during gait. We study human balance control by applying brief force pulses at the pelvis in different

  1. The effects of water replacement by oral rehydration fluids with or without betaine supplementation on performance, acid-base balance, and water retention of heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, M A M; Downing, J

    2011-01-01

    Exposing broilers to a high temperature increases water and electrolyte K(+) and Na(+) excretion, which negatively affects the heat dissipation capacity and acid-base homeostasis, resulting in losses in growth performance. In this experiment, the efficacy of providing oral rehydration therapy and betaine on growth performance, acid-base balance, and water and electrolyte retention was evaluated. A total of 432 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were allocated to 72 metabolic cages and reared to 31 d of age under standard conditions. From 32 to 41 d of age, chicks were exposed to heat stress (ambient temperature, 32°C) and high RH (80 to 100% RH) for 9 h daily. The ameliorative effects of a 3 × 3 factorial array of treatments administered via drinking water were evaluated in 8 replicates of 6 chicks per cage for each treatment. Two oral rehydration therapy (ORT) fluids, based on either citrate or bicarbonate salts, were added to tap water. In addition, betaine was added to tap water at an inclusion rate of 0, 500, or 1,000 mg/L to complete the array of 9 liquid-based treatments. Growth performance was assessed at 32, 35, and 41 d of age. From 32 to 35 d of age, chicks receiving ORT fluids exhibited improved growth performance, water balance, and electrolyte (K(+), Na(+)) retention. In addition, the physiological response to stress was attenuated, as indicated by lower heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and blood glucose concentrations relative to the negative controls. The addition of betaine at an inclusion rate of 500 mg/L improved BW gain. From d 36 to 41, treatments did not significantly influence growth performance, which suggests that chicks receiving tap water were able to compensate and adapt to the heat-stress conditions. The results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of providing ORT fluids and 500 mg of betaine/L were observed only during the first 4 d of heat exposure. After this period, adaptation to the heat appears to occur, and none of the

  2. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  3. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  4. Chaperone activity of human small heat shock protein-GST fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbach, Hannah; Butler, Caley; McMenimen, Kathryn A

    2017-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a ubiquitous part of the machinery that maintains cellular protein homeostasis by acting as molecular chaperones. sHsps bind to and prevent the aggregation of partially folded substrate proteins in an ATP-independent manner. sHsps are dynamic, forming an ensemble of structures from dimers to large oligomers through concentration-dependent equilibrium dissociation. Based on structural studies and mutagenesis experiments, it is proposed that the dimer is the smallest active chaperone unit, while larger oligomers may act as storage depots for sHsps or play additional roles in chaperone function. The complexity and dynamic nature of their structural organization has made elucidation of their chaperone function challenging. HspB1 and HspB5 are two canonical human sHsps that vary in sequence and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. In order to determine the role of the dimer in chaperone activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was genetically linked as a fusion protein to the N-terminus regions of both HspB1 and HspB5 (also known as Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, respectively) proteins in order to constrain oligomer formation of HspB1 and HspB5, by using GST, since it readily forms a dimeric structure. We monitored the chaperone activity of these fusion proteins, which suggest they primarily form dimers and monomers and function as active molecular chaperones. Furthermore, the two different fusion proteins exhibit different chaperone activity for two model substrate proteins, citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). GST-HspB1 prevents more aggregation of MDH compared to GST-HspB5 and wild type HspB1. However, when CS is the substrate, both GST-HspB1 and GST-HspB5 are equally effective chaperones. Furthermore, wild type proteins do not display equal activity toward the substrates, suggesting that each sHsp exhibits different substrate specificity. Thus, substrate specificity, as described here for full-length GST

  5. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Michael A; Kimball, Amy L; McHenry, Colleen L; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative rehabilitation interventions to improve muscle cell development, growth, and repair.

  6. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is associated with reduced heat and cold pain sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Marta; Milenkovic, Nevena; le Coutre, Philipp; Westermann, Jörg; Lewin, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit is critically involved in the modulation of nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Ablation of the c-Kit gene results in hyposensitivity to thermal pain, whereas activation of c-Kit produces hypersensitivity to noxious heat, without altering sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Kit signaling in human pain perception. We hypothesized that subjects treated with Imatinib or Nilotinib, potent inhibitors of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit but also Abl1, PDFGFRα, and PDFGFRβ, that are used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), would experience changes in thermal pain sensitivity. We examined 31 asymptomatic CML patients (14 male and 17 female) receiving Imatinib/Nilotinib treatment and compared them to 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (12 male and 27 female). We used cutaneous heat and cold stimulation to test normal and noxious thermal sensitivity, and a grating orientation task to assess tactile acuity. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased in the Imatinib/Nilotinib-treated group, whereas innocuous thermal and tactile thresholds were unchanged compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the biological effects of c-Kit inhibition are comparable in mice and humans in that c-Kit activity is required to regulate thermal pain sensitivity but does not affect innocuous thermal and mechanical sensation. The effect on experimental heat pain observed in our study is comparable to those of several common analgesics; thus modulation of the c-Kit pathway can be used to specifically modulate noxious heat and cold sensitivity in humans. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K. R.; Wilby, Robert L.; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-01

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  8. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K R; Wilby, Robert L; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-11

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  9. Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Miyaji, Akane; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-12-06

    Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35 °C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50 °C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the superior temporal retinal arteriole (STRA), superior nasal retinal arteriole (SNRA), and the retinal and choroidal vessels (RCV) were measured using laser-speckle flowgraphy. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA was calculated from the integral of a cross-sectional map of blood velocity. PETCO2 was clamped at the normothermia level by adding 5% CO2 to the inspired gas. Passive heat stress had no effect on the subjects' blood pressures. The blood-flow velocity in the RCV was significantly lower after 30, 60 and 90 min of passive heat stress than the normothermic level, with a peak decrease of 18 ± 3% (mean ± SE) at 90 min. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA decreased significantly after 90 min of passive heat stress conditions, with peak decreases of 14 ± 3% and 14 ± 4%, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that passive heat stress decreases ocular blood flow irrespective of the blood pressure or arterial partial pressure of CO2.

  10. Effects of face/head and whole body cooling during passive heat stress on human somatosensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Namba, Mari; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Shibasaki, Manabu

    2017-06-01

    We herein investigated the effects of face/head and whole body cooling during passive heat stress on human somatosensory processing recorded by somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) at C4' and Fz electrodes. Fourteen healthy subjects received a median nerve stimulation at the left wrist. SEPs were recorded at normothermic baseline (Rest), when esophageal temperature had increased by ~1.2°C (heat stress: HS) during passive heating, face/head cooling during passive heating (face/head cooling: FHC), and after HS (whole body cooling: WBC). The latencies and amplitudes of P14, N20, P25, N35, P45, and N60 at C4' and P14, N18, P22, and N30 at Fz were evaluated. Latency indicated speed of the subcortical and cortical somatosensory processing, while amplitude reflected the strength of neural activity. Blood flow in the internal and common carotid arteries (ICA and CCA, respectively) and psychological comfort were recorded in each session. Increases in esophageal temperature due to HS significantly decreased the amplitude of N60, psychological comfort, and ICA blood flow in the HS session, and also shortened the latencies of SEPs (all, P body temperature. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. [The significance of sympathovagal balance in the forming of respiration-dependent oscillations in cardiovascular system in human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnikov, G V; Tiurina, M Ĭ; Tankanag, A V; Piskunova, G M; Cheremis, N K

    2014-01-01

    The effect of deep breathing controlled in both rate and amplitude on the heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of forearm and finger-pad skin has been studied in 29 young healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old. To reveal the effect of the segments of the vegetative autonomic nervous system on the amplitudes of HRV and respiration-dependent oscillations of skin blood flow we estimated the parameters of the cardiovascular system into two groups of participants: with formally high and low sympathovagal balance values. The sympathovagal balance value was judged by the magnitude of LF/HF power ratio calculated for each participant using the spontaneous breathing rhythmogram. It was found what the participants with predominant parasympathetic tonus had statistically significant higher amplitudes of H R V and skin blood flow oscillations in the breathing rate less than 4 cycles per min than the subjects with predominant sympathetic tonus. In the forearm skin, where the density of sympathetic innervations is low comparatively to that in the finger skin, no statistically significant differences in the amplitude of respiratory skin blood flow oscillations was found between the two groups of participants.

  12. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  13. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (4). 7. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry for drug development. Human mass balance studies at discovery stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji

    2005-01-01

    Following the recent trend of Position Paper issued from European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products on the non-clinical safety studies to support clinical trials with a single micro dose, human mass balance studies at discovery stages were made with special interest in using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) with a small amount of hot (radioisotope-labeled) drug. This method was found to be effective for the purpose of screening in the clinical study for pharmaceutical development. To show an example of the test, 5, 50, 500μg/body of C14-ARA (α1A adrenoreceptor antagonist, 50 nCi or 1.85 kBq/body/dose) were given (cross over) to several persons to be inspected and C14-quantity in the blood plasma or urine was determined with AMS until after 168 hours or so. The results of the present experiment demonstrate that human mass balance study at discovery stages is possible with ultra high sensitive measuring systems such as AMS and PET (positron emission tomography). (S. Ohno)

  14. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Petrie

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat and mechanical stress (vibration on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction.The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction, passive mechanical stress (vibration, or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair.Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus to analyze mRNA gene expression.We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold, PGC-1α (5.46 fold, and ABRA (5.98 fold; and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold. Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05; while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05. Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05, but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05 while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05.These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative rehabilitation interventions to improve muscle cell

  15. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a

  16. Discovering a Reliable Heat-Shock Factor-1 Inhibitor to Treat Human Cancers: Potential Opportunity for Phytochemists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Velayutham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1 is an important transcription factor that regulates pathogenesis of many human diseases through its extensive transcriptional regulation. Especially, it shows pleiotropic effects in human cancer, and hence it has recently received increased attention of cancer researchers. After myriad investigations on HSF-1, the field has advanced to the phase where there is consensus that finding a potent and selective pharmacological inhibitor for this transcription factor will be a major break-through in the treatment of various human cancers. Presently, all reported inhibitors have their limitations, made evident at different stages of clinical trials. This brief account summarizes the advances with tested natural products as HSF-1 inhibitors and highlights the necessity of phytochemistry in this endeavor of discovering a potent pharmacological HSF-1 inhibitor.

  17. The influence of hydro-ethanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea L. on Th1/Th2 balance in isolated human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Abnous, Khalil; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-24

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidants activity of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) were mentioned in traditional texts. In previous studies, different anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of P. oleracea were demonstrated. However, the mechanism of action and immunomodulatory property of this plant are greatly unknown. In the present study, the effect of the extract of this plant on IL-4, IL10, IFN-γ and T helper (h)1/Th2 balance in non-stimulated and stimulated human lymphocytes was examined. The effect of three concentrations (160, 40 and 10µg/ml) of P. oleracea or dexamethasone were evaluated on percentage of cell proliferation and nitric oxide (NO) production as well as secretion of cytokines (IL-4, IL10 and IFN-γ) in PHA-stimulated and non-stimulated lymphocytes, and compared to control and dexamethasone as positive control (n=15 for each group). In stimulated cells, dexamethasone significantly inhibited the percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines in comparison to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The percentage of cell proliferation, NO production, and secretion of cytokines were significantly decreased while Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) and Treg/Th2 (IL-10/IL-4) balances significantly enhanced in treated groups with all three concentrations of extract compared to control group (P<0.001 for all cases). The effect of all concentrations of the extract on cell proliferation, NO production and secretion of cytokines as well as Treg/Th2 balance were significantly lower than dexamethasone (P<0.001 for all cases), but Th1/Th2 ratio obtained in the presence of only low extract concentration was lower than dexamethasone (P<0.01). Different concentrations of extract promoted Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th2 balances which may suggest the therapeutic value of the plant in inflammatory disease associated with decreased Th1/Th2 balance such as asthma or cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A pilot study of the feasibility of long-term human bone balance during perimenopause using a 41Ca tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, S.K.; Prior, J.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R.R.; Lentle, B.C.; Paul, M.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in perimenopausal women are poorly known. Despite higher, albeit erratic, estradiol levels in perimenopause, spine bone loss is greater than during the first five years past the final menstrual flow when estradiol becomes low. Understanding changes during this dynamic transition are important to prevent fragility fractures in midlife and older women. The exploration of long-lived 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 1.04 x 10 5 yrs) tracer measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) leads to the possibility of monitoring bone remodeling balance. With this new technology, we explored a pilot long-term feasibility study of bone health by measuring the 41 Ca trace element in urine for six years from premenopausal to later perimenopausal phases in one midlife woman. We measured bone mineral density in parallel

  19. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Anson; Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti; Yoo, Si-Eun; Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. → HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. → HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. → HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1 +/0 ) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1 +/0 mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1 +/0 cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1 +/0 cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  20. Role of capsaicin- and heat-sensitive afferents in stimulation of acupoint-induced pain and analgesia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Wu, Jiang-Tao; Pertovaara, Antti; You, Hao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We investigated role of capsaicin-sensitive afferents within and without the areas of Zusanli (ST36)/Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints along the stomach (ST) meridian in the perception and modulation of pain assessed by visual analog scale of pain and its distribution rated by subjects, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and heat pain threshold (HPT) in humans. Compared with the treatment of non-acupoint area, capsaicin (100µg/50µl) administered into either ST36 or ST37 acupoint caused the strongest pain intensity and the most extensive pain distribution, followed by rapid onset, bilateral, long-lasting secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and slower onset secondary heat hypoalgesia (1day after the capsaicin treatment). Between treatments of different acupoints, capsaicin administrated into the ST36 acupoint exhibited the stronger pain intensity and more widespread pain distribution compared with the treatment of ST37 acupoint. A period of 30- to 45-min, but not 15-min, 43°C heating-needle stimulation applied to the ST36 acupoint significantly enhanced the HPT, and had no effect on PPT. Upon trapezius muscle pain elicited by the i.m. injection of 5.8% saline, pre-emptive treatment of the contralateral ST36 acupoint with 43°C heating-needle stimulation alleviated the ongoing muscle pain, reduced painful area, and reversed the decrease in HPT. It is suggested that (1) pain elicited from the acupoint and non-acupoint areas differs significantly, which are supposed to be dependent on the different distributions and contributions of capsaicin-sensitive afferents. (2) Non-painful heat stimulation is a valid approach in prevention of ongoing muscle pain with associated post-effects of peripheral and central sensitization. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calculation of heat balance considering the reflection, refraction of incident ray and salt diffusion on solar pad; Hikari no hansha kussetsu oyobi shio no kakusan wo koryoshita solar pond no netsukeisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K; Li, X; Baba, H; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In calculating heat balance of solar pond, calculation was made considering things except quality of the incident ray and physical properties of pond water which were conventionally considered. The real optical path length was determined from the reflection ratio of ray on the water surface based on the refraction ratio of pond water and the locus of water transmitted ray in order to calculate a total transmission rate. The rate of absorption of monochromatic lights composing of solar light in their going through the media is different by wavelength, and therefore, calculation was made in each monochromatic light. As to four kinds of salt water solution, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, these phenomena seen in solar pond are taken in, and a total transmission rate based on reality can be calculated by the wavelength integration method. Moreover, in the salt gradient layer, there are gradients in both concentration and temperature, and thermal physical values of each layer change. Accordingly, mass transfer and thermal transfer by both gradients were considered at the same time. An analytic solution was introduced which analyzes salt diffusion in the temperature field in the gradient layer and determines the concentration distribution. By these, concentration and physical values of each layer were calculated according to phenomena, and thermal balance of each layer of the solar pond was able to be accurately calculated. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. In vitro investigation of heat transfer phenomenon in human immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  3. a-Adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness is preserved in the heated human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, David M; Sander, Mikael; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that passive leg heating attenuates a-adrenergic vasoconstriction within that limb. Femoral blood flow (FBF, femoral artery ultrasound Doppler) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC, FBF/mean arterial blood pressure), as well as calf muscle blood flow (Calf...

  4. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, JJW; van den Berg, CAT

    PURPOSE: One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of

  5. Human mortality impacts of the 2015 summer heat spells in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Výberči, Dalibor; Labudová, Lívia; Eštóková, Milada; Faško, Pavol; Trizna, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In 2015, Central Europe experienced an unusually warm summer season. For a great majority of climatic stations around Slovakia, it had been the warmest summer ever recorded over their entire instrumental observation period. In this study, we investigate the mortality effects of hot days' sequences during that particular summer on the Slovak population. In consideration of the range of available mortality data, the position of 2015 is analysed within the years 1996-2015. Over the given 20-year period, the summer heat spells of 2015 were by far the most severe from a meteorological point of view, and clearly the deadliest with the total of almost 540 excess deaths. In terms of impacts, an extraordinary 10-day August heat spell was especially remarkable. The massive lethal effects of heat would have likely been even more serious under normal circumstances, since the number of premature deaths appeared to be partially reduced due to a non-standard mortality pattern in the first quarter of the year. The heat spells of the extremely warm summer of 2015 in Slovakia are notable not just for their short-term response in mortality. It appears that in a combination with the preceding strong influenza season, they subsequently affected mortality conditions in the country in the following months up until the end of the year. The impacts described above were rather different for selected population subgroups (men and women, the elderly). Both separately and as a part of the annual mortality cycle, the 2015 summer heat spells may represent a particularly valuable source of information for public health.

  6. Radial Pressure Pulse and Heart Rate Variability in Heat- and Cold-Stressed Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ming Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effects of heat and cold stress on the radial pressure pulse (RPP and heart rate variability (HRV. The subjects immersed their left hand into 45°C and 7°C water for 2 minutes. Sixty healthy subjects (age 25±4 yr; 29 men and 31 women were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent the supine temperature measurements of the bilateral forearms, brachial arterial blood pressure, HRV and RPP with a pulse analyzer in normothermic conditions, and thermal stresses. The power spectral low-frequency (LF and high-frequency (HF components of HRV decreased in the heat test and increased in the cold test. The heat stress significantly reduced radial augmentation index (AIr (P<.05, but the cold stress significantly increased AIr (P<.01. The spectral energy of RPP did not show any statistical difference in 0∼10 Hz region under both conditions, but in the region of 10∼50 Hz, there was a significant increase (P<.01 in the heat test and a significant decrease in the cold test (P<.01. The changes in AIr induced by heat and cold stress were significantly negatively correlated with the spectral energy in the region of 10∼50 Hz (SE10−50 Hz but not in the region of 0∼10 Hz (SE0−10 Hz. The results demonstrated that the SE10−50 Hz, which only possessed a small percentage in total pulse energy, presented more physiological characteristics than the SE0−10 Hz under the thermal stresses.

  7. Radial Pressure Pulse and Heart Rate Variability in Heat- and Cold-Stressed Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Kao, Shung-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wei, Ching-Chuan; Chen, Chiachung; Liao, Yin-Tzu; Chen, Fun-Jou

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of heat and cold stress on the radial pressure pulse (RPP) and heart rate variability (HRV). The subjects immersed their left hand into 45°C and 7°C water for 2 minutes. Sixty healthy subjects (age 25 ± 4 yr; 29 men and 31 women) were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent the supine temperature measurements of the bilateral forearms, brachial arterial blood pressure, HRV and RPP with a pulse analyzer in normothermic conditions, and thermal stresses. The power spectral low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV decreased in the heat test and increased in the cold test. The heat stress significantly reduced radial augmentation index (AIr) (P < .05), but the cold stress significantly increased AIr (P < .01). The spectral energy of RPP did not show any statistical difference in 0 ~ 10 Hz region under both conditions, but in the region of 10 ~ 50 Hz, there was a significant increase (P < .01) in the heat test and a significant decrease in the cold test (P < .01). The changes in AIr induced by heat and cold stress were significantly negatively correlated with the spectral energy in the region of 10 ~ 50 Hz (SE10−50 Hz) but not in the region of 0 ~ 10 Hz (SE0−10 Hz). The results demonstrated that the SE10−50 Hz, which only possessed a small percentage in total pulse energy, presented more physiological characteristics than the SE0−10 Hz under the thermal stresses. PMID:21113292

  8. Heat-Related Deaths in Hot Cities: Estimates of Human Tolerance to High Temperature Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Harlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages <65 and ≥65 during the months May–October for years 2000–2008. The most robust relationship was between ATmax on day of death and mortality from direct exposure to high environmental heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90–97 °F; 32.2‒36.1 °C were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C. Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C and males <65 years (ATmax = 102 °F; 38.9 °C. Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  9. Temporal summation of heat pain in humans: Evidence supporting thalamocortical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan D; Wang, Heng; Tandon, Animesh; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Casey, Kenneth L

    2010-07-01

    Noxious cutaneous contact heat stimuli (48 degrees C) are perceived as increasingly painful when the stimulus duration is extended from 5 to 10s, reflecting the temporal summation of central neuronal activity mediating heat pain. However, the sensation of increasing heat pain disappears, reaching a plateau as stimulus duration increases from 10 to 20s. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy subjects to determine if active central mechanisms could contribute to this psychophysical plateau. During heat pain durations ranging from 5 to 20s, activation intensities in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices and the activation volume in the left primary (S1) somatosensory cortex correlated only with perceived stimulus intensity and not with stimulus duration. Activation volumes increased with both stimulus duration and perceived intensity in the left lateral thalamus, posterior insula, inferior parietal cortex, and hippocampus. In contrast, during the psychophysical plateau, both the intensity and volume of thalamic and cortical activations in the right medial thalamus, right posterior insula, and left secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex continued to increase with stimulus duration but not with perceived stimulus intensity. Activation volumes in the left medial and right lateral thalamus, and the bilateral mid-anterior cingulate, left orbitofrontal, and right S2 cortices also increased only with stimulus duration. The increased activity of specific thalamic and cortical structures as stimulus duration, but not perceived intensity, increases is consistent with the recruitment of a thalamocortical mechanism that participates in the modulation of pain-related cortical responses and the temporal summation of heat pain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Balanced steady state free precession for arterial spin labeling MRI: Initial experience for blood flow mapping in human brain, retina, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Danny J J; Duong, Timothy Q

    2013-09-01

    We implemented pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with 2D and 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout for mapping blood flow in the human brain, retina, and kidney, free of distortion and signal dropout, which are typically observed in the most commonly used echo-planar imaging acquisition. High resolution functional brain imaging in the human visual cortex was feasible with 3D bSSFP pCASL. Blood flow of the human retina could be imaged with pCASL and bSSFP in conjunction with a phase cycling approach to suppress the banding artifacts associated with bSSFP. Furthermore, bSSFP based pCASL enabled us to map renal blood flow within a single breath hold. Control and test-retest experiments suggested that the measured blood flow values in retina and kidney were reliable. Because there is no specific imaging tool for mapping human retina blood flow and the standard contrast agent technique for mapping renal blood flow can cause problems for patients with kidney dysfunction, bSSFP based pCASL may provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of retinal and renal diseases and can complement existing imaging techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The heat shock protein response following eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle is unaffected by local NSAID infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Paulsen, G; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed in relation to pain and injuries in skeletal muscle, but may adversely affect muscle adaptation probably via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Induction of heat shock proteins (HSP) represents an important adaptive response...... in muscle subjected to stress, and in several cell types including cardiac myocytes prostaglandins are important in induction of the HSP response. This study aimed to determine the influence of NSAIDs on the HSP response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. Healthy males performed 200 maximal...

  12. HEATING AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ACTIVATE ANTI-STRESS GENE FUNCTIONS IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fadeevitch Semenkov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All types of cell stress are accompanied by the activation of anti-stress genes that can suppress ROS synthesis. We hypothesized that different environmental factors would affect organisms through the activation of anti-stress genes by autologous serum (AS proteins, followed by the synthesis of molecules that increase cell resistance to oxidative stress. The goal of this work was to study the influence of AS on ROS production by peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from donors in different age groups. Neutrophils were isolated from 59 donors (38-94 years old. AS was heated at 100˚C for 30 sec. or irradiated by ultraviolet light (UV at 200-280 nm and 8 W for 10 min. Neutrophils were exposed to heat shock at 42˚C for 1 min. (short-term heating stress or 43˚C for 10 min., followed by the determination of the chemiluminescence reaction induced by zymosan. AS can increase or decrease ROS production by neutrophils depending on the structure of the proteins in the serum; these structures can be changed by heating or UV treatment and the temperature of their interaction (4˚C or 37˚C. We propose that the effect of environmental factors on AS proteins can cause an adverse increase in oxidative stress levels due to the functional reduction of anti-stress genes. We found a negative correlation between the quantity of intracellular Hsp70 and levels of intracellular ROS production following 10 minutes of heat shock at 43°C. Short-term heating stress (1 minute at 42°C was followed by a prominent reduction in ROS production. This effect may be a result of the impact of the hormone adrenaline on the functions of anti-stress genes. Indeed, the same effect was observed after treatment of the neutrophils with adrenaline at concentrations of 10-4 M and 10-5 M. In contrast, dexamethasone from the other stress hormone group did not evoke the same effect at the same concentrations.

  13. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Talebi; Sahar Moghimi; Mina Shafagh; Hadi Kalani; Fatemeh Mazhari

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second ...

  14. In Vitro Investigation of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Human Immature Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Talebi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp. Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU. Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element mod-els were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the mod-el validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth. When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling il-lustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are re-quired to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  15. Intradermal administration of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride produces hypesthesia to mechanical but hyperalgesia to heat stimuli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikemoto Tatsunori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although magnesium ions (Mg2+ are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. However, the role of Mg2+ in the neural transmission system has not been studied as sufficiently as calcium ions (Ca2+. To clarify the sensory effects of Mg2+ in peripheral nervous systems, sensory changes after intradermal injection of Mg2+ were studied in humans. Methods Magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and saline were injected into the skin of the anterior region of forearms in healthy volunteers and injection-induced irritating pain ("irritating pain", for short, tactile sensation, tactile pressure thresholds, pinch-pain changes and intolerable heat pain thresholds of the lesion were monitored. Results Flare formation was observed immediately after magnesium sulphate or magnesium chloride injection. We found that intradermal injections of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride transiently caused irritating pain, hypesthesia to noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulations, whereas secondary hyperalgesia due to mechanical stimuli was not observed. In contrast to mechanical stimuli, intolerable heat pain-evoking temperature was significantly decreased at the injection site. In addition to these results, spontaneous pain was immediately attenuated by local cooling. Conclusion Membrane-stabilizing effect and peripheral NMDA-blocking effect possibly produced magnesium-induced mechanical hypesthesia, and extracellular cation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 channels was thought to be the primary mechanism of magnesium-induced heat hyperalgesia.

  16. Mechano-sensitive nociceptors are required to detect heat pain thresholds and cowhage itch in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauf, B; Dusch, M; van der Ham, J; Benrath, J; Ringkamp, M; Schmelz, M; Rukwied, R

    2016-02-01

    Mechano-sensitive and mechano-insensitive C-nociceptors in human skin differ in receptive field sizes and electrical excitation thresholds, but their distinct functional roles are yet unclear. After blocking the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (NCFL) in eight healthy male subjects (3-mL Naropin(®) 1%), we mapped the skin innervation territory being anaesthetic to mechanical pin prick but sensitive to painful transcutaneous electrical stimuli. Such 'differentially anaesthetic zones' indicated that the functional innervation with mechano-sensitive nociceptors was absent but the innervation with mechano-insensitive nociceptors remained intact. In these areas, we explored heat pain thresholds, low pH-induced pain, cowhage- and histamine-induced itch, and axon reflex flare. In differentially anaesthetic skin, heat pain thresholds were above the cut-off of 50°C (non-anaesthetized skin 47 ± 0.4°C). Pain ratings to 30 μL pH 4 injections were reduced compared to non-anaesthetized skin (48 ± 9 vs. 79 ± 6 VAS; p pain. The mechano-sensitive nociceptors are crucial for cowhage-induced itch and for the assessment of heat pain thresholds. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Anti-inflammatory heat shock protein 70 genes are positively associated with human survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter Gerd

    2010-01-01

    A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes with longe......A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes...... the opportunity to perform survival analysis on these subjects. Haplotype relative risk, and genotype relative risk were calculated to measure the effects of haplotypes and genotypes on human survival in a sex-specific manner. A significant association of HSPA1A-AA (RR=3.864; p=0.016) and HSPA1B-AA (RR=2.764; p=0...

  18. To Investigate the Influence of Building Envelope and Natural Ventilation on Thermal Heat Balance in Office Buildings in Warm and Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Pradeep G.; Garg, Naresh Kumar; Kamath, Kiran

    2017-07-01

    India’s commercial building sector is witnessing robust growth. India continues to be a key growth market among global corporates and this is reflective in the steady growth in demand for prime office space. A recent trend that has been noted is the increase in demand for office spaces not just in major cities but also in smaller tier II and Tier III cities. Growth in the commercial building sector projects a rising trend of energy intensive mechanical systems in office buildings in India. The air conditioning market in India is growing at 25% annually. This is due to the ever increasing demand to maintain thermal comfort in tropical regions. Air conditioning is one of the most energy intensive technologies which are used in buildings. As a result India is witnessing significant spike in energy demand and further widening the demand supply gap. Challenge in India is to identify passive measures in building envelope design in office buildings to reduce the cooling loads and conserve energy. This paper investigates the overall heat gain through building envelope components and natural ventilation in warm and humid climate region through experimental and simulation methods towards improved thermal environmental performance.

  19. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MEMS technology sensors as a more advantageous technique for measuring foot plantar pressure and balance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Morère, C. (Clara); Surażyński, Ł. (Łukasz); Rodrigo Pérez-Tabernero, A. (Ana); Vihriälä, E. (Erkki); Myllylä, T. (Teemu)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of i...

  1. Filipino Personality Traits and Values for Social Support : FOW as human resources for work life balance in Japan (1)

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO, Isamu; IMAMURA, Taiko; MIYAGI, Mariko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help contribute to solving nursing care problems in Japan by studying the characteristics, personality traits and values of the Filipino people. Filipinos work as nurses and caregivers overseas,serving to be the largest supplier of human resources relating to socialsupport. Literary documents and books were analyzed to gather concrete examples of Filipino personality traits and values. Interview surveys were also conducted. The ten most depicted traits were the...

  2. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  4. Development of a HFE program for an operating NPP: Balancing between existing design practices and human factors standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, Leena; Savioja, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes HFE program development project conducted at a Finnish power company Fortum. The aim of developing a formal HFE program was to improve integration of human factors issues in design of technical systems and to systematically document the HFE process of the company. As Fortum has a long tradition of designing control room solutions, the starting point of the HFE program development was the existing own design practices. On the other hand, the aim was to create a program which would comply with international guidelines such as NUREG-0711. The program development was conducted by tracing the HFE design practices in an on-going I and C modernization project. This empirical work was carried out by interviews of designers and other HFE key stake holders. After the explication of the current practices, the gaps, overlaps and differences in relation to the international standards and guidelines were identified. Based on an analysis of current practices and guidelines and standards a new HFE process model was created. The design process model can be followed in modifications which concern systems with human user interfaces of any kind. The model consists of five separate phases which comply with the general engineering design process model utilized at the company. The HFE program is intended to be both a practical guide on how to take human factors issues into consideration in the design of NPP systems and also a tool for the management of HFE activities

  5. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...

  7. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  8. Review on modeling heat transfer and thermoregulatory responses in human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming; Weng, Wenguo; Chen, Weiwang; Luo, Na

    2016-12-01

    Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders. The experimental validated methods for human subjects and manikin are compared. The coupled method is provided for the manikin, controlled by the thermal model as an active system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is also used along with the manikin or/and the thermal model, to evaluate the thermal responses of human body in various applications, such as evaluation of thermal comfort to increase the energy efficiency, prediction of tolerance limits and thermal acceptability exposed to hostile environments, indoor air quality assessment in the car and aerospace industry, and design protective equipment to improve function of the human activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heat balance of a molten carbonate fuel cell production hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell-CoCell; Waermehaushalt einer Karbonat-Brennstoffzelle zur Wasserstoffherstellung fuer eine Polymerelektrolyt-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamek, L.

    2006-10-17

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being used in decentralised power plants, as they can reform hydrocarbon bound fuels internally, e.g. natural gas with a energy density of 10 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions, and the efficiency of this mode of operation is around 50 %. However in comparison to other fuel cell systems the power density is only 5 kW/m{sup 3}. The power density of a polymerelectrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is much higher (50 kW/m{sup 3}). These systems can be run with an efficiency of 50 %, too. Therefore they need hydrogen as a fuel, with an energy density of 2,9 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions. Efficiency decreases to 35 to 40% using Methane as fuel, because of the reforming losses. The power density than is 6 kW/m3 and therefore as high as for a MCFC-system. Acombination of MCFC and PEFC, the so called CoCell, offers the following advantages: - A highly energetic, hydrocarbon based fuel can be used, e.g. Methane. - A high electrical efficiency is achieved. - The power density of this system is higher than for a fuel cell with reformer. In the CoCell the MCFC is working as electricity producing reformer for the PEFC. The off heat of the MCFC is used for reforming, whereby hydrogen is available, being utilised further in the power dense PEFC. The reforming capacity of the MCFC is limited by the internal heat balance. If the endothermic reforming consumes more heat than supplied by the material streams and the fuel cell waste heat, the stack cools down. The performance of such a combined fuel cell system has been evaluated in this thesis using the thermodynamic simulation software Aspen. Calculations reducing the utilisation in the MCFC by various heating techniques showed, that additional heat is supplied most efficiently by increasing the current density of the MCFC. Thereby the stack is heated electrically and the power density of the system is increased by the improved power density of the MCFC. The reduction of the utilisation is achieved

  10. Stem heat balance method to estimate transpiration of young orange and mango plants Balanço de calor caulinar para estimativa da transpiração de plantas jovens de laranja e manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Vellame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as its main objective the evaluation of the heat balance method in young orange and mango plants under protected environment. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, BA. Later on, estimates of sap flow were conducted for two mango plants cultivated in pots of 15 and 50 L installed on weighting platforms of 45 and 140 kg; sap flow was determined in three orange plants, two of which were also installed on weighing platforms. The values of sap flow were compared to the transpiration measured by lysimeters at integrated intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 24 h. The heat balance method showed good precision for estimating daily transpiration (R² = 0.95 and R² = 0.90, accompaning the availability of energy in the system, underestimating on average 4.6% of the daily transpiration in orange plants and overestimating in about 0.3% the daily transpiration of mango plants under conditions of good water supply. The heat balance method underestimated by 16% the transpiration in orange under conditions of water deficit.Com o presente estudo se objetivou avaliar o método de balanço de calor em plantas jovens de laranja e manga em ambiente protegido. O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA. Realizaram-se estimativas de fluxo de seiva em duas plantas de manga plantadas em vasos de 15 e 50 L, instalados sobre plataformas de pesagem de 45 e 140 kg; posteriormente, o fluxo de seiva foi determinado em três plantas de laranja, duas também instaladas em lisímetros de pesagem. Os valores de fluxo de seiva obtidos foram comparados com a transpiração medida pelos lisímetros em intervalos de integração de 1, 2, 4 e 24 h. O método do balanço de calor mostrou-se preciso na estimativa da transpiração diária (R² = 0,95 e R² = 0,90, que acompanhou a disponibilidade de energia do sistema, subestimando em média, 4,6% a transpiração diária em plantas de laranja e

  11. Balancing selfishness and norm conformity can explain human behavior in large-scale prisoner's dilemma games and can poise human groups near criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Andrighetto, Giulia; Nardin, Luis Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Cooperation is central to the success of human societies as it is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time; still, how human cooperation is achieved and may persist is a main puzzle in the social and biological sciences. Recently, scholars have recognized the importance of social norms as solutions to major local and large-scale collective action problems, from the management of water resources to the reduction of smoking in public places to the change in fertility practices. Yet a well-founded model of the effect of social norms on human cooperation is still lacking. Using statistical-physics techniques and integrating findings from cognitive and behavioral sciences, we present an analytically tractable model in which individuals base their decisions to cooperate both on the economic rewards they obtain and on the degree to which their action complies with social norms. Results from this parsimonious model are in agreement with observations in recent large-scale experiments with humans. We also find the phase diagram of the model and show that the experimental human group is poised near a critical point, a regime where recent work suggests living systems respond to changing external conditions in an efficient and coordinated manner.

  12. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 in regulating human sperm-egg recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Nixon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2, as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  13. Heat Shock Protein 70 Enhances Mucosal Immunity against Human Norovirus When Coexpressed from a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanmei; Duan, Yue; Wei, Yongwei; Liang, Xueya; Niewiesk, Stefan; Oglesbee, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (NoV) accounts for 95% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine available to combat human NoV as it is not cultivable and lacks a small-animal model. Recently, we demonstrated that recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing human NoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) induced strong immunities in mice (Y. Ma and J. Li, J. Virol. 85:2942–2952, 2011). To further improve the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was inserted into the rVSV-VP1 backbone vector. A second construct was generated in which the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene was inserted in place of HSP70 as a control for the double insertion. The resultant recombinant viruses (rVSV-HSP70-VP1 and rVSV-Luc-VP1) were significantly more attenuated in cell culture and viral spread in mice than rVSV-VP1. At the inoculation dose of 1.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 triggered significantly higher vaginal IgA than rVSV-VP1 and significantly higher fecal and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-Luc-VP1, although serum IgG and T cell responses were similar. At the inoculation dose of 5.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 stimulated significantly higher T cell, fecal, and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-VP1. Fecal and vaginal IgA responses were also significantly increased when combined vaccination of rVSV-VP1 and rVSV-HSP70 was used. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) insertion of an additional gene (HSP70 or Luc) into the rVSV-VP1 backbone further attenuates the VSV-based vaccine in vitro and in vivo, thus improving the safety of the vaccine candidate, and (ii) HSP70 enhances the human NoV-specific mucosal and T cell immunities triggered by a VSV-based human NoV vaccine. IMPORTANCE Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for more than 95% of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine for this virus. Development of a live attenuated vaccine for human NoV has not been possible because it is

  14. Numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the human eye under millimeter wave exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to millimeter wave (MMW) radiation is expected to increase in the next several years. In this work, we present a thermal model of the human eye under MMW illumination. The model takes into account the fluid dynamics of the aqueous humor and predicts a frequency-dependent reversal of its flow that also depends on the incident power density. The calculated maximum fluid velocity in the anterior chamber and the temperature rise at the corneal apex are reported for frequencies from 40 to 100 GHz and different values of incident power density. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Motor coordination and balance measurements reveal differential pathogenicity of currently spreading enterovirus 71 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Feng; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large-scale epidemics with neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. The C4a and B5 strains are the two major genotypes circulating in many countries recently. This study used a new protocol, a motor coordination task, to assess the differential pathogenicity of C4a and B5 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice. We found that the pathogenicity of C4a viruses was more severe than that of B5 viruses. Moreover, we discovered that an increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was positively correlated with severely deficient motor function. This study provides a new method for evaluating EV71 infection in mice and distinguishing the severity of the symptoms caused by different clinical strains, which would contribute to studies of pathogenesis and development of vaccines and antivirals in EV71 infections.

  16. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wen Hou

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05. Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05.Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  17. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  18. Modeling and simulation of heat distribution in human skin caused by laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luan, Y.; Dams, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Study of light-based skin rejuvenation needs prospective insights of mechanism of laser tissue interaction. A well-built model plays a key role in predicting temperature distribution in human skin exposed to laser irradiation. Therefore, it not only provides guidance for in vitro experiment, but

  19. A Balanced Risk-Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA)-The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, Michael; Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Müller, Karolina; Ernst, Brigitte; Valentini, Luzia; Koller, Michael

    2017-07-07

    Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI) can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication.

  20. A Balanced Risk–Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA)—The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, Michael; Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Müller, Karolina; Ernst, Brigitte; Valentini, Luzia; Koller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI) can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication. PMID:28686224

  1. A Balanced Risk–Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA—The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Habs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication.

  2. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2013-04-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10(-7)-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P back versus other sites (P back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF.

  3. Frequency of Extreme Heat Event as a Surrogate Exposure Metric for Examining the Human Health Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Romeo Upperman

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigation of the impact of climate change on human health, particularly chronic diseases, is hindered by the lack of exposure metrics that can be used as a marker of climate change that are compatible with health data. Here, we present a surrogate exposure metric created using a 30-year baseline (1960-1989 that allows users to quantify long-term changes in exposure to frequency of extreme heat events with near unabridged spatial coverage in a scale that is compatible with national/state health outcome data. We evaluate the exposure metric by decade, seasonality, area of the country, and its ability to capture long-term changes in weather (climate, including natural climate modes. Our findings show that this generic exposure metric is potentially useful to monitor trends in the frequency of extreme heat events across varying regions because it captures long-term changes; is sensitive to the natural climate modes (ENSO events; responds well to spatial variability, and; is amenable to spatial/temporal aggregation, making it useful for epidemiological studies.

  4. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  5. High Level Soluble Expression and ATPase Characterization of Human Heat Shock Protein GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Luo, Miao; Chen, Ke; Yang, Wei; Bai, Lei; Huang, Ailong; Wang, Deqiang

    2017-02-01

    Human GRP78 has been shown to promote cancer progression and is regarded as a novel target for anticancer drugs. However, generation of recombinant full-length GRP78 remains challenging. This report demonstrates that E. coli autoinduction is an excellent method for the preparation of active recombinant GRP78 protein. The final yield was approximately 50 mg/liter of autoinduction culture. Gel-filtration experiments confirmed that the chaperone is a monomer. The purified human GRP78 catalyzed the conversion of ATP to ADP without requiring metal ions as cofactors. Three mutants, T38A, T229A, and S300A, exhibited much lower activity than wild-type GRP78, indicating that the active sites of the ATPase are located at the negatively charged cavity. Three mutants in the negatively charged cavity region dramatically reduced GRP78 activity, further confirming the region as the site of ATPase activity.

  6. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros, E-mail: theosama@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10{sup -4} m s{sup -1}. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  7. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 × 10(-4) m s(-1). The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  8. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10 -4 m s -1 . The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  9. T-helper cell type 17/regulatory T-cell immunoregulatory balance in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçal, Juliana R B; Samuel, Renata O; Fernandes, Danielle; de Araujo, Marcelo S; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Pereira, Sanivia A L; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; Alves, Polyanna M; Mattar, Rinaldo; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise B R

    2010-06-01

    Cysts and granulomas are chronic periapical lesions mediated by a set of inflammatory mediators that develop to contain a periapical infection. This study analyzed the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of mast cells, and in situ expression of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-17 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta), chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1), and nuclear transcription factor (FoxP3) in human periapical granulomas and cysts compared with a control group. Fifty-five lesions (25 periapical cysts, 25 periapical granulomas, and 5 controls) were analyzed. The type of inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the presence of mast cells was analyzed by toluidine blue staining. Indirect immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and FoxP3. The inflammatory infiltrate mainly consisted of mononuclear cells. In cysts, mononuclear infiltrates were significantly more frequent than mixed (polymorphonuclear/mononuclear) infiltrates (P = .04). Mixed inflammatory infiltrates were significantly more frequent in patients with sinus tract (P = .0001). The number of mast cells was significantly higher in granulomas than in cystic lesions (P = .02). A significant difference in the expression of IL-17 (P = .001) and TGF-beta (P = .003) was observed between cysts and granulomas and the control group. Significantly higher IL-17 levels were also observed in cases of patients with sinus tract (P = .03). We observed that chronic periapical lesions might experience a reagudization process that is correlated with an increased leukocyte infiltration, with the predominance of neutrophils attracted by a chemokine milieu, as well as the increased presence of IL-17. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Heat-induced symptomatology in human teeth. An in-vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, P; Bortolini, S; Papale, G; Scotti, R

    1998-09-01

    Various dental procedures can generate thermal increase in the dental pulp, in particular if they are incorrectly conducted. In literature the pulp cells are considered very heat sensitive. In this study the symptomatological response of patients during and after thermal administration to the dental crown has been recorded. The analysis of the symptomatology was used as an indication for the definition of the threshold of thermal damage. Twelve healthy teeth of four patients programmed for extraction were subdivided into six couples of homologous teeth. One tooth out of each couple was used for the immediate in vivo recording of the symptoms; the other, once extracted, was used to determine the thermal increase applied through the insertion of a thermocouple sensor. In each couple of teeth the thermal stimulus was equal. The average thermal increase was 11.2 degrees C. Pain starts at temperatures ranging from 39.5 to 50.4 degrees C with an average of 44.6 degrees C. This agrees with classical physiological data which reports the threshold of pain at 45 degrees C. The threshold of pain registered suggests that at temperatures below 44.6 degrees C damage to the dental pulp is improbable, at least in healthy teeth. The limit of 45 degrees C appears, therefore, to be a probable safe threshold, contrary to what is reported in literature.

  11. Cerebral responses to exercise and the influence of heat stress in human fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline V; Marino, Frank E

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of mechanisms thought to be responsible for the onset of fatigue during exercise-induced hyperthermia. A greater understanding of the way in which fatigue develops during exercise could be gleaned from the studies which have examined the maintenance of cerebral blood flow through the process of cerebral autoregulation. Given that cerebral blood flow is a measure of the cerebral haemodynamics, and might reflect a level of brain activation, it is useful to understand the implications of this response during exercise and in the development of fatigue. It is known that cerebral blood flow is significantly altered under certain conditions such as altitude and exacerbated during exercise induced - hyperthermia. In this brief review we consider the processes of cerebral autoregulation predominantly through the measurement of cerebral blood flow and contrast these responses between exercise undertaken in normothermic versus heat stress conditions in order to draw some conclusions about the role cerebral blood flow might play in determining fatigue. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A review of heat transfer in human tooth--experimental characterization and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian; Bai, Bo Feng

    2010-06-01

    With rapid advances in modern dentistry, high-energy output instruments (e.g., dental lasers and light polymerizing units) are increasingly employed in dental surgery for applications such as laser assisted tooth ablation, bleaching, hypersensitivity treatment and polymerization of dental restorative materials. Extreme high temperature occurs within the tooth during these treatments, which may induce tooth thermal pain (TTP) sensation. Despite the wide application of these dental treatments, the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Therefore, there is an urgent need to better understand heat transfer (HT) process in tooth, thermally induced damage of tooth, and the corresponding TTP. This will enhance the design and optimization of clinical treatment strategies. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of the current understanding on HT in tooth, with both experimental study and mathematical modeling reviewed. Limitations of the current experimental and mathematical methodologies are discussed and potential solutions are suggested. Interpretation of TTP in terms of thermally stimulated dentinal fluid flow is also discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  13. Caribbean Heat Threatens Health, Well-being and the Future of Humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2015-07-01

    Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patients and research participants rather than these broader issues. We broaden this focus by examining awareness among health-care providers in the Caribbean region, where geographic and socioeconomic features pose particular vulnerabilities to climate change. In focus groups, Caribbean providers described rises in mosquito-borne, flood-related, heat-related, respiratory and mental illnesses, and attributed these to local impacts of climate change. Their discussions showed that the significance of these impacts differs in different Caribbean nations, raising policy and social justice questions. Bioethics and public health ethics are situated to frame, inform and initiate public and policy dialog about values and scientific evidence associated with climate change. We urge readers to initiate such dialog within their own institutions about the context-dependent nature of the burdens of climate change, and values and policies that permit it to worsen.

  14. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  15. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-AAG suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Zheng, Zhichao; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Gu, Xiaohu; Yang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were measured by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. The expressions of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2, Survivin, and Cyclin B1 were detected by Western blot analysis. The activity of caspase-3 was also examined. We found that 17-AAG inhibited cell growth and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CCA cells together with the down-regulation of Bcl-2, Survivin and Cyclin B1, and the up-regulation of cleaved PARP. Moreover, increased caspase-3 activity was also observed in CCA cells treated with 17-AAG. In conclusion, our data suggest that the inhibition of HSP90 function by 17-AAG may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human CCA.

  16. Balancing through episodic learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jarvis’s theory about learning suggests that human beings learn and change as a result of hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, and feeling. They change and learn by interacting with other humans, things, and events in certain time-space contexts and by reflecting upon these, as well...... as upon wished-for future states or past experiences, knowledge, and history, and upon what these experiences mean to one’s own self and identity. This chapter explores how female top managers have to reflect and find a balance in their work-family lives on the basis of interaction with, and inputs from...

  17. Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise in the heat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F; Nelson, Rachael K; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    It is usually stated that glycogen is stored in human muscle bound to water in a proportion of 1:3 g. We investigated this proportion in biopsy samples during recovery from prolonged exercise. On two occasions, nine aerobically trained subjects ([Formula: see text] = 54.4 ± 1.05 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) dehydrated 4.6 ± 0.2 % by cycling 150 min at 65 % [Formula: see text] in a hot-dry environment (33 ± 4 °C). One hour after exercise subjects ingested 250 g of carbohydrates in 400 mL of water (REHLOW) or the same syrup plus water to match fluid losses (i.e., 3170 ± 190 mL; REHFULL). Muscle biopsies were obtained before, 1 and 4 h after exercise. In both trials muscle water decreased from pre-exercise similarly by 13 ± 6 % and muscle glycogen by 44 ± 10 % (P recovery, glycogen levels were similar in both trials (79 ± 15 and 87 ± 18 g kg(-1) dry muscle; P = 0.20) while muscle water content was higher in REHFULL than in REHLOW (3814 ± 222 vs. 3459 ± 324 g kg(-1) dm, respectively; P recovery ratio 1:3) while during REHFULL this ratio was higher (1:17). Our findings agree with the long held notion that each gram of glycogen is stored in human muscle with at least 3 g of water. Higher ratios are possible (e.g., during REHFULL) likely due to water storage not bound to glycogen.

  18. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  19. An Atypical Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line With a Complex, Stable, and Balanced Genomic Rearrangement Including a Large De Novo 1q Uniparental Disomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Clara; Maluenda, Jérôme; Tosca, Lucie; Luce, Eléanor; Pineau, Dominique; Dianat, Noushin; Hannoun, Zara; Tachdjian, Gérard; Melki, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy through their use as vital tools for regenerative and personalized medicine. However, the genomic integrity of hiPSCs still raises some concern and is one of the barriers limiting their use in clinical applications. Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of aneuploidies, copy number variations, or single point mutations in hiPSCs, and nonintegrative reprogramming strategies have been developed to minimize the impact of the reprogramming process on the hiPSC genome. Here, we report the characterization of an hiPSC line generated by daily transfections of modified messenger RNAs, displaying several genomic abnormalities. Karyotype analysis showed a complex genomic rearrangement, which remained stable during long-term culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the hiPSC line showing that this karyotype is balanced. Interestingly, single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed the presence of a large 1q region of uniparental disomy (UPD), demonstrating for the first time that UPD can occur in a noncompensatory context during nonintegrative reprogramming of normal fibroblasts. PMID:25650439

  20. 'BACO' code: Cogeneration cycles heat balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huelamo Martinez, E.; Conesa Lopez, P.; Garcia Kilroy, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a code, developed by Empresarios Agrupados, sponsored by OCIDE, CSE and ENHER, that, with Electrical Utilities as final users, allows to make combined and cogeneration cycles technical-economical studies. (author)

  1. Analysis and simulation of heat transfer in human tooth during the curing of orthodontic appliance and food ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Velazquez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze and simulate the heat transfer in the human tooth undergoing fixed orthodontic appliances and food intake. An in vivo representative mathematic model of a layered thermographic profile was developed during the LED curing of Gemini bracket 0.022 in slot (conventional ligating system and Transbond XT adhesive. The characterization of the layered thermic response allowed to identify if during the LED curing process, according to manufacturer's specification (light curing unit, adhesive can induce pulpar necrosis. The profile's thermographic model was the simulation basis of many conditions such as food intake, due to in vivo metrology is affected by the impossibility of a correct apparatus position and the physiologic function of the oral cavity which is exposed to uncontrollable temperature changes. The metrology was carried out with a T-440 thermographic camera during LED curing bracket, using a LED curing light (Elipar S10 placed at 3 ± 1 mm for 5 s at each mesial and distal surface. The thermography outcomes were analyzed in the FLIR Tools Software, Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS 22. To adjust the mathematic model error, in vitro studies were performed on third molars for the purpose of realizing extreme exposition temperature condition tests caused by the LED curing unit without jeopardizing the human tooth vitality as would it be on in vivo experimentation. The bracket curing results according to manufacturer's conditions reached 39°C in vivo temperatures and 47°C on in vitro tests, which does not jeopardize human tooth vitality as said by previous researches, although, an LED curing precise protocol established by the manufacturer's LED curing light is sustained.

  2. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  3. Evaluation of Energy Balance on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Alternative Splicing by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Hashemi, Mohammad; Kazemi, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansoor; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-01-01

    Decreased high-energy phosphate level is involved in endothelial cell injury and dysfunction. Reduced telomerase activity in endothelial cells in parallel with reduced energy levels might be due to altered direction of alternative splicing machine as a complication of depleted energy during the process of atherosclerosis. Isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated for 24 hours by oligomycine (OM) and 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG). After 24 hours, the effect of energy depletion on telomerase splicing pattern was evaluated using RT-PCR. Indeed, in both treated and untargeted cells, nitric oxide (NO) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured. ATP was depleted in treated cells by 43.9% compared with control group. We observed a slight decrease in NO levels ( P = 0.09) and vWF ( P = 0.395) in the setting of 49.36% ATP depletion. In both groups, no telomerase gene expression was seen. Telomerase and housekeeping gene expression were found in positive control group (colon cancer tissue) and sample tissue. The absence of telomerase gene expression in HUVECs might be due to the mortality of these cells or the low level of telomerase gene expression in these cells under normal circumstances.

  4. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Removal Efficiency for Ventilation Variants in Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboora Khatoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The realization of a comfortable thermal environment with low energy consumption and improved ventilation in a car has become the aim of manufacturers in recent decades. Novel ventilation concepts with more flexible cabin usage and layouts are appealing owing to their potential for improving passenger comfort and driving power. In this study, three variant ventilation concepts are investigated and their performance is compared with respect to energy efficiency and human comfort of the driver and passenger in front and a child in the rear compartment. FLUENT 16.0, a commercial three-dimensional (3D software, are used for the simulation. A surface-to-surface radiation model is applied under transient conditions for a car parked in summer conditions with its engine in the running condition. The results for the standard Fanger’s model and modified Fanger’s model are analyzed, discussed, and compared for the driver, passenger, and child. The modified Fanger’s model determines the thermal sensation on the basis of mean arterial pressure.

  5. Recession and Work-Life Balance Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Pranav Naithani

    2010-01-01

    Over the last six decades work-life balance emerged as an important human resource management aspect for employers. Globally, a wide gamut of work-life balance facilities is being provided by a large number of organisations. The recent economic downturn has witnessed a sudden interruption in the spread and growth of work-life balance facilities at the organisational level. This paper presents the key recessionary reasons which have negatively influenced employee work-life balance. Further, im...

  6. Analysis of human factors on urban heat island and simulation of urban thermal environment in Lanzhou city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinghu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) effect is a global phenomenon caused by urbanization. Because of the number and complexity of factors contributing to the urban thermal environment, traditional statistical methods are insufficient for acquiring data and analyzing the impact of human activities on the thermal environment, especially for identifying which factors are dominant. The UHI elements were extracted using thermal infrared remote sensing data to retrieve the land surface temperatures of Lanzhou city, and then adopting an object-oriented fractal net evolution approach to create an image segmentation of the land surface temperature (LST). The effects of urban expansion on the urban thermal environment were quantitatively analyzed. A comprehensive evaluation system of the urban thermal environment was constructed, the spatial pattern of the urban thermal environment in Lanzhou was assessed, and principal influencing factors were identified using spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) and multisource spatial data. We found that in the last 20 years, the UHI effect in Lanzhou city has been strengthened, as the UHI ratio index has increased from 0.385 in 1993 to 0.579 in 2001 and to 0.653 in 2011. The UHI expansion had a spatiotemporal consistency with the urban expansion. The four major factors that affect the spatial pattern of the urban thermal environment in Lanzhou can be ranked in the following order: landscape configuration, anthropogenic heat release, urban construction, and gradient from man-made to natural land cover. These four together accounted for 91.27% of the variance. A linear model was thus successfully constructed, implying that SPCA is helpful in identifying major contributors to UHI. Regression analysis indicated that the instantaneous LST and the simulated thermal environment have a good linear relationship, the correlation coefficient between the two reached 0.8011, highly significant at a confidence level of 0.001.

  7. A tetravalent vaccine comprising hexon-chimeric adenoviruses elicits balanced protective immunity against human adenovirus types 3, 7, 14 and 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xingui; Jiang, Zaixue; Fan, Ye; Qiu, Shuyan; Zhang, Ling; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Zhichao; Liu, Tiantian; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Xiaomei; Zhong, Baimao; Zhou, Rong

    2018-04-04

    Human adenovirus (Ad) species B contains several of the most important types associated with acute respiratory diseases, Ad3, -7, -14 and -55, which often lead to severe lower respiratory tract diseases and epidemic outbreaks. However, there is currently no Ad vaccine approved for general use. The major capsid protein, hexon, is the primary determinant recognized by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In this study, four recombinant Ads that have the same genome sequence as Ad3 with the exception of the hexon genes, rAd3EGFP, rAd3H7, rAd3H14 and rAd3H55, were combined as a tetravalent Ad candidate vaccine against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55. The replication efficiencies of chimeric rAd3H14, rAd3H7 and rAd3H55 were similar to that of rAd3EGFP. Recombinant rAd3EGFP, rAd3H7, rAd3H14 and rAd3H55 induced high titers of NAbs against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55, respectively, which were comparable to those induced by wild-type Ads. The mixture of the four recombinant Ads in equal proportions, rAdMix, or rAdMix inactivated by β-propiolactone, induced balanced NAb responses against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55 in mice without reciprocal immunological interference. In co-culture the four recombinant Ads replicated with a similar efficiency without reciprocal inhibition, and the progeny virions may be chimeric. Purified co-culture, rAdMix-C, also elicited balanced immune responses, suggesting a simple method for multivalent vaccine production. These results indicate the possible advantage of the four Ads as a live combined vaccine. Importantly, pre-immunization with rAdMix conferred protection against Ad3, -7, -14 or -55 challenge in mice in vivo. Thus, this research provides a novel tetravalent Ad vaccine candidate against Ad3, -7, -14 and -55. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  9. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeans Matthew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living conditions. Methods/Design The Bath Breakfast Project (BBP is a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of daily breakfast consumption relative to extended fasting on energy balance and human health. Approximately 70 men and women will undergo extensive laboratory-based assessments of their acute metabolic responses under fasted and post-prandial conditions, to include: resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, dietary-induced thermogenesis and systemic concentrations of key metabolites/hormones. Physiological and psychological indices of appetite will also be monitored both over the first few hours of the day (i.e. whether fed or fasted and also following a standardised test lunch used to assess voluntary energy intake under controlled conditions. Baseline measurements of participants' anthropometric characteristics (e.g. DEXA will be recorded prior to intervention, along with an oral glucose tolerance test and acquisition of adipose tissue samples to determine expression of key genes and estimates of tissue-specific insulin action. Participants will then be randomly assigned either to a group prescribed an energy intake of ≥3000 kJ before 1100 each day or a group to extend their overnight fast by abstaining from ingestion of energy-providing nutrients until 1200 each day, with all laboratory-based measurements followed-up 6 weeks later. Free-living assessments of energy intake (via direct weighed food diaries and energy expenditure (via

  10. Critical role of heat shock protein 27 in bufalin-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcomas: a proteomic-based research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-biao Xie

    Full Text Available Bufalin is the primary component of the traditional Chinese herb "Chan Su". Evidence suggests that this compound possesses potent anti-tumor activities, although the exact molecular mechanism(s is unknown. Our previous study showed that bufalin inhibited growth of human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and U2OS/MTX300 in culture. Therefore, this study aims to further clarify the in vitro and in vivo anti-osteosarcoma effects of bufalin and its molecular mechanism of action. We found bufalin inhibited both methotrexate (MTX sensitive and resistant human osteosarcoma cell growth and induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Using a comparative proteomics approach, 24 differentially expressed proteins following bufalin treatment were identified. In particular, the level of an anti-apoptotic protein, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27, decreased remarkably. The down-regulation of Hsp27 and alterations of its partner signaling molecules (the decrease in p-Akt, nuclear NF-κB p65, and co-immunoprecipitated cytochrome c/Hsp27 were validated. Hsp27 over-expression protected against bufalin-induced apoptosis, reversed the dephosphorylation of Akt and preserved the level of nuclear NF-κB p65 and co-immunoprecipitated Hsp27/cytochrome c. Moreover, bufalin inhibited MTX-resistant osteosarcoma xenograft growth, and a down-regulation of Hsp27 in vivo was observed. Taken together, bufalin exerted potent anti-osteosarcoma effects in vitro and in vivo, even in MTX resistant osteosarcoma cells. The down-regulation of Hsp27 played a critical role in bufalin-induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Bufalin may have merit to be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for osteosarcoma, particularly in MTX-resistant groups.

  11. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  12. Analysis of a self-propelling sheet with heat transfer through non-isothermal fluid in an inclined human cervical canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walait, Ahsan; Siddiqui, A M; Rana, M A

    2018-02-13

    The present theoretical analysis deals with biomechanics of the self-propulsion of a swimming sheet with heat transfer through non-isothermal fluid filling an inclined human cervical canal. Partial differential equations arising from the mathematical modeling of the proposed model are solved analytically. Flow variables like pressure gradient, propulsive velocity, fluid velocity, time mean flow rate, fluid temperature, and heat-transfer coefficients are analyzed for the pertinent parameters. Striking features of the pumping characteristics are explored. Propulsive velocity of the swimming sheet becomes faster for lower Froude number, higher Reynolds number, and for a vertical channel. Temperature and peak value of the heat-transfer coefficients below the swimming sheet showed an increase by the increment of Brinkmann number, inclination, pressure difference over wavelength, and Reynolds number whereas these quantities decrease with increasing Froude number. Aforesaid parameters have shown opposite effects on the peak value of the heat-transfer coefficients below and above the swimming sheet. Relevance of the current results to the spermatozoa transport with heat transfer through non-isothermal cervical mucus filling an inclined human cervical canal is also explored.

  13. Induction of CTGF by TGF-β1 in normal and radiation enteritis human smooth muscle cells: Smad/Rho balance and therapeutic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydont, Valerie; Mathe, Denis; Bourgier, Celine; Abdelali, Jalil; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream effector Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2), are well known fibrogenic activators and we previously showed that the Rho/ROCK pathway controls CTGF expression in intestinal smooth muscle cells isolated from patients with delayed radiation enteritis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the balance between Smad and Rho signalling pathways in the TGF-β1 CTGF induction and modulation of radiation-induced fibrogenic differentiation after addition of pravastatin, an inhibitor of Rho isoprenylation. Patients and methods: Primary human smooth muscle cells isolated from normal (N-SMC) or radiation enteritis (RE-SMC) biopsies were incubated with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml). Induction of CTGF, as well as nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of phospho-Smad2/3, Smad2/3 and Smad4 were analysed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Smad DNA binding was assessed by EMSA and Rho activation was measured by pull-down assay. Results: After TGF-β1 addition, Smads were translocated to the nucleus in both cell types. Nuclear accumulation of Smad as well as their DNA-binding activity were higher in N-SMC than in RE-SMC, whereas the opposite was observed for Rho activation, suggesting a main involvement of Rho pathway in sustained fibrogenic differentiation. This hypothesis was further supported by the antifibrotic effect observed in vitro after cell treatment with pravastatin (i.e. decreased expression of CTGF, TGF-β1 and Collagen Iα2). Conclusions: Our results suggest that TGF-β1-induced CTGF transactivation mainly depends on the Smad pathway in N-SMC, whereas in RE-SMC, Smad and Rho pathways are involved. Inhibition of Rho activity by pravastatin alters fibrogenic differentiation in vitro which opens up new therapeutic perspectives

  14. Influence of exogenous lactoferrin on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and molecular profile of hormone receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutskii, I V; Lukianova, N Y; Storchai, D M; Burlaka, A P; Shvets, Y V; Borikun, T V; Todor, I M; Lukashevich, V S; Rudnichenko, Y A; Chekhun, V F

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of cytotoxic activity and pro-/antioxidant effect of lactoferrin on hormone receptor-positive and receptor-negative breast cancer cells in vitro. The study was performed on receptor-positive (MCF-7, T47D) and receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cell lines. Immunocytochemical staining, flow cytometry, low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance, and the Comet assay were used. Upon treatment with lactoferrin, the increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.05), NO generation rate by inducible NO-synthase (p < 0.05) and the level of "free" iron (p < 0.05) were observed. Moreover, the effects of lactoferrin were more pronounced in receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. These changes resulted in increased expression of proapoptotic Bax protein (p < 0.05), reduced expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein (p < 0.05) and level of not-oxidized mitochondrial cardiolipin (1.4-1.7-fold, p < 0.05). This, in turn, caused an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells (by 14-24%, p < 0.05). Cytotoxic effects of lactoferrin were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of DNA in the comet tail and blocking cell cycle at G2/M phase, especially in receptor-negative cell lines. The study showed that exogenous lactoferrin causes a violation of an antioxidant balance by increasing the level of ROS, "free" iron and NO generation rate, resalting in the blocking of cell cycle at G2/M-phase and apoptosis of malignant cells.

  15. A Human-machine-interface Integrating Low-cost Sensors with a Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation System for Post-stroke Balance Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepesh; Das, Abhijit; Lahiri, Uttama; Dutta, Anirban

    2016-04-12

    A stroke is caused when an artery carrying blood from heart to an area in the brain bursts or a clot obstructs the blood flow to brain thereby preventing delivery of oxygen and nutrients. About half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability. Innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are urgently required to reduce long-term disability. The ability of the nervous system to reorganize its structure, function and connections as a response to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli is called neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is involved in post-stroke functional disturbances, but also in rehabilitation. Beneficial neuroplastic changes may be facilitated with non-invasive electrotherapy, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and sensory electrical stimulation (SES). NMES involves coordinated electrical stimulation of motor nerves and muscles to activate them with continuous short pulses of electrical current while SES involves stimulation of sensory nerves with electrical current resulting in sensations that vary from barely perceivable to highly unpleasant. Here, active cortical participation in rehabilitation procedures may be facilitated by driving the non-invasive electrotherapy with biosignals (electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG)) that represent simultaneous active perception and volitional effort. To achieve this in a resource-poor setting, e.g., in low- and middle-income countries, we present a low-cost human-machine-interface (HMI) by leveraging recent advances in off-the-shelf video game sensor technology. In this paper, we discuss the open-source software interface that integrates low-cost off-the-shelf sensors for visual-auditory biofeedback with non-invasive electrotherapy to assist postural control during balance rehabilitation. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept on healthy volunteers.

  16. Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

    2011-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards.

  17. Variable Temperature Equipment for a Commercial Magnetic Susceptibility Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Variable temperature equipment for the magnetic susceptibility balance MSB-MK1 of Sherwood Scientific, Ltd., is described. The sample temperature is controlled with streaming air heated by water in a heat exchanger. Whereas the balance as sold commercially can be used only for room temperature measurements, the setup we designed extends the…

  18. Nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  20. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  1. A Simple Heat of Crystallization Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nevers, Noel

    1991-01-01

    A demonstration used in a heat and material balances class that explains how a reusable heat pack works is described. An initial homework problem or exam question is provided with its solution. A discussion of the solution is included. (KR)

  2. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Smeets, A.; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  3. Balance equations for a relativistic plasma. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebenstreit, H.

    1983-01-01

    Relativistic power moments of the four-momentum are decomposed according to a macroscopic four-velocity. The thus obtained quantities are identified as relativistic generalization of the nonrelativistic orthogonal moments, e.g. diffusion flow, heat flow, pressure, etc. From the relativistic Boltzmann equation we then derive balance equations for these quantities. Explicit expressions for the relativistic mass conservation, energy balance, pressure balance, heat flow balance are presented. The weak relativistic limit is discussed. The derivation of higher order balance equations is sketched. (orig.)

  4. The heat spells of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Jáuregui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The warning of urban air has been documented to increase in intensity and area as cities grow (Oke, 1982. As the cities grow the so called “heat island” tends to increase the risk of more frequent heat waves as well as their impacts (IPCC, 2001. Threshold values to define a heat wave vary geographically. For the case of Mexico City located in a high inland valley in the tropics, values above 30° C (daily maximum observed for three or more consecutive days and 25° C or more as mean temperature have been adopted to define the phenomenon. These events occur at the end of the dry season during March to May when afternoon relative humidity is quite low (∼20% and thus reducing the stress. Maximum temperatute data from the Observatory of the National Meteorological Service were used. Results show that during the second half of the XXth century the frequency of heat waves as defined above has doubled from 6 events/decade to 16/decade in the 1990s with a marked increase in the last third of the last century when population of the city grew from 8.5 to 18.5 million (CONAPO, 2000. During this time the average urban/rural contrast grew considerably from about 6° C to 10° C (Jáuregui, 1986. While these heat waves may be considered as “mild”they receive attention from the media and prompt actions by the population to relieve the heat stress. Application of heat indices based on the human energy balance (PET and PMV result in moderate to strong heat stress during these events. Because climate change is expected to raise nighttime minimum temperatures more than daytime highs (as suggested by the IPCC, 2001 urban heat islands and their related heat waves are likely to be a significant health concern in days to come in large urban centers especially in the developing countries.

  5. Human psychophysics and rodent spinal neurones exhibit peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain in the UVB and UVB heat rekindling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jessica; Sikandar, Shafaq; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Translational research is key to bridging the gaps between preclinical findings and the patients, and a translational model of inflammatory pain will ideally induce both peripheral and central sensitisation, more effectively mimicking clinical pathophysiology in some chronic inflammatory conditions. We conducted a parallel investigation of two models of inflammatory pain, using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation alone and UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. We used rodent electrophysiology and human quantitative sensory testing to characterise nociceptive processing in the peripheral and central nervous systems in both models. In both species, UVB irradiation produces peripheral sensitisation measured as augmented evoked activity of rat dorsal horn neurones and increased perceptual responses of human subjects to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In both species, UVB with heat rekindling produces central sensitisation. UVB irradiation alone and UVB with heat rekindling are translational models of inflammation that produce peripheral and central sensitisation, respectively. The predictive value of laboratory models for human pain processing is crucial for improving translational research. The discrepancy between peripheral and central mechanisms of pain is an important consideration for drug targets, and here we describe two models of inflammatory pain that involve ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which can employ peripheral and central sensitisation to produce mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats and humans. We use electrophysiology in rats to measure the mechanically- and thermally-evoked activity of rat spinal neurones and quantitative sensory testing to assess human psychophysical responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation in a model of UVB irradiation and in a model of UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. Our results demonstrate peripheral sensitisation in both species driven by UVB irradiation, with a clear mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of

  6. Inhibition of inducible heat shock protein-70 (hsp72 enhances bortezomib-induced cell death in human bladder cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi

    Full Text Available The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade is a promising new agent for bladder cancer therapy, but inducible cytoprotective mechanisms may limit its potential efficacy. We used whole genome mRNA expression profiling to study the effects of bortezomib on stress-induced gene expression in a panel of human bladder cancer cell lines. Bortezomib induced strong upregulation of the inducible HSP70 isoforms HSPA1A and HSPA1B isoforms of Hsp72 in 253J B-V and SW780 (HSPA1A(high cells, but only induced the HSPA1B isoform in UM-UC10 and UM-UC13 (HSPA1A(low cells. Bortezomib stimulated the binding of heat shock factor-1 (HSF1 to the HSPA1A promoter in 253JB-V but not in UM-UC13 cells. Methylation-specific PCR revealed that the HSPA1A promoter was methylated in the HSPA1A(low cell lines (UM-UC10 and UM-UC13, and exposure to the chromatin demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored HSPA1A expression. Overexpression of Hsp72 promoted bortezomib resistance in the UM-UC10 and UM-UC13 cells, whereas transient knockdown of HSPA1B further sensitized these cells to bortezomib, and exposure to the chemical HSF1 inhibitor KNK-437 promoted bortezomib sensitivity in the 253J B-V cells. Finally, shRNA-mediated stable knockdown of Hsp72 in 253J B-V promoted sensitivity to bortezomib in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Together, our results provide proof-of-concept for using Hsp72 inhibitors to promote bortezomib sensitivity in bladder cancers and suggest that selective targeting of HSPA1B could produce synthetic lethality in tumors that display HSPA1A promoter methylation.

  7. Comparative Survival Rates of Human-Derived Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius Strains during Heat Treatment and Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, G. E.; O'Sullivan, E.; Kelly, J.; Auty, M. A. E.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Collins, J. K.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2000-01-01

    Spray drying of skim milk was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118, which are human-derived strains with probiotic potential. Our initial experiments revealed that NFBC 338 is considerably more heat resistant in 20% (wt/vol) skim milk than UCC 118 is; the comparable decimal reduction times were 11.1 and 1.1 min, respectively, at 59°C. An air outlet temperature of 80 to 85°C was optimal for spray drying; these conditions resulted in powders with moisture contents of 4.1 to 4.2% and viable counts of 3.2 × 109 CFU/g for NFBC 338 and 5.2 × 107 CFU/g for UCC 118. Thus, L. paracasei NFBC 338 survived better than L. salivarius UCC 118 during spray drying; similar results were obtained when we used confocal scanning laser microscopy and LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability staining. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the probiotic lactobacilli were located primarily in the powder particles. Although both spray-dried cultures appeared to be stressed, as shown by increased sensitivity to NaCl, bacteriocin production by UCC 118 was not affected by the process, nor was the activity of the bacteriocin peptide. The level of survival of NFBC 338 remained constant at ∼1 × 109 CFU/g during 2 months of powder storage at 4°C, while a decline in the level of survival of approximately 1 log (from 7.2 × 107 to 9.5 × 106 CFU/g) was observed for UCC 118 stored under the same conditions. However, survival of both Lactobacillus strains during powder storage was inversely related to the storage temperature. Our data demonstrate that spray drying may be a cost-effective way to produce large quantities of some probiotic cultures. PMID:10831444

  8. Cloning, characterization, and heat stress-induced redistribution of a protein homologous to human hsp27 in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Li; Bryantsev, Anton L.; Chechenova, Maria B.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Hsp27 is a small heat shock protein (shsp) regulating stress tolerance and increasingly thought to play roles in tissue homeostasis and differentiation. The zebrafish Danio rerio is an important model for the study of developmental processes, but little is known regarding shsps in this animal. Here, we report the sequence, expression, regulation, and function of a zebrafish protein (zfHsp27) homologous to human Hsp27. zfHsp27 contains three conserved phosphorylatable serines and a cysteine important for regulation of apoptosis, but it lacks much of a C-terminal tail domain and shows low homology in two putative actin interacting domains that are features of mammalian Hsp27. zfHsp27 mRNA is most abundant in adult skeletal muscle and heart and is upregulated during early embryogenesis. zfHsp27 expressed in mammalian fibroblasts was phosphorylated in response to heat stress and anisomycin, and this phosphorylation was prevented by treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Expression of zfHsp27 and human Hsp27 in mammalian fibroblasts promoted a similar degree of tolerance to heat stress. zfHsp27 fusion proteins entered the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton of heat stressed cells in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. These results reveal conservation in regulation and function of mammalian and teleost Hsp27 proteins and define zebrafish as a new model for the study of Hsp27 function

  9. Effect of the Evaporative Cooling on the Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in a Greenhouse under Arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal sensation and heat stress were evaluated in a plastic greenhouse, with and without evaporative cooling, under arid climatic conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Suitable thermal comfort and heat stress scales were selected for the evaluation. Experiments were conducted in hot sunny days to measure the required parameters (i.e., the dry and wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature, natural wet bulb temperature, and solar radiation flux in the greenhouse. The results showed that in the uncooled greenhouse, workers are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel very hot most of the day time; they are safe from heat stress risk and would feel comfortable during night. An efficient evaporative cooling is necessary during the day to reduce heat stress and to improve the comfort conditions and is not necessary at night. In the cooled greenhouse, workers can do any activity: except at around noon they should follow a proposed working schedule, in which the different types of work were scheduled along the daytimes based on the heat stress value. To avoid heat stress and to provide comfort conditions in the greenhouses, the optimum ranges of relative humidity and air temperature are 48–55% and 24–28°C, respectively.

  10. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 60 GHz Millimeter-Wavelength Radiation on the Genotoxicity and Heat Shock Protein (Hsp Expression of Cells Derived from Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Koyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T and human lens epithelial (SRA01/04 cells derived from the human eye were exposed to 60 gigahertz (GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation for 24 h. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN frequency in cells exposed to 60 GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation at 1 mW/cm2 compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls. The MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h provided positive controls. The comet assay, used to detect DNA strand breaks, and heat shock protein (Hsp expression also showed no statistically significant effects of exposure. These results indicate that exposure to millimeter-wavelength radiation has no effect on genotoxicity in human eye cells.

  11. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Howard, Luke [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hales, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kunkle, Rick [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Gordon, Andy [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Spencer, Melinda [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-02-23

    This final Building America Partnership report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing.

  12. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  13. UV dependent vitamin D syntheses. UV exposure time balancing for optimum production of the vitamins D3 status in the human body. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuschke, P.; Lehmann, B.; Pueschel, A.; Roensch, H.

    2012-01-01

    UV-dependent vitamin D 3 synthesis - balancing of UV exposure time and the production of an optimal vitamin D 3 status in men The adverse health effects on human skin and eyes by UV radiation have been well known for years. They are known to the public, too. Increased exposures by the UV-B fraction of solar radiation cause e.g. sun burn as an acute skin reaction or an increased risk on skin cancer as a chronic effect. Radiation of the same spectral UV-B range is necessary to induce the essential vitamin D metabolism in men. The UV-induced vitamin D synthesis in the skin supplies the body with more than 90 % while our typical nutrition contributes no more than 10 %. These photobiological effects are diametrically opposed. Therefore, up to now there are contradictory recommendations to the public concerning the health effects of solar UV exposure. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative relations of UV exposure and the vitamin D status in men taking into account different conditions in the population. In result, well-balanced recommendations on optimal UV exposures for the different fractions of the population should be elaborated, realizing health protection aspects against detrimental UV effects. A literature survey (updated in 2011) summarizes the current knowledge on the vitamin D metabolism, on the effects of the hormone vitamin D and on the stage of the current discussion on the optimal vitamin D status. In a number of studies of this project the effects of UV exposure on the vitamin D status (25OH-vitamin D 3 und 1,25OH-vitamin D 3 ) were investigated. Exposure parameters were the photobiologically effective UV dose (with respect to the minimal erythema dose MED = individual sun burn dose in each investigated volunteer) and the extent of the exposed skin area: face and hands (like everyday conditions) or whole body respectively. Serial UV exposures were applied by natural solar UV radiation or by simulated solar

  14. Fall proof: improving mobility and balance Elizabeth Best-Martini Fall proof: improving mobility and balance and Kim A Botenhagen-Di Genova Human Kinetics £24.50 0 73603 687 3 0736036873 Debra Rose Human Kinetics £38 0 73604 088 9 0736040889.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    A structured balance and mobility-training programme specifically designed to reduce physical frailty and the rising incidence of falls among older people. This practical manual blends theory into practical applications and covers an introduction to the body systems, balance assessments and a discussion of contemporary motor learning principles. Tel: Customer Services 0113 255 5665. Email: hk@hkeurope.com.

  15. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3 m x 3 m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m 2 . The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m 2 resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m 2 to 5 + kW/m 2 (exposure times from 25 s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m 2 and 5 kW/m 2 range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m 2 for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m 2 (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m 2 average heat flux

  16. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  17. Neural and non-neural control of skin blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in the heat stressed human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibasaki, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    as an absence of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during a whole-body heat stress. Upon this confirmation, adenosine was perfused through one of the microdialysis probes to increase skin blood flow similar to that of the unblocked site. After internal temperature increased approximately 0.7 degrees C......During heat stress, isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise causes cutaneous vasoconstriction, but it remains controversial whether neural mechanisms are responsible for this observation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cutaneous vasoconstriction during IHG exercise in heat...... stressed individuals occurs via a neural mechanism. An axillary nerve blockade was performed to block efferent nerve traffic to the left forearm in seven healthy subjects. Two intradermal microdialysis probes were placed within forearm skin of the blocked area. Forearm skin blood flow was measured by laser...

  18. Reduced heat shock response in human mononuclear cells during aging and its association with polymorphisms in HSP70 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in heat shock response (HSR) were studied in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) collected from young (mean age = 22.6 +/- 1.7 years) and middle-aged (mean age = 56.3 +/- 4.7 years) subjects after 1 hour of heat shock at 42 degrees C. Genotype-specific HSR...... was measured by genotyping the subjects for 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A(A-110C), HSPA1B(A1267G), and HSPA1L(T2437C), 1 each in the 3 HSP70 genes. A significant age-related decrease in the induction of Hsp70 occurred after heat shock in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The noninducible...

  19. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  20. Work-life balance can benefit business during financial crisis and austerity: Human resources (HR) must convince management of the need for a flexible approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ayudhya, UCN; Prouska, R; Lewis, S

    2015-01-01

    Is there a place for work life balance (WLB) initiatives and practices in times of austerity? We believe that WLB initiatives are good for business and a good way of managing recession and austerity. \\ud \\ud Three studies -one in the UK and two in South Europe – point\\ud to the positive impact of WLB initiatives for business during times of financial crisis.

  1. Validity and reliability of wii fit balance board for the assessment of balance of healthy young adults and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chang, Wan-Yi; Lee, Chia-Lun; Feng, Chi-Yen

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] Balance is an integral part of human ability. The smart balance master system (SBM) is a balance test instrument with good reliability and validity, but it is expensive. Therefore, we modified a Wii Fit balance board, which is a convenient balance assessment tool, and analyzed its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy young adults and 20 elderly people, and administered 3 balance tests. The correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation of both instruments were analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in the 3 tests between the Wii Fit balance board and the SBM. The Wii Fit balance board had a good intraclass correlation (0.86-0.99) for the elderly people and positive correlations (r = 0.58-0.86) with the SBM. [Conclusions] The Wii Fit balance board is a balance assessment tool with good reliability and high validity for elderly people, and we recommend it as an alternative tool for assessing balance ability.

  2. Heat extraction from HTGR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of an HTGR reactor energy balance showed that steam reforming of natural gas or methane is the most suitable process of utilizing the high-temperature heat. Basic mathematical relations are derived allowing to perform a general energy balance of the link between steam reforming and reactor heat output. The results of the calculation show that the efficiency of the entire reactor system increases with increasing proportion of heat output for steam reforming as against heat output for the steam generator. This proportion, however, is limited with the output helium temperature from steam reforming. It is thus always necessary to use part of the reactor heat output for the steam cycle involving electric power generation or low-potential heat generation. (Z.M.)

  3. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  4. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  5. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  6. Churchill: an ultra-fast, deterministic, highly scalable and balanced parallelization strategy for the discovery of human genetic variation in clinical and