WorldWideScience

Sample records for human heat balance

  1. Heat-balance Thermal Protection with Heat Pipes for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat-balance thermal protection is non-ablating thermal protection for leading edge of hypersonic vehicle. Heat will be quickly transferred from high aerodynamic heating area to low aerodynamic heating area, where the energy will be released by radiation. The temperature of high aerodynamic heating area could be reduced to protect the designed structure from being burned down. Heat-balance thermal protection is summarized. The research on heat-pipe for heat-balance thermal protection is introduced.

  2. Heat-balance Thermal Protection with Heat Pipes for Hypersonic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Yisheng; Wei Yuechuan; Duan Dongli; Zhan Renjun

    2016-01-01

    Heat-balance thermal protection is non-ablating thermal protection for leading edge of hypersonic vehicle. Heat will be quickly transferred from high aerodynamic heating area to low aerodynamic heating area, where the energy will be released by radiation. The temperature of high aerodynamic heating area could be reduced to protect the designed structure from being burned down. Heat-balance thermal protection is summarized. The research on heat-pipe for heat-balance thermal protection is intro...

  3. Mass and heat balance approach for oil sand flowsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, A.I.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2009-07-01

    Plant flowsheet mass balance is carried out in many industrial applications to evaluate overall plant performance and to optimize plant recoveries. This information is necessary for improving the economics of the operation and improving profitability. Flowsheet mass balance begins with the collection of plant stream samples using well-known sampling schemes. Stream samples collected using ASTM sampling standards are then analyzed using ASTM analytical techniques to characterize stream components which often contain sampling and analytical errors. The paper presented an approach for oil sands flowsheet mass and heat balance where different objective functions were presented depending on the nature of the stream error distributions. Hot water or steam is used to heat plant streams in oil sands extraction and froth treatment plants. As such, an approach is needed to integrate mass and heat balance. The mass and heat balance approach proposed in this paper integrated mass and heat balance and optimized the deviations/errors between the raw/observed and estimated data sets. The estimated data set was constrained to satisfy mass and heat balance conditions around the flowsheet internal nodes. Stream normalization and stream normalization conditions were forced. The relationship between the flowsheet independent, dependent, and reference streams were identified. The number of the independent stream mass splits was expressed in terms of the number of streams, number of nodes, and number of reference streams. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  6. A New Determination of Io's Heat Flow Using Diurnal Heat Balance Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J. R.; Rathbun, J. A.; McEwen, A. S.; Pearl, J. C.; Bastos, A.; Andrade, J.; Correia, M.; Barros, S.

    2002-01-01

    We use heat balance arguments to obtain a new estimate of Io's heat flow that does not depend on assumptions about the temperatures of its thermal anomalies. Our estimated heat flow is somewhat less than 2.2 +/- 0.9 W/sq m. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Water and heat balances in Doñana wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramos-Fuertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of the study of water balance and surface heat balance in the Doñana marshlands. The study was based on a broad base of hydrometeorological data taken at 10 minute intervals from 2006 to 2011 by a network of six measuring stations located in areas of vegetation-free marsh. This information is used to characterize, at different time scales, the thermal behavior of the marsh by analyzing its hydrometeorology centering on the surface heat fluxes. Thus, we have modeled and analyzed the heat flux between the water and flooded soil and the processes of heat transfer between the water surface and the atmosphere. Special attention has been paid to evaporation, on which the marsh draining process depends.

  8. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  9. Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2016-04-01

    Humans maintain a relatively constant core temperature through the dynamic balance between endogenous heat production and heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. In response to metabolic or environmental disturbances to heat balance, the autonomic nervous system initiates cutaneous vasodilation and eccrine sweating to facilitate higher rates of dry (primarily convection and radiation) and evaporative transfer from the body surface; however, absolute heat losses are ultimately governed by the properties of the skin and the environment. Over the duration of a heat exposure, the cumulative imbalance between heat production and heat dissipation leads to body heat storage, but the consequent change in core temperature, which has implications for health and safety in occupational and athletic settings particularly among certain clinical populations, involves a complex interaction between changes in body heat content and the body's morphological characteristics (mass, surface area, and tissue composition) that collectively determine the body's thermal inertia. The aim of this review is to highlight the biophysical aspects of human core temperature regulation by outlining the principles of human energy exchange and examining the influence of body morphology during exercise and environmental heat stress. An understanding of the biophysical factors influencing core temperature will enable researchers and practitioners to better identify and treat individuals/populations most vulnerable to heat illness and injury during exercise and extreme heat events. Further, appropriate guidelines may be developed to optimize health, safety, and work performance during heat stress.

  10. Thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Eligiusz

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents new type of thermal flow converter with the pulse frequency output. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of pulse frequency modulator with thermal feedback loop, stabilizing temperature of sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures balancing of heat amount supplied in impulses to the sensor and heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output impulses is proportional to the heat transfer coefficient from sensor to environment. According to the King's law, the frequency of those impulses is a function of medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of presented solution is total integration of thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. Sensor and conditioning system are not the separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in form of thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The advantage of such system is easiness of converting the frequency signal to the digital form, without using any additional analogue-to-digital converters. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor input, which with use of standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into numerical value of high precision. Moreover, the frequency signal has higher resistance to interference than the voltage signal and may be transmitted to remote locations without the information loss.

  11. Heat Balance Analysis of EPS Products Shaping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is a part of research into the reduction of energy consumption in the production of EPSthrough the modernization of technological equipment used. This paper presents the results of research and analysis of heat transfer process between the water vapor that was provided to machine, the mold, the product and the environment. The paper shows the calculation of the heat balance of the production cycle for two types of mold: standard and modernized. The performance tests used an infrared imaging camera. The results were used to develop a computer image analysis and statistical analysis. This paper presents the main stages of the production process and the construction of technological equipment used, changing the mold surface temperature field during the production cycle and the structure of the heat balance for the mold and its instrumentation. It has been shown that the modernization of construction of technological equipment has reduced the temperature field and as a consequence of decreased of demand for process steam production cycle.

  12. Heat Balance Analysis of EPS Products Shaping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The work is a part of research into the reduction of energy consumption in the production of EPSthrough the modernization of technological equipment used. This paper presents the results of research and analysis of heat transfer process between the water vapor that was provided to machine, the mold, the product and the environment. The paper shows the calculation of the heat balance of the production cycle for two types of mold: standard and modernized. The performance tests used an infrared imaging camera. The results were used to develop a computer image analysis and statistical analysis. This paper presents the main stages of the production process and the construction of technological equipment used, changing the mold surface temperature field during the production cycle and the structure of the heat balance for the mold and its instrumentation. It has been shown that the modernization of construction of technological equipment has reduced the temperature field and as a consequence of decreased of demand for process steam production cycle.

  13. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

  14. The Impact of Anthropogenic Heat on Formation of Urban Heat Island and Energy Consumption Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shahmohamadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of anthropogenic heat on formation of urban heat island (UHI and also determines which factors can directly affect energy use in the city. It explores literally the conceptual framework of confliction between anthropogenic heat and urban structure, which produced UHI intensity and affected energy consumption balance. It then discusses how these two factors can be affected and gives implication to the city and then focuses on whether actions should be taken for balancing adaptation and mitigation of UHI effects. It will be concluded by making the three important strategies to minimise the impact of UHI on energy consumption: landscaping, using albedo materials on external surfaces of buildings and urban areas, and promoting natural ventilation.

  15. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  16. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  17. Integration of Heat-Pulse and Sensible Heat Balance Methods to Estimate Evaporation From Bare Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautz, A.; Smits, K. M.; Schulte, P.; Cihan, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    A critical component of the water cycle at local, regional and global scales is evaporation from soil. Because it is very difficult to measure soil evaporation and soil moisture in the field, with the exception of using a lysimeter for local measurements, numerous model based estimation methods have been proposed. Numerical approaches that attempt to estimate evaporation rates within the top several centimeters of soil often rely of empirical and semi-empirical methods. Another less well known method to determine evaporation relies on heat pulse sensors to measure soil temperature and thermal properties. This approach does not rely on knowledge of soil hydraulic properties, effectively removing the need of several common empirical methods to define the soil surface boundary condition. The objective of this study was to integrate both the heat-pulse and sensible heat balance methods into a non-isothermal multiphase flow model in order to define the boundary conditions at the land/atmosphere interface. This model was tested using precision experimental data collected under laboratory conditions and compared to more traditional numerical modeling approaches. Experimental data was generated in a two-dimensional soil tank containing an array of sensors that allowed soil temperature, soil moisture content, and relative humidity to be collected continuously and autonomously. The soil tank was placed within a wind tunnel test facility to insure that atmospheric conditions were carefully controlled and monitored throughout the duration of the experiment. Numerical results of the model using the heat pulse and sensible heat balance methods were compared to those generated using different, more traditional modeling approaches. Results demonstrate the applicability of incorporating the heat-pulse and sensible heat balance methods in numerical approaches. Further validation was provided through a comparison of the numerical results and independently determined experimental

  18. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  20. Application of heat-balance integral method to conjugate thermal explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilov Vasily

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate thermal explosion is an extension of the classical theory, proposed and studied recently by the author. The paper reports application of heat-balance integral method for developing phase portraits for systems undergoing conjugate thermal explosion. The heat-balance integral method is used as an averaging method reducing partical differential equation problem to the set of first-order ordinary differential equations. The latter reduced problem allows natural interpretation in appropriately chosen phase space. It is shown that, with the help of heat-balance integral technique, conjugate thermal explosion problem can be described with a good accuracy by the set of non-linear first-order differential equations involving complex error function. Phase trajectories are presented for typical regimes emerging in conjugate thermal explosion. Use of heat-balance integral as a spatial averaging method allows efficient description of system evolution to be developed.

  1. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau : surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Yaoming; Jia, Li; Wen, Jun

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imba

  2. Surface energy balance closure in an arid region: role of soil and heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Berkowicz, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The large soil heat fluxes in hot desert regions are very important in energy balance studies. Surface energy balance (SEB) observations, however, reveal that there is an imbalance in Surface flux measurements and that it is difficult to isolate those flux measurements causing the imbalance errors.

  3. Energy and water cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: surface energy balance and turbulent heat fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Y.; Jia, L.; Wen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imba

  4. Energy Balance and Operating Features of the Heat Accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Fiala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are described design and realization of a heat accumulator in the article which joins advantages and eliminates disadvantages of water and gravel accumulators. Inside the accumulator there are suppressed heat convection and conduction between layers of storage matter, so there is the temperature stratification along a height of such accumulator. The article deals with operating features as well.

  5. Sensible heat balance estimates of transient soil ice contents for freezing and thawing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil ice content is an important component for winter soil hydrology. The sensible heat balance (SHB) method using measurements from heat pulse probes (HPP) is a possible way to determine transient soil ice content. In a previous study, in situ soil ice contents estimates with the SHB method were in...

  6. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS is proposed for the estimation of atmospheric turbulent fluxes and evaporative fraction using satellite earth observation data, in combination with meteorological information at proper scales. SEBS consists of: a set of tools for the determination of the land surface physical parameters, such as albedo, emissivity, temperature, vegetation coverage etc., from spectral reflectance and radiance measurements; a model for the determination of the roughness length for heat transfer; and a new formulation for the determination of the evaporative fraction on the basis of energy balance at limiting cases. Four experimental data sets are used to assess the reliabilities of SEBS. Based on these case studies, SEBS has proven to be capable to estimate turbulent heat fluxes and evaporative fraction at various scales with acceptable accuracy. The uncertainties in the estimated heat fluxes are comparable to in-situ measurement uncertainties. Keywords: Surface energy balance, turbulent heat flux, evaporation, remote sensing

  7. Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capet, Xavier [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Ifremer, Plouzane (France)

    2012-07-15

    The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m{sup -2}) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular. (orig.)

  8. Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Roxy; V B Sumithranand; G Renuka

    2014-06-01

    Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, pre-monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon seasons. The diurnal variation is characterized by a cross-over from negative to positive values at 0700 h, occurrence of maximum around noon and return to negative values in the late evening. The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat flux * is estimated in all seasons. Daytime surface energy balance at the surface on wet and dry seasons is investigated. The average Bowen’s ratio during the wet and dry seasons were 0.541 and 0.515, respectively indicating that considerable evaporation takes place at the surface. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be 0.742 and 0.795 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil thermal convection was adopted to calculate the surface heat flux, the energy balance closure was found to be improved. Thus on the land surface under study, the soil vertical water movement is significant.

  9. Analysis of human standing balance by largest lyapunov exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Hongrui; Xiao, Jinzhuang; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals' standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.

  10. An Analysis of Turbulent Heat Fluxes and the Energy Balance During the REFLEX Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Christiaan van der

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three eddy covariance stations were installed at the Barrax experimental farm during the Land-Atmosphere Exchanges (REFLEX airborne training and measurement campaign to provide ground truth data of energy balance fluxes and vertical temperature and wind profiles. The energy balance closure ratio (EBR was 105% for a homogeneous camelina site, 86% at a sparse reforestation site, and 73% for a vineyard. We hypothesize that the lower closure in the last site was related to the limited fetch. Incorporating a vertical gradient of soil thermal properties decreased the RMSE of the energy balance at the camelina site by 16 W m-2. At the camelina site, eddy covariance estimates of sensible and latent heat fluxes could be reproduced well using mean vertical profiles of wind and temperature, provided that the Monin-Obukhov length is known. Measured surface temperature and sensible heat fluxes suggested high excess resistance for heat (kB-1 = 17.

  11. Analysis of a solidification interface stability Al - Cu by the heat balance integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Magiera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his thesis is the analysis of a planar interface solidification stability of alloys. The stability of a planar interface solidification is tested by means of solving the heat conduction equation for solids and liquid and a mass diffusion equation for liquid, under assumed boundary, initial and continuity conditions. The solidification equations are solved using the method of heat balance integral and the theorem of the derivative integrals, whose limitsdepend on the parameter.

  12. Heat Pumps in Private Residences used for Grid Balancing by Demand Response Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Increased production of renewable energy as wind energy will give a fluctuating production which requires flexible energy storages. Heat capacity in single-family houses with electrical heating using heat pumps represents a storage which can be used to balance the electricity supply. It is assumed....... The minimization results in a power consumption schedule and a temperature schedule for each house. A number of control structures are described aiming to obtain this optimum by communicating references to either house temperature or heat pump power or by offering the consumer an hour by hour price. By simulation...... the schemes are compared by there ability to time shift consumption and to avoid consumer discomfort. Additionally the necessary information exchange for the schemes is discussed. Comparisons indicate that it is possible to use heat pump heated private houses to move power consumption within a time interval...

  13. Quantification of sensory information in human balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der Herman; Koopman, Bart; Jacobs, Ron; Mergner, Thomas; Grootenboer, Henk

    1998-01-01

    A human balance control model is developed, which includes the different sensory systems as well as neural time delays. The model is based on optimal control theory. Platform perturbation experiments were done to quantify the precision of the different sensory systems by matching model predictions w

  14. The stem heat balance method to measure transpiration:Evaluation of a new sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The direct measurement of crop transpiration (Tcrop) under field conditions and throughout the growing season is difficult to obtain. An available method uses stem flow gauge sensors, based on the stem heat balance. The sensor consists of a small heater that is wrapped around the stem of the plant a...

  15. Sensible heat balance measurements of soil water evaporation beneath a maize canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the water budget in a cropped field. Few methods are available for continuous and independent measurement of soil water evaporation. A sensible heat balance (SHB) approach has recently been demonstrated for continuously determining soil water evapo...

  16. Simulated tempering based on global balance or detailed balance conditions: Suwa-Todo, heat bath, and Metropolis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Simulated tempering (ST) is a useful method to enhance sampling of molecular simulations. When ST is used, the Metropolis algorithm, which satisfies the detailed balance condition, is usually applied to calculate the transition probability. Recently, an alternative method that satisfies the global balance condition instead of the detailed balance condition has been proposed by Suwa and Todo. In this study, ST method with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations with ST are performed with three algorithms (the Metropolis, heat bath, and Suwa-Todo algorithms) to calculate the transition probability. Among the three algorithms, the Suwa-Todo algorithm yields the highest acceptance ratio and the shortest autocorrelation time. These suggest that sampling by a ST simulation with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is most efficient. In addition, because the acceptance ratio of the Suwa-Todo algorithm is higher than that of the Metropolis algorithm, the number of temperature states can be reduced by 25% for the Suwa-Todo algorithm when compared with the Metropolis algorithm.

  17. Heat Balance Determination for a Gas-Fired Furnace for Melting Non-Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A heat balance is usually carried out to determine the energy inflow and outflow for a thermal system and thus determine the overall system performance. The heat balance for a gas-fired furnace for melting non-ferrous metals has been determined. 50 kg of Aluminium charge was melted in the furnace and the in-furnace, walls, roof and exhaust gas temperatures were measured. Experimental measurements taken from the furnace operation were fed as input to a MATLAB program which was developed based on heat balance equations. The output from the program show that about 10% of the heat energy is lost through the walls and roof while 64% is lost through the exhaust gas. The thermal efficiency and melting efficiency determined for the furnace are 36.39 and 54.6%, respectively. The low energy loss through the walls and roof is due to use of appropriate wall thickness. The highest energy loss is through the exhaust, hence, the incorporation of a recuperator to make use of exhaust gas waste heat to preheat the combustion air or the metal charge or both, will further enhance furnace efficiency.

  18. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2016-01-01

    that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...

  19. Human genome and open source: balancing ethics and business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has been completed thanks to a massive use of computer techniques, as well as the adoption of the open-source business and research model by the scientists involved. This model won over the proprietary model and allowed a quick propagation and feedback of research results among peers. In this paper, the author will analyse some ethical and legal issues emerging by the use of such computer model in the Human Genome property rights. The author will argue that the Open Source is the best business model, as it is able to balance business and human rights perspectives.

  20. The Local Balances of Vorticity and Heat for Blocking Anticyclones in a Spectral General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Steven L.

    1986-07-01

    Blocking anticyclones that appear in perpetual January simulations of a spectral general circulation model are examined. Blocks in three geographical regions are studied: the North Pacific, the North Atlantic and western North America. Local time-averaged balances of vorticity and heat are evaluated for composite cases of blocking. The following common relationships emerged from these budgets.The time-mean divergence term is, in general, a flat-order term in the vorticity balance throughout the troposphere and its pattern over severe orography is closely related to the underlying topography. Above the surface layer, the horizontal advection of time-mean absolute vorticity by the mean wind mainly balances the divergence term with the net effect of the time-mean vorticity forcing being a tendency for the blocking pattern to propagate downstream. The transient eddy vorticity transports act to shift the block upstream and hence they mainly offset the downstream tendency due to the time-mean flow; the magnitude of the eddy vorticity term is typically one-third to one-half that of the divergence or advection terms alone. Frictional dissipation is negligible everywhere except near the ground where it primarily offsets the divergence term.The horizontal advection of the time-mean temperature field by the mean wind throughout the troposphere is a first-order term in the beat balance and is mainly responsible for maintaining the block's thermal perturbations; it is predominately balanced by adiabatic heating in the free troposphere and by diabatic heating near the surface. Transient eddy heat transports act to dissipate the block's thermal perturbations at all levels, while diabatic heating does not exhibit a systematic relationship with the temperature field at any level.A quasi-geostrophic diagnosis of the ageostrophic motion field suggests that dynamical processes which strongly affect the vorticity balance may be more important to the maintenance of model blocks than

  1. Evaluation of the heat balance constituents of the upper mixed layer in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, A. B.; Sukhonos, P. A.

    2016-11-01

    Different physical mechanisms which cause interannual and interdecadal temperature anomalies in the upper mixed layer (UML) of the North Atlantic are investigated using the data of ORA-S3 reanalysis for the period of 1959-2011. It is shown that the annual mean heat budget in UML is mainly caused by the balance between advective heat transfer and horizontal turbulent mixing (estimated as a residual term in the equation of thermal balance). The local UML temperature change and contribution from the heat fluxes on the lower boundary of the UML to the heat budget of the upper layer are insignificant for the time scale under consideration. The contribution of the heat fluxes on the upper UML boundary to the low-frequency variability of the upper layer temperature in the whole North Atlantic area is substantially less than 30%. Areas like the northwestern part of the Northern Subtropical Anticyclonic Gyre (NSAG), where their contribution exceeds 30-60%, are exceptions. The typical time scales of advective heat transfer variability are revealed. In the NSAG area, an interannual variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation dominates, while in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre, an interdecadal variability of advective transfers with periods of more than 30 years prevails.

  2. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  3. Human Ensuing Self-balancing Automaton Based on Motion Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kishhanth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Travel has become one among rudimentary necessities for every individual. Handling baggage plays an important role while travelling and for typical nomads it is cumbersome when heavy. With the proposed concept which will be dealt in this study, the baggage need not be pulled by us; it just follows us detecting our presence. Hence, the baggage is simply nothing but a robot. Prototype of motion sensor based human following robot that can balance itself in two wheels, thus behaving as a suitcase with intelligence and hence named Smart Suitcase. Concept of inverted pendulum helps in balancing. Regenerative power saving is established, when on its normal movement by the user wherein the saved power can be used for charging mobiles, laptops, torch lights etc. (low voltage applications. Passive infrared sensors fed with inbuilt intelligence in responding only to human presence helps this robot get even smarter.

  4. Minimization of operator-balance interactive warmup by use of an alter ego heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braudaway, D. W.

    Operator-equipment interaction is a well-known but frustrating part of many high precision measurements. Deterioration in performance of a high-precision balance required testing to identify the cause of the problem and to establish effectiveness of the solution. An unexpected result of the tests was a clear characterization of a significant operator-balance thermal interaction and verification of the empirically determined warmup requirement. The repeatability of the interactive effect inspired development of a replacement for the operator using an alter ego heat source.

  5. Effects of Wearing a Helmet on Thermal Balance While Cycling in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisolfi, C V; Rohlf, D P; Navarude, S N; Hayes, C L; Sayeed, S A

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Many cyclists refuse to wear helmets because they produce discomfort and drag. To determine the effects of wearing a helmet on thermal balance and rating of perceived exertion while cycling in the heat, six male competitive cyclists aged 19 to 32 rode a stationary bicycle attached to a road-racing simulator in an environmentally controlled chamber for two hours at 70% V O2 max. Measurements were taken of rectal and skin temperatures, V O2, heart rate, sweat rate, and rating of perceived exertion. The results showed that (under the experimental conditions used) wearing a helmet while cycling in the heat does not alter thermal balance or cardiovascular strain compared with not wearing a helmet.

  6. Application of Heat Balance Integral Methods to One-Dimensional Phase Change Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM to solve a number of thermal and phase change problems which occur in a multitude of industrial contexts. As part of our analysis, we propose a new error measure for the HBIM that combines the least-squares error with a boundary immobilisation method. We describe how to determine this error for three basic thermal problems and show how it can be used to determine an optimal heat balance formulation. We then show how the HBIM, with the new error measure, may be used to approximate the solution of an aircraft deicing problem. Finally we apply the new method to two industrially important phase change problems.

  7. A public data set of human balance evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana A. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to create a public data set with results of qualitative and quantitative evaluations related to human balance. Subject’s balance was evaluated by posturography using a force platform and by the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Tests. In the posturography test, we evaluated subjects standing still for 60 s in four different conditions where vision and the standing surface were manipulated: on a rigid surface with eyes open; on a rigid surface with eyes closed; on an unstable surface with eyes open; on an unstable surface with eyes closed. Each condition was performed three times and the order of the conditions was randomized. In addition, the following tests were employed in order to better characterize each subject: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International; International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version; and Trail Making Test. The subjects were also interviewed to collect information about their socio-cultural, demographic, and health characteristics. The data set comprises signals from the force platform (raw data for the force, moments of forces, and centers of pressure of 163 subjects plus one file with information about the subjects and balance conditions and the results of the other evaluations. All the data is available at PhysioNet and at Figshare.

  8. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääskilahti, K; Oksanen, J; Tulkki, J

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

  9. A new method to select appropriate countermeasures against heat-island effects according to the regional characteristics of heat balance mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi [Institute of Technology, SHIMIZU Corporation, 3-4-17 Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8530 (Japan); Mochida, Akashi; Yoshino, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-11-1202, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Watanabe, Hironori [Department of Architecture, Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Kasumi-cho, Yagiyama, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomohiro [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-1-11 Babadori, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0026 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    This study aims at clarifying the regional heat balance characteristics in an urban space of a city. CFD analyses of mesoscale climates of Tokyo, Sendai and Haramachi were carried out. The influence of regional characteristics on urban climates was examined, based on the results of CFD analyses, by considering the heat balance mechanism in the central part of each city. It was confirmed that the factors greatly contributing to air temperature increasing and decreasing in each city was different. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of heat budget inside Sendai city was drawn, as 'Heat Balance Map'. The map illustrated the areas where influence of sea breeze was significant in contrast with heat generated from ground surfaces and anthropogenic heat release in this city. (author)

  10. Effect of body mass and melanism on heat balance in Liolaemus lizards of the goetschi clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Azócar, Débora Lina; Bonino, Marcelo Fabián; Perotti, María Gabriela; Schulte, James A; Abdala, Cristian Simón; Cruz, Félix Benjamín

    2016-04-15

    The body temperature of ectotherms depends on the environmental temperatures and behavioral adjustments, but morphology may also have an effect. For example, in colder environments, animals tend to be larger and to show higher thermal inertia, as proposed by Bergmann's rule and the heat balance hypothesis (HBH). Additionally, dark coloration increases solar radiation absorption and should accelerate heat gain (thermal melanism hypothesis, TMH). We tested Bergmann's rule, the HBH and the TMH within the ITALIC! Liolaemus goetschilizard clade, which shows variability in body size and melanic coloration. We measured heating and cooling rates of live and euthanized animals, and tested how morphology and color affect these rates. Live organisms show less variable and faster heating rates compared with cooling rates, suggesting behavioral and/or physiological adjustments. Our results support Bergmann's rule and the HBH, as larger species show slower heating and cooling rates. However, we did not find a clear pattern to support the TMH. The influence of dorsal melanism on heating by radiation was masked by the body size effect in live animals, and results from euthanized individuals also showed no clear effects of melanism on heating rates. Comparison among three groups of live individuals with different degrees of melanism did not clarify the influence of melanism on heating rates. However, when euthanized animals from the same three groups were compared, we observed that darker euthanized animals actually heat faster than lighter ones, favoring the TMH. Although unresolved aspects remain, body size and coloration influenced heat exchange, suggesting complex thermoregulatory strategies in these lizards, probably regulated through physiology and behavior, which may allow these small lizards to inhabit harsh weather environments.

  11. Mass and heat balances in the Santa Barbara Channel: estimation, description and forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auad, Guillermo; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Winant, Clinton D.

    1999-01-01

    Current meter, temperature and wind observations from the 1984 MMS experiment are used to estimate the mass and heat budgets in the Santa Barbara Channel. The mass transports estimated at the western, eastern and southern boundaries of the channel are characterized by fluctuations whose energy is concentrated around three different periods: 5, 14 and 2.8 days respectively. These three transports fluctuate along with the dominant EOF modes obtained at those 3 entrances respectively. The mean transport passing through the channel from east to west is about 0.28 Sv. There are two frequency bands where winds and mass transports are coherent: 2.5-3.0 and 4.7-5.2 day bands. Winds on the northern shelf lead the transports in both bands by about 1.0 day. At the western half of the channel there is a recirculating (counterclockwise) mean transport of about 0.30 Sv. The time dependent part of the recirculating transport is coherent with the wind in the 4.7-5.2 day band where it also shows an absolute maximum of variance. The recirculating transport lags the local downwelling-favorable winds by about 1.5 day and seems to be the channel response to wind relaxations with respect to its most persistent upwelling-favorable state. The main mean balance in the channel-integrated heat equation is between the heat transport passing through the western mouth, which cools off the channel, and the heat transport caused by the mass transport (the transport heat flux), which warms up the channel. This latter transport results from the advection of the temperature difference between the channel boundaries (mainly east and west) by the mass transport. There are no two terms that dominate the heat equation for the time dependent heat transports, but it can be simplified by balancing the along channel heat divergence (heat transport passing through the mouth plus transport heat flux), the vertical heat flux and the local change of heat. A clear thermal-wind balance at the eastern and western

  12. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lindroth

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and −35 W m−2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m−2 and the minimum was −35 W m−2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. −0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit

  13. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  14. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  15. Targets of balancing selection in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrés, Aida M; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit

    2009-01-01

    to maintaining phenotypic variation in natural populations. Nevertheless, its prevalence and specific targets in the human genome remain largely unknown. We have analyzed the patterns of diversity and divergence of 13,400 genes in two human populations using an unbiased single-nucleotide polymorphism data set......, a genome-wide approach, and a method that incorporates demography in neutrality tests. We identified an unbiased catalog of genes with signatures of long-term balancing selection, which includes immunity genes as well as genes encoding keratins and membrane channels; the catalog also shows enrichment...... in functional categories involved in cellular structure. Patterns are mostly concordant in the two populations, with a small fraction of genes showing population-specific signatures of selection. Power considerations indicate that our findings represent a subset of all targets in the genome, suggesting...

  16. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour John AL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. Results We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93, is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Conclusion Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  17. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollox, Edward J; Armour, John A L

    2008-04-16

    In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93), is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  18. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  19. Experimental neck muscle pain impairs standing balance in humans

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; 10.1007/s00221-008-1639-7

    2009-01-01

    Impaired postural control has been reported in patients with chronic neck pain of both traumatic and non-traumatic etiologies, but whether painful stimulation of neck muscle per se can affect balance control during quiet standing in humans remains unclear. The purpose of the present experiment was thus to investigate the effect of experimental neck muscle pain on standing balance in young healthy adults. To achieve this goal, 16 male university students were asked to stand upright as still as possible on a force platform with their eyes closed in two conditions of No pain and Pain of the neck muscles elicited by experimental painful electrical stimulation. Postural control and postural performance were assessed by the displacements of the center of foot pressure (CoP) and of the center of mass (CoM), respectively. The results showed increased CoP and CoM displacements variance, range, mean velocity, and mean and median frequencies in the Pain relative to the No pain condition. The present findings emphasize t...

  20. Patenting human pluripotent cells: balancing commercial, academic and ethical interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, G; Morrison, M

    2010-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the ethics of patenting in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. The current stance of the European Patent Office in citing moral objections to patents on hES cells and the monopolistic scope of the Wisconsin Research Alumni Fund/Geron patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office represent twin obstacles to achieving an ethical balance in patent rights in this field. The particular issues and strategies around granting patents on hES cells can be better understood by placing them in the context of the biotechnology industry and its role in the global bioeconomy. Some possible avenues of redress are considered based on the potential to open up cell pluripotency as new terrain for intellectual property offered by new technological breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent cells. Any changes in patent law should be accompanied by increased collaboration through devices such as patent pools.

  1. Hazardous waste incinerators under waste uncertainty: balancing and throughput maximization via heat recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-09-01

    Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends.

  2. Comparative Study on Methods for Computing Soil Heat Storage and Energy Balance in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan; LIU Shuhua; WANG Shu; MIAO Yucong; CHEN Bicheng

    2014-01-01

    Observations collected in the Badan Jaran desert hinterland and edge during 19-23 August 2009 and in the Jinta Oasis during 12-16 June 2005 are used to assess three methods for calculating the heat storage of the 5-20-cm soil layer. The methods evaluated include the harmonic method, the conduction-convection method, and the temperature integral method. Soil heat storage calculated using the harmonic method provides the closest match with measured values. The conduction-convection method underestimates nighttime soil heat storage. The temperature integral method best captures fluctuations in soil heat storage on sub-diurnal timescales, but overestimates the amplitude and peak values of the diurnal cycle. The relative performance of each method varies with the underlying land surface. The land surface energy balance is evaluated using observations of soil heat flux at 5-cm depth and estimates of ground heat flux adjusted to account for soil heat storage. The energy balance closure rate increases and energy balance is improved when the ground heat flux is adjusted to account for soil heat storage. The results achieved using the harmonic and temperature integral methods are superior to those achieved using the conduction-convection method.

  3. An experimental study of energy balance in low heat rejection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, I. [University of Sakarya, Adapazari (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-03-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition, another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on diesel engine energy balance system was investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and inter-cooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and load conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces were coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic-coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic-coated engine. (author)

  4. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  5. Diffusive Heat Transport in Budyko's Energy Balance Climate Model with a Dynamic Ice Line

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, James

    2016-01-01

    M. Budyko and W. Sellers independently introduced seminal energy balance climate models in 1969, each with a goal of investigating the role played by positive ice albedo feedback in climate dynamics. In this paper we replace the relaxation to the mean horizontal heat transport mechanism used in the models of Budyko and Sellers with diffusive heat transport. We couple the resulting surface temperature equation with an equation for movement of the edge of the ice sheet (called the ice line), recently introduced by E. Widiasih. We apply the spectral method to the temperature-ice line system and consider finite approximations. We prove there exists a stable equilibrium solution with a small ice cap, and an unstable equilibrium solution with a large ice cap, for a range of parameter values. If the diffusive transport is too efficient, however, the small ice cap disappears and an ice free Earth becomes a limiting state. In addition, we analyze a variant of the coupled diffusion equations appropriate as a model for ...

  6. Directional sensitivity of "first trial" reactions in human balance control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, L.B.; Allum, J.H.J.; Borm, G.F.; Honegger, F.; Overeem, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Support-surface movements are commonly used to examine balance control. Subjects typically receive a series of identical or randomly interspersed multidirectional balance perturbations and the atypical "first trial reaction" (evoked by the first perturbation) is often excluded from further analysis.

  7. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  8. Hydration Effects on Human Physiology and Exercise-Heat Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    AD REPORT NO T7-90 HYDRATION EFFECTS :N HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEA PERFORMANCE Co U S ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE N OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...effects on human physiology and exercise.-heat performance 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Michael N. Sawka, Andrew J. Young. William A. Latzka, P. Darrell...acknowledge Ms. Patricia DeMusis for preparing the manuscript. AD Report No. HYDRATION EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEAT PERFORMANCE by Michael N

  9. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building...

  10. Radiative energy balance of Venus: An approach to parameterize thermal cooling and solar heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Arnold, G.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal cooling rates QC and solar heating rates QH in the atmosphere of Venus at altitudes between 0 and 100 km are investigated using the radiative transfer and radiative balance simulation techniques described by Haus et al. (2015b, 2016). QC strongly responds to temperature profile and cloud parameter changes, while QH is less sensitive to these parameters. The latter mainly depends on solar insolation conditions and the unknown UV absorber distribution. A parameterization approach is developed that permits a fast and reliable calculation of temperature change rates Q for different atmospheric model parameters and that can be applied in General Circulation Models to investigate atmospheric dynamics. A separation of temperature, cloud parameter, and unknown UV absorber influences is performed. The temperature response parameterization relies on a specific altitude and latitude-dependent cloud model. It is based on an algorithm that characterizes Q responses to a broad range of temperature perturbations at each level of the atmosphere using the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) as basis temperature model. The cloud response parameterization considers different temperature conditions and a range of individual cloud mode factors that additionally change cloud optical depths as determined by the initial latitude-dependent model. A QH response parameterization for abundance changes of the unknown UV absorber is also included. Deviations between accurate calculation and parameterization results are in the order of a few tenths of K/day at altitudes below 90 km. The parameterization approach is used to investigate atmospheric radiative equilibrium (RE) conditions. Polar mesospheric RE temperatures above the cloud top are up to 70 K lower and equatorial temperatures up to 10 K higher than observed values. This radiative forcing field is balanced by dynamical processes that maintain the observed thermal structure.

  11. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  12. Simplification of heating systems by omitting circulating pumps and differential pressure regulating valves. Balancing; Vereinfachung durch Einsparung von Umwaelzpumpen und Differenzdruckregler. Hydraulischer Abgleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Marc [Baelz W. und Sohn GmbH und Co., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Balancing of heating systems today is possible without differential pressure regulating valves. Only the design basis volume flow is adjusted at the sectioning valve of the heating section, while the part-load behaviour is regulated accurately via thermal power regulation. This simplifies balancing, and the total efficiency of systems will be better than with the commonly used differential pressure regulating valves.

  13. THADA Regulates the Organismal Balance between Energy Storage and Heat Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Alexandra; Cakan-Akdogan, Gulcin; Strassburger, Katrin; Males, Matilda; Mueller, Sandra; Jabs, Markus; Muelleder, Michael; Frejno, Martin; Braeckman, Bart P; Ralser, Markus; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2017-04-10

    Human susceptibility to obesity is mainly genetic, yet the underlying evolutionary drivers causing variation from person to person are not clear. One theory rationalizes that populations that have adapted to warmer climates have reduced their metabolic rates, thereby increasing their propensity to store energy. We uncover here the function of a gene that supports this theory. THADA is one of the genes most strongly selected during evolution as humans settled in different climates. We report here that THADA knockout flies are obese, hyperphagic, have reduced energy production, and are sensitive to the cold. THADA binds the sarco/ER Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) and acts on it as an uncoupler. Reducing SERCA activity in THADA mutant flies rescues their obesity, pinpointing SERCA as a key effector of THADA function. In sum, this identifies THADA as a regulator of the balance between energy consumption and energy storage, which was selected during human evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  15. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  16. Evaluation on material and heat balance of EAF processes with introduction of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of using CO2 for the decarburization of high alloy steels have been recognized from environmental and economic view points. The present paper presents the heat and materials balances in the decarburization process with the introduction of CO2 as a diluting gas in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF process for steel production. The aim is to optimize the amount of CO2 and the materials requirements, which includes the addition of scrap, hot metal and coolant. These estimations are also important to control the bath temperature, thereby prolong the lifetime of the refractory lining of the furnace. The present calculations enable an optimization of the CO2:O2 ratio and materials input in the decarburization of carbon steel melts. Another important extension of the work is the possibility to enhance the addition of hot metal during steel making process. The present results show that addition of up to 20% hot metal is likely to the energy loss due to the introduction of 50% CO2 for a 110 tons EAF resulting in the saving of electric energy.

  17. Spatio-temporal separation of roll and pitch balance-correcting commands in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruneberg, C.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Honegger, F.; Allum, J.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to provide evidence for the hypothesis that human balance corrections in response to pitch perturbations are controlled by muscle action mainly about the ankle and knee joints, whereas balance corrections for roll perturbations are controlled predominantly by motion about the

  18. Coupled heat/mass-balance model for analyzing correlation between excess AlF3 concentration and aluminum electrolyte temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong-bo; QU Xiang-dong; ZHOU Jie-min

    2009-01-01

    The influence of aluminum electrolyte component on its temperature is an important issue within the field of aluminum reduction with pre-baked cells. The characteristic correlation between excess AlF3 concentration and aluminum electrolyte temperature was explored through the modeling of heat and mass transfer processes in industrial pre-baked aluminum reduction cells. A coupled heat/mass-balance model was derived theoretically from the mass and energy balance of an electrolysis cell, and then was simplified properly into a practical expression. The model demonstrates that if environmental temperature and Al2O3 concentration keep constant, the excess AlF3 concentration decreases with the aluminum electrolyte temperature linearly and its decrease rate is dependent on the heat transfer property of aluminum electrolyte, side wall and cell shell. Secondly, experiments were conducted on site with two industrial cells in an aluminum electrolysis plant. Excess AlF3 concentration and aluminum electrolyte temperature were obtained simultaneously together with other parameters such as Al2O3, CaF2, MgF2 and LiF concentrations. Results show that the maximum absolute error between the tested value and the calculated value of excess AlF3 concentration using the proposed model is less than 2%. This reveals that the coupled heat/mass-balance model can appropriately characterize the correlation between excess AlF3 concentration and aluminum electrolyte temperature with good accuracy and practicability.

  19. Pedometer and Human Energy Balance Applications for Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.; Smolski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Teachers can use pedometers to facilitate inquiry learning and show students the need for mathematics in scientific investigation. The authors conducted activities with secondary students that investigated intake and expenditure components of the energy balance algorithm, which led to inquiries about pedometers and related data. By investigating…

  20. Development of heat and mass balance analysis code in out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Suyama, Kazumasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    A heat and mass balance analysis code has been developed to examine test conditions, to investigate transient behavior etc. in the out-of-pile hydrogen production system for the HTTR heat utilization system. The code can analyze temperature, mass and pressure profiles of helium and process gases and behavior of the control system under both static state (case of steady operation) and dynamic state (case of transient operation). This report describes analytical methods, basic equations and constitution of the code, and how to make of the input data, estimate of the analytical results and so on. (author)

  1. Development of heat and mass balance analysis code in out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Koji; Suyama, Kazumasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    A heat and mass balance analysis code has been developed to examine test conditions, to investigate transient behavior etc. in the out-of-pile hydrogen production system for the HTTR heat utilization system. The code can analyze temperature, mass and pressure profiles of helium and process gases and behavior of the control system under both static state (case of steady operation) and dynamic state (case of transient operation). This report describes analytical methods, basic equations and constitution of the code, and how to make of the input data, estimate of the analytical results and so on. (author)

  2. Computer implementation of the Passage Arrangement for Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers According to Local Balance Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    A two-step method for stacking arrangement of passages in multistream plate-fin heat exchanger is proposed.The first step (predict step)is to initialize the arrangement according to a local-balance principle,and the second step(correct step) is to re-adjust the arrangement according to the results of differential computation of the temperature distribution.The computer implementation process of the local balance principle is described in detail and three examples are illustrated to whos the feasibility of this principle.A subroutine program is provided to facilitate the reader to adopt this principle.

  3. Perceptual and motor learning underlies human stick-balancing skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Halaki, Mark; Smith, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the acquisition of skill in balancing a stick (52 cm, 34 g) on the fingertip in nine participants using three-dimensional motion analysis. After 3.5 h of practice over 6 wk, the participants could more consistently balance the stick for longer durations with greatly reduced magnitude and speed of stick and finger movements. Irrespective of level of skill, the balanced stick behaved like a normal noninverted pendulum oscillating under greater-than-gravity torque with simple harmonic motion about a virtual pivot located at the radius of gyration above the center of mass. The control input parameter was the magnitude ratio between the torque applied on the stick by the participant and the torque due to gravity. The participants utilized only a narrow range of this parameter, which did not change with practice, to rotate the stick like a linear mass-spring system. With increased skill, the stick therefore maintained the same period of oscillation but showed marked reductions in magnitude of both oscillation and horizontal translation. Better balancing was associated with 1) more accurate visual localization of the stick and proprioceptive localization of the finger and 2) reduced cross-coupling errors between finger and stick movements in orthogonal directions; i.e., finger movements in the anteroposterior plane became less coupled with stick tip movements in the mediolateral plane, and vice versa. Development of this fine motor skill therefore depended on perceptual and motor learning to provide improved estimation of sensorimotor state and precision of motor commands to an unchanging internal model of the rotational dynamics.

  4. In-situ Modelisation of a Greenhouse Climate Including Sensible Heat, Water Vapour and CO2 Balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi-Triki N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While thermal structures such as greenhouses are complex to model under transient conditions because of coupled heat and mass (H2O and CO2 exchanges between their different parts, systems theory allows a simple analysis of the input/output behaviour of the model. In particular, parameters of the reduced dynamic models can be derived from in-situ measurements on these systems. This paper describes an application of the systems approach to a greenhouse climate model which incorporates CO2 balance, crop transpiration and photosynthesis and the effects of heating, CO2 enrichment, natural ventilation and evaporative cooling. In a first stage, system parameters such as the equivalent thermal mass, the wind dependent coefficient of natural ventilation and the various heat exchange coefficients were identified in situ from sequences of input-output data concerning the heat and water vapour balance, recorded over the crop production period from December to July. Good agreement between measured and computed values of air temperature, air humidity was observed. In a second stage, we have considered simultaneously the sensible heat, water vapour and CO2 exchanges and tested the model against experimental data measured using a commercial greenhouse climate control computer. The identified values of the physical and physiological parameters are close the theoretical values and the accuracy of temperature, humidity and CO2 content is rather good.

  5. Factors influencing the restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance after exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B; Shirreffs, S M

    1997-09-01

    Maintenance of fluid balance is a major concern for all athletes competing in events held in hot climates. This paper reviews recent work relating to optimisation of fluid replacement after sweat loss induced by exercising in the heat. Data are taken from studies undertaken in our laboratory. Issues investigated were drink composition, volume consumed, effects of consuming food with a drink, effects of alcohol in rehydration effectiveness, voluntary intake of fluid, and considerations for women related to the menstrual cycle. The results are presented as a series of summaries of experiments, followed by a discussion of the implications. The focus of this review is urine output after ingestion of a drink; fluid excreted in urine counteracts rehydration. Also included are data on the restoration of plasma volume losses. Ingestion of large volumes of plain water will inhibit thirst and will also promote a diuretic response. If effective rehydration is to be maintained for some hours after fluid ingestion, drinks should contain moderately high levels of sodium (perhaps as much as 50-60 mmol/l) and possibly also some potassium to replace losses in the sweat. To surmount ongoing obligatory urine losses, the volume consumed should be greater than the volume of sweat lost. Palatability of drinks is important in stimulating intake and ensuring adequate volume replacement. Where opportunities allow, the electrolytes required may be ingested as solid food consumed with a drink. There are no special concerns for women related to changes in hormone levels associated with the menstrual cycle. Ingestion of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks in the post-exercise period restores exercise capacity more effectively than plain water. The effects on performance of an uncorrected fluid deficit should persuade all athletes to attempt to remain fully hydrated at all times, and the aim should be to start each bout of exercise in a fluid replete state. This will only be achieved if a volume of

  6. Directional sensitivity of "first trial" reactions in human balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Nijhuis, Lars B; Allum, John H J; Borm, George F; Honegger, Flurin; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2009-06-01

    Support-surface movements are commonly used to examine balance control. Subjects typically receive a series of identical or randomly interspersed multidirectional balance perturbations and the atypical "first trial reaction" (evoked by the first perturbation) is often excluded from further analysis. However, this procedure may obscure vital information about neurophysiological mechanisms associated with the first perturbation and, by analogy, fully unexpected falls. We studied first trial reactions, aiming to clarify their directional impact on postural control and to characterize the underlying neurophysiological substrate. We instructed 36 subjects to maintain balance following support-surface rotations in six different directions. Perturbations in each direction were delivered in blocks, consisting of 10 serial stimuli. Full body kinematics, surface reactive forces, and electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded. Regardless of direction, for the very first rotation, displacement of the center of mass was 15% larger compared with the ensuing nine identical rotations (P postural instability, mainly due to increased response amplitudes. Although rapid habituation occurs following presentation of identical stimuli, subjects immediately become unstable again when the perturbation direction suddenly changes. Excessive responses due to a failure to combine proprioceptive and vestibular cues effectively may explain this instability seen with first trials, particularly when falling backward.

  7. On the integral-balance approach to the transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Antoine; Hristov, Jordan

    2016-04-01

    Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear transient heat conduction with linearly temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance integral method under transient conditions. The solutions uses improved direct approaches of the integral method and avoid the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main steps in the new solutions are improvements in the integration technique of the double-integration technique and the optimization of the exponent of the approximate parabolic profile with unspecified exponent. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed as examples by the classical Heat-balance integral method (HBIM) and the Double-integration method (DIM). Additional examples with HBIM and DIM solutions to cases when the Kirchhoff transform is initially applied have been developed.

  8. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40),

  10. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40), a

  11. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  12. The effects of protein, amino acid, and dietary electrolyte balance on broiler chicken performance and blood parameters under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Saki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of crude protein (CP, amino acid (AA, and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB were evaluated on blood parameters, carcass traits, and broiler performance under heat stress (29-34°C. A total of 540 male chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to 12 diets with factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 3, using a completely randomized design with three replicates of 15 chickens in grower (13 to 26 days and finisher (27 to 42 days periods. and 120, 220, and 320 mEq kg-1 DEB. The level of 21% CP increased body weight gain (BWG and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR at grower period (p < 0.05. In contrast, 20% CP level decreased BWG and increased FCR at finisher period (p < 0.05. Further, 20% CP level reduced blood sodium and blood electrolyte balance (p < 0.05. The highest blood electrolyte balance was achieved by DEB 320 mEq kg-1 diet (p < 0.05. Broiler response to DEB in heat stress depended on the age of bird, length of exposure to high temperature and CP level of the diet. Under heat stress (29-34°C, the 21% CP level at grower period and 17% CP level at finisher period improved broiler BWG and FCR.

  13. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    of the significant teratogens in humans, animals, and insects. However, protection from teratogenic effects as is true for various aspects of the...heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1993;9:601–634 Germain M, Webster W, Edwards M. Hyperthermia as a teratogen ...physical or chemical teratogens are expressed later as enhanced induction of heat shock proteins when embryonic hearts are cultured in

  14. Rotated balance in humans due to repetitive rotational movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M S; Milla, J Madera; De Durana, A López Diaz; Martínez, C A Cordente; Romo, G Rodríguez; Quintana, M Sillero; Molinuevo, J Sampedro

    2010-03-01

    We show how asymmetries in the movement patterns during the process of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet stance can be modeled by a set of coupled vector fields for the derivative with respect to time of the angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In our model, which is an adaption of the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004), the critical curve, defining the set of maximum angles one can lean to and still correct to regain balance, can be rotated and skewed so as to model the effects of a repetitive training of a rotational movement pattern. For the purposes of our study a rotation and a skew matrix is applied to the critical curve of the model. We present here a linear stability analysis of the modified model, as well as a fit of the model to experimental data of two characteristic "asymmetric" elite athletes and to a "symmetric" elite athlete for comparison. The new adapted model has many uses not just in sport but also in rehabilitation, as many work place injuries are caused by excessive repetition of unaligned and rotational movement patterns.

  15. International human rights and cultural diversity: a balancing act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2013-01-01

    It is broadly agreed that international human rights law and cultural diversity have a mutually interdependent and beneficial relationship. Many human rights, such as the rights to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, as well as the rights to take part in cultural life an

  16. The heat-balance integral method by a parabolic profile with unspecified exponent: Analysis and Benchmark Exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Hristov, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    The heat-balance integral method of Goodman has been thoroughly analyzed in the case of a parabolic profile with unspecified exponent depending on the boundary condition imposed. That the classical Good man's boundary conditions defining the time-dependent coefficients of the prescribed temperature profile do not work efficiently at the front of the thermal layers if the specific parabolic profile at issue is employed. Additional constraints based on physical assumption enhance the heat-balance integral method and form a robust algorithm defining the parabola exponent . The method has been compared by results provided by the Veinik's method that is by far different from the Good man's idea but also assume forma tion of thermal layer penetrating the heat body. The method has been demonstrated through detailed solutions of 4 1-D heat-conduction problems in Cartesian co-ordinates including a spherical problem (through change of vari ables) and over-specified boundary condition at the face of the thermal layer.

  17. Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.

  18. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    In the recent decades, extreme temperature events and derived hazards are frequent and trigger noteworthy impacts in Romania, especially over the large urban areas. The cities produce significant disturbances of many elements of the regional climate, and generates adverse effects such as Urban Heat Islands (UHI). This presentation condenses the outputs of an ongoing research project (REDBHI) developed through (2013-2017) focused on developing a methodology for monitoring and forecasting indoor climate and energy challenges related to the intensity of UHI of Bucharest (Romania), based on relevant urban climate zones (UCZs). Multi-criteria correlations between the UHI and architectural, urban and landscape variables were determined, and the vulnerability of buildings expressed in the form of transfer function between indoor micro-climate and outdoor urban environment. The vulnerability of civil buildings was determined in relation with the potential for amplifying the thermal hazards intensity through the anthropogenic influence. The project REDBHI aims at developing innovative and original products, with direct applicability, which can be used in any urban settlement and have market potential with regards to energy design and consulting. The concrete innovative outcomes consist of a) localization of the Bucharest UCZs according to the UHI intensity, identifying reference buildings and sub-zones according to urban anthropic factors and landscape pattern; b) typology of representative buildings with regards to energy consumption and CO2 emitted as a result of building exploitation; c) 3D modelling of the reference buildings and of the thermal/energy reaction to severe climatic conditions d) empirical validation of the dynamic thermal/energy analysis; d) development of an pilot virtual studio capable to simulate climate alerts, analyse scenarios and suggest measures to mitigate the UHI effects, and disseminate the outcomes for educational purposes; e) compendium of

  19. ROCKing cytokine secretion balance in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Waksal, Samuel D

    2015-04-01

    Balanced regulation of cytokine secretion in T cells is critical for maintenance of immune homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity. The Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) 2 signaling pathway was previously shown to be involved in controlling of cellular movement and shape. However, recent work from our group and others has demonstrated a new and important role of ROCK2 in regulating cytokine secretion in T cells. We found that ROCK2 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-21, whereas IL-2 and IL-10 secretion are negatively regulated by ROCK2 under Th17-skewing activation. Also, in disease, but not in steady state conditions, ROCK2 contributes to regulation of IFN-γ secretion in T cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Thus, ROCK2 signaling is a key pathway in modulation of T-cell mediated immune responses underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeted inhibition of ROCK2 in autoimmunity.

  20. Study of regeneration system of 300 MW power unit based on nondeaerating heat balance diagram at reduced load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, S. B.; Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Snegin, I. P.; Zhivykh, D. A.; Medvedkin, A. V.; Ryabich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 30 power units of thermal power stations, based on the nondeaerating heat balance diagram, successfully operate in the former Soviet Union. Most of them are power units with a power of 300 MW, equipped with HTGZ and LMZ turbines. They operate according to a variable electric load curve characterized by deep reductions when undergoing night minimums. Additional extension of the range of power unit adjustment makes it possible to maintain the dispatch load curve and obtain profit for the electric power plant. The objective of this research is to carry out estimated and experimental processing of the operating regimes of the regeneration system of steam-turbine plants within the extended adjustment range and under the conditions when the constraints on the regeneration system and its equipment are removed. Constraints concerning the heat balance diagram that reduce the power unit efficiency when extending the adjustment range have been considered. Test results are presented for the nondeaerating heat balance diagram with the HTGZ turbine. Turbine pump and feed electric pump operation was studied at a power unit load of 120-300 MW. The reliability of feed pump operation is confirmed by a stable vibratory condition and the absence of cavitation noise and vibration at a frequency that characterizes the cavitation condition, as well as by oil temperature maintenance after bearings within normal limits. Cavitation performance of pumps in the studied range of their operation has been determined. Technical solutions are proposed on providing a profitable and stable operation of regeneration systems when extending the range of adjustment of power unit load. A nondeaerating diagram of high-pressure preheater (HPP) condensate discharge to the mixer. A regeneration system has been developed and studied on the operating power unit fitted with a deaeratorless thermal circuit of the system for removing the high-pressure preheater heating steam condensate to the mixer

  1. Dynamic Balance of Excitation and Inhibition in Human and Monkey Neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Nima; Peyrache, Adrien; Telenczuk, Bartosz; Le van Quyen, Michel; Halgren, Eric; Cash, Sydney S.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Destexhe, Alain

    2016-03-01

    Balance of excitation and inhibition is a fundamental feature of in vivo network activity and is important for its computations. However, its presence in the neocortex of higher mammals is not well established. We investigated the dynamics of excitation and inhibition using dense multielectrode recordings in humans and monkeys. We found that in all states of the wake-sleep cycle, excitatory and inhibitory ensembles are well balanced, and co-fluctuate with slight instantaneous deviations from perfect balance, mostly in slow-wave sleep. Remarkably, these correlated fluctuations are seen for many different temporal scales. The similarity of these computational features with a network model of self-generated balanced states suggests that such balanced activity is essentially generated by recurrent activity in the local network and is not due to external inputs. Finally, we find that this balance breaks down during seizures, where the temporal correlation of excitatory and inhibitory populations is disrupted. These results show that balanced activity is a feature of normal brain activity, and break down of the balance could be an important factor to define pathological states.

  2. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shaltout

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances over a 52-yr period. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat, and salt conservation, with turbulence modelled using a two-equation model. The exchange through the Sicily Channel connecting the Eastern and Western basins is calculated from satellite altimeter data. The results illustrates that calculated surface temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well and with biases of −0.4 °C and −0.004, respectively. Monthly and yearly temperature and salinity cycles are also satisfactory simulated. Reanalysed data and calculated water mass structure and heat balance components are in good agreement, indicating that the air-sea interaction and the turbulent mixing are realistically simulated. The study illustrates that the water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin is controlled by the difference between inflows/outflows through the Sicily Channel and by the net precipitation rates. The heat balance is controlled by the heat loss from the water surface, sun radiation into the sea, and heat flow through the Sicily Channel, the first two displaying both climate trends. An annual net heat loss of approximately 9 W m−2 was balanced by net heat in flow through the Sicily Channel.

  3. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.; Omstedt, A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyses the Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances over a 52-yr period. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat, and salt conservation, with turbulence modelled using a two-equation model. The exchange through the Sicily Channel connecting the Eastern and Western basins is calculated from satellite altimeter data. The results illustrates that calculated surface temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well and with biases of -0.4 °C and -0.004, respectively. Monthly and yearly temperature and salinity cycles are also satisfactory simulated. Reanalysed data and calculated water mass structure and heat balance components are in good agreement, indicating that the air-sea interaction and the turbulent mixing are realistically simulated. The study illustrates that the water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin is controlled by the difference between inflows/outflows through the Sicily Channel and by the net precipitation rates. The heat balance is controlled by the heat loss from the water surface, sun radiation into the sea, and heat flow through the Sicily Channel, the first two displaying both climate trends. An annual net heat loss of approximately 9 W m-2 was balanced by net heat in flow through the Sicily Channel.

  4. Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, S A; Fischer da Silva, A V; Majorka, A; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2004-09-01

    Individually caged male Cobb broilers (24), 44 d of age, were used to evaluate effects of heat stress (1 d of data collection) and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB; Na + K - Cl, mEq/kg from 1 d of age). During summer rearing, mortality was variable, but DEB 240 improved growth, feed conversion ratio, water intake, and water:feed ratio vs. DEB 0. The temperature sequence for heat stress was 24 to 32 degrees C in 30 min, 32 to 36 degrees C in 30 min, 36 to 37 degrees C in 15 min, and 37 to 41 degrees C in 45 min. Maximum temperature was held for 15, 60, 90, or 360 min for data collection (relative humidity averaged 42 +/- 7%). Results from the same room before and after heat stress were analyzed by DEB (1-factor ANOVA) and before vs. after heat stress compared across DEB (2-sample t-test). Heat stress decreased blood Na, K, and pCO2, and lymphocytes but increased heterophils. Blood HCO3 rose, Cl declined, and hematocrit gave a concave pattern (lowest at DEB 120) as DEB increased. After heat stress, DEB 0 decreased blood Na and K, and DEB 0 and 120 levels decreased blood HCO3. After heat stress blood pCO2 and hemoglobin decreased with DEB 240, but it had highest pCO2, a key factor. The DEB 120 gave longest times to panting and prostration with DEB 0 and 240 results lower but similar statistically. In heat stress, DEB 360 was excessive, DEB 120 and 240 were favorable, and DEB 0 was intermediate based on hematology, panting, and prostration responses.

  5. Electrochemical reaction and heat balance. Reduction of Peltier effect and electro-chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, Toru; Watanabe, Iwao; Ikeda, Shigeyoshi

    1988-02-05

    This report describes the Peltier heat which accompanies an electrochemical reaction, and the cyclicovoltamo thermometry (CVT) which has applied the effect. When the current is restricted, heat generated by Joule's heat or overvoltage depends on the electrode structure, whereas Pertier's heat depends only on a type of the electrode reaction, wherein the entropy change of the electrode reaction can be known by subtracting the heat of transpotation from the Pertier coefficient; entropy of metal ions determines the change. Application of the above is to combine, in a system wherein 2 or more electrode reactions compete, a thermometry and a cyclic voltametry to constantly measure the heat in order to estimate the current contribution of the separated two reactions. Very effective information was obtained on the analysis of the electrode reactions, in addition to the conventional two kinds of informations, current and voltage. (5 figs, 7 refs)

  6. Human rights and public health : towards a balanced relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This contribution attempts to scope the multiple and complex relationships between measures to protect health and the protection of human rights. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning and current understandings of the notion of ‘public health’, after which it explores how ‘public

  7. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases : looking beyond the heat shock response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR) - and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases - has often been suggested as a

  8. Analysis of Heat Balance on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using Multi-Stage Steam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1100MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure.

  9. Thermal balance in term and preterm newborn infants nursed in an incubator equipped with a radiant heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, G; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1997-04-01

    A radiant hood warmer, a device that heats the incubator roof independently of the incubator's main heat source, was used to study the thermal balance of 11 full term and 13 preterm (gestational age 25-34 weeks) infants exposed to an isolated elevation of incubator roof temperature at stable ambient air temperature and humidity. After initial measurements without active heating of the incubator roof, the hood warmer was set to 33 degrees C, 36 degrees C and finally (preterm infants only) to 39 degrees C. At least 18 min of measurements with the infant asleep were made at each hood warmer setting. In the term infants an increase in roof temperature from 30.5 degrees C to 35.6 degrees C resulted in an increase in skin temperature from 35.4 to 35.9 degrees C, and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 32.8 to 20.7 W/m2 exposed skin. In the preterm infants an increase in roof temperature from 31.0 to 38.4 degrees C led to an increase in skin temperature from 35.7 to 36.3 degrees C and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 34.1 to 13.0 W/m2 exposed skin. The increased inner roof surface temperature did not affect evaporative or convective heat loss, skin blood flow, respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption or transepidermal water loss in either group. Thus, at stable ambient air temperature and humidity, the increase in incubator roof temperature resulted in an increase in skin temperature and a decrease in radiative heat loss in both term and preterm infants.

  10. A METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ABILITY OF THE ARRESTER TO ABSORB ENERGY WITHOUT BREAKING THE HEAT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Shevchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The aim of this study is to obtain a method for determining the capacity surge arrester nonlinear absorb energy without breaking the heat balance in modes of long-term application of operating voltage, which allows for analysis of their work in terms of violations as electricity. Methodology. For values of the energy passing through the arrester must be able to determine the current value for the voltage value in the area of leakage current-voltage characteristics. We have carried out calculations of the energy passing everywhere arrester for certain periods of time based on the current-voltage characteristics obtained experimentally. Analysis of the experimental current-voltage characteristics of resistors and literature led to the important conclusion that the dielectric properties of the ceramic varistor affect the value of active power losses in the arrester only when the active component of the leakage current is very small. This is confirmed by the characteristics of different classes of varistor voltage. This property of varistors and surge arresters shows the need to consider how the dielectric and conductive properties of the varistor ceramics in the analysis of work in the area of the arrester leakage current-voltage characteristic. These results demonstrate the need to clarify the mathematical model and the method for determining the energy dissipates in the area of the arrester leakage current CVC with their account. Results. The study, an improved mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester during its working life. The study obtained the method, of evaluation capacity surge arrester, maintains heat balance throughout working life. Based on experimentally obtained current-voltage characteristic of the varistors is defined voltage at which surge arrester starts conducting active current. This allowed to receive specified mathematical model for calculating energy affects surge arrester and develop a method

  11. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 土壤源热泵系统地下温度场的热平衡模拟分析%On heat balance simulation analysis of temperature field in ground heat source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智军

    2012-01-01

    以成都来福士广场的土壤源热泵工程为例,采用Fluent6.2软件的TransientSolver模块对该项目的地下温度场进行了模拟计算,分别按照土壤源热泵间歇运行模式和连续运行模式来模拟计算地下温度场20年,从模拟结果可以清楚的看到,间歇运行模式下土壤的热平衡状况良好,突出了地下温度场的取热量和排热量的平衡是保证土壤源热泵系统长期稳定运行的重要因素。%Taking the project of the ground source heat pump on Laifushi Square of Chengdu as the example, the paper adopts the Transient Solver Module of the Fluent6.2 software to have the simulation calculation for the underground temperature field of the program, simulates and cal- culates the twenty years of the underground temperature field by adopting the intermittent operation module and its continuous operation one of the ground source heat pump, and shows from the simulation result that the heat balance of the soil in the intermittent operation module has better heat balance, and highlights the balance of the accumulated heat and the extracted heat of the underground temperature field is important for en- suring the long-term and stable operation of the ground source heat pump.

  13. Application of the heat-balance and refined integral methods to the Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Timothy G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider approximate travelling wave solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation. The heat-balance integral method is first applied to the problem, using two different quartic approximating functions, and then the refined integral method is investigated. We examine two types of solution, chosen by matching the wave speed to that of the exact solution and by imposing the same area. The first set of solutions is generally better with an error that is fixed in time. The second set of solutions has an error that grows with time. This is shown to be due to slight discrepancies in the wave speed.

  14. Passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, S; Wilson, M G; Périard, J D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e., acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen nonheat-acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions [Cool: 24°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (Hot: 44-50°C, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5°C in Cool and was maintained at ~39°C throughout Hot. Both trials were repeated after 11 days of passive heat acclimation (1 h per day, 48-50°C, 50% RH). Heat acclimation decreased core temperature in Cool (-0.2°C, P heat acclimation improved skeletal muscle contractility as evidenced by an increase in evoked peak twitch amplitude both in Cool (20.5 ± 3.6 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) and Hot (20.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) (+9%, P heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractile function during electrically evoked and voluntary muscle contractions of different intensities both in Cool and Hot. These results suggest that repeated heat exposure may have important implications to passively maintain or even improve muscle function in a variety of performance and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Omstedt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances wereanalysed over 52 years. The modelling uses a process-orientedapproach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum,heat and salt conservation; turbulence is modelled using a two-equation model. The results indicate that calculated temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well. The water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin was controlled by the difference between inflows and outflows through the Sicily Channel and by net precipitation. The freshwater component displayed a negative trend over the study period, indicating increasing salinity in the basin.The heat balance was controlled by heat loss from the water surface, solar radiation into the sea and heat flow through the Sicily Channel. Both solar radiation and net heat loss displayed increasing trends, probably due to decreased total cloud cover. In addition, the heat balance indicated a net import of approximately 9 W m-2 of heat to the Eastern Mediterranean Basin from the Western Basin.

  16. The time-delayed inverted pendulum: Implications for human balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John; Cabrera, Juan Luis; Ohira, Toru; Tajima, Shigeru; Tonosaki, Yukinori; Eurich, Christian W.; Campbell, Sue Ann

    2009-06-01

    The inverted pendulum is frequently used as a starting point for discussions of how human balance is maintained during standing and locomotion. Here we examine three experimental paradigms of time-delayed balance control: (1) mechanical inverted time-delayed pendulum, (2) stick balancing at the fingertip, and (3) human postural sway during quiet standing. Measurements of the transfer function (mechanical stick balancing) and the two-point correlation function (Hurst exponent) for the movements of the fingertip (real stick balancing) and the fluctuations in the center of pressure (postural sway) demonstrate that the upright fixed point is unstable in all three paradigms. These observations imply that the balanced state represents a more complex and bounded time-dependent state than a fixed-point attractor. Although mathematical models indicate that a sufficient condition for instability is for the time delay to make a corrective movement, τn, be greater than a critical delay τc that is proportional to the length of the pendulum, this condition is satisfied only in the case of human stick balancing at the fingertip. Thus it is suggested that a common cause of instability in all three paradigms stems from the difficulty of controlling both the angle of the inverted pendulum and the position of the controller simultaneously using time-delayed feedback. Considerations of the problematic nature of control in the presence of delay and random perturbations ("noise") suggest that neural control for the upright position likely resembles an adaptive-type controller in which the displacement angle is allowed to drift for small displacements with active corrections made only when θ exceeds a threshold. This mechanism draws attention to an overlooked type of passive control that arises from the interplay between retarded variables and noise.

  17. Balancing Current Drive and Heating in DIII-D High Noninductive Current Fraction Discharges Through Choice of the Toroidal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferron, J.R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Holcomb, C T [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Turco, F. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); DeBoo, J. C. [General Atomics; Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; In, Y. [FAR Tech Inc. San Diego, CA; La Haye, R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Petrie, T W [General Atomics, San Diego; Petty, C C. [General Atomics, San Diego; Reimerdes, H. [Columbia University

    2011-01-01

    In order to maintain stationary values of the stored energy and the plasma current in a tokamak discharge with all of the current driven noninductively, the sum of the alpha-heating power and the power required to provide externally driven current must be equal to the power required to maintain the pressure against transport losses. In a study of high noninductive current fraction discharges in the DIII-D tokamak, it is shown that in the case of present-day tokamaks with no alpha-heating, adjustment of the toroidal field strength (B(T)) is a tool to obtain this balance between the required current drive and heating powers with other easily modifiable discharge parameters (beta(N), q(95), discharge shape, n(e)) fixed at values chosen to satisfy specific constraints. With all of the external power sources providing both heating and current drive, and beta(N) and q(95) fixed, the fraction of externally driven current scales with B(T) with little change in the bootstrap current fraction, thus allowing the noninductive current fraction to be adjusted.

  18. The Nonlinear Ohm's Law: Plasma Heating by Strong Electric Fields and its Effects on the Ionization Balance in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The MHD of protoplanetary disks crucially depends on the ionization state of the disks. Recent simulations suggest that MHD turbulence in the disks can generate a strong electric field in the local rest frame. Such a strong field can heat up plasmas and thereby change the ionization balance. To study this effect, we construct a charge reaction model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as plasma accretion by dust grains. The resulting Ohm's law is nonlinear in the electric field strength. We find that the gas-phase electron abundance decreases with increasing the electric field strength when plasma accretion onto grains dominates over gas-phase recombination, because electron heating accelerates electron--grain collisions. This leads to an increase in the magnetic resistivity, and possibly to a self-regulation of the MHD turbulence. In some cases, even the electric current decreases with increasing the field strength in a certain field range. The N...

  19. Regulatory aspects of human radiolabeled mass balance studies in oncology : concise review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, C. M.; Schellens, J. H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073926272; Beijnen, J. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071919570

    2016-01-01

    Human radiolabeled mass balance studies are performed to obtain information about the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug in development. The main goals are to determine the route of elimination and major metabolic pathways. This review provides an overview of the current

  20. Responses of human hip abductor muscles to lateral balance perturbations during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A. L.; Duysens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Lateral stability during gait is of utmost importance to maintain balance. This was studied on human subjects walking on a treadmill who were given 100-ms perturbations of known magnitude and timing with respect to the gait cycle by means of a computer-controlled pneumatic device. This method has th

  1. Responses of human hip abductor muscles to lateral balance perturbations during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A. L.; Duysens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Lateral stability during gait is of utmost importance to maintain balance. This was studied on human subjects walking on a treadmill who were given 100-ms perturbations of known magnitude and timing with respect to the gait cycle by means of a computer-controlled pneumatic device. This method has th

  2. Regulatory aspects of human radiolabeled mass balance studies in oncology : concise review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, C. M.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Human radiolabeled mass balance studies are performed to obtain information about the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug in development. The main goals are to determine the route of elimination and major metabolic pathways. This review provides an overview of the current r

  3. ADJUSTING THE HUMAN RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF USING THE BALANCED SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Varzaru; Anca Antoaneta Varzaru

    2015-01-01

    Engaging the human resources structure in the strategic design and implementation stages is closely connected to the enhancement of its capabilities towards undertaking and handling transformational activities, which have a direct contribution in increasing the added value of an organization. This way, transformational activities enhance the strategic importance and the prominence of the human resources function within organizations. The employment of the Balanced Scorecard stands out as a po...

  4. The electrohydraulic balance of the solar heat storage with autonomous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Marahtanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper emphasizes an increasingly important role of alternative power sources nowadays. At the same time, a solar collector (suntrap is one of the most frequent techniques to use the solar energy. It is an absorber that picks up solar radiation and heats a heat carrier circulating in the close loop. Then the heat is transferred to the heat accumulator that is integrated in the hot-tap water system (HWS.The paper presents a prospective circuit of the solar collector. It differs from the traditional one because, in addition to absorbing panel, it uses photoconverters to generate electric power for the circulating pump. The advantage of this system is that for operation such a solar energy converter has no need in external power sources, i.e. it is autonomous. The need to calculate the essential thermo-physical parameters that ensure no-break system operation was stated as a main objective of the work.The suggested circuit has a photocell panel to convert solar radiation into dc voltage of 12 V. In case of a lack of the solar energy an accumulator battery can be used for feeding. To ensure the no-break supply of power an adaptor is offered.To calculate a density distribution of solar radiation a sine law is offered depending on the time of day and geographical locality. This dependence was used to obtain the expressions for calculating the water temperature in boiler over daytime.Further, the calculations have been done for the operating conditions under which an efficient heat exchange will be provided with the minimum consumption of electric power for the heat carrier circulation in the first loop. For this purpose, a pump power was calculated depending on consumption and hydraulic losses of head in the pipeline. As a minimum required consumption the value has been chosen at which a laminar flow regime changes to the turbulent one because of the most efficient heat exchange being both in collector and in heat accumulator

  5. Backshell Radiative Heating on Human-Scale Mars Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    West,Thomas K., IV; Theisinger, John E.; Brune, Andrew J.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2017-01-01

    This work quantifies the backshell radiative heating experienced by payloads on human- scale vehicles entering the Martian atmosphere. Three underlying configurations were studied: a generic sphere, a sphere-cone forebody with a cylindrical payload, and an ellipsled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow field and radiation were performed using the LAURA and HARA codes, respectively. Results of this work indicated the primary contributor to radiative heating is emission from the CO2 IR band system. Furthermore, the backshell radiation component of heating can persist lower than 2 km/s during entry and descent. For the sphere-cone configuration a peak heat flux of about 3.5 W/cm(exp. 2) was observed at the payload juncture during entry. At similar conditions, the ellipsled geometry experienced about 1.25 W/cm(exp. 2) on the backshell, but as much as 8 W/cm(exp. 2) on the base at very high angle of attack. Overall, this study sheds light on the potential magnitudes of backshell radiative heating that various configurations may experience. These results may serve as a starting point for thermal protection system design or configuration changes necessary to accommodate thermal radiation levels.

  6. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  7. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  8. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  9. Using Simulink Simulation to Evaluate Load Following Characteristics of SOFC Generator with Heat Exchanger Considering Heat Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Nguyen Duc; Fujita, Goro; Yokoyama, Ryuichi; Koyanagi, Kaoru; Funabashi, Toshihisa; Nomura, Masakatsu

    That ever increasing electricity consumption, progress in power deregulation, and rising public awareness for environment have created more interest in fuel cell distributed generation. Among different types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) manifest themselves as great potential applications due to many advantages such as low emission, high efficiency, and high power rating. On the other hand, SOFC systems are beneficial because they can convert fuel such as natural gas (almost CH4) which is supplied by widespread systems in many countries into electricity efficiently using internal reforming. In facts, the load demand changes flexibly and fuel cell life time decreases by rapid thermal change. Its lifetime may be extended by maintaining in appropriate temperature. Therefore, it is important to acquire the load following performance as well as control of operation temperature. This paper addresses components of the simple SOFC power unit model with heat exchanger (HX) included. Typical dynamical submodels are used to follow the variation of load demand at a local location that considers temperature characteristics using the Matlab-SIMULINK program.

  10. On the Sensitivity of Atmospheric Model Implied Ocean Heat Transport to the Dominant Terms of the Surface Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, P J

    2004-11-03

    The oceanic meridional heat transport (T{sub o}) implied by an atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) can help evaluate a model's readiness for coupling with an ocean GCM. In this study we examine the T{sub o} from benchmark experiments of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, and evaluate the sensitivity of T{sub o} to the dominant terms of the surface energy balance. The implied global ocean TO in the Southern Hemisphere of many models is equatorward, contrary to most observationally-based estimates. By constructing a hybrid (model corrected by observations) T{sub o}, an earlier study demonstrated that the implied heat transport is critically sensitive to the simulated shortwave cloud radiative effects, which have been argued to be principally responsible for the Southern Hemisphere problem. Systematic evaluation of one model in a later study suggested that the implied T{sub o} could be equally as sensitive to a model's ocean surface latent heat flux. In this study we revisit the problem with more recent simulations, making use of estimates of ocean surface fluxes to construct two additional hybrid calculations. The results of the present study demonstrate that indeed the implied T{sub o} of an atmospheric model is very sensitive to problems in not only the surface net shortwave, but the latent heat flux as well. Many models underestimate the shortwave radiation reaching the surface in the low latitudes, and overestimate the latent heat flux in the same region. The additional hybrid transport calculations introduced here could become useful model diagnostic tests as estimates of implied ocean surface fluxes are improved.

  11. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees—Balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (Ta) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (Tth) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0–38.5 °C) in a broad range of Ta (3–30 °C). At warmer conditions (Ta = 30–39 °C) Tth increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of Tbody − Ta of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a Ta of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase Tth by about 1–3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher Ta they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high Tth also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees’ suction pump even at low Ta. This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing Ta bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  12. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... metabolism and increased an index of cerebral blood flow, but cerebral net water and ion homeostasis remained stable. Thus, although AMS develops within hours and may be related to exercise-induced disturbance of cerebral ion and water balance, such changes are not detectable when subjects are exposed...

  13. Three-dimensional aspects of the seasonal heat balance in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beron-Vera, F. J.; Ripa, P.

    2000-05-01

    Previously unresolved three-dimensional aspects of the time mean, as well as the annual and semiannual cycles of the heat transport, are studied in the Gulf of California using a minimal box model suggested by the hydrographic data. At the very least three horizontal domains are needed for the model: a shallow region north of the big islands, a deep region identifiable with the Ballenas Channel, and another deep region spanning the rest of the gulf south of the archipelago. Only one vertical layer is considered in the northern region, whereas two layers are taken into account in the other two regions. Out of all of the possible heat exchanges among the various boxes of the model, the least-flux-variance solution is considered. The annual mean heat entering the surface in the northern region is exported in almost equal amounts to the Ballenas Channel and the southern region. Ballenas Channel, in turn, exports heat to the southern region mainly through the lower layer, producing a transversal asymmetry of the mouthward flux into the upper layer. At the mouth the heat is exported to the Pacific Ocean largely through the upper layer. Both the annual and semiannual amplitude of the exchanges between all regions are as important as the annual average, except at the mouth of the gulf, where the semiannual component is not statistically relevant. The Pacific Ocean fluxes estimates at the annual frequency agree well with those produced by a baroclinic wave, which has been shown to explain a big deal of the thermodynamics of the gulf. The annual mean vertical flux per unit horizontal area in the Ballenas Channel is much larger than that in the southern region. This reinforces previous speculations that mixing processes in this region are very important. A depth-independent eddy diffusivity parameterization suggests that diffusion might not be invoked to explain the annual mean vertical flux in the Ballenas Channel.

  14. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise-induced phase transition in the model of human virtual stick balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2016-01-01

    Humans face the task of balancing dynamic systems near an unstable equilibrium repeatedly throughout their lives. Much research has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms of intermittent control in the context of human balance control. The present paper deals with one of the recent developments in the theory of human intermittent control, namely, the double-well model of noise-driven control activation. We demonstrate that the double-well model can reproduce the whole range of experimentally observed distributions under different conditions. Moreover, we show that a slight change in the noise intensity parameter leads to a sudden shift of the action point distribution shape, that is, a phase transition is observed.

  16. Heat flux estimates of power balance on Proto-MPEX with IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, M.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Donovan, D. C.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J.

    2016-11-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a precursor linear plasma device to the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will study plasma material interactions (PMIs) for future fusion reactors. This paper will discuss the initial steps performed towards completing a power balance on Proto-MPEX to quantify where energy is lost from the plasma, including the relevant diagnostic package implemented. Machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX's performance may be identified, increasing its PMI research capabilities.

  17. Heat flux estimates of power balance on Proto-MPEX with IR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showers, M., E-mail: mshower1@vols.utk.edu [Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Goulding, R. H.; Rapp, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Donovan, D. C. [Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a precursor linear plasma device to the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which will study plasma material interactions (PMIs) for future fusion reactors. This paper will discuss the initial steps performed towards completing a power balance on Proto-MPEX to quantify where energy is lost from the plasma, including the relevant diagnostic package implemented. Machine operating parameters that will improve Proto-MPEX’s performance may be identified, increasing its PMI research capabilities.

  18. Convective heat transfer area of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer area involved in convective heat exchange for the human body, the total body surface area of six healthy subjects was measured, and the non-convective heat transfer area and floor and chair contact areas for the following nine common body positions were measured: standing, sitting on a chair, sitting in the seiza position, sitting cross-legged, sitting sideways, sitting with both knees erect, sitting with a leg out, and the lateral and supine positions. The main non-convective heat transfer areas were: the armpits (contact between the upper arm and trunk regions), contact between the two legs, contacts between the fingers and toes, and contact between the hands and the body surface. Also, when sitting on the floor with some degree of leg contact (sitting in the seiza position, cross-legged, or sideways), there was a large non-convective heat transfer area on the thighs and legs. Even when standing or sitting in a chair, about 6-8% of the body surface did not transfer heat by convection. The results showed that the effective thermal convective area factor for the naked whole body in the standing position was 0.942. While sitting in a chair this factor was 0.860, while sitting in a chair but excluding the chair contact area it was 0.918, when sitting in the seiza position 0.818, when sitting cross-legged 0.843, in the sideways sitting position 0.855, when sitting with both knees erect 0.887, in the leg-out sitting position 0.906, while in the lateral position it was 0.877 and the supine position 0.844. For all body positions, the effective thermal convective area factor was greater than the effective thermal radiation area factor, but smaller than the total body surface area.

  19. Dependence of the L-H power threshold on magnetic balance and heating method in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.; Biewer, T.; Meyer, H.; Bell, R.; Leblanc, B.; Chang, C. S.

    2007-11-01

    H-mode access is a critical issue for next step devices, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is projected to have a modest heating power margin over the projected L-H power threshold (PLH). The importance of a second X-point in setting the value of PLH has been clarified in recent experiments on several tokamaks. Specifically a reduction of PLH was observed when the magnetic configuration was changed from single null (SN) to double null (DN) in the MAST, NSTX, and ASDEX-Upgrade devices [1]. Motivated by these results, detailed PLH studies on NSTX have compared discharges with neutral beam and rf heating, as a function of drsep. Similar PLH values and edge parameters are observed with the two heating methods in the same magnetic configuration, with PLH ˜ 0.6 MW lowest in DN and increasing to ˜ 1.1 MW and 2-4 MW in lower-SN and upper-SN configurations respectively (ion grad-B-drift towards lower X-point). The evolution of the experimental profiles of parameters in L-mode before the L/H transition will be compared with simulations using the XGC code (C.S. Chang). [1] MEYER, H. et al., Nucl. Fusion 46 (2006) 64.

  20. Recasting catchment water balance for water allocation between human and environmental purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebalancing water allocation between human consumptive uses and the environment in water catchments is a global challenge. The conventional water balance approach which partitions precipitation into evapotranspiration (ET and surface runoff supports the optimization of water allocations among different human water use sectors under the cap of water supply. However, this approach is unable to support the emerging water management priority issue of allocating water between societal and ecological systems. This paper recast the catchment water balance by partitioning catchment total ET into ET for the society and ET for the natural ecological systems, and estimated the impacts of water allocation on the two systems in terms of gross primary productivity (GPP, in the Murray–Darling Basin (MDB of Australia over the period 1900–2010. With the recast water balance, the more than 100 year water management in the MDB was divided into four periods corresponding to major changes in basin management: period 1 (1900–1956 expansion of water and land use by the societal system, period 2 (1956–1985 maximization of water and land use by the societal system, period 3 (1985–2002 maximization of water diversion for the societal system, and period 4 (2002–present rebalancing of water and land use between the societal and ecological systems. The recast water balance provided new understandings of the water and land dynamics between societal and ecological systems in the MDB, and it highlighted the experiences and lessons of catchment water management in the MDB over the last more than 100 years. The recast water balance could serve as the theoretical foundation for water allocation to keep a dynamic balance between the societal and ecological systems within a basin for sustainable catchment development. It provides a new approach to advance the discipline of socio-hydrology.

  1. THERMOCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR SEASONAL BALANCE OF SURPLUS ELECTRICITY AND HEAT DEMAND IN DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Matthias; Linder, Marc Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical storage systems are predestined to store thermal energy for a long time since the storage principle itself is free of losses and allows for very high energy densities. Therefore we developed a new approach where electricity, p. e. from private PV-panels in the summer, is used to charge a thermochemical reaction system. The reaction product then can be stored in an inexpensive tank at room temperature. If there is heat demand during the winter part of the material can be supplie...

  2. Mass and heat flux balance of La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe) from aerial infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Coutant, Olivier; Delacourt, Christophe; Richon, Patrick; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Hammouya, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    La Soufrière of Guadeloupe is an active volcano of Lesser Antilles that is closely monitored due to a high eruptive hazard potential. Since 1992 it exhibits a medium-level but sustained background hydrothermal activity with low-energy and shallow seismicity, hot springs temperature increase and high flux acidic gas fumaroles at the summit. The problem of estimating the heat balance and quantifying the evolution of hydrothermal activity has become a key challenge for surveillance. This work is the first attempt of a global mapping and quantification of La Soufrière thermal activity performed in February 2010 using aerial thermal infrared imagery. After instrument calibration and data processing, we present a global map of thermal anomalies allowing to spot the main active sites: the summit area (including the fumaroles of Tarissan Pit and South Crater), the Ty Fault fumarolic zone, and the hot springs located at the vicinity of the dome. In a second step, we deduce the mass and the energy fluxes released by the volcano. In particular, we propose a simple model of energy balance to estimate the mass flux of the summit fumaroles from their brightness temperature and size. In February 2010, Tarissan Pit had a 22.8 ± 8.1 kg s -1 flux (1970 ± 704 tons day -1), while South Crater vents had a total of 19.5 ± 4.0 kg s -1 (1687 ± 348 tons day -1). Once converted into energy flux, summit fumaroles represent 98% of the 106 ± 30 MW released by the volcano, the 2% remaining being split between the hot springs and the thermal anomalies at the summit and at the Ty Fault fumarolic zone. These values are in the high range of the previous estimations, highlighting the short-term variability of the expelled fluxes. Such a heat flux requires the cooling of 1500 m 3 of magma per day, in good agreement with previous geochemical studies.

  3. Effect of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Performance and Immune Responses of Broiler Chickens Reared in the Heat Stress Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behnaz ashrafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of electrolyte dietary balance (DEB on performance and immune function of broiler chickens reared under the heat stress condition. Three hundred oneday chickens were distributed randomly in 25 separate Pens with 12 chicks in each. This experiment was in the form of a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications and different levels of electrolyte dietary balance (EDB, including 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450 meq/kg dedicated on corn - soybean based diets . To study immune responses , 0.5 ml intramuscular injection of sheep red blood cells (5% on days 18 and 30 and antibody response against Newcastle and Bronchitis was used. In 28 to 42 days, chickens for 4 hours under 35 ° C heat stress were studied. The average weight of chickens in the fourth week in DEB 250 was higher while sixth week the highest mean weight in chickens was DEB 350. maximum feed intake in the third week in 250 DEB, but the fourth to sixth weeks greatest amount of feed intake in 350 EDB were observed. Effect of different levels of EDB on feed conversion ratio was not significant. Effect of EDB on primary and secondary immune responses was significantly in 6 and 12 days after inoculation (primary immune response, most SRBC antibody response in 450 EDB . Similarly, in 6 and 12 days after injection (secondary immune response, the highest antibody, respectively, 350 and 450 EDB was observed. Equilibrium level of 350 DEB was highest antibody titer against Newcastle and bronchitis (P

  4. Balanced trade-offs between alternative strategies shape the response of C. elegans reproduction to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprison, Erin Z; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    To ensure long-term reproductive success organisms have to cope with harsh environmental extremes. A reproductive strategy that simply maximizes offspring production is likely to be disadvantageous because it could lead to a catastrophic loss of fecundity under unfavorable conditions. To understand how an appropriate balance is achieved, we investigated reproductive performance of C. elegans under conditions of chronic heat stress. We found that following even prolonged exposure to temperatures at which none of the offspring survive, worms could recover and resume reproduction. The likelihood of producing viable offspring falls precipitously after exposure to temperatures greater than 28°C primarily due to sperm damage. Surprisingly, we found that worms that experienced higher temperatures can recover considerably better, provided they did not initiate ovulation. Therefore mechanisms controlling this process must play a crucial role in determining the probability of recovery. We show, however, that suppressing ovulation is only beneficial under relatively long stresses, whereas it is a disadvantageous strategy under shorter stresses of the same intensity. This is because the benefit of shutting down egg laying, and thus protecting the reproductive system, is negated by the cost associated with implementing this strategy--it takes considerable time to recover and produce offspring. We interpret these balanced trade-offs as a dynamic response of the C. elegans reproductive system to stress and an adaptation to life in variable and unpredictable conditions.

  5. Balanced trade-offs between alternative strategies shape the response of C. elegans reproduction to chronic heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Z Aprison

    Full Text Available To ensure long-term reproductive success organisms have to cope with harsh environmental extremes. A reproductive strategy that simply maximizes offspring production is likely to be disadvantageous because it could lead to a catastrophic loss of fecundity under unfavorable conditions. To understand how an appropriate balance is achieved, we investigated reproductive performance of C. elegans under conditions of chronic heat stress. We found that following even prolonged exposure to temperatures at which none of the offspring survive, worms could recover and resume reproduction. The likelihood of producing viable offspring falls precipitously after exposure to temperatures greater than 28°C primarily due to sperm damage. Surprisingly, we found that worms that experienced higher temperatures can recover considerably better, provided they did not initiate ovulation. Therefore mechanisms controlling this process must play a crucial role in determining the probability of recovery. We show, however, that suppressing ovulation is only beneficial under relatively long stresses, whereas it is a disadvantageous strategy under shorter stresses of the same intensity. This is because the benefit of shutting down egg laying, and thus protecting the reproductive system, is negated by the cost associated with implementing this strategy--it takes considerable time to recover and produce offspring. We interpret these balanced trade-offs as a dynamic response of the C. elegans reproductive system to stress and an adaptation to life in variable and unpredictable conditions.

  6. Simultaneous on-line monitoring of propofol and sevoflurane in balanced anesthesia by direct resistive heating gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Zhang, Feng Jiang; Wang, Fu Yuan; Wang, Ying Ying; Guo, Jing; Kanhar, G M; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Chen; Yan, Min; Chen, Xing

    2017-07-14

    In balanced anesthesia, sevoflurane and propofol are often used in combination to achieve a better anesthetic effect. However, methods for on-line monitoring of concentrations of the two anesthetics in patients are still rare in clinical. This study proposed a non-invasive method utilizing a fast gas chromatograph combined with a surface acoustic wave sensor (Fast GC-SAW) to simultaneously on-line monitor sevoflurane and propofol in patients' exhaled gas. By using the direct resistive heating capillary column, the single detection time of Fast GC-SAW system was significantly shortened to 90s, as well as the size reduced to (40cm×30cm×20cm). Besides, in the calibration of sevoflurane, Fast GC-SAW system showed a good linear correlation (R(2)=0.9925, P<0.01) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which ensured the reliability and accuracy of the Fast GC-SAW system. Finally, clinical experiments on patients under balanced anesthesia were conducted. The varied concentrations measured by Fast GC-SAW extraordinarily matched the clinical usages of these two anesthetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neutral gas density depletion due to neutral gas heating and pressure balance in an inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masashi; Tynan, George R.; Cattolica, Robert

    2007-02-01

    The spatial distribution of neutral gas temperature and total pressure have been measured for pure N2, He/5%N2 and Ar/5%N2 in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor, and a significant rise in the neutral gas temperature has been observed. When thermal transpiration is used to correct total pressure measurements, the total pressure remains constant regardless of the plasma condition. Neutral pressure is depleted due to the pressure balance when the plasma pressure (mainly electron pressure) becomes comparable to the neutral pressure in high density plasma. Since the neutral gas follows the ideal gas law, the neutral gas density profile was obtained from the neutral gas temperature and the corrected neutral pressure measurements. The results show that the neutral gas density at the centre of the plasma chamber (factor of 2-4 ×) decreases significantly in the presence of a plasma discharge. Significant spatial variation in neutral gas uniformity occurs in such plasmas due to neutral gas heating and pressure balance.

  8. Auto white balance method using a pigmentation separation technique for human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2017-02-01

    The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.

  9. Auto white balance method using a pigmentation separation technique for human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-11-01

    The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.

  10. HUMAN RESOURCE ASSESSMENT, RECOGNITION, AND REWARD WITH A BALANCED SCORECARD APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Nejati; Sasan Ghasemi; Azadeh Shafaei

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a method that serves the team leaders and executive managers as a guide for assuring the accomplishment of the team’s objectives. It spotlights the trend of human resource performance. The method introduced in this article focuses on Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a revolutionizing tool in the management of performance and suggests a new and scientific way for assessment, recognition, and reward system. The innovative model introduced in this article can be used to evaluate...

  11. The balancing of existing space heating systems using temperature measurements; L'equilibrage des installations de chauffage existantes par mesure des temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, G.

    2004-03-01

    The balancing of space heating systems using the measurements of water temperature or of the ambient temperature is a method used since several decades. However, the results obtained with this method have been very often disappointing. Today, the improvements made in the metrology of surface temperatures allow to reconsider this approach. This technical paper describes: the progresses made in surface temperature measurements, the balancing principle using water temperature measurements, a numerical example and the study of a concrete case (relation between temperature drop and flow rate), and the choice of a balancing method. (J.S.)

  12. Upper-Ocean Heat Balance Processes and the Walker Circulation in CMIP5 Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, C.; Lyon, B.; Ricciardulli, L.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains as to the importance of mechanisms governing decadal and longer variability of the Walker Circulation, its connection to the tropical climate system, and prospects for tropical climate change in the face of anthropogenic forcing. Most contemporary climate models suggest that in response to elevated CO2 and a warmer but more stratified atmosphere, the required upward mass flux in tropical convection will diminish along with the Walker component of the tropical mean circulation as well. Alternatively, there is also evidence to suggest that the shoaling and increased vertical stratification of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific will enable a muted SST increase there-- preserving or even enhancing some of the dynamical forcing for the Walker cell flow. Over the past decade there have been observational indications of an acceleration in near-surface easterlies, a strengthened Pacific zonal SST gradient, and globally-teleconnected dislocations in precipitation. But is this evidence in support of an ocean dynamical thermostat process posited to accompany anthropogenic forcing, or just residual decadal fluctuations associated with variations in warm and cold ENSO events and other stochastic forcing? From a modeling perspective we try to make headway on this question by examining zonal variations in surface energy fluxes and dynamics governing tropical upper ocean heat content evolution in the WCRP CMIP5 model projections. There is some diversity among model simulations; for example, the CCSM4 indicates net ocean warming over the IndoPacific region while the CSIRO model concentrates separate warming responses over the central Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The models, as with observations, demonstrate strong local coupling between variations in column water vapor, downward surface longwave radiation and SST; but the spatial patterns of changes in the sign of this relationship differ among models and, for models as a whole, with

  13. Energy balance between vaporization and heating in the absorption of CO2 laser radiation by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; Yam, Henry; Duley, Walter W.

    1997-03-01

    The use of lasers in industrial and medical procedures continues to increase. A fundamental question in many laser- material interactions is how is the incident laser power transferred to the target material, and how is the power distributed among the phases (solid, liquid, vapor) of the material. This paper describes the results of a fundamental calorimetry experiment to determine the fraction of incident carbon-dioxide laser energy which is used to vaporize water from a target volume, and the fraction of power used to simply heat the remaining liquid. The experiment was performed over a range of incident laser powers from 60 to 300 W. Over most of the range of incident power, the fraction used to vaporize water is 30 to 35 percent. This fraction increases at the lowest powers.

  14. Calculating the water and heat balances of the Eastern Mediterranean basin using ocean modelling and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances over a 52-yr period. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat, and salt conservation, with turbulence modelled using a two-equation model. The exchange through the Sicily Channel connecting the Eastern and Western basins is calculated from satellite altimeter data. The results illustrates that calculated surface temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed da...

  15. Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRitter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG. The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by fMRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. In a second experiment we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e. the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  16. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  17. Modeling AGN Feedback in Cool-Core Clusters: The Balance between Heating and Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven AGN feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations. The momentum-driven AGN feedback is modeled with a pair of (small-angle) precessing jets, and the jet power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas in the vicinity of the Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH). The ICM first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the AGN jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended (up to a few tens kpc) structures that resemble the observed $\\rm H\\alpha$ filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core cluster. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy and cooling time, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of $\\sim 10^{11}$ M$_{\\odot}$. The hot gas cools directly onto the cold disk while the SMBH accretes from the innermost reg...

  18. Assessment and intervention of human balance using balance master%平衡仪与人体平衡功能的评定及干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉; 吴庆文; 马素慧; 董胜莲

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the applying of computer-aided technology in the filed of balance function evaluation, new progress has been made in balance evaluation and training. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the progress and intervention strategy of balance function evaluation at home and abroad. METHODS: An online search of PubMed database and Chinese Journal Full-text Database was performed for related articles published between January 1996 and March 2011 with the key words of "Balance, Balance master, Postural control" in English and Chinese, respectively. Balance was used as the evaluation index. A total of 34 articles related to balance function were retained. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The research type of balance function changes from pure subjective qualitative study to objective quantitative assessment. Balance master, as an objective evaluation method, can quantitatively, objectively and accurately assess the status of patients balance. It develops balance training and guides the rehabilitation plan by visual feedback. Balance master plays an important role in the evaluation of rehabilitation effect. It is confirmed abroad that balance master is effective to improve human balance. Therefore, balance master is more and more used in clinical rehabilitation.%背景:随着计算机辅助技术在平衡功能评估领域的应用,平衡的评定和训练有了新的发展.目的:总结国内外平衡能力评估的研究进展及干预策略.方法:以"Balance,Balance master,Postural control"为检索词检索PubMed数据库(1996-01/2011-03);以"平衡,平衡仪,姿势控制"为检索词检索中国期刊全文数据库(1996-01/2011-03)的相关文章,对资料进行初审,以平衡能力相关的文献为评价标准,纳入与平衡能力相关的34个研究进行综述.结果与结论:康复医学中平衡功能的研究正从单纯的主观定性研究向客观定量评估转变,平衡仪作为一种客观评定方法,可以定量、客观、准确地评

  19. Modelling the water and heat balances of the Mediterranean Sea using a two-basin model and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaltout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-basin model of the water and heat balances of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (WMB and EMB, respectively over the 1958–2010 period using available meteorological and hydrological data. The results indicate that the simulated temperature and salinity in both studied Mediterranean sub-basins closely follow the reanalysed data. In addition, simulated surface water in the EMB had a higher mean temperature (by approximately 1.6°C and was more saline (by approximately 0.87 g kg−1 than in the WMB over the studied period. The net evaporation over the EMB (1.52 mm day−1 was approximately 1.7 times greater than over the WMB (0.88 mm day−1. The water balance of the Mediterranean Sea was controlled by net inflow through the Gibraltar Strait and Sicily Channel, the net evaporation rate and freshwater input. The heat balance simulations indicated that the heat loss from the water body was nearly balanced by the solar radiation to the water body, resulting in a net export (import of approximately 13 (11 W m−2 of heat from the WMB (to the EMB.

  20. Balances of heat and momentum at 33.5°N, 127°W in the upper ocean during the Mixed-Layer Dynamics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, Jeffrey D.; de Szoeke, Roland A.; Richman, James G.

    1988-07-01

    The balances of momentum and heat were studied for an 18-day period in October-November 1983 during the Mixed-Layer Dynamics Experiment at a site 650 km off central California. Data were collected from a drifting platform from which surface winds, air temperature, and ocean currents (from a string of vector-measuring current meters) were measured. The position of the unattended drifter was determined by LORAN-C on the platform. Currents in the surface layers were partially wind driven and partially coherent with low-frequency currents at deeper levels. The latter currents, though coherent, were sheared, turned significantly with depth, and were presumably nearly geostrophically balanced. Vertically differencing velocity in the mixed layer improved the balance between wind and current by removing a portion of the geostrophic flow. The complex correlation coefficient between wind stress and current integrated to 38 m was 0.76 for current relative to 38 m yet only 0.36 for the undifferenced case. Surface heat flux magnitudes were not clearly reflected in the heat content of the near-surface layers although variability was. Over the first 13 days of the experiment, the correlation coefficient between daily-averaged heat flux and heat content change was 0.89, but average net surface heating was 60 W m-2, while the average heat content change in the top 38 m was only 10 W m-2. Heat balance must have been restored by advection. Vertical advection was rejected as an explanation because heat content changes in layers defined by isotherm depths showed similar imbalances with regard to surface heating. Horizontal advection was estimated by two methods: (1) by using sparse thermistor chain tows around the current meter drifter to construct a history of horizontal temperature gradients and (2) by using current profiles at moderate depths to estimate pressure gradients (essentially through geostrophy), hence buoyancy gradients (by the hydrostatic relation), hence temperature

  1. Characterization of human manure-derived biochar and energy-balance analysis of slow pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Li, Zifu; Zhang, Yaozhong; Feng, Rui; Mahmood, Ibrahim Babatunde

    2014-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their soil improvement potential, contaminant immobilization properties, and ability to function as carbon sinks. This study adopted a pyrolytic process to prepare a series of biochars from dried human manure at varying temperatures. The thermal analysis of human manure and physicochemical properties of the resulting biochars illustrated that human manure can be a favorable feedstock for biochar production. In particular, the porous texture and nutrient-rich properties of biochars produced from human manure and may significantly enhance soil fertility when used as used soil additives. A temperature range of 500-600°C was optimal for human manure biochar production. Significantly, when the moisture content of the feedstock is lower than 57%, the system could not only harvest manure-derived biochar but also have a net energy output, which can be provide heat source for nearby users.

  2. A Balanced-Fed Dual Inverted-F Antenna with Reduced Human Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A balanced-fed dual inverted-F antenna with reduced human body effects for WLAN applications at 2.45 GHz is presented. In order to reduce the influence by a close proximity or a touch of a human body, the proposed antenna employs an impedance matching using a lumped LC-balun which has the simple and compact structure applying for mobile handsets. The resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is fixed at 2.45 GHz regardless of the close proximity of a human body. By applying for the L-shape ground plane, the proposed antenna has the wide impedance bandwidth of about 150 MHz and the peak realized gain of about 4 dBi.

  3. Small-scale combined heat and power as a balancing reserve for wind – The case of participation in the German secondary control reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sorknæs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources (RES are being integrated into energy systems worldwide. Due to the nature of these sources, they are found to increase the importance of mechanisms for balancing the electricity system. Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP plants based on gas have proven their ability to participate in the electricity system balancing, and can hence be used to facilitate an integration of intermittent RES into electricity systems. Within the EU electricity system, balancing reserves have to be procured on a market basis. This paper investigates the ability and challenges of a small-scale CHP plant based on natural gas to participate in the German balancing reserve for secondary control. It is found that CHP plants have to account for more potential losses than traditional power plants. However, it is also found that the effect of these losses can be reduced by increasing the flexibility of the CHP unit.

  4. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Portmann, Felix Theodor; Reinecke, Robert; Riedel, Claudia; Song, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Döll, Petra

    2016-10-01

    The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971-2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (-6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean). Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  5. Inverse modeling for heat conduction problem in human abdominal phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive methods for deep body temperature measurement are based on the principle of heat equilibrium between the thermal sensor and the target location theoretically. However, the measurement position is not able to be definitely determined. In this study, a 2-dimensional mathematical model was built based upon some assumptions for the physiological condition of the human abdomen phantom. We evaluated the feasibility in estimating the internal organs temperature distribution from the readings of the temperature sensors arranged on the skin surface. It is a typical inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), and is usually mathematically ill-posed. In this study, by integrating some physical and physiological a-priori information, we invoked the quasi-linear (QL) method to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution. The solutions of this method were improved by increasing the accuracy of the sensors and adjusting their arrangement on the outer surface, and eventually reached the state of converging at the best state accurately. This study suggests that QL method is able to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution in this phantom and might be worthy of a further study in an anatomical based model.

  6. HUMAN RESOURCE ASSESSMENT, RECOGNITION, AND REWARD WITH A BALANCED SCORECARD APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Nejati

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a method that serves the team leaders and executive managers as a guide for assuring the accomplishment of the team’s objectives. It spotlights the trend of human resource performance. The method introduced in this article focuses on Balanced Scorecard (BSC as a revolutionizing tool in the management of performance and suggests a new and scientific way for assessment, recognition, and reward system. The innovative model introduced in this article can be used to evaluate personnel’s performance, rank them, set job-related targets, and motivate them to improve their performance.

  7. The hexameric structures of human heat shock protein 90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90 functions as a dimeric molecular chaperone. HSP90 identified on the cell surface has been found to play a crucial role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and has become a validated anti-cancer target for drug development. It has been shown to self-assemble into oligomers upon heat shock or divalent cations treatment, but the functional role of the oligomeric states in the chaperone cycle is not fully understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the crystal structure of a truncated HSP90 that contains the middle segment and the carboxy-terminal domain, termed MC-HSP90. The structure reveals an architecture with triangular bipyramid geometry, in which the building block of the hexameric assembly is a dimer. In solution, MC-HSP90 exists in three major oligomer states, namely dimer, tetramer and hexamer, which were elucidated by size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. The newly discovered HSP90 isoform HSP90N that lacks the N-terminal ATPase domain also exhibited similar oligomerization states as did MC-HSP90. CONCLUSIONS: While lacking the ATPase domain, both MC-HSP90 and HSP90N can self-assemble into a hexameric structure, spontaneously. The crystal structure of MC-HSP90 reveals that, in addition to the C-terminal dimerization domain, the residue W320 in the M domain plays a critical role in its oligomerization. This study not only demonstrates how the human MC-HSP90 forms a hexamer, but also justifies the similar formation of HSP90N by using 3D modeling analysis.

  8. 高温熔融钢渣热闷热平衡分析及余热回收利用%Analysis of heat balance and waste heat recovery and utilization for the high temperature molten slag by pyrolytic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 陈媛; 张天有; 张健; 韩自博; 刘银梅

    2014-01-01

    对钢渣热闷过程中的热量平衡进行了分析和计算,提出了余热回收方案,并对经济效益进行了分析,为钢渣余热回收的进一步研究和实践打下了基础。%The heat balance during the steel slag self -slaking process by pyrolytic was analyzed and calculated.Put forward the waste heat recovery scheme and analyzed the economic benefits .It lays a solid basis for the further research and practice of steel slag waste heat recovery .

  9. Impact of electromagnetic fields on human vestibular system and standing balance: pilot results and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A.; Villard, S.; Corbacio, M.; Goulet, D.; Plante, M.; Souques, M.; Deschamps, F.; Ostiguy, G.; Lambrozo, J.; Thomas, A. W.; Legros, A.

    2016-03-01

    Although studies have found that extremely low-frequency (ELF, fields (MF) can modulate human standing balance, the acute effects of electromagnetic fields on standing balance have not been systematically investigated. This work aims to establish the threshold for acute standing balance modulation during ELFMF exposure. One hundred volunteers will be exposed to transcranial electric stimulations (Direct Current - DC and Alternating Current - AC, 1 mA) and ELFMF (0 to 160 Hz, 0 to 100 mT). The displacement of their center of pressure will be collected and analyzed as an indicator of vestibular performance. During pilot testing (n=6), we found increased lateral sway with DC, and to a lesser extent, AC exposure. The ELFMF exposure system still needs to be adapted to allow meaningful results. Future protocol design will test for possible effects due to exposures in the radiofrequency range (i.e. above 3 kHz). These results will contribute to the literature documenting exposure guidelines aiming to protect workers and the general public.

  10. Dynamic Simulation of Human Thermoregulation and Heat Transfer for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas R.; Nelson, David A.; Bue, Grant; Kuznetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Models of human thermoregulation and heat transfer date from the early 1970s and have been developed for applications ranging from evaluating thermal comfort in spacecraft and aircraft cabin environments to predicting heat stress during EVAs. Most lumped or compartment models represent the body as an assemblage cylindrical and spherical elements which may be subdivided into layers to describe tissue heterogeneity. Many existing models are of limited usefulness in asymmetric thermal environments, such as may be encountered during an EVA. Conventional whole-body clothing models also limit the ability to describe local surface thermal and evaporation effects in sufficient detail. A further limitation is that models based on a standard man model are not readily scalable to represent large or small subjects. This work describes development of a new human thermal model derived from the 41-node man model. Each segment is divided into four concentric, constant thickness cylinders made up of a central core surrounded by muscle, fat, and skin, respectively. These cylinders are connected by the flow of blood from a central blood pool to each part. The central blood pool is updated at each time step, based on a whole-body energy balance. Results show the model simulates core and surface temperature histories, sweat evaporation and metabolic rates which generally are consistent with controlled exposures of human subjects. Scaling rules are developed to enable simulation of small and large subjects (5th percentile and 95th percentile). Future refinements will include a clothing model that addresses local surface insulation and permeation effects and developing control equations to describe thermoregulatory effects such as may occur with prolonged weightlessness or with aging.

  11. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  12. Control of thermal balance by a liquid circulating garment based on a mathematical representation of the human thermoregulatory system. Ph.D. Thesis - California Univ., Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Test data and a mathematical model of the human thermoregulatory system were used to investigate control of thermal balance by means of a liquid circulating garment (LCG). The test data were derived from five series of experiments in which environmental and metabolic conditions were varied parametrically as a function of several independent variables, including LCG flowrate, LCG inlet temperature, net environmental heat exchange, surrounding gas ventilation rate, ambient pressure, metabolic rate, and subjective/obligatory cooling control. The resultant data were used to relate skin temperature to LCG water temperature and flowrate, to assess a thermal comfort band, to demonstrate the relationship between metabolic rate and LCG heat dissipation, and so forth. The usefulness of the mathematical model as a tool for data interpretation and for generation of trends and relationships among the various physiological parameters was also investigated and verified.

  13. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Junsu [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance.

  15. An optimal state estimation model of sensory integration in human postural balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Arthur D.

    2005-09-01

    We propose a model for human postural balance, combining state feedback control with optimal state estimation. State estimation uses an internal model of body and sensor dynamics to process sensor information and determine body orientation. Three sensory modalities are modeled: joint proprioception, vestibular organs in the inner ear, and vision. These are mated with a two degree-of-freedom model of body dynamics in the sagittal plane. Linear quadratic optimal control is used to design state feedback and estimation gains. Nine free parameters define the control objective and the signal-to-noise ratios of the sensors. The model predicts statistical properties of human sway in terms of covariance of ankle and hip motion. These predictions are compared with normal human responses to alterations in sensory conditions. With a single parameter set, the model successfully reproduces the general nature of postural motion as a function of sensory environment. Parameter variations reveal that the model is highly robust under normal sensory conditions, but not when two or more sensors are inaccurate. This behavior is similar to that of normal human subjects. We propose that age-related sensory changes may be modeled with decreased signal-to-noise ratios, and compare the model's behavior with degraded sensors against experimental measurements from older adults. We also examine removal of the model's vestibular sense, which leads to instability similar to that observed in bilateral vestibular loss subjects. The model may be useful for predicting which sensors are most critical for balance, and how much they can deteriorate before posture becomes unstable.

  16. On the applicability of Kirchoff's law and the principle of heat balance in thermal infrared remote sensing:A non-isothermal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Renhua; LI; Zhaoliang; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHU; Zhilin; W

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a basic equation of thermal radiation interaction between surface objects on the basis of the principle of heat balance in the interface. The solution of this equation takes account of the contribution of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux more completely, compared with traditional solution for surface cooling and heating processes. By the aid of the experimental data conducted in the Xiaotangshan experimental site, Beijing, both the non-applicability of Kirchoff's law and the measurability of surface emissivity in a non-isothermal system have been highlighted. Two methods called ventilation and time-delay compensations have been proposed to reduce the error induced by change of surface temperatures of non-isothermal objects during the measurement of emissivity. Based on the solution of the basic equation, this paper has analyzed and pointed out the misunderstanding in comprehension and application of Kirchoff's law published in literature.

  17. Human Core Temperature Prediction for Heat-Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    injuries across the services, including 311 cases of heat stroke . The risk of heat injury is modulated by both intrinsic factors (such as genetics... Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Insti- tute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research...stress (beyond 37 °C), progressing to hyperthermia and heat exhaustion (beyond 39 °C), and then to heat stroke (beyond 40 °C) [2]. The rising core

  18. Heat Balance Research on 3MW Marine Wind Turbine's Engine Room%3MW海上风力发电机机舱热平衡设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周年勇; 蒋彦龙; 刘志丽; 康娜

    2011-01-01

    According to the analysis of engine room structure and heat-dissipating of different components and environmental operating requirements of 3MW Wind Turbine System, heat balance design of Wind Turbine's engine room is carried out. Then calculation method of the heat load of engine room including the components heat load,outside heat load and fresh air heat load are proposed. At the same time,heat load changing characteristics of the engine room is obtained under the cooling method of jetting and influence of factors such as air temperature and speed and gray scale of the engine room to heat balance of the cabin is researched. This work could be helpful for the optimization of large-capacity Wind Turbine's cooling system.%以3MW海上风力发电机为研究对象,在考察其机舱布置结构、主要部件散热情况及环境要求的基础上,对机舱进行了热平衡设计,建立了机舱热平衡方程;提出了舱内部件载荷、机舱内外对流换热系数、舱内正压维持新风量的计算方法;获得了射流冷却方式下的舱内热载荷变化特性;并研究了舱内外空气温度、速度、舱体表面灰度等因素对机舱热平衡的影响.研究工作对于大容量风力发电冷却系统的设计优化具有参考价值.

  19. 铁路站房地源热泵系统工程热平衡分析%Analysis on Heat Balance of Ground Source Heat Pump System in Railway Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈德安

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:In regard to an actual railway station,based on its design circumstance of air-condition heating system and its testing report of ground heat transfer characteristics,the ground source heat pump system was adopted as its cold and heat source.Considering the need for heat balance of the ground source heat pump system,this thesis analyzes the two different schemes used in railway station buildings:the one is a ground source heat pump system assisted by boiler,and the other is a coupled system of solar energy with ground source heat pump.And then respectively for both schemes,this thesis calculates the required capacity of ground source heat pump unit and the required design scale of ground heat exchanger.This thesis also discusses how to achieve the cold and heat balance for the two different schemes,and analyzes each characteristics and applicability in actual projects.Finally this thesis points out:it is necessary to use suitable and customized heat balance modes for different projects on the basis of local conditions.%结合具体工程,根据某车站空调采暖系统设计工况及该工程地埋管换热特性测试报告,采用地源热泵系统作为冷热源.考虑地源热泵系统的冷热平衡需要,分析采用地源热泵+锅炉辅助系统及太阳能地源热泵耦合系统两种不同热平衡方案用于铁路站房,计算各自需要的热泵机组容量及室外埋管换热器具体设计规模.详细介绍两种系统的冷热平衡方式,并对各自特点及工程运用进行论述,提出在具体工程中因地制宜,应根据不同情况,采用合适的系统热平衡方式.

  20. Comparison of the predictive value of prooxidant-antioxidant balance and heat shock proteins in the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asphyxia is one of the important cause of infants' mortality. Accurate and early diagnosis of asphyxia has an important role in performing appropriate protective treatment protocole; therefore, we compared the diagnostic value of two methods of Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance (PAB and Heat shock proteins 70 ( HSP70 among  healthy term infants and Neonates with asphyxia. Methods: In this prospective case-control study, we compared the diagnostic value of two methods of  PAB and HSP70 in healthy term infants (N=38 and Neonates with asphyxia (N=30 in Mashhad Ghaem hospital from 2011 to 2015. The diagnostic value of HSP70 and PAB was compared with statistical tests of Chi-square, T-Test, Man-Whitney, Roc curve and regression models. Results: The newborns in two groups were significantly different in terms of the first (P=0.000 and fifth minute Apgar score (P=0.000, HSP70 (P=0.000, PAB (P=0.000, PH (P=0.000, BE (P=0.000 and HCO3 (P=0.015. HSP>0.218 ng / dl has 60% sensitivity and 76% specificity for the diagnosis of asphyxia while PAB>11.3 HK has 84% sensitivity and 92% specificity for the diagnosis of asphyxia. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, HSP70>0.22 ng/dl and PAB>11.3 HK Unite can be used as biochemical markers for the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia (P=0.001. The sensitivity and specificity of PAB in the diagnosis of asphyxia is higher than HSP70 and Simultaneous measurement of these two markers can correctly diagnose 84% of asphyxia cases.

  1. Long-term influence of feeding barley treated with lactic acid and heat on performance and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Leonhard; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Humer, Elke; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief M; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the long-term influence of feeding ground barley treated with lactic acid (LA) alone or with LA and heat on performance, energy and protein balance in dairy cows. Thirty cows were fed three diets differing in the treatment of barley grain, either unprocessed ground barley (Control), ground barley steeped in 1% LA at room temperature (LA-treated barley) or ground barley steeped in 1% LA with an additional heating at 55°C (LAH-treated barley). Cows were studied from week 3 to 17 post-partum. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and composition and body weight (BW) were measured daily. Estimated energy and protein balances were calculated and blood samples were collected three times during the experiment and analysed for common metabolites of energy and lipid metabolism. Digestibility of different treated barley and other dietary ingredients was investigated in vivo using four wethers. The treatment of barley with LA and LAH increased the digestibility of organic matter (OM) by approximately 5% and the content of metabolisable energy by 0.5-0.6 MJ/kg DM. Data showed no effect of feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley at 39% of DM on overall DMI, BW, BW change, milk production and composition and on the blood variables studied. Diet influenced the estimated balances of net energy of lactation (p balances. In conclusion, feeding diets containing LA- or LAH-treated barley had no influence on performance, milk composition and blood metabolites, but LA treatment without heat seems to improve the energy balance of cows.

  2. Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD of human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Klaus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian, anxiety (passion flower or depression (St. John's wort. NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG current source density (CSD recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition. In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration Clinical

  3. Small firm growth: Organizational structure, human resource planning and the application of Balanced Scorecard: Case Qnware Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives of the Study: This research was written for the interests of the Case Company - Qnware - a Finnish boutique consultancy looking to scale up via three topics: the application of the Balanced Scorecard, relevant organizational structure and human resource planning. The final deliverables consisted of an actual Balanced Scorecard customized to Qnware, and the list of suggestions regarding the two later topics. Theoretical background and framework: The theories reviewed in...

  4. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS- enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  5. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  6. Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.

  7. Effects of high heeled shoes wearing experience and heel height on human standing balance and functional mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, Vaniessa Dewi; Xiong, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of high heeled shoes (HHS) wearing experience and heel height on human standing balance and functional mobility. Thirty young and healthy females (ten experienced and twenty inexperienced HHS wearers) participated in a series of balance tests when they wore shoes of four different heel heights: 1 cm (flat), 4 cm (low), 7 cm (medium) and 10 cm (high). Experimental results show that regardless of the wearing experience, the heel elevation induces more effort from lower limb muscles (particularly calf muscles) and results in worse functional mobility starting at 7 cm heel height. While the heel height increased to 10 cm, the standing balance also becomes worse. Experienced HHS wearers do not show significantly better overall performance on standing balance and functional mobility than inexperienced controls, even though they have better directional control (76.8% vs. 74.4%) and larger maximum excursion (93.3% vs. 89.7%). To maintain standing balance, experienced wearers exert less effort on tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis and erector spinae muscles at the cost of more intensive effort from gastrocnemius medialis muscle. Many women wear high heeled shoes (HHS) to increase female attractiveness. This study shows that HHS induce more muscular effort and worse human standing balance and functional mobility, especially when heel height reaches 10 cm. HHS wearing experience only provides certain advantages to wearers on limits of stability in terms of larger maximum excursion and better directional control.

  8. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  9. Spatiotemporal trends in human vulnerability to the heat across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, S. C.; Dixon, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    While human vulnerability to excessive heat has been well documented, relatively few studies have examined long-term trends in vulnerability to heat events. In this research, we examine temporal trends in mortality associated with heat waves, defined using three different definitions of heat wave, for the largest 51 metropolitan areas of the US, over a 36-year period (1975-2010). Regardless of the definition of heat wave, an overall decline in heat vulnerability is seen over the period. While in the first years of the study, 18 to 26 metropolitan areas showed statistically significant increases in mortality on heat wave days, by the final decade of the study period, this had decreased to 6 to 7. Within this narrative, however, examining individual metropolitan areas shows greater variability within the downward trend. Several contributing factors to the variability were observed, including the occurrence of an extreme heat wave affecting the overall heat wave-mortality relationship, and the frequency of heat events over a given period. These broad decreases in heat vulnerability, while encouraging, should be viewed in a cautionary sense. With society aging, there will be a greater number of highly susceptible individuals in the future; further adaptation gains are difficult in many places as air conditioning is now available in most homes in the US. Further, increased use of air conditioning has been associated with a stronger heat island; which, moving forward, is likely to occur alongside a greater number of heat events.

  10. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van R.P.; Wit, de J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate lim

  11. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate lim

  12. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  13. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Fornos, Angelica; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; Stokroos, Robert; Micera, Silvestro; Kingma, Herman; Pelizzone, Marco; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

  14. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ePerez Fornos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR, the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

  15. Human tolerance to heat strain during exercise: influence of hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, M N; Young, A J; Latzka, W A; Neufer, P D; Quigley, M D; Pandolf, K B

    1992-07-01

    This study determined whether 1) exhaustion from heat strain occurs at the same body temperatures during exercise in the heat when subjects are euhydrated as when they are hypohydrated, 2) aerobic fitness influences the body temperature at which exhaustion from heat strain occurs, and 3) curves could be developed to estimate exhaustion rates at a given level of physiological strain. Seventeen heat-acclimated men [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 45 to 65 ml.kg-1.min-1] attempted two heat stress tests (HSTs): one when euhydrated and one when hypohydrated by 8% of total body water. The HSTs consisted of 180 min of rest and treadmill walking (45% VO2max) in a hot-dry (ambient temperature 49 degrees C, relative humidity 20%) environment. The required evaporative cooling (Ereq) exceeded the maximal evaporative cooling capacity of the environment (Emax); thus thermal equilibrium could not be achieved and 27 of 34 HSTs ended by exhaustion from heat strain. Our findings concerning exhaustion from heat strain are 1) hypohydration reduced the core temperature that could be tolerated; 2) aerobic fitness, per se, did not influence the magnitude of heat strain that could be tolerated; 3) curves can be developed to estimate exhaustion rates for a given level of physiological strain; and 4) exhaustion was rarely associated with a core temperature up to 38 degrees C, and it always occurred before a temperature of 40 degrees C was achieved. These findings are applicable to heat-acclimated individuals performing moderate-intensity exercise under conditions where Ereq approximates or exceeds Emax and who have high skin temperatures.

  16. Preventing Heat Injuries by Predicting Individualized Human Core Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    1 Mark J. Buller, 2 William J. Tharion, 2 Jaques Reifman 1 1 Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software...climates. In fact, between 2009 and 2013 there were 12,907 heat injuries across the Services, including 1,757 cases of heat stroke [1, 2]. The primary...documents/pubs/msmrs/2014/v21_n03.pdf#Page=10, accessed on 07/22/2015. [3] Y. Epstein and W.O. Roberts, “The pathophysiology of heat stroke : an integrative

  17. Human Body Exergy Balance: Numerical Analysis of an Indoor Thermal Environment of a Passive Wooden Room in Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Isawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a “human body system and a built environmental system” coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions.

  18. Integrated Balance Adjustment and Energy Saving of Hot Water and Heating System with Dual Heat Sources%浅谈双热源热水供暖系统的综合平衡调节及节能降耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜富

    2013-01-01

      老式的供暖系统常常出现供暖效果与设计状态相差很远的结果,而采用自力式流量控制阀和自动恒温控制阀后,在很大程度上解决了供暖系统水力失调的问题从而提高了供暖的质量。本文针对双热源热水供暖系统的工况特点,以节能降耗为基点,从热源至热用户室内系统这个整体进行阐述整个热源系统、外管网系统、用户系统的平衡调节特性、方式,对老建筑供暖系统的室内系统提出了改造建议,同时对系统进行综合性调节,最终实现优质低耗供暖的目的。%The old heating system often has the effect that heating effect and design state are quite different. After the use of self-operated flow control valve and automatic temperature control valve, the hydraulic imbalance problem is solved to a great extent, so as to improve the heating quality. According to the characteristics of hot water heating system with double heat source, starting to reduce the energy consumption, this paper describes the balance regulation characteristics and mode of the whole heat source system, outdoor pipe system and users system from the heat source to the user indoor system, proposes the reform proposals, at the same time conducts comprehensive regulation, and finally achieves the purpose of improving the heating quality.

  19. Modelling the water and heat balances of the Mediterranean Sea using a two-basin model and available meteorological, hydrological, and ocean data

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a two-basin model of the water and heat balances of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (WMB and EMB, respectively) over the 1958–2010 period using available meteorological and hydrological data. The results indicate that the simulated temperature and salinity in both studied Mediterranean sub-basins closely follow the reanalysed data. In addition, simulated surface water in the EMB had a higher mean temperature (by approximately 1.6°C) and was more saline (by...

  20. Performance and Purposes of Balance Valves in Heating System%供热系统中平衡阀的性能与用途

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏

    2011-01-01

    本文主要阐述了供热系统中手动平衡阀、自力式压差控制阀、自力式流量控制阀、自力式流量控制阀的选择、自力式流量控制阀在暖通工程中的应用等问题.%This paper describes the application of manual balancing valve in heating system, self-operated pressure control valve, operated flow control valve, operated flow control valve selection and self-operated flow control valve in the HVAC engineering, etc. in HAVC project.

  1. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  2. Human impacts on land cover and water balances in a coastal Mediterranean county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellot, Juan; Bonet, Andreu; Peña, Juan; Sánchez, Juan Rafael

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the effects of changes in land cover on the water balance in Spain's Marina Baixa County, on the Mediterranean coast. To reveal how different land management strategies have affected the area's environment, four municipalities within the same catchment were studied: Benidorm, Callosa d'en Sarrià, Beniardà, and Guadalest. In the municipalities of Callosa and Benidorm, the proportion of the area covered by woodland declined by 4.2% and 30.2%, respectively, and woodland was replaced by agriculture and urban development. The abandonment of farmland produced a 17% increase in the proportion of the area covered by vegetation in Guadalest and Beniardá, where frequent forest fires have exacerbated a decrease in the area of pine woodland. Tourism development in Benidorm has been accompanied by an increase in the transportation infrastructure and by an expansion of areas with an impermeable surface, with the lowest level of infiltration into the aquifer system. These changes have generated a net water deficit in Callosa and Benidorm of more than 6 Mm(3)/year, creating a high demand for water imported from other municipalities (Guadalest and Beniardá) or from outside of the county to maintain the sustainability of the current water management strategies. The Marina Baixa case study is representative of many of the world's coastal areas that are undergoing rapid urban development based on an inappropriate understanding of human progress based mainly on economic development and thus provides insights into water management in other areas.

  3. Doppler lidar observations of sensible heat flux and intercomparisons with a ground-based energy balance station and WRF model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study (COPS, a scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Baden-Wüttemberg, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles ('rays' through the boundary layer were measured every 3 seconds with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case study of convective boundary layer development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity-temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The sensible heat flux values calculated from Doppler lidar data are compared with a surface based energy balance station and output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model.

  4. Heating Quality and Stability of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fatty Acid-Balanced Oil in Comparison with Other Blended Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of enzyme-assisted aqueous processing-extracted blended oil (EAEPO, hexane-extracted blended oil (HEBO, and three kinds of blended oils was investigated by varying the heating times. Oil degradation was monitored by analysis of the acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, color, and trans-fatty acid composition. The fatty acid ratios of EAEPO, HEBO, and the three kinds of blended oils were very similar (0.27 : 1.03 : 0.96, 0.27 : 1.08 : 1.16, 0.27 : 0.65 : 0.8, 0.27 : 0.6 : 0.84, and 0.27 : 0.61 : 0.79, resp.. The AV and color increased in proportion to the heating time for all the oils. There was a rapid increase in the PV and p-AV of EAEPO and HEBO after heating for only 1 h, whereas the other three blended oils showed a rapid increase after heating for 2 h or 6 h. Despite the highest trans-fatty acid content found for HEBO, this content was relatively low and remained low up to a heating time of 8 h. It was found that after heating, a fatty acid ratio relatively close to its ideal value (0.27 : 0.48 : 0.49 was maintained by EAEPO, which indicates that EAEPO is tolerant to heat treatment and is suitable for maintaining a healthy diet.

  5. Liquid-circulating garment controls thermal balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data and mathematical model of human thermoregulatory system have been used to investigate use of liquid-circulatory garment (LCG) to control thermal balance. Model proved useful as accurate simulator of such variables as sweat rate, skin temperature, core temperature, and radiative, evaporative, and LCG heat loss.

  6. [Heat exchange between human body and environment (theoretical bases of physiological measurement and evaluation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzagno, G

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this report the theory of the heat exchange between human body and external environment is developed. In particular, the problems concerning energy expenditure and heat production [metabolic heat] during physical activity, the heat exchange between internal organs and body surface, and its elimination are considered. Proposal of heat exchange equations (in case of conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation transport) are made, and the involved parameters and constants are indicated. Some pages are devoted to heat exchange through the lung and to "perspiratio insensibilis". In the second part the problems concerning the wellbeing and the thermal discomfort are discussed. A description of some widely employed indices of thermal stress, strain and comfort concludes the report [P4SR index, HSI index, ITS index, TTL index, HR index, WBGT index, TE indices]. In the end, the Fanger equations of thermal comfort are presented and discussed.

  7. Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.

  8. Human balancing of an inverted pendulum: position control by small, ballistic-like, throw and catch movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; Lakie, Martin

    2002-05-01

    In standing, there are small sways of the body. Our interest is to use an artificial task to illuminate the mechanisms underlying the sways and to account for changes in their size. Using the ankle musculature, subjects balanced a large inverted pendulum. The equilibrium of the pendulum is unstable and quasi-regular sway was observed like that in quiet standing. By giving full attention to minimising sway subjects could systematically reduce pendulum movement. The pendulum position, the torque generated at each ankle and the soleus and tibialis anterior EMGs were recorded. Explanations about how the human inverted pendulum is balanced usually ignore the fact that balance is maintained over a range of angles and not just at one angle. Any resting equilibrium position of the pendulum is unstable and in practice temporary; movement to a different resting equilibrium position can only be accomplished by a biphasic 'throw and catch' pattern of torque and not by an elastic mechanism. Results showed that balance was achieved by the constant repetition of a neurally generated ballistic-like biphasic pattern of torque which can control both position and sway size. A decomposition technique revealed that there was a substantial contribution to changes in torque from intrinsic mechanical ankle stiffness; however, by itself this was insufficient to maintain balance or to control position. Minimisation of sway size was caused by improvement in the accuracy of the anticipatory torque impulses. We hypothesise that examination of centre of mass and centre of pressure data for quiet standing will duplicate these results.

  9. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurdzia, P.; Brzozowski, I.; Bratek, P.; Gelmuda, W.; Kos, A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed.

  10. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing

  11. E-I balance and human diseases - from molecules to networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A Eichler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Information transfer in the brain requires a homeostatic control of neuronal excitability. Therefore, a functional balance between excitatory and inhibitory systems is established during development. This review contains recent information about the molecular mechanisms orchestrating the establishment and maintenance of this excitation-inhibition (E-I balance, and it reviews examples of deregulation of inhibitory and excitatory systems at a molecular, network and disease level of investigation.

  12. Heat Transfer Processes for the Thermal Energy Balance of Organisms. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, R. D.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes heat transfer processes involved in the exchange of heat…

  13. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Nadine; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction). Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  14. 地下水源热泵系统热平衡模拟三维数值模型%Three-dimensional numerical model for heat balance simulation of ground-water heat pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆祖江; 李伟; 王琰; 张德忠; 方连育

    2014-01-01

    In order to simulate and predict the change law of heat balance accurately and avoid heat penetration phenomenon during the groundwater heat pump operation, a three dimensional coupling numerical model of groundwater seepage and thermal transport was established and applied to the demonstration project of groundwater heat pump system in Zhengding, Hebei province. The model was based on the groundwater seepage theory, saturated water-bearing medium thermal transport theory and Terzaghi effective stress principle, combined with the design scheme and operation situation of groundwater heat pump, the future heat balance development tendency of groundwater heat pump system under three different conditions was forecasted and analyzed. The water temperature difference between the pumping well and recharge well reduced by 20%(eight degree centigrade) or increased by 20%(twelve degree centigrade) was the first condition which means the cooling and heating load was kept constant. Second condition was the water temperature difference between pumping well and recharge well confirmed and the circulating water volume increased by 20%, or the volume of circulating water kept constant and water temperature difference between pumping well and recharge well increased 20%, which means the cooling and heating load was increased. Meanwhile, in the third condition, the cooling and heating load was reduced. The water temperature difference between the pumping well and recharge well was confirmed and the volume of circulating water reduced 20%, or the water temperature difference between pumping well and recharge well reduced 20%while the circulating water volume kept constant. It was shown that there is a heat penetration phenomenon between the pumping well and recharge well in the demonstration project under the condition of design scheme, which has one pumping well and one recharge well. When the cooling and heating load of the groundwater heat pump system is confirmed, increasing 20

  15. A heat dissipating model for water cooling garments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A water cooling garment is a functional clothing used to dissipate human body’s redundant energy in extravehicular environment or other hot environment. Its heat dissipating property greatly affects body’s heat balance. In this paper, a heat dissipating model for the water cooling garment is established and verified experimentally using the experimental thermal-manikin.

  16. Fetal calf serum heat inactivation and lipopolysaccharide contamination influence the human T lymphoblast proteome and phosphoproteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of fetal calf serum (FCS heat inactivation and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS contamination on cell physiology have been studied, but their effect on the proteome of cultured cells has yet to be described. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heat inactivation of FCS and LPS contamination on the human T lymphoblast proteome. Human T lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCRF-CEM cells were grown in FCS, either non-heated, or heat inactivated, having low ( Results A total of four proteins (EIF3M, PRS7, PSB4, and SNAPA were up-regulated when CCRF-CEM cells were grown in media supplemented with heat inactivated FCS (HE as compared to cells grown in media with non-heated FCS (NHE. Six proteins (TCPD, ACTA, NACA, TCTP, ACTB, and ICLN displayed a differential phosphorylation pattern between the NHE and HE groups. Compared to the low concentration LPS group, regular levels of LPS resulted in the up-regulation of three proteins (SYBF, QCR1, and SUCB1. Conclusion The present study provides new information regarding the effect of FCS heat inactivation and change in FCS-LPS concentration on cellular protein expression, and post-translational modification in human T lymphoblasts. Both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS were shown to modulate the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in basic cellular functions, such as protein synthesis, cytoskeleton stability, oxidative stress regulation and apoptosis. Hence, the study emphasizes the need to consider both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS as factors that can influence the T lymphoblast proteome.

  17. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Natalia Carneiro-Freire; Cristóbal Donapetry-García; Eva Rañal-Muíño; Yosua López-Pereiro

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on th...

  18. Components of near-surface energy balance derived from satellite soundings – Part 2: Latent heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mallick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a relatively simple method for recovering global fields of latent heat flux. The method focuses on specifying Bowen ratio estimates through exploiting air temperature and vapour pressure measurements obtained from infra-red soundings of the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder sensor onboard the NASA-Aqua platform. Through combining these Bowen ratio retrievals with satellite surface net available energy data we have specified estimates of global surface latent heat flux at the 1° by 1° scale. These estimates were evaluated against data from 30 terrestrial tower flux sites covering a broad spectrum of biomes. Taking monthly average 13:30 h data for 2003, this revealed a relatively good agreement between the satellite and tower measurements of latent heat flux, with a pooled root mean square deviation of 79 W m−2, and no significant bias. However, this success partly arose as a product of the under specification of the AIRS Bowen ratio compensating for the under specification of the AIRS net available energy.

  19. [Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, H T; Huang, R; Liang, X X; Li, Z X; Wang, J; Tan, J B; Wu, S X; Wang, P; Chen, Z H; Huang, Q; Lyu, Y J; Jiang, Q; Yang, X F; Wu, Y N

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium-free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non-occupationally cadmium-exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium(Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann-Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ(2) test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68) μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36) μg/g·cr (Z=-10.49,Phuman body.

  20. Multicompartment ecosystem mass balances as a tool for understanding and managing the biogeochemical cycles of human ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L A; Hope, D; Xu, Y; Edmonds, J

    2001-10-09

    Nitrogen remains a ubiquitous pollutant in surface and groundwater throughout the United States, despite 30 years of pollution control efforts. A detailed multicompartment N balance for the Central Arizona-Phoenix ecosystem is used to illustrate how an ecosystem-level approach can be used to develop improved N management strategies. The N balance is used to demonstrate how nitrate in pumped groundwater used for crop irrigation could be used to reduce inputs of commercial fertilizer and decrease N leaching to aquifers. Effectively managing N pollution also will require an understanding of the complex factors that control the N balance, including targeted regulations, individual human behavior, land-use conversion, and other ecosystem management practices that affect the N balance. These sometimes countervailing factors are illustrated with several scenarios of wastewater treatment technology and population growth in the Phoenix area. Management of N eventually must be coupled to management of other elements, notably carbon, phosphorus, and salts. We postulate that an ecosystem framework for pollution management will result in strategies that are more effective, fairer, and less expensive than current approaches.

  1. Precipitation rates and atmospheric heat transport during the Cenomanian greenhouse warming in North America: Estimates from a stable isotope mass-balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Gonzalez, L.; Grocke, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotope mass-balance modeling results of meteoric ??18O values from the Cenomanian Stage of the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) suggest that precipitation and evaporation fluxes were greater than that of the present and significantly different from simulations of Albian KWIB paleohydrology. Sphaerosiderite meteoric ??18O values have been compiled from the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of southwestern Mississippi (25??N paleolatitude), The Dakota Formation Rose Creek Pit, Fairbury Nebraska (35??N) and the Dunvegan Formation of eastern British Columbia (55??N paleolatitude). These paleosol siderite ??18O values define a paleolatitudinal gradient ranging from - 4.2??? VPDB at 25??N to - 12.5??? VPDB at 55??N. This trend is significantly steeper and more depleted than a modern theoretical siderite gradient (25??N: - 1.7???; 65??N: - 5.6??? VPDB ), and a Holocene meteoric calcite trend (27??N: - 3.6???; 67??N: - 7.4??? VPDB). The Cenomanian gradient is also comparatively steeper than the Albian trend determined for the KWIB in the mid- to high latitudes. The steep latitudinal trend in meteoric ??18O values may be the result of increased precipitation and evaporation fluxes (amount effects) under a more vigorous greenhouse-world hydrologic cycle. A stable-isotope mass-balance model has been used to generate estimates of precipitation and evaporation fluxes and precipitation rates. Estimates of Cenomanian precipitation rates based upon the mass-balance modeling of the KWIB range from 1400??mm/yr at 25??N paleolatitude to 3600??mm/yr at 45??N paleolatitude. The precipitation-evaporation (P-E) flux values were used to delineate zones of moisture surplus and moisture deficit. Comparisons between Cenomanian P-E and modern theoretical siderite, and Holocene calcite latitudinal trends shows an amplification of low-latitude moisture deficits between 5-25??N paleolatitude and moisture surpluses between 40-60??N paleolatitude. The low-latitude moisture deficits

  2. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  3. Electrical heat pumps - a renewable energy? What is the environmental balance of electrical heat pumps in comparison to other heating systems?; Elektrische Waermepumpen - eine erneuerbare Energie? Wie ist die Umweltbilanz elektrischer Waermepumpen im Vergleich zu anderen Heizungssystemen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Kaschenz, Helmut [Umweltbundesamt Dessau (Germany). Fachgebiet I 2.4 Energieeffizienz

    2008-05-29

    Electrical heat pumps deliver energy for the heating of buildings whereby relatively ambient heat from soil, water or air is increased on a usable temperature level. In this case, electrical power is used. Electrical heat pumps do not only use renewable environmental energy, but also electricity from not-renewable sources of energy. An installation and a correct adjustment of a heat meter are recommended. The calculation of production costs should consider not only the operating cost, but also all resulting costs in a total cost calculation. Electrical heat pumps offer a high discharge of the environment, if electric power effectively is produced. In this case, electrical heat pumps can exceed also fuel cells.

  4. Human monocyte heat shock protein 72 responses to acute hypoxic exercise after 3 days of exercise heat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ben J; Mackenzie, Richard W A; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S; Thake, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V̇O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72.

  5. Previous heat shock treatment inhibits Mayaro virus replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, P L; Godinho-Netto, M C; Carvalho Mda, G

    1997-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were submitted to mild or severe heat shock (42 degrees C or 44 degrees C) for 1 h, while another group of cells was double-heat-shocked (submitted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, returned to 37 degrees C for 3 h, then exposed to 44 degrees C for 1 h). After each heat treatment, the cells were infected with Mayaro virus for 24 h and incubated at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the double-heat-shocked thermotolerant cells exhibited a 10(4)-fold virus titre inhibition, despite the recovery of protein synthesis and original morphology 24 h post-infection. In contrast, cells submitted to mild or severe heat shock exhibited weaker inhibition of Mayaro virus titre (10(2)-fold). The mildly heat-shocked cells also presented a full recovery in protein synthesis, which was not observed in severely heat-shocked cells. These results indicate that exposure of A549 cells to a mild or to a double heat shock treatment before Mayaro virus infection induces an antiviral state.

  6. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress.

  7. Humans as a Source of Heat and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This is the first part of a planned research into the effect of the human being on the indoor climate. The results are among other things intended for CFD calculations. This part deals with the influence from breathing, smoking, bioeffluents and vapour. The results are mainly based on measurement...... around a breathing thermal model placed in three fundamentally different types of indoor climates: - Quiet surroundings, no ventilation - Displacement ventilation - Constant horizontal flow...

  8. Study on the Influence of Piloti on Mean Radiant Temperature in Residential Blocks by 3-D Unsteady State Heat Balance Radiation Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianYu Xi; JianHua Ding; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Piloti is commonly used in tropical and subtropical climate zones to get high wind velocity and create shadowed areas in order to optimize the living environment of residential blocks, but there are few studies to reveal the influence of piloti on the radiant environment of residential blocks systematically. Taking the city of Guangzhou as an example, using 3-D Unsteady State Heat Balance Radiation Calculation Method, this paper shows that the mean radiant temperature ( MRT) under piloti area increases with the increase of piloti ratio, and especially when piloti ratio is equal to 100%, the MRT increase trend becomes sharp. The MRT of exposed area decreases with the increase of piloti ratio, especially when piloti ratio reaches 100%, the decrease trend of MRT becomes sharp, which offers the reference for the study on piloti design in subtropical climate zones and further research on living environment by CFD simulation in residential blocks.

  9. Both happy and sad melodies modulate tonic human heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huixuan; Chen, Andrew C N

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of music effects on pain perception remains to be elucidated. To determine which component (mood or valence) of music is more important in music-induced hypoalgesia, we compared the effects of 2 melodies with different moods (happy vs sad) but with the same degree of valence (pleasant vs unpleasant) to an affective neutral lecture and a control (baseline) on the objective and subjective responses to tonic heat pain. Our hypothesis was that if mood was the key component, the happy melody would reduce pain, whereas the sad one would exacerbate pain; and if valence is the key component, the 2 melodies would both alleviate pain. Twenty females participated in this study which consisted of 4 conditions (baseline, happy melody, sad melody, and lecture). Pain tolerance time (PTT), pain intensity, and distress dynamics and the characteristics of pain were measured. A newly devised multiple affective rating scale (MARS) was employed to assess the subjective experience of auditory perception. Both happy and sad melodies of equal valence resulted in significant lower pain ratings during the pain test and were in contrast to the mood prediction. These results indicate that the valence of music, rather than the mood it induced, appears to be the most likely mediator of the hypoalgesic effect of the different music. This article provides new evidence that the valence of music is more crucial than mood in affective pain modulation. This finding gives impetus for health professionals to manage pain more effectively in patients with proper music.

  10. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/23639195X; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183050487; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/117339067; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304076953; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing re

  11. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L.; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M.; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F.; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Brilstra, Eva H.; Brown, Chester W.; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T.; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B.; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B. A.; Earl, Dawn L.; Ferguson, Heather L.; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R.; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T.; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H.; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J.; Hayden, Mark A.; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Hubshman, Monika W.; Innes, A. Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Kahler, Stephen G.; Koolen, David A.; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M.; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V.; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C.; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J.; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J.; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W.; Mendoza, Cinthya J. Zepeda; Menten, Bjorn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R.; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E.; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W.; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P.; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Pina Aguilar, Raul E.; Poddighe, Pino J.; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L. P.; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R.; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V.; van Bon, Bregje W.; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M. L.; Warburton, Dorothy P.; Waterman, Matthew J.; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A.; Zori, Roberto T.; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G.; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Thorland, Erik C.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing re

  12. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing re

  13. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J I; Hidalgo, A; Tello, L

    2014-10-08

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge-Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration.

  14. Multiple solutions and numerical analysis to the dynamic and stationary models coupling a delayed energy balance model involving latent heat and discontinuous albedo with a deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J. I.; Hidalgo, A.; Tello, L.

    2014-01-01

    We study a climatologically important interaction of two of the main components of the geophysical system by adding an energy balance model for the averaged atmospheric temperature as dynamic boundary condition to a diagnostic ocean model having an additional spatial dimension. In this work, we give deeper insight than previous papers in the literature, mainly with respect to the 1990 pioneering model by Watts and Morantine. We are taking into consideration the latent heat for the two phase ocean as well as a possible delayed term. Non-uniqueness for the initial boundary value problem, uniqueness under a non-degeneracy condition and the existence of multiple stationary solutions are proved here. These multiplicity results suggest that an S-shaped bifurcation diagram should be expected to occur in this class of models generalizing previous energy balance models. The numerical method applied to the model is based on a finite volume scheme with nonlinear weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction and Runge–Kutta total variation diminishing for time integration. PMID:25294969

  15. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  16. Balancing Human and Inter-Agent Influences for Shared Control of Bio-Inspired Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    multiple uavs ,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 2009. [4] Z. Kira and M. A. Potter, “Exerting human control over decentral- ized robot swarms ,” in...how influence is shared between the human and the swarm and (2) the resulting success of the human- swarm interaction. Note that related literature...control is shared: persistence and span. We define per- sistence as how long the human signals the swarm and span as how many agents the human

  17. Estimation of the Heat Balance of the Liquid Hydrocarbons Evaporation Process from the Open Surface During Geotechnical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    Researchers in Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) have conducted a complex research of the heat and mass transfer processes and thermophysical properties of hydrocarbons, taking into account their impact on the reliability and safety of the hydrocarbon transport and storage processes. It has been shown that the thermodynamic conditions on the surface and the color of oil influence the degree of temperature rise in the upper layers of oil when exposed to direct solar radiation. In order to establish the nature of solar radiation impact on the surface temperature the experimental studies were conducted in TSOGU on the hydrocarbon evaporation and the temperature change of various petroleum and petroleum products on the free surface with varying degrees of thermal insulation of the side walls and bottom of the vessel.

  18. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  19. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  20. Mineral balance, experiment M071. [space flight effects on human mineral metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, G. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the long term metabolic consequences of weightless flight was the basis for the conception of the Skylab medical experiment to measure mineral balance. Proper interpretation of obtained data that diminished atmospheric pressure has no appreciable effect, or at least no protective effect, on calcium metabolism. The absence of changes in calcium metabolism indicates that a stable baseline observation has been made for Skylab as far as the effects of atmosphere or calcium metabolism are concerned.

  1. Using the balanced scorecard to mobilize human resources in organizational transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasis, Peter; Harber, Bruce

    2008-05-01

    Traditionally, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has been an effective tool in linking measurement to strategy. However, what is least understood is how the BSC can be used to redefine organizational relationships, re-engineer fundamental processes and transform organizational culture, for superior performance in an organization with the same people, services and technology that previously delivered dismal performance. This paper highlights the process and uses York Central Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as an illustrative example.

  2. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  3. Human Control Law and Brain Activity of Voluntary Motion by Utilizing a Balancing Task with an Inverted Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human characteristics concerning voluntary motion control are investigated, because this motion is fundamental for the machine operation and human-computer system. Using a force feedback haptic device and a balancing task of a virtual inverted pendulum, participants were trained in the task, and hand motion/force was measured, and brain activity was monitored. First, through brain analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and motion analysis of the pendulum, we identified a participant who was the most expert. Next, control characteristics of the most expert were investigated by considering the operational force and delay factor of a human. As a result, it was found that predictive control based on velocity information was used predominantly although a perception feedback control against the pendulum posture worked. And it was shown that an on-off intermittency control, which was a strategy for the skilled balancing, can be described well by a liner model involving two types of time shifts for the position and velocity. In addition, it was confirmed that the cortex activity for observation in an ocular motor control area and visual processing area was strong to enhance above-mentioned control strategies.

  4. Is ageing associated with a shift in the balance between Type 1 and Type 2 cytokines in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, M; Bruunsgaard, H; Kemp, K

    2002-01-01

    The balance between Type 1 and Type 2 cytokines is important for the outcome of several infectious diseases. As elderly humans show increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, this study tests if ageing is associated with a change towards Type 2 dominance in T cells. Expression...... adjusting for decreased lymphocyte counts in the elderly, the concentration in the blood of IFN-gamma+ and IL-4+ CD8+ T cells was still increased in the 81-year-olds. In centenarians, a shift towards a relative dominance of Type 2 cytokine expression was found within CD8+ T cells. Furthermore...

  5. Variations of global and continental water balance components as impacted by climate forcing uncertainty and human water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Portmann, Felix Theodor; Reinecke, Robert; Riedel, Claudia; Song, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Döll, Petra

    2016-07-01

    When assessing global water resources with hydrological models, it is essential to know about methodological uncertainties. The values of simulated water balance components may vary due to different spatial and temporal aggregations, reference periods, and applied climate forcings, as well as due to the consideration of human water use, or the lack thereof. We analyzed these variations over the period 1901-2010 by forcing the global hydrological model WaterGAP 2.2 (ISIMIP2a) with five state-of-the-art climate data sets, including a homogenized version of the concatenated WFD/WFDEI data set. Absolute values and temporal variations of global water balance components are strongly affected by the uncertainty in the climate forcing, and no temporal trends of the global water balance components are detected for the four homogeneous climate forcings considered (except for human water abstractions). The calibration of WaterGAP against observed long-term average river discharge Q significantly reduces the impact of climate forcing uncertainty on estimated Q and renewable water resources. For the homogeneous forcings, Q of the calibrated and non-calibrated regions of the globe varies by 1.6 and 18.5 %, respectively, for 1971-2000. On the continental scale, most differences for long-term average precipitation P and Q estimates occur in Africa and, due to snow undercatch of rain gauges, also in the data-rich continents Europe and North America. Variations of Q at the grid-cell scale are large, except in a few grid cells upstream and downstream of calibration stations, with an average variation of 37 and 74 % among the four homogeneous forcings in calibrated and non-calibrated regions, respectively. Considering only the forcings GSWP3 and WFDEI_hom, i.e., excluding the forcing without undercatch correction (PGFv2.1) and the one with a much lower shortwave downward radiation SWD than the others (WFD), Q variations are reduced to 16 and 31 % in calibrated and non

  6. Attributing human mortality during extreme heat waves to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Huntingford, Chris; Masato, Giacomo; Guillod, Benoit P.; Frumhoff, Peter; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Allen, Myles

    2016-07-01

    It has been argued that climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. The extreme high temperatures of the summer of 2003 were associated with up to seventy thousand excess deaths across Europe. Previous studies have attributed the meteorological event to the human influence on climate, or examined the role of heat waves on human health. Here, for the first time, we explicitly quantify the role of human activity on climate and heat-related mortality in an event attribution framework, analysing both the Europe-wide temperature response in 2003, and localised responses over London and Paris. Using publicly-donated computing, we perform many thousands of climate simulations of a high-resolution regional climate model. This allows generation of a comprehensive statistical description of the 2003 event and the role of human influence within it, using the results as input to a health impact assessment model of human mortality. We find large-scale dynamical modes of atmospheric variability remain largely unchanged under anthropogenic climate change, and hence the direct thermodynamical response is mainly responsible for the increased mortality. In summer 2003, anthropogenic climate change increased the risk of heat-related mortality in Central Paris by ∼70% and by ∼20% in London, which experienced lower extreme heat. Out of the estimated ∼315 and ∼735 summer deaths attributed to the heatwave event in Greater London and Central Paris, respectively, 64 (±3) deaths were attributable to anthropogenic climate change in London, and 506 (±51) in Paris. Such an ability to robustly attribute specific damages to anthropogenic drivers of increased extreme heat can inform societal responses to, and responsibilities for, climate change.

  7. UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; Kampmann, Bernhard; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The UTCI-Fiala mathematical model of human temperature regulation forms the basis of the new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTC). Following extensive validation tests, adaptations and extensions, such as the inclusion of an adaptive clothing model, the model was used to predict human temperature and regulatory responses for combinations of the prevailing outdoor climate conditions. This paper provides an overview of the underlying algorithms and methods that constitute the multi-node dynamic UTCI-Fiala model of human thermal physiology and comfort. Treated topics include modelling heat and mass transfer within the body, numerical techniques, modelling environmental heat exchanges, thermoregulatory reactions of the central nervous system, and perceptual responses. Other contributions of this special issue describe the validation of the UTCI-Fiala model against measured data and the development of the adaptive clothing model for outdoor climates.

  8. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  9. EFFECT OF HEAT PRECONDITIONING BY MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Saga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min that was randomly applied to one of the subject's arms (MW; the other arm was used as a control (CON. One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1. One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2. After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, range of motion (ROM of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05 for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise

  10. Bringing human resources to the table: utilization of an HR balanced scorecard at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Erickson, Eric; Rivers, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    Rather than viewing HR as a critical driver of organizational strategy and outcomes, most health care organizations see HR as a drain on the organization's bottom line. Only by aligning HR with the organizational strategy will HR leaders truly get a seat at the leadership table. HR professionals can overcome impediments and gain a seat at the table by learning the language of business and the ways in which organizational leaders use data to drive their decisions. This article shows how Mayo Clinic uses the popular Balanced Scorecard approach to align its measures of HR performance to the organization's strategic plan.

  11. The effect on human balance of standing with toe-extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xuan Ku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postural balance is vital for safely carrying out many daily activities, such as locomotion. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in normal standing (NS and standing with toe-extension (SWT impact postural control during quiet standing. Furthermore, the research aimed to examine the extent to which the effect of these factors differed between genders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty healthy young adults (age = 21.2±1.3 y; height = 1.63±0.07 m; mass = 56.0±9.3 kg with no prior lower limb injuries participated in the study. A postural stability test using the Biodex Balance System was used for both NS and SWT conditions. The three measurements from the BBS were Overall Stability Index (OSI, Medial-Lateral Stability Index (MLSI and Anterior-Posterior Stability Index (APSI. No significant difference was found between NS and SWT in the OSI, MLSI or APSI (F(2, 28 = 3.357, p = 0.077. The main difference between the stability index scores was significant (F(2, 28 = 275.1, p<0.001. The Bonferroni post-hoc test showed significant differences between the OSI and MLSI (p<0.001; the OSI and APSI (p<0.001; and the MLSI and the APSI (p<0.001. Significant differences were found during NS (p<0.001, for the MLSI when compared with the APSI, but this was not found during the SWT condition. Additionally, no gender effects were proven to exist that altered postural sway during quiet standing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals significant interaction between the stability indices measured; OSI, APSI and MLSI in both NS and SWT. Standing with toe extended does not have a significant impact on an individual's ability to control their balance during normal quiet standing. However, the findings revealed that the sway tendency in the medial-lateral direction might serve as a factor in an individual's ability to regain balance.

  12. Heat training increases exercise capacity in hot but not in temperate conditions: a mechanistic counter-balanced cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Stefanie; Flück, Daniela; Hüppin, Fabienne; Stravs, Alexander; Hilty, Matthias P; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to determine the mechanisms facilitating exercise performance in hot conditions following heat training. In a counter-balanced order, seven males (V̇o2max 61.2 ± 4.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were assigned to either 10 days of 90-min exercise training in 18 or 38°C ambient temperature (30% relative humidity) applying a cross-over design. Participants were tested for V̇o2max and 30-min time trial performance in 18 (T18) and 38°C (T38) before and after training. Blood volume parameters, sweat output, cardiac output (Q̇), cerebral perfusion (i.e., middle cerebral artery velocity [MCAvmean]), and other variables were determined. Before one set of exercise tests in T38, blood volume was acutely expanded by 538 ± 16 ml with an albumin solution (T38A) to determine the role of acclimatization induced hypervolemia on exercise performance. We furthermore hypothesized that heat training would restore MCAvmean and thereby limit centrally mediated fatigue. V̇o2max and time trial performance were equally reduced in T38 and T38A (7.2 ± 1.6 and 9.3 ± 2.5% for V̇o2max; 12.8 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 2.8% for time trial). Following heat training both were increased in T38 (9.6 ± 2.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1%, respectively), whereas both V̇o2max and time trial performance remained unchanged in T18. As expected, heat training augmented plasma volume (6 ± 2%) and mean sweat output (26 ± 6%), whereas sweat [Na(+)] became reduced by 19 ± 7%. In T38 Q̇max remained unchanged before (21.3 ± 0.6 l/min) to after (21.7 ± 0.5 l/min) training, whereas MCAvmean was increased by 13 ± 10%. However, none of the observed adaptations correlated with the concomitant observed changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Analysis of phosphorylation of human heat shock factor 1 in cells experiencing a stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane William S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock factor (HSF/HSF1 not only is the transcription factor primarily responsible for the transcriptional response of cells to physical and chemical stress but also coregulates other important signaling pathways. The factor mediates the stress-induced expression of heat shock or stress proteins (HSPs. HSF/HSF1 is inactive in unstressed cells and is activated during stress. Activation is accompanied by hyperphosphorylation of the factor. The regulatory importance of this phosphorylation has remained incompletely understood. Several previous studies on human HSF1 were concerned with phosphorylation on Ser303, Ser307 and Ser363, which phosphorylation appears to be related to factor deactivation subsequent to stress, and one study reported stress-induced phosphorylation of Ser230 contributing to factor activation. However, no previous study attempted to fully describe the phosphorylation status of an HSF/HSF1 in stressed cells and to systematically identify phosphoresidues involved in factor activation. The present study reports such an analysis for human HSF1 in heat-stressed cells. Results An alanine scan of all Ser, Thr and Tyr residues of human HSF1 was carried out using a validated transactivation assay, and residues phosphorylated in HSF1 were identified by mass spectrometry and sequencing. HSF1 activated by heat treatment was phosphorylated on Ser121, Ser230, Ser292, Ser303, Ser307, Ser314, Ser319, Ser326, Ser344, Ser363, Ser419, and Ser444. Phosphorylation of Ser326 but none of the other Ser residues was found to contribute significantly to activation of the factor by heat stress. Phosphorylation on Ser326 increased rapidly during heat stress as shown by experiments using a pSer326 phosphopeptide antibody. Heat stress-induced DNA binding and nuclear translocation of a S326A substitution mutant was not impaired in HSF1-negative cells, but the mutant stimulated HSP70 expression several times less well than wild type

  14. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    , enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated......The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training...

  15. BALANCE CAPACITY WITH VARIABILITY CAUSED BY HUMAN FACTOR: AN APPLICATION IN A LINE WITH MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sandes Mendes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The variation in processing times due to the human factor between the working stations of a production line can generate queues resulting in a higher cost to the productive process. The objective of this study was to apply Monte Carlo simulation to balance the capacity of a production line with stations suffering variability in processing time due to the human factor. Simulations of the current situation of the production line were performed by comparing it with a proposal to align capacity with the production restriction in order to reduce inventories process while maintaining full capacity of the line. To develop the study, the selection involves the case of a company’s production line in the metal industry that produces machinery and products for metalworking area. The results allowed pointing suggestions for the company to reduce in-process inventory, keeping then total capacity of the line.

  16. Micro RNAs and DNA methylation are regulatory players in human cells with altered X chromosome to autosome balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpathak, Shriram N.; Deobagkar, Deepti D.

    2017-01-01

    The gene balance hypothesis predicts that an imbalance in the dosage sensitive genes affects the cascade of gene networks that may influence the fitness of individuals. The phenotypes associated with chromosomal aneuploidies demonstrate the importance of gene dosage balance. We have employed untransformed human fibroblast cells with different number of X chromosomes to assess the expression of miRNAs and autosomal genes in addition to the DNA methylation status. High throughput NGS analysis using illumina Next seq500 has detected several autosomal as well as X linked miRNAs as differentially expressed in X monosomy and trisomy cells. Two of these miRNAs (hsa-miR-125a-5p and 335-5p) are likely to be involved in regulation of the autosomal gene expression. Additionally, our data demonstrates altered expression and DNA methylation signatures of autosomal genes in X monosomy and trisomy cells. In addition to miRNAs, expression of DNMT1 which is an important epigenetic player involved in many processes including cancer, is seen to be altered. Overall, present study provides a proof for regulatory roles of micro RNAs and DNA methylation in human X aneuploidy cells opening up possible new ways for designing therapeutic strategies. PMID:28233878

  17. The Genomic Landscape of Balanced Cytogenetic Abnormalities Associated with Human Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L.; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M.; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F.; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M.H.F.; Brilstra, Eva H.; Brown, Chester W.; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T.; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B.; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Dheedene, Annelies; D’Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B.A.; Earl, Dawn L.; Ferguson, Heather L.; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R.; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T.; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H.; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J.; Hayden, Mark A.; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Hubshman, Monika W.; Innes, A. Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Kahler, Stephen G.; Koolen, David A.; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M.; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V.; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C.; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J.; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J.; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W.; Zepeda Mendoza, Cinthya J.; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R.; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E.; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W.; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P.; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Piña Aguilar, Raul E.; Poddighe, Pino J.; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L.P.; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R.; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V.; van Bon, Bregje W.; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M.L.; Warburton, Dorothy P.; Waterman, Matthew J.; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A.; Zori, Roberto T.; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G.; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Thorland, Erik C.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their clinical significance, characterization of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs) has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing revised 93% of karyotypes and revealed complexity that was cryptic to karyotyping in 21% of BCAs, highlighting the limitations of conventional cytogenetic approaches. At least 33.9% of BCAs resulted in gene disruption that likely contributed to the developmental phenotype, 5.2% were associated with pathogenic genomic imbalances, and 7.3% disrupted topologically associated domains (TADs) encompassing known syndromic loci. Remarkably, BCA breakpoints in eight subjects altered a single TAD encompassing MEF2C, a known driver of 5q14.3 microdeletion syndrome, resulting in decreased MEF2C expression. This study proposes that sequence-level resolution dramatically improves prediction of clinical outcomes for balanced rearrangements, and provides insight into novel pathogenic mechanisms such as altered regulation due to changes in chromosome topology. PMID:27841880

  18. Attributing runoff changes to climate variability and human activities: uncertainty analysis using four monthly water balance models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuai; Xiong, Lihua; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, L. Ruby; Demissie, Yonas

    2015-05-26

    Hydrological simulations to delineate the impacts of climate variability and human activities are subjected to uncertainties related to both parameter and structure of the hydrological models. To analyze the impact of these uncertainties on the model performance and to yield more reliable simulation results, a global calibration and multimodel combination method that integrates the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM) and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) of four monthly water balance models was proposed. The method was applied to the Weihe River Basin (WRB), the largest tributary of the Yellow River, to determine the contribution of climate variability and human activities to runoff changes. The change point, which was used to determine the baseline period (1956-1990) and human-impacted period (1991-2009), was derived using both cumulative curve and Pettitt’s test. Results show that the combination method from SCEM provides more skillful deterministic predictions than the best calibrated individual model, resulting in the smallest uncertainty interval of runoff changes attributed to climate variability and human activities. This combination methodology provides a practical and flexible tool for attribution of runoff changes to climate variability and human activities by hydrological models.

  19. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.

  20. Center of mass velocity-based predictions in balance recovery following pelvis perturbations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-01-01

    In many simple walking models foot placement dictates the center of pressure location and ground reaction force components, whereas humans can modulate these aspects after foot contact. Because of the differences, it is unclear to what extend predictions made by models are valid for human walking.

  1. Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in Humans: a Matter of Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goumans (Janine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this thesis was to quantify three-dimensional ocular stability in response to head movements in healthy human subjects and in patients with various types of peripheral vestibular disorders. Despite a large increase in our knowledge from animal and human studies about the

  2. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Heat Shock Protein 70 Genes are Positively Associated with Human Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter Gerd;

    2010-01-01

    with longevity. The involvement of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cellular maintenance and repair mechanisms, including its role as an anti-inflammatory protein, makes it a suitable candidate for studying such associations. We have studied the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A (-110A...... the opportunity to perform survival analysis on these subjects. Haplotype relative risk, and genotype relative risk were calculated to measure the effects of haplotypes and genotypes on human survival in a sex-specific manner. A significant association of HSPA1A-AA (RR=3.864; p=0.016) and HSPA1B-AA (RR=2.764; p=0...... observations from heat shock response (HSR) study where we had shown that after heat stimulation, mononuclear cells from the carriers of genotype HSPA1L-TT had better HSR than cells with the HSPA1L-CC genotype....

  4. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Kimura, Kenichi; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to combined heat stress and central hypovolemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Poh, Paula Y S; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3.0% hyperosmotic (HYPER) saline. Subjects were subsequently heated until core temperature increased ~1.4°C, after which all subjects underwent progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. Plasma hyperosmolality improved LBNP tolerance (ISO: 288 ± 193 vs. 382 ± 145 mmHg × min, P = 0.04). However, no differences in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.10), heart rate (P = 0.09), or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P = 0.60, n = 6) were observed between conditions. When individual data were assessed, LBNP tolerance improved ≥25% in eight subjects but remained unchanged in the remaining four subjects. In subjects who exhibited improved LBNP tolerance, plasma hyperosmolality resulted in elevated mean arterial pressure (ISO: 62 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a greater increase in heart rate (ISO: +12 ± 24 vs. HYPER: +23 ± 17 beats/min, P = 0.05) before presyncope. No differences in these variables were observed between conditions in subjects that did not improve LBNP tolerance (all P ≥ 0.55). These results suggest that plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to central hypovolemia during heat stress in most, but not all, individuals. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Volume analysis of heat-induced cracks in human molars: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sandholzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Only a few methods have been published dealing with the visualization of heat-induced cracks inside bones and teeth. Aims : As a novel approach this study used nondestructive X-ray microtomography (micro-CT for volume analysis of heat-induced cracks to observe the reaction of human molars to various levels of thermal stress. Materials and Methods: Eighteen clinically extracted third molars were rehydrated and burned under controlled temperatures (400, 650, and 800°C using an electric furnace adjusted with a 25°C increase/min. The subsequent high-resolution scans (voxel-size 17.7 μm were made with a compact micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174. In total, 14 scans were automatically segmented with Definiens XD Developer 1.2 and three-dimensional (3D models were computed with Visage Imaging Amira 5.2.2. The results of the automated segmentation were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA and uncorrected post hoc least significant difference (LSD tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17. A probability level of P < 0.05 was used as an index of statistical significance. Results: A temperature-dependent increase of heat-induced cracks was observed between the three temperature groups (P < 0.05, ANOVA post hoc LSD. In addition, the distributions and shape of the heat-induced changes could be classified using the computed 3D models. Conclusion: The macroscopic heat-induced changes observed in this preliminary study correspond with previous observations of unrestored human teeth, yet the current observations also take into account the entire microscopic 3D expansions of heat-induced cracks within the dental hard tissues. Using the same experimental conditions proposed in the literature, this study confirms previous results, adds new observations, and offers new perspectives in the investigation of forensic evidence.

  7. Balancing selfishness and prosociality can enhance the resilience of human groups

    CERN Document Server

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Nardin, Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation among humans is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time like climate change, financial crises, and over exploitation of natural resources. While several mechanisms of self-governance for supporting cooperation, such as peer punishment, reciprocity, and social norms have been extensively explored, the impact of cooperation on the ability of human groups to absorb changes and still persist, their resilience, has received less attention. Here we develop an analytically-tractable model that incorporates both selfish and prosocial aspects as constituents of cooperative decision making, which quantitatively reproduce findings from recent large scale experiments on cooperation with humans. The model parameters inferred from experimental data are near a line of critical points, which suggests a way in which cooperation can be sustained and impact the resilience of human groups to external variability.

  8. Land use change around protected areas: management to balance human needs and ecological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth; Hansen, Andrew; Turner, B L; Reid, Robin; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-06-01

    Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

  9. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  10. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  11. Human capital and its spatial distribution as limiting factors for the balanced development of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is one of the key factors of economic and social development. Namely, the growth potential of a territory is largely dependent on human capital that is, on citizen’s creative potential and especially on their education. Society with a better endowment of human capital has a greater development potential. The subject of this paper is Serbia’s human capital seen from the point of view of workforce education structure (20-64 age group. In this paper we present spatial distribution of workforce, i.e. the differences in workforce education levels and polarization of Serbian territory in terms of human capital pool. The result is a typology of municipalities in Serbia based on calculated values of average completed education level - the EMN index. Mapping of the corresponding values was done at the municipality level in order to get a clear distinction and a more accurate picture of spatial disparities in human resources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia

  12. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lin; Dong, Shao-Jie; Kong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Rong; Zou, Rui; Liu, Qi-Da

    2016-01-01

    During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino–enamel junction (DEJ) of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage. PMID:27662186

  14. The Th17/Treg Immune Balance in Ulcerative Colitis Patients with Two Different Chinese Syndromes: Dampness-Heat in Large Intestine and Spleen and Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the Th17/Treg immune balance in the ulcerative colitis (UC patients with two Chinese syndrome: dampness-heat in large intestine (DHLI and spleen and kidney Yang deficiency (SKYD. Methods. Ninety UC patients (45 were diagnosed with DHLI and 45 with SKYD syndrome and 23 healthy people were recruited. The serumIL-17 and TGF-β1 levels of these participants were measured with ELISA; the expression of IL-17 and TGF-β 1 in colonic mucosa tissue was determined with immunohistochemistry and the percentage of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood with flow cytometry. Results. The levels of IL-17 and Th17 were significantly higher in both DHLI and SKYD groups than in healthy control group and higher in DHLI than in SKYD group (P<0.05. The levels of TGF-β1 and Treg were significantly lower in the two UC patients groups than in healthy control group; and lower in SKYD group than in DHLI group (P<0.05. Conclusions. UC with DHLI syndrome could be characterized by the elevation of Th17 and IL-17 levels, which indicated an accentuation of inflammatory reaction; UC with SKYD syndrome could be characterized by the reduction of serum Treg and TGF-β1 levels, which represented a depression of immune tolerance.

  15. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes treated with 7-dehydrocholesterol express increased levels of heat shock protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Thomas; Muizzuddin, Neelam; Goyarts, Earl; Gan, David; Giacomoni, Paolo; Marenus, Ken; Maes, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Human skin, and its isolated cells, respond to insults with a variety of repair and protective mechanisms. One such mechanism is the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Heat shock proteins help the other cellular proteins fold correctly into their active three-dimensional structures. Therefore, they can enhance the survival of cells under harsh, denaturing conditions. In order to develop a means of promoting the heat shock response to prepare the skin to withstand insult, we are investigating materials that appear to protect the skin biologically. One such material is vitamin D3 and its precursors. We have observed that keratinocytes treated with 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a precursor of vitamin D3, have increased levels of protein and mRNA for heat shock proteins. In addition, we observed that topically applied 7-DHC increases the minimal dose of UVB required to induce erythema. These data suggest that 7-DHC can induce heat shock proteins in skin keratinocytes and that they will be more resistant to UVB insult.

  16. [Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in the Human Anterior Chamber at Different Corneal Temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingmin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Junming

    2015-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of human anterior chamber is reconstructed to explore the effect of different corneal temperatures on the heat transfer in the chamber. Based on the optical coherence tomography imaging of the volunteers with normal anterior chamber, a 3D anterior chamber model was reconstructed by the method of UG parametric design. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and aqueous humor flow in the whole anterior chamber were analyzed by the finite volume methods at different corneal temperatures. The results showed that different corneal temperatures had obvious influence on the temperature distribution and the aqueous flow in the anterior chamber. The temperature distribution is linear and axial symmetrical around the pupillary axis. As the temperature difference increases, the symmetry becomes poorer. Aqueous floated along the warm side and sank along the cool side which forms a vortexing flow. Its velocity increased with the addition of temperature difference. Heat fluxes of cornea, lens and iris were mainly affected by the aqueous velocity. The higher the velocity, the bigger more absolute value of the above-mentioned heat fluxes became. It is practicable to perform the numerical simulation of anterior chamber by the optical coherence tomography imaging. The results are useful for studying the important effect of corneal temperature on the heat transfer and aqueous humor dynamics in the anterior chamber.

  17. Co-localization of the heat shock protein and human immunoglobulin G in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-guang; LIU Yan-fang; LI Kai-nan; YU Lu; CUI Ji-hong; LI Jing; YANG Shou-jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin observed in patients with cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, and liver1,2 have been interpreted as humoral responses of host to cancer growth.3 Recently, Qiu et al4 described in detail that human cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, liver, lung, established epithelial cancer lines, produce immunoglobulin G (IgG) in their cytoplasm. Under normal conditions, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have multiple cellular functions, such as folding and translocating newly synthesized proteins. When a cell is injured or under stress, HSPs refold damaged protein or facilitate degradation of proteins. In most cancers, heat shock proteins can capture tumour specific peptide to inhibit the growth of cancer. This study demonstrated that human IgG and HSPs are co-localized in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  19. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  20. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  1. Human Balance out of Equilibrium: Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics in Posture Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauk, Michael; Chow, Carson C.; Pavlik, Ann E.; Collins, James J.

    1998-01-01

    During quiet standing, the human body sways in a stochastic manner. Here we show that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be applied to the human postural control system. That is, the dynamic response of the postural system to a weak mechanical perturbation can be predicted from the fluctuations exhibited by the system under quasistatic conditions. We also show that the estimated correlation and response functions can be described by a simple stochastic model consisting of a pinned polymer. These findings suggest that the postural control system utilizes the same control mechanisms under quiet-standing and dynamic conditions.

  2. Modeling the basin of attraction as a two-dimensional manifold from experimental data: applications to balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S; Stirling, James R; Martínez, Carlos A Cordente; de Durana, Alfonso López Díaz; Quintana, Manuel Sillero; Romo, Gabriel Rodríguez; Molinuevo, Javier Sampedro

    2010-03-01

    We present a method of modeling the basin of attraction as a three-dimensional function describing a two-dimensional manifold on which the dynamics of the system evolves from experimental time series data. Our method is based on the density of the data set and uses numerical optimization and data modeling tools. We also show how to obtain analytic curves that describe both the contours and the boundary of the basin. Our method is applied to the problem of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet vertical stance using data of an elite athlete. Our method goes beyond the statistical description of the experimental data, providing a function that describes the shape of the basin of attraction. To test its robustness, our method has also been applied to two different data sets of a second subject and no significant differences were found between the contours of the calculated basin of attraction for the different data sets. The proposed method has many uses in a wide variety of areas, not just human balance for which there are many applications in medicine, rehabilitation, and sport.

  3. Measuring Center of Pressure Signals to Quantify Human Balance Using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy by Designing a Force Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP, known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS, has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test. The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance.

  4. Simultaneous pasteurization and homogenization of human milk by combining heat and ultrasound: effect on milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czank, Charles; Simmer, Karen; Hartmann, Peter E

    2010-05-01

    The combination of ultrasound and heat (thermoultrasound) is an emerging food preservation technique that retains higher quantities of bioactive components compared with current thermal pasteurization practice, but has not yet been assessed for pasteurizing human milk. Artificially contaminated human milk samples were treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 150 watts) with and without heating. The retention of four human milk proteins was quantified by biochemical assay and laser scattering particle sizing was used to determine the extent of homogenization. While ultrasonic treatment was effective at inactivating Escherichia coli (D4 degrees C=5.94 min), Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited resistance (D4 degrees C=16.01 min). Thermoultrasonic treatment was considerably more effective (Esch. coli D45 degrees C=1.74 min, D50 degrees C=0.89 min; Staph. epidermidis D45 degrees C=2.08 min, D50 degrees C=0.94 minutes) with a predicted retention (2.8 min treatment, 50 degrees C) of secretory IgA lysozyme, lactoferrin and bile salt stimulated lipase of 91, 80, 77, and 45%, respectively. Homogenization of the milk samples occurred after 5 min and 2 min of ultrasonic and thermoultrasonic treatment, respectively. Thermoultrasonic treatment is an effective method for pasteurizing donor human milk and retaining a greater proportion of bioactive components compared with current practices. However, further studies are required to assess the practicality of applying this technique routinely to donor human milk.

  5. Heat shock protein 70 chaperoned alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Qiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Li; Rui-Fen Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interaction between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line BEL7402.METHODS: The expression and localization of HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell line BEL-7402 were determined by immunocytochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in HCC cells was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot.RESULTS: Immunocytochemical staining detection showed that HCC cell BEL-7402 expressed a high level of HSP70 and AFP synchronously. Both were stained in cell plasma.AFP existed in the immunoprecipitate of anti-HSP70 mAb,while there was HSP70 in the immunoprecipitate of antiAFP mAb.CONCLUSION: HSP70 chaperones AFP in human HCCcell BEL-7402. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell can be a new route to study the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of HCC.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Balancing Selection within the Human Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH Gene Region in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mowla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Genetic diversity of three polymorphic markers in the phenylalanine hydroxylase(PAH gene region including PvuII(a, PAHSTR and MspI were investigated.Methods:Unrelated individuals (n=139 from the Iranian populations were genotyped using primers specific to PAH gene markers including PvuII(a,MspI and PAHSTR. The amplified products for PvuII(a,MspI were digested using the appropriate restriction enzymes and separated on 1.5% agarose. The PAHSTR alleles were identified using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. The exact size of the STR alleles was determined by sequencing. The allele frequency and population status of the alleles were estimated using PHASE, FBAT and GENEPOP software.Results: The estimated degree of heterozygosity for PAHSTR, MspI and PvuII (a was 66%, 56% and 58%, respectively. The haplotype estimation analysis of the markers resulted in nine informative haplotypes with frequencies ≥5%.Moreover,the results obtained from Ewens-Watterson test for neutrality suggested that the markers were under balancing selection in the Iranian population.Conclusion:These findings suggested the presence of genetic diversity at these three markers in the PAH gene region. Therefore, the markers could be considered as functional markers for linkage analysis of the PAH gene mutations in the Iranian families with the PKU disease.

  7. Comparative investigations into pyrolysis of biomass and brown coal. Material balance and heat requirement in correlation with fuel properties; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Pyrolyse von Biomasse und Braunkohle. Stoffbilanzen und Waermebedarf in Korrelation mit Rohstoffeigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, D.; Klinger, M.; Krzack, S.; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Prediction of product distribution and composition for biomass and coal pyrolysis using thermodynamic simulation software is actually not possible or works not deficiently. Consistent data for pyrolysis product distribution and composition are a basic requirement for the implementation of pyrolysis in models representing thermochemical conversion of biogenous and fossil fuels as well as for the creation of detailed material and energy balances and the evaluation of such processes. Investigations into the pyrolysis behaviour of different biomass materials (wood, straw, silage) and German brown coals (Lusatia, Rhineland) in dependence on process temperature have been done in a lab scale device. Based on the obtained results, material and heat balances have been created taking all pyrolysis products into consideration. To obtain additional information about pyrolysis heat requirement investigations using a TG-DSC thermogravimetric analyser have been carried out. Differences between biomass and brown coal are found especially within the distribution of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon to the pyrolysis products. For the herbaceous biomass a heat release was detected regarding to the energy balance, while spruce wood possesses a relatively constant endothermic heat of reaction in the overall temperature range. This arises from the release of volatile components produced during cellulose decomposition. In the case of brown coal pyrolysis the products show a lower chemically bonded energy than the raw material. The obtained tendencies could be partly confirmed with the DSC investigations. (orig.)

  8. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with Increased respiratory morbiditses and susceptibility to Infections Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet Its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known ‘the greater Mexico City area was the pri...

  9. Balancing the needs and preferences of humans against concerns for fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian; Kadri, S.

    2009-01-01

    How can stakeholders within the fisheries community engage in constructive ethical discussions? Drawing on experiences from previous debates surrounding the human use of animals, this paper presents a proactive approach whereby stakeholders can create a framework for ethical discussion of capture...

  10. The human growth and the healthy environment as a condition of balanced development for the course of human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koukoumpliakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising standard of living has evoked an important burden in the natural environment leading to an immense deterioration of nature. The pollution of the atmosphere and seas, the industrial waste, the climatic changes, the chaotic built-up extension threaten the health of all of us. The responsibility for the pollution of the environment is allocated in everybody. The State is accountable not only for the political planning and the policy that practises, but also for the frame it shapes for the citizens to follow. The improvement of the quality of environment must be combined with the economic progress and growth. The intensity of environmental problems worries the International Community, while the saving and growth of new green forms of energy appear as imperative need. We find already ourselves in a progressive but continuous growth, which has the conditions to develop in the future with spectacular rhythm.The methodology of present work is recommended for: a bibliographic research, mainly Greek, b comparison of the facts that are exported from research, connecting them with the given facts. This comparison leads to the necessary coexistence of a healthy environment and a viable growth.In the results of the research the essential conditions of coexistence are presented between these two. Thus we realise that: a the configuration of an evener environmental conscience is required via the education which would guarantee the balanced and sustainable growth, b the change of perception of people as lords of nature is considered necessary and its replacement by the awareness that the nature does not constitute an inexhaustible resource.With that in mind we conclude that: a the research is required to lead to alternative sources of energy such as the creation of Aeolian parks. It is estimated that more investments in other types of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal and hydroelectric can constitute also advisable solutions. The use of

  11. Delineation of downstream signalling components during acrosome reaction mediated by heat solubilized human zona pellucida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human egg is enveloped by a glycoproteinaceous matrix, zona pellucida (ZP, responsible for binding of the human spermatozoa to the egg and induction of acrosomal exocytosis in the spermatozoon bound to ZP. In the present manuscript, attempts have been made to delineate the downstream signalling components employed by human ZP to induce acrosome reaction. Methods Heat-solubilized human ZP (SIZP was used to study the induction of acrosome reaction in capacitated human spermatozoa using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (TRITC-PSA in absence or presence of various pharmacological inhibitors. In addition, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i levels in sperm using Fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester as fluorescent probe were also estimated in response to SIZP. Results SIZP induces acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated human sperm in a dose dependent manner accompanied by an increase in [Ca2+]i. Human SIZP mediated induction of acrosome reaction depends on extracellular Ca2+ and involves activation of Gi protein-coupled receptor, tyrosine kinase, protein kinases A & C and phosphoinositide 3 (PI3- kinase. In addition, T-type voltage operated calcium channels and GABA-A receptor associated chloride (Cl- channels play an important role in SIZP mediated induction of acrosome reaction. Conclusions Results described in the present study provide a comprehensive account of the various downstream signalling components associated with human ZP mediated acrosome reaction.

  12. Heat and water rate transfer processes in the human respiratory tract at various altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandjov, I M

    2001-02-01

    The process of the respiratory air conditioning as a process of heat and mass exchange at the interface inspired air-airways surface was studied. Using a model of airways (Olson et al., 1970) where the segments of the respiratory tract are like cylinders with a fixed length and diameter, the corresponding heat transfer equations, in the paper are founded basic rate exchange parameters-convective heat transfer coefficient h(c)(W m(-2) degrees C(-1)) and evaporative heat transfer coefficient h(e)(W m(-2)hPa(-1)). The rate transfer parameters assumed as sources with known heat power are connected to airflow rate in different airways segments. Relationships expressing warming rate of inspired air due to convection, warming rate of inspired air due to evaporation, water diffused in the inspired air from the airways wall, i.e. a system of air conditioning parameters, was composed. The altitude dynamics of the relations is studied. Every rate conditioning parameter is an increasing function of altitude. The process of diffusion in the peripheral bronchial generations as a basic transfer process is analysed. The following phenomenon is in effect: the diffusion coefficient increases with altitude and causes a compensation of simultaneous decreasing of O(2)and CO(2)densities in atmospheric air. Due to this compensation, the diffusion in the peripheral generations with altitude is approximately constant. The elements of the human anatomy optimality as well as the established dynamics are discussed and assumed. The square form of the airways after the trachea expressed in terms of transfer supposes (in view of maximum contact surface), that a maximum heat and water exchange is achieved, i.e. high degree of air condition at fixed environmental parameters and respiration regime.

  13. Human obesity as a heritable disorder of the central control of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rahilly, S; Farooqi, I S

    2008-12-01

    In the spirit of celebration associated with the 20th anniversary of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, we have seized the opportunity of taking a highly personal and not at all comprehensive 'whistle-stop tour' of a large body of evidence that, we feel, supports the following conclusions: (1) that body fat stores are regulated by biological control processes in humans as they are in lower animals; (2) that there are major inherited influences on the efficiency whereby such control processes operate in humans; (3) that the precise nature of those genetic and biological influences and how they interact with environmental factors are beginning to be understood; (4) that most of the genes discovered thus far have their principal impact on hunger, satiety and food intake; (5) that while there is understandable resistance to the notion that genes can influence a human behavior such as the habitual ingestion of food, the implications of these discoveries are essentially benign. Indeed, we hope that they may eventually lead to improved treatment for patients and, in addition, help to inculcate a more enlightened attitude to the obese with a reduction in their experience of social and economic discrimination.

  14. 铝、铜水箱热平衡试验研究%On the Experiment of Heat Balance of Aluminum and Copper Water Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 曾宪杰; 曾宪任

    2015-01-01

    液压挖掘机工作环境十分恶劣,尤其对于液压挖掘机,由于其冷却风道空间有限,很容易造成发动机冷却水温过高的现象,从而导致挖掘机工作效率以及使用寿命的降低。目前挖掘机厂家对于发动机冷却系统的设计主要通过经验和反复试验来完成,这一方面延长了设计的周期,同时也增加了试验的强度。本文针对液压挖掘机发动机冷却系统设计过程中存在的共性问题,介绍目前常用的散热器型式,揭示间壁式散热器的传热机理。其次,建立管带式散热器散热特性数学模型,分析散热器传热系数、冷却水温度、散热量、风阻、水阻以及功耗等性能参数与散热器尺寸及流体流速之间的关系。对铝水箱和铜水箱的热平衡进行试验测试,结果表明,铜水箱散热性能较好。%Hydraulic excavator working environment is very bad, especially for hydraulic excavator, due to its limited space of cooling air duct, it is easy to cause the phenomenon of high temperature of engine cooling water, resulting in the reduction of work efficiency and service life of the excavator. Currently, the excavator manufacturers design the engine cooling system mainly through experience and trial and error, which extends the cycle of design, and also increases the strength of the test. Based on the common problems existing in the design process of hydraulic excavator engine cooling system, this paper introduces the type of radiator, reveals the recuperative heat transfer mechanism of the radiator. Secondly, belt type radiator thermal characteristics mathematical model is established, and analyzes the relationship among the performance parameters of the radiator heat transfer coefficient, cooling water temperature, heat release, wind resistance, water resistance and power consumption, the size of radiator and the velocity of flow. The heat balance of aluminum and copper water tank is tested

  15. Mathematical Simulation of Heat Impact of Heated Up to High Temperatures Particle on Human Skin: Simple One-Dimensional Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solodkin Andrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is developed physical and mathematical models of process of a heat transfer between skin and a heating source - single heated up to high temperatures particle. Temperature distribution in system “particle-skin” for heated wooden particle is obtained. The data obtained during work can be used for addition of already available materials on the given subjects and comparisons of influences on a skin of various factors, and also can be useful to development of new systems of protection against the influences damaging factors in the conditions of fire.

  16. An efficient procedure for purification of recombinant human β heat shock protein 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bandehpour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 is typically the most abundant chaperone in the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm, and its expression is essential for loading immunogenic peptides onto major histocompatibility complex molecules for presentation to T-cells. Therefore, it may act as a good candidate as an adjuvant molecule in vaccine technology. "n Methods: Initially the human Hsp90β gene was cloned into the heat inducible expression vector pGP1-2 and then the recombinant protein was isolated by ion exchange chromatography. After intradermal injection of confirmed purified band of protein to rabbits and isolation of the serum IgG antibody, for its affinity purification, the rabbit’s purified Hsp90 specific IgG was coupled to the cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B. Results: The recovery of the purified protein of interest by affinity chromatography was 50% . "n "nConclusion: This research enabled purification of human heat shock protein by a laboratory "n "nprepared column chromatography. "n   

  17. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are having balance problems, see your doctor. Balance disorders can be signs of other health problems, such ... cases, treating the illness that is causing the disorder will help with the balance problem. Exercises, a change in diet, and some ...

  18. Raz on rights: human rights, fundamental rights and balancing\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Zanghellini, Aleardo

    2017-01-01

    After clarifying the outlines of Raz’s interest theory of rights and its relationship to aspects of the principles theory of rights, I consider how his recent observations on human rights fit (or fail to fit) into the interest theory. I then address two questions. First, I elaborate on Raz’s definition of morally fundamental rights, arguing that he is right in claiming that there are no such rights. I then show that the interest theory accommodates the notion that rights may take qualitative ...

  19. Comparison of tissue heat balance- and thermal dissipation-derived sap flow measurements in ring-porous oaks and a pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Heidi J; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2012-01-01

    Sap flow measurements have become integral in many physiological and ecological investigations. A number of methods are used to estimate sap flow rates in trees, but probably the most popular is the thermal dissipation (TD) method because of its affordability, relatively low power consumption, and ease of use. However, there have been questions about the use of this method in ring-porous species and whether individual species and site calibrations are needed. We made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using TD sensors and the tissue heat balance (THB) method in two oak species (Quercus prinus Willd. and Quercus velutina Lam.) and one pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). We also made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using both 1 and 2-cm long TD sensors in both oak species. We found that both the TD and THB systems tended to match well in the pine individual, but sap flow rates were underestimated by 2-cm long TD sensors in five individuals of the two ring-porous oak species. Underestimations of 20-35% occurred in Q. prinus even when a "Clearwater" correction was applied to account for the shallowness of the sapwood depth relative to the sensor length and flow rates were underestimated by up to 50% in Q. velutina. Two centimeter long TD sensors also underestimated flow rates compared with 1-cm long sensors in Q. prinus, but only at large flow rates. When 2-cm long sensor data in Q. prinus were scaled using the regression with 1-cm long data, daily flow rates matched well with the rates measured by the THB system. Daily plot level transpiration estimated using TD sap flow rates and scaled 1 cm sensor data averaged about 15% lower than those estimated by the THB method. Therefore, these results suggest that 1-cm long sensors are appropriate in species with shallow sapwood, however more corrections may be necessary in ring-porous species.

  20. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  1. Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase in human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Goemann, Iuri Martin; Meyer, Erika L Souza; Wajner, Simone Magagnin

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for the normal function of virtually all tissues. The iodothyronine deiodinases catalyze the removal of an iodine residue from the pro-hormone thyroxine (T(4)) molecule, thus producing either the active form triiodothyronine (T(3); activation) or inactive metabolites (reverse T(3); inactivation). Type I deiodinase (D1) catalyzes both reactions. Over the last years, several studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of D1 function, underlying its effects on normal thyroid hormone metabolism and pathological processes. Although peripheral D1-generated T(3) production contributes to a portion of plasma T(3) in euthyroid state, pathologically increased thyroidal D1 activity seems to be the main cause of the elevated T(3) concentrations observed in hyperthyroid patients. On the other hand, D1-deficient mouse models show that, in the absence of D1, inactive and lesser iodothyronines are excreted in feces with the loss of associated iodine, demonstrating the scavenging function for D1 that might be particularly important in an iodine deficiency setting. Polymorphisms in the DIO1 gene have been associated with changes in serum thyroid hormone levels, whereas decreased D1 activity has been reported in the nonthyroid illness syndrome and in several human neoplasias. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made in the biochemical and molecular properties of D1 as well as its role in human physiology.

  2. Metabolism, excretion, and mass balance of the HIV-1 integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Stephen; Moss, Lee; Wagner, David; Borland, Julie; Song, Ivy; Chen, Shuguang; Lou, Yu; Min, Sherene S; Goljer, Igor; Culp, Amanda; Piscitelli, Stephen C; Savina, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of dolutegravir, an unboosted, once-daily human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibitor, were studied in healthy male subjects following single oral administration of [(14)C]dolutegravir at a dose of 20 mg (80 μCi). Dolutegravir was well tolerated, and absorption of dolutegravir from the suspension formulation was rapid (median time to peak concentration, 0.5 h), declining in a biphasic fashion. Dolutegravir and the radioactivity had similar terminal plasma half-lives (t1/2) (15.6 versus 15.7 h), indicating metabolism was formation rate limited with no long-lived metabolites. Only minimal association with blood cellular components was noted with systemic radioactivity. Recovery was essentially complete (mean, 95.6%), with 64.0% and 31.6% of the dose recovered in feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged dolutegravir was the predominant circulating radioactive component in plasma and was consistent with minimal presystemic clearance. Dolutegravir was extensively metabolized. An inactive ether glucuronide, formed primarily via UGT1A1, was the principal biotransformation product at 18.9% of the dose excreted in urine and the principal metabolite in plasma. Two minor biotransformation pathways were oxidation by CYP3A4 (7.9% of the dose) and an oxidative defluorination and glutathione substitution (1.8% of the dose). No disproportionate human metabolites were observed.

  3. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective balance and startle responses to sudden freefall in standing humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ozell P; Savin, Douglas N; Creath, Robert A; Rogers, Mark W

    2015-01-23

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not startle reactions contribute to the whole body postural responses following sudden freefall in standing humans. Nine healthy participants stood atop a moveable platform and received externally-triggered (EXT) and selftriggered (SLF) drop perturbations of the support surface. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded bilaterally over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), deltoid (DLT), biceps brachii (BIC), medial gastrocnemius (GAS), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Whole-body kinematics were also recorded with motion analysis. Rapid phasic activation of SCM during the first trial response (FTR) was seen for all participants for EXT and for 56% of subjects for SLF. Reductions in EMG amplitude between the EXT FTR and later trial responses for SCM, DLT, and BIC and reduced arm movement acceleration indicative of habituation occurred and exceeded adaptive reductions for SLF. These findings suggested that a startle reflex contributes to the exaggerated postural FTR observed during externally-triggered whole-body free falls.

  5. Psychotherapy is an ethical endeavor: Balancing science and humanism in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes that psychotherapy is best grounded in scienceinformed humanism and, more specifically, that psychotherapists at least implicitly promote ethical, moral--and indeed, virtuous--behavior. In doing so, therapists are challenged continually to engage in making evaluative moral judgments without being judgmental. He contends that psychotherapists, and psychologists especially, are overly reliant on science and might benefit from being more explicit in their ethical endeavors by being better informed about the illuminating philosophical literature on ethics. He highlights the concept of mentalizing, that is, attentiveness to mental states in self and others, such as needs, feelings, and thoughts. He proposes that mentalizing in the context of attachment relationships is common to all psychotherapies, and that this common process is best understood conjointly from the perspectives of developmental psychology and ethics. The author defends the thesis that employing psychotherapy to promote ethical, moral, and virtuous functioning can be justified on scientific grounds insofar as this functioning is conducive to health.

  6. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Challenge of Balancing Human Security with State Security

    CERN Document Server

    Sahito, Farhan

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports reveal that violent extremists are trying to obtain insider positions that may increase the impact of any attack on critical infrastructure and could potentially endanger state services, people's lives and even democracy. It is of utmost importance to be able to adopt extreme security measures in certain high-risk situations in order to secure critical infrastructure and thus lower the level of terrorist threats while preserving the rights of citizens. To counter these threats, our research is aiming for extreme measures to analyse and evaluate human threats related assessment methods for employee screening and evaluations using cognitive analysis technology, in particular functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI has led some researchers to conclude that this technology has forensic potential and may be useful in investing personality traits, mental illness, psychopathology, racial prejudice and religious extremism. However, critics claim that this technology may pr...

  7. Balancing the principles: why the universality of human rights is not the Trojan horse of moral imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semplici, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the 'global' level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most relevant international declarations and documents, is not exempt from the charge. However, the refusal of a top-down conception of the universal as a sort of product for exportation should not be confused with a relativistic landscape, where all the cows can be indifferently black or white. This contribution aims at outlining an approach, which reconciles universalism as enshrined in founding human rights declarations with respect for cultural diversity. In order to do so, two conceptual frameworks are discussed: the 'tool-kit' model and the morals/ethics difference. The example of the right to quality health care confirms the argument that striking a balance between cherishing pluralism and defending some fundamental rights and obligations does not amount to an assertion of moral imperialism.

  8. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  9. The importance of the ionic product for water to understand the physiology of the acid-base balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  10. A balanced view of the cerebrospinal fluid composition and functions: Focus on adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Reynold; Robert Snodgrass, S; Johanson, Conrad E

    2015-11-01

    In this review, a companion piece to our recent examination of choroid plexus (CP), the organ that secretes the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we focus on recent information in the context of reliable older data concerning the composition and functions of adult human CSF. To accomplish this, we define CSF, examine the methodology employed in studying the CSF focusing on ideal or near ideal experiments and discuss the pros and cons of several widely used analogical descriptions of the CSF including: the CSF as the "third circulation," the CSF as a "nourishing liquor," the similarities of the CSF/choroid plexus to the glomerular filtrate/kidney and finally the CSF circulation as part of the "glymphatic system." We also consider the close interrelationship between the CSF and extracellular space of brain through gap junctions and the paucity of data suggesting that the cerebral capillaries secrete a CSF-like fluid. Recently human CSF has been shown to be in dynamic flux with heart-beat, posture and especially respiration. Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP. The CSF also presents many exogenous compounds to CP for metabolism or removal, indirectly cleansing the extracellular space of brain (e.g., of xenobiotics like penicillin). The CSF also carries hormones (e.g., leptin) from blood via CP or synthesized in CP (e.g., IGF-2) to the brain. In summary the CP/CSF, the third circulation, performs many functions comparable to the kidney including nourishing the brain and contributing to a stable internal milieu for the brain. These tasks are essential to normal adult brain functioning.

  11. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (pmilk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  12. 企业人力资源结构失衡现象略析%On Phenomenon of Losing Balance of Enterprises’ Human Resource Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿锦卉

    2014-01-01

    The lost of balance of human resource in the enterprise is a kind of inherent economic phenom-enon, which includes the negative factors and positive factors .The lost of balance of human resource in enter-prise will influence the enterprise ’ s administrative system directly .We should take some effective actions on the lost of balance of enterprise ’ s administration .%企业人力资源结构失衡是一种固有的经济现象,既有消极影响,也有积极因素。企业人力资源结构失衡将直接影响企业管理系统的正常运行。企业应在失衡管理方面积极有所作为。

  13. The delicate balance between secreted protein folding and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation in human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2012-04-01

    Protein folding is a complex, error-prone process that often results in an irreparable protein by-product. These by-products can be recognized by cellular quality control machineries and targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation. The folding of proteins in the secretory pathway adds another layer to the protein folding "problem," as the endoplasmic reticulum maintains a unique chemical environment within the cell. In fact, a growing number of diseases are attributed to defects in secretory protein folding, and many of these by-products are targeted for a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Since its discovery, research on the mechanisms underlying the ERAD pathway has provided new insights into how ERAD contributes to human health during both normal and diseases states. Links between ERAD and disease are evidenced from the loss of protein function as a result of degradation, chronic cellular stress when ERAD fails to keep up with misfolded protein production, and the ability of some pathogens to coopt the ERAD pathway. The growing number of ERAD substrates has also illuminated the differences in the machineries used to recognize and degrade a vast array of potential clients for this pathway. Despite all that is known about ERAD, many questions remain, and new paradigms will likely emerge. Clearly, the key to successful disease treatment lies within defining the molecular details of the ERAD pathway and in understanding how this conserved pathway selects and degrades an innumerable cast of substrates.

  14. Substrate-specific derangements in mitochondrial metabolism and redox balance in the atrium of the type 2 diabetic human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan J; Kypson, Alan P; Rodriguez, Evelio; Anderson, Curtis A; Lehr, Eric J; Neufer, P Darrell

    2009-11-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of diabetes on oxidant balance and mitochondrial metabolism of carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates in myocardium of type 2 diabetic patients. Heart failure represents a major cause of death among diabetic patients. It has been proposed that derangements in cardiac metabolism and oxidative stress may underlie the progression of this comorbidity, but scarce evidence exists in support of this mechanism in humans. Mitochondrial oxygen (O(2)) consumption and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) emission were measured in permeabilized myofibers prepared from samples of the right atrial appendage obtained from nondiabetic (n = 13) and diabetic (n = 11) patients undergoing nonemergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Mitochondria in atrial tissue of type 2 diabetic individuals show a sharply decreased capacity for glutamate and fatty acid-supported respiration, in addition to an increased content of myocardial triglycerides, as compared to nondiabetic patients. Furthermore, diabetic patients show an increased mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission during oxidation of carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates, depleted glutathione, and evidence of persistent oxidative stress in their atrial tissue. These findings are the first to directly investigate the effects of type 2 diabetes on a panoply of mitochondrial functions in the human myocardium using cellular and molecular approaches, and they show that mitochondria in diabetic human hearts have specific impairments in maximal capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glutamate, yet increased mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission, providing insight into the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of heart failure in diabetic patients. 2009 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation

  15. Substrate-Specific Derangements in Mitochondrial Metabolism and Redox Balance in Atrium of Type 2 Diabetic Human Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan J.; Kypson, Alan P.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Anderson, Curtis A.; Lehr, Eric J.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2009-01-01

    Objective This aim of this study was to determine the impact of diabetes on oxidant balance and mitochondrial metabolism of carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates in myocardium of type 2 diabetic patients. Background Heart failure represents a major cause of death among diabetics, and it has been proposed that derangements in cardiac metabolism and oxidative stress may underlie the progression of this co-morbidity, but scarce evidence exists in support of this mechanism in humans. Methods Mitochondrial O2 consumption and H2O2 emission were measured in permeabilized myofibers prepared from samples of right atrial appendage obtained from non-diabetic (n=13) and diabetic (n=11) patients undergoing non-emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Results Mitochondria in atrial tissue of type 2 diabetic individuals display a sharply decreased capacity for glutamate and fatty acid-supported respiration, in addition to an increased content of myocardial triglycerides, as compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, diabetics display an increased mitochondrial H2O2 emission during oxidation of carbohydrate- and lipid-based substrates, depleted glutathione, and evidence of persistent oxidative stress in their atrial tissue. Conclusions These findings are the first to directly investigate the effects of type 2 diabetes on a panoply of mitochondrial functions in the human myocardium using cellular and molecular approaches, and they demonstrate that mitochondria in diabetic human heart have specific impairments in maximal capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glutamate, yet increased mitochondrial H2O2 emission, providing insight into the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of heart failure in diabetic patients. PMID:19892241

  16. The family myth: its deconstruction and replacement with a balanced humanized narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kradin, Richard

    2009-04-01

    According to Carl Jung the mythopoeic activities of the collective unconscious contribute to the trajectory of personal individuation (Segal 1998). The 'family myth' represents an imaginal narrative that emphasizes the importance of the family's founders, its collective values, and its position with respect to 'outsiders'. Sigmund Freud identified the importance of the Oedipal myth as the basis of nuclear family dynamics (Rudnytsky 1992); however, the 'myth of the family' represents in reality a 'family of myths', each emphasizing different elements of potential interpersonal dynamics. But whereas some myths foster the child's optimal separation from parental influence and promote the process of individuation, others tend to hinder development. One potentially deleterious form of the family myth tends to serve the narcissistic wishes of parents in their bid to maintain influence over the child by fostering the archetypal features of their role. The children who are the targets of the myth are thwarted in their psychological development by virtue of the fact that they are denied the opportunity to humanize their archetypal projections onto their parent(s). The result is a persistence of childlike attitude with respect to people and situations that they encounter outside the nuclear family. The persistent constellation of the child archetype is evidenced by features of the puer aeternus, with deficits in the ability to work, form stable adult relationships, and create a separate nuclear family. The significance of this type of family myth in the inappropriate preservation of puerile attitudes is examined and the desire of the offending parent(s) to promote their own immortality is explored. The contribution of the myth to the transference and transference resistance is explicated and suggestions are offered with respect to how to approach this critical issue in analysis.

  17. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

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    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  18. The case from animal studies for balanced binocular treatment strategies for human amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donald E; Duffy, Kevin R

    2014-03-01

    Although amblyopia typically manifests itself as a monocular condition, its origin has long been linked to unbalanced neural signals from the two eyes during early postnatal development, a view confirmed by studies conducted on animal models in the last 50 years. Despite recognition of its binocular origin, treatment of amblyopia continues to be dominated by a period of patching of the non-amblyopic eye that necessarily hinders binocular co-operation. This review summarizes evidence from three lines of investigation conducted on an animal model of deprivation amblyopia to support the thesis that treatment of amblyopia should instead focus upon procedures that promote and enhance binocular co-operation. First, experiments with mixed daily visual experience in which episodes of abnormal visual input were pitted against normal binocular exposure revealed that short exposures of the latter offset much longer periods of abnormal input to allow normal development of visual acuity in both eyes. Second, experiments on the use of part-time patching revealed that purposeful introduction of episodes of binocular vision each day could be very beneficial. Periods of binocular exposure that represented 30-50% of the daily visual exposure included with daily occlusion of the non-amblyopic could allow recovery of normal vision in the amblyopic eye. Third, very recent experiments demonstrate that a short 10 day period of total darkness can promote very fast and complete recovery of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye of kittens and may represent an example of a class of artificial environments that have similar beneficial effects. Finally, an approach is described to allow timing of events in kitten and human visual system development to be scaled to optimize the ages for therapeutic interventions.

  19. Heating properties of the needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy by 3-D anatomical human head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoto, N; Kato, K; Kanazawa, Y; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2009-01-01

    Since the human brain is protected by the skull, it is not easy to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy for hyperthermia treatments. Generally, needle type applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. To expand the heating area of needle type applicators, we have developed a new type of needle made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). In this paper, heating properties of the proposed SMA needle type applicator were discussed. Here, in order to apply the SMA needle type applicator clinically. First, we constructed an anatomical 3-D FEM model from MRI and X-ray CT images using 3D-CAD software. Second, we estimated electric and temperature distributions to confirm the SMA needle type applicator using the FEM soft were JMAG-Studio. From these results, it was confirmed that the proposed method can expand the heating area and control the heating of various sizes of brain tumors.

  20. Effect of heat stress on intestinal barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-zhen XIAO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal barrier including intestinal tight junction and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Methods Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers, serving as the intestinal barrier model, were exposed to different temperature (37-43℃ for designated time. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and horseradish peroxidase (HRP flux permeability were measured to evaluate barrier integrity. Level of tight junction (TJ protein occludin was analyzed by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis rate was determined using Annexin V-FITC/PI kit by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the 37℃ group, TEER lowered and the permeability for HRP increased significantly after heat exposure (P<0.01 in 39℃, 41℃ and 43℃ groups. The expression of occludin increased when the temperature was elevated from 37℃ to 41℃, and it reached the maximal level at 41℃. However, its expression gradually decreased with passage of time at 43℃. Cell apoptosis was enhanced with elevation of the temperature (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusion Heat stress can induce damage to tight junction and enhance apoptosis of epithelial cells, thus causing dysfunction of intestinal epithelial barrier.

  1. A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography

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    Huon V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-term objectives of this study is to be able to act quickly on body burns, to avoid propagating lesions due to heat diffusion. An experimental and numerical study is presented to better understand the thermomechanical behavior of the skin and its direct environment when exposed to strong thermal variations. The experimental step, suggested in this article, consists in placing a cooled cylindrical steel bar on the skin of a human forearm and measuring the temperature change using an infra-red camera. Blood circulation in the veins was seen to clearly influence of the heat diffusion. These experimental measurements provide a numerical model of the skin and its direct vicinity. This two-dimensional multi-layer model uses the Pennes equation to model biological tissue and the equation of heat in a fluid, to model blood. The properties of materials from the literature are validated by experimentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the experimental observations, but also to estimate blood speed in the veins.

  2. A numerical study of heat and water vapor transfer in MDCT-based human airway models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-fluid model is developed to study regional distributions of temperature and water vapor in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airways with minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. A one-dimensional (1D) model is also solved to provide necessary initial and boundary conditions for the 3D model. Both 3D and 1D predicted temperature distributions agree well with available in vivo measurement data. On inspiration, the 3D cold high-speed air stream is split at the bifurcation to form secondary flows, with its cold regions biased toward the inner wall. The cold air flowing along the wall is warmed up more rapidly than the air in the lumen center. The repeated splitting pattern of air streams caused by bifurcations acts as an effective mechanism for rapid heat and mass transfer in 3D. This provides a key difference from the 1D model, where heating relies largely on diffusion in the radial direction, thus significantly affecting gradient-dependent variables, such as energy flux and water loss rate. We then propose the correlations for respective heat and mass transfer in the airways of up to 6 generations: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where Nu is the Nusselt number, Sh is the Sherwood number, Re is the branch Reynolds number, D a is the airway equivalent diameter, and [Formula: see text] is the tracheal equivalent diameter.

  3. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  4. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  5. Sirtuin 1 is a key regulator of the interleukin-12 p70/interleukin-23 balance in human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2012-10-12

    Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD(+), and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a κB-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-κB family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response.

  6. Sirtuin 1 Is a Key Regulator of the Interleukin-12 p70/Interleukin-23 Balance in Human Dendritic Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Mario; Municio, Cristina; Hugo, Etzel; Alonso, Sara; Ibarrola, Nieves; Fernández, Nieves; Crespo, Mariano Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of human dendritic cells with the fungal surrogate zymosan produces IL-23 and a low amount of IL-12 p70. Trans-repression of il12a transcription, which encodes IL-12 p35 chain, by proteins of the Notch family and lysine deacetylation reactions have been reported as the underlying mechanisms, but a number of questions remain to be addressed. Zymosan produced the location of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) to the nucleus, enhanced its association with the il12a promoter, increased the nuclear concentration of the SIRT1 co-substrate NAD+, and decreased chromatin accessibility in the nucleosome-1 of il12a, which contains a κB-site. The involvement of deacetylation reactions in the inhibition of il12a transcription was supported by the absence of Ac-Lys-14-histone H3 in dendritic cells treated with zymosan upon coimmunoprecipitation of transducin-like enhancer of split. In contrast, we did not obtain evidence of a possible effect of SIRT1 through the deacetylation of c-Rel, the central element of the NF-κB family involved in il12a regulation. These data indicate that an enhancement of SIRT1 activity in response to phagocytic stimuli may reduce the accessibility of c-Rel to the il12a promoter and its transcriptional activation, thus regulating the IL-12 p70/IL-23 balance and modulating the ongoing immune response. PMID:22893703

  7. Water and sediment quality, nutrient biochemistry and pollution loads in an urban freshwater lake: balancing human and ecological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, Nathan J; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; McCann, Damian; Eyre, Bradley D

    2014-12-01

    Optimizing the utility of constructed waterways as residential development with water-frontage, along with a productive and functional habitat for wildlife is of considerable interest to managers. This study examines Lake Hugh Muntz, a large (17 ha) freshwater lake built in Gold Coast City, Australia. A ten year water quality monitoring programme shows that the lake has increasing nutrient concentrations, and together with summer algal blooms, the lake amenity as a popular recreational swimming and triathlon training location is at risk. A survey of fish and aquatic plant communities showed that the lake supports a sub-set of species found in adjacent natural wetlands. Sediment contaminants were below the lower Australian trigger values, except As, Hg, Pb and Zn, probably a function of untreated and uncontrolled stormwater runoff from nearby urban roads. Sediment biogeochemistry showed early signs of oxygen depletion, and an increase in benthic organic matter decomposition and oxygen consumption will result in more nitrogen recycled to the water column as NH4(+) (increasing the intensity of summer algal blooms) and less nitrogen lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification. A series of catchment restoration initiatives were modeled and the optimal stormwater runoff restoration effort needed for lake protection will be costly, particularly retrospective, as is the case here. Overall, balancing the lifestyles and livelihoods of residents along with ecosystem protection are possible, but require considerable trade-offs between ecosystem services and human use.

  8. Using natural, stable calcium isotopes of human blood to detect and monitor changes in bone mineral balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Melanie B; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Skulan, Joseph L; Smith, Scott M; Anbar, Ariel D

    2015-08-01

    We are exploring variations in the Ca isotope composition of blood and urine as a new tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of changes in bone mineral balance for patients suffering from metabolic bone disease, cancers that originate in or metastasize to bone, and for astronauts who spend time in low gravity environments. Blood samples are often collected instead of, or in addition to, urine in clinical settings, so it is useful to know if variations in the Ca isotope composition of blood carry the same information as variations in urine. We found that the Ca isotope composition of blood shifts in the same direction and to the same magnitude (~2 parts per ten thousand--pptt) as that of urine in response to skeletal unloading during bed rest. However, the Ca isotope composition of blood is lighter than that of urine by 12 ± 2 pptt. This offset between blood and urine may result from Ca isotope fractionation occurring in the kidneys. This is the first study to confirm the suspected offset between the Ca isotope composition of blood and urine in humans, to directly quantify its magnitude, and to establish that either blood or urine can be used to detect and quantify bone loss.

  9. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  10. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  11. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called “anhydrobiosis”. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  12. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI for balancing nutrition and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kanner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs, producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI which represents the capacity in percent of 100 g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200 g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI. The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS–rPOSI=0. The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R2=0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health.

  13. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and 5 regulate system Xc- and redox balance in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linher-Melville, Katja; Haftchenary, Sina; Gunning, Patrick; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-07-01

    System Xc- is a cystine/glutamate antiporter that contributes to the maintenance of cellular redox balance. The human xCT (SLC7A11) gene encodes the functional subunit of system Xc-. Transcription factors regulating antioxidant defense mechanisms including system Xc- are of therapeutic interest, especially given that aggressive breast cancer cells exhibit increased system Xc- function. This investigation provides evidence that xCT expression is regulated by STAT3 and/or STAT5A, functionally affecting the antiporter in human breast cancer cells. Computationally analyzing two kilobase pairs of the xCT promoter/5' flanking region identified a distal gamma-activated site (GAS) motif, with truncations significantly increasing luciferase reporter activity. Similar transcriptional increases were obtained after treating cells transiently transfected with the full-length xCT promoter construct with STAT3/5 pharmacological inhibitors. Knock-down of STAT3 or STAT5A with siRNAs produced similar results. However, GAS site mutation significantly reduced xCT transcriptional activity, suggesting that STATs may interact with other transcription factors at more proximal promoter sites. STAT3 and STAT5A were bound to the xCT promoter in MDA-MB-231 cells, and binding was disrupted by pre-treatment with STAT inhibitors. Pharmacologically suppressing STAT3/5 activation significantly increased xCT mRNA and protein levels, as well as cystine uptake, glutamate release, and total levels of intracellular glutathione. Our data suggest that STAT proteins negatively regulate basal xCT expression. Blocking STAT3/5-mediated signaling induces an adaptive, compensatory mechanism to protect breast cancer cells from stress, including reactive oxygen species, by up-regulating xCT expression and the function of system Xc-. We propose that targeting system Xc- together with STAT3/5 inhibitors may heighten therapeutic anti-cancer effects.

  14. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. PMID:28241418

  15. Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elfaitouri

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60 occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD (the Training set with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24% of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001. IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity.

  16. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie Daniels

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10. Donor milk samples (N = 50 were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001, and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001 and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001. Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives.

  17. Small heat shock proteins potentiate amyloid dissolution by protein disaggregases from yeast and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Duennwald

    Full Text Available How small heat shock proteins (sHsps might empower proteostasis networks to control beneficial prions or disassemble pathological amyloid is unknown. Here, we establish that yeast sHsps, Hsp26 and Hsp42, inhibit prionogenesis by the [PSI+] prion protein, Sup35, via distinct and synergistic mechanisms. Hsp42 prevents conformational rearrangements within molten oligomers that enable de novo prionogenesis and collaborates with Hsp70 to attenuate self-templating. By contrast, Hsp26 inhibits self-templating upon binding assembled prions. sHsp binding destabilizes Sup35 prions and promotes their disaggregation by Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. In yeast, Hsp26 or Hsp42 overexpression prevents [PSI+] induction, cures [PSI+], and potentiates [PSI+]-curing by Hsp104 overexpression. In vitro, sHsps enhance Hsp104-catalyzed disaggregation of pathological amyloid forms of α-synuclein and polyglutamine. Unexpectedly, in the absence of Hsp104, sHsps promote an unprecedented, gradual depolymerization of Sup35 prions by Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. This unanticipated amyloid-depolymerase activity is conserved from yeast to humans, which lack Hsp104 orthologues. A human sHsp, HspB5, stimulates depolymerization of α-synuclein amyloid by human Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Thus, we elucidate a heretofore-unrecognized human amyloid-depolymerase system that could have applications in various neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Heat shock protein 27 expression in the human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk A

    2008-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones involved in protein folding, assembly and transport, and which play critical roles in the regulation of cell growth, survival and differentiation. We set out to test the hypothesis that HSP27 protein is expressed in the human testes and its expression varies with the state of spermatogenesis. HSP27 expression was examined in 30 human testicular biopsy specimens (normal spermatogenesis, maturation arrest and Sertoli cell only syndrome, 10 cases each) using immunofluorescent methods. The biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing investigations for infertility. The seminiferous epithelium of the human testes showing normal spermatogenesis had a cell type-specific expression of HSP27. HSP27 expression was strong in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and Leydig cells. Alternatively, the expression was moderate in the spermatocytes, weak in the spermatids and absent in the spermatozoa. In testes showing maturation arrest, HSP27 expression was strong in the Sertoli cells, weak in the spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. It was absent in the spermatids and Leydig cells. In Sertoli cell only syndrome, HSP27 expression was strong in the Sertoli cells and absent in the Leydig cells. We report for the first time the expression patterns of HSP27 in the human testes and show differential expression during normal spermatogenesis, indicating a possible role in this process. The altered expression of this protein in testes showing abnormal spermatogenesis may be related to the pathogenesis of male infertility.

  19. Quantifying canal leakage rates using a mass-balance approach and heat-based hydraulic conductivity estimates in selected irrigation canals, western Nebraska, 2007 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The water supply in areas of the North Platte River Basin in the Nebraska Panhandle has been designated as fully appropriated or overappropriated by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR). Enacted legislation (Legislative Bill 962) requires the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) and the NDNR to develop an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) to balance groundwater and surface-water supply and demand in the NPNRD. A clear understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems is critical for the development of a successful IMP. The primary source of groundwater recharge in parts of the NPNRD is from irrigation canal leakage. Because canal leakage constitutes a large part of the hydrologic budget, spatially distributing canal leakage to the groundwater system is important to any management strategy. Surface geophysical data collected along selected reaches of irrigation canals has allowed for the spatial distribution of leakage on a relative basis; however, the actual magnitude of leakage remains poorly defined. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPNRD, established streamflow-gaging stations at upstream and downstream ends from two selected canal reaches to allow a mass-balance approach to be used to calculate daily leakage rates. Water-level and sediment temperature data were collected and simulated at three temperature monitoring sites to allow the use of heat as a tracer to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of canal bed sediment. Canal-leakage rates were estimated by applying Darcy's Law to modeled vertical hydraulic conductivity and either the estimated or measured hydraulic gradient. This approach will improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of canal leakage in varying geologic settings identified in capacitively coupled resistivity surveys. The high-leakage potential study reach of the Tri-State Canal had two streamflow-gaging stations and two temperature monitoring

  20. Ballet Balance Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Animating physically realistic human characters is challenging, since human observers are highly tuned to recognize human cues such as emotion and gender from motion patterns. The main contribution of this paper is a new model firmly based on biomechanics, which is used to animate balance and basic...

  1. Deciphering human heat shock transcription factor 1 regulation via post-translational modification in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Batista-Nascimento

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 plays an important role in the cellular response to proteotoxic stresses. Under normal growth conditions HSF1 is repressed as an inactive monomer in part through post-translation modifications that include protein acetylation, sumoylation and phosphorylation. Upon exposure to stress HSF1 homotrimerizes, accumulates in nucleus, binds DNA, becomes hyper-phosphorylated and activates the expression of stress response genes. While HSF1 and the mechanisms that regulate its activity have been studied for over two decades, our understanding of HSF1 regulation remains incomplete. As previous studies have shown that HSF1 and the heat shock response promoter element (HSE are generally structurally conserved from yeast to metazoans, we have made use of the genetically tractable budding yeast as a facile assay system to further understand the mechanisms that regulate human HSF1 through phosphorylation of serine 303. We show that when human HSF1 is expressed in yeast its phosphorylation at S303 is promoted by the MAP-kinase Slt2 independent of a priming event at S307 previously believed to be a prerequisite. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation at S303 in yeast and mammalian cells occurs independent of GSK3, the kinase primarily thought to be responsible for S303 phosphorylation. Lastly, while previous studies have suggested that S303 phosphorylation represses HSF1-dependent transactivation, we now show that S303 phosphorylation also represses HSF1 multimerization in both yeast and mammalian cells. Taken together, these studies suggest that yeast cells will be a powerful experimental tool for deciphering aspects of human HSF1 regulation by post-translational modifications.

  2. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals......' and other stakeholder's eyes. Leaders also have to acknowledge that there are times when organizations have to be taken out of balance, since it is necessary to 'unfreeze' existing relationships in organizations during change. Therefore, there are decision and organizing processes involved in both...

  3. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  4. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  5. Determination of anticonvulsants in human plasma using SPME in a heated interface coupled online to liquid chromatography (SPME-LC)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Claudete; Gomes, Paulo Clairmont Feitosa de Lima; Neto, Álvaro José dos Santos; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and liquid chromatography (LC) with heated online desorption (SPME-LC) was developed and validated to analyze anticonvulsants (AEDs) in human plasma samples. A heated lab-made interface chamber was used in the desorption procedure, which allowed the transference of the whole extracted sample. The SPME conditions were optimized by applying an experimental design. Important factors are discussed such as fiber coating types, ...

  6. Will the damage be done before we feel the heat? Infectious disease emergence and human response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2013-12-01

    The global political economy is facing extreme challenges against a backdrop of large-scale expansion of human and domestic animal populations and related impacts on the biosphere. Significant global socio-ecological changes have occurred in the period of a single lifetime, driven by increased technology and access to physical and biological resources through open markets and globalization. Current resource consumption rates are not sustainable and ecological tipping points are being reached and one of the indicators of these may be a changing balance between hosts and pathogens. A period of extraordinary progress in reducing infection risk and disease impact on humans and domestic animals in the 20th Century is reversing in the 21st, but not always and not everywhere. Drivers for this shift are discussed in terms of demographics, agroecology, biodiversity decline and loss of resilience in ecosystems, climate change and increasing interconnectedness between species globally. Causality of disease emergence remains highly speculative, but patterns and data are emerging to commend a precautionary approach, while reassessing our global political, social and economic systems.

  7. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shabat, Yael; Shitzer, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Facial heat exchange convection coefficients were estimated from experimental data in cold and windy ambient conditions applicable to wind chill calculations. Measured facial temperature datasets, that were made available to this study, originated from 3 separate studies involving 18 male and 6 female subjects. Most of these data were for a -10°C ambient environment and wind speeds in the range of 0.2 to 6 m s(-1). Additional single experiments were for -5°C, 0°C and 10°C environments and wind speeds in the same range. Convection coefficients were estimated for all these conditions by means of a numerical facial heat exchange model, applying properties of biological tissues and a typical facial diameter of 0.18 m. Estimation was performed by adjusting the guessed convection coefficients in the computed facial temperatures, while comparing them to measured data, to obtain a satisfactory fit (r(2) > 0.98, in most cases). In one of the studies, heat flux meters were additionally used. Convection coefficients derived from these meters closely approached the estimated values for only the male subjects. They differed significantly, by about 50%, when compared to the estimated female subjects' data. Regression analysis was performed for just the -10°C ambient temperature, and the range of experimental wind speeds, due to the limited availability of data for other ambient temperatures. The regressed equation was assumed in the form of the equation underlying the "new" wind chill chart. Regressed convection coefficients, which closely duplicated the measured data, were consistently higher than those calculated by this equation, except for one single case. The estimated and currently used convection coefficients are shown to diverge exponentially from each other, as wind speed increases. This finding casts considerable doubts on the validity of the convection coefficients that are used in the computation of the "new" wind chill chart and their applicability to humans in

  8. Hydraulic balancing inclusive. Demand-optimized heat distribution for passive house school buildings; Hydraulischer Abgleich inklusive. Bedarfsgerechte Waermeverteilung fuer Passivhaus-Schulgebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinl, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    The passive house architecture increasingly is established in the construction of public and commercial buildings. An example is the Richard-von-Weizsaecker-school in the county Hohenlohe (Federal Republic of Germany). This school was inaugurated at the end of 2010. In this object, a part of the total heat demand is covered by means of the heat recovery integrated in the ventilation system.

  9. Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Fibroblast Cells under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Mizuno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, resonant coupling wireless power transfer (WPT technology has been attracting attention and has been widely researched for practical use. Moreover, dosimetric evaluation has also been discussed to evaluate the potential health risks of the electromagnetic field from this WPT technology based on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines. However, there has not been much experimental evaluation of the potential health risks of this WPT technology. In this study, to evaluate whether magnetic resonant coupling WPT induces cellular stress, we focused on heat shock proteins (Hsps and determined the expression level of Hsps 27, 70 and 90 in WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells using a western blotting method. The expression level of Hsps under conditions of magnetic resonant coupling WPT for 24 h was not significantly different compared with control cells, although the expression level of Hsps for cells exposed to heat stress conditions was significantly increased. These results suggested that exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT did not cause detectable cell stress.

  10. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 mRNA in Epithelial Cells of Human Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To try to find out the pathogenesis of the cataract , effects of beat and oxidative stresson heat shock proteins of tissue cultured human lens epithelial cells (LEC-B3) were investigate& Methods:Cells were exposed to heat shock (45℃) and oxidative stress(5OmMH2O2 for 30 min, and then allowed to recoverat different intervals (Oh, 2h, 4h, 6h, 16h, 24h) in physiological medium Reverse transcription polymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determined the level of HSP70. Results: HSPs existed in both physiologicaland stressful situation. The level of HSP7OmRNA increased 2h later after both stresses. The expression of HSP70got to the summit during 2h to 6h in each group. Subsequently it decreased gradually in each group, maintaininga high level at 16h. Conclusion: HSP70 exists in lens epithelial cells and can be induced after stress. Thedata suggested it may play an important protective role in lens epithelial cells in respond to cellular stress.

  11. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  12. Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, V.; Gray, C.; Kosec, K.

    2014-03-01

    Human migration attributable to climate events has recently received significant attention from the academic and policy communities . Quantitative evidence on the relationship between individual, permanent migration and natural disasters is limited . A 21-year longitudinal survey conducted in rural Pakistan (1991-2012) provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between weather and long-term migration. We link individual-level information from this survey to satellite-derived measures of climate variability and control for potential confounders using a multivariate approach. We find that flooding--a climate shock associated with large relief efforts--has modest to insignificant impacts on migration. Heat stress, however--which has attracted relatively little relief--consistently increases the long-term migration of men, driven by a negative effect on farm and non-farm income. Addressing weather-related displacement will require policies that both enhance resilience to climate shocks and lower barriers to welfare-enhancing population movements.

  13. Energy and Water Cycle over the Tibetan Plateau: Surface Energy Balance and Turbulent Heat Fluxes%青藏高原地区能量水分循环:地表能量平衡和湍流热通量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏中波; 张廷; 马耀明; 贾立; 文军

    2006-01-01

    文章给出了青藏高原能量水分循环研究的概况和总结,着重估计了能量平衡各分项和湍流热通量等.在能量平衡的计算基础上,尽管能量不平衡的原因解释仍有争论并且没有解决,但我们揭示了GAME/Tibet试验观测资料中能量不平衡现象.我们发现估算的潜热通量比实际观测的要高许多.然而,根据能量平衡假设的计算结果和SEBS的估算一致性很好.在此基础上可以归纳出差异主要由GAME/Tibet试验观测资料中能量不平衡引起,潜热通量的实际观测可能偏小.%This contribution presents an overview and an outlook of studies on energy and water cycle over the Tibetan plateau with focuses on the estimation of energy balance terms and turbulent heat fluxes. On the basis of the surface energy balance calculations, we show that the phenomena of the energy imbalance exist in GAME/Tibet experiment data, although the explanations for the reasons are debated now and not resolved yet. We found that the derived latent heat flux is much higher than the measurements. However, the corrected-measurements, which are calculated according to the hypothesis of the energy balance, compare very well with the estimation of SEBS. On this basis it is concluded that the deviation is caused by the energy imbalance of ground measurements in GAME/Tibet experiment area. The latent heat fluxes were likely under-observed.

  14. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (Plibitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  15. Plancher solaire direct mixte \\`a double r\\'eseau en habitat bioclimatique - Conception et bilan thermique r\\'eel. Double direct solar floor heating in boclimatic habitation - Design and real energetical balance

    CERN Document Server

    De Larochelambert, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a new direct solar floor heating technique with double heating network wich allows simultaneous use of solar and supply energy. Its main purpose is to store and to diffuse the whole available solar energy while regulating supply energy by physical means without using computer controlled technology. This solar system has been tested in real user conditions inside a bioclimatic house to study the interaction of non-inertial and passive walls on the solar productivity. Daily, monthly and annual energy balances were drawn up over three years and completed by real-time measurements of several physical on-site parameters. As a result the expected properties of this technique were improved. The use of per-hour solar productivity, saved primary energy and corrected solar covering ratio is recommended to analyze the performances of this plant and to allow more refined comparisons with other solar systems

  16. Transcriptional Activation of a Constitutive Heterochromatic Domain of the Human Genome in Response to Heat ShockD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Valgardsdottir, Rut; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock triggers the assembly of nuclear stress bodies that contain heat shock factor 1 and a subset of RNA processing factors. These structures are formed on the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of specific human chromosomes, among which chromosome 9. In this article we show that these heterochromatic domains are characterized by an epigenetic status typical of euchromatic regions. Similarly to transcriptionally competent portions of the genome, stress bodies are, in fact, enriched in acetylated histone H4. Acetylation peaks at 6 h of recovery from heat shock. Moreover, heterochromatin markers, such as HP1 and histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, are excluded from these nuclear districts. In addition, heat shock triggers the transient accumulation of RNA molecules, heterogeneous in size, containing the subclass of satellite III sequences found in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9. This is the first report of a transcriptional activation of a constitutive heterochromatic portion of the genome in response to stress stimuli. PMID:14617804

  17. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  18. Heat Capacity Changes for Transition-State Analogue Binding and Catalysis with Human 5'-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ross S; Cameron, Scott A; Karp, Jerome M; Arcus, Vickery L; Schramm, Vern L

    2017-02-17

    Human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) catalyzes the phosphorolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). Its action regulates cellular MTA and links polyamine synthesis to S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) salvage. Transition state analogues with picomolar dissociation constants bind to MTAP in an entropically driven process at physiological temperatures, suggesting increased hydrophobic character or dynamic structure for the complexes. Inhibitor binding exhibits a negative heat capacity change (-ΔCp), and thus the changes in enthalpy and entropy upon binding are strongly temperature-dependent. The ΔCp of inhibitor binding by isothermal titration calorimetry does not follow conventional trends and is contrary to that expected from the hydrophobic effect. Thus, ligands of increasing hydrophobicity bind with increasing values of ΔCp. Crystal structures of MTAP complexed to transition-state analogues MT-DADMe-ImmA, BT-DADMe-ImmA, PrT-ImmA, and a substrate analogue, MT-tubercidin, reveal similar active site contacts and overall protein structural parameters, despite large differences in ΔCp for binding. In addition, ΔCp values are not correlated with Kd values. Temperature dependence of presteady state kinetics revealed the chemical step for the MTAP reaction to have a negative heat capacity for transition state formation (-ΔCp(‡)). A comparison of the ΔCp(‡) for MTAP presteady state chemistry and ΔCp for inhibitor binding revealed those transition-state analogues most structurally and thermodynamically similar to the transition state. Molecular dynamics simulations of MTAP apoenzyme and complexes with MT-DADMe-ImmA and MT-tubercidin show small, but increased dynamic motion in the inhibited complexes. Variable temperature CD spectroscopy studies for MTAP-inhibitor complexes indicate remarkable protein thermal stability (to Tm = 99 °C) in complexes with transition-state analogues.

  19. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...... is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  20. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. So far, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild Cfb climate and impact was assumed to be mi

  1. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2* Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue11The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  2. Relationship between the induction of heat shock proteins and the decrease in glucocorticoid receptor during heat shock response in human osteosarcoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亮年

    1995-01-01

    Previously,it has been found that glucocorticoid receptor(GR)binding activity decreasedrapidly during heat shock response in HOS-8603,a human osteosarcorna cell line.In this study,Therelationship between the induction of heat shock proteins(HSPs)and the decrease in GR was furtherstudied in the same cell line.It was found that even though quercetin could specifically inhibit the ex-pression of hsp90α and hsp70 mRNA,it could not prevent GR from the decrease in response to the heatshock treatment.This represents the first reported evidence that the induction of HSPs and the decrease inGR during heat shock response were 2 independent biological events.The results of the present study furthershowed that although the heat shock treatment alone had no effects on alkaline phosphatase(AKP)activity,itcould completely block the induction of AKP activity in HOS-8603 cells by dexamethasone(Dex),a syntheticglucocorticoid.These results demonstrate that the heat shock-induced alteration in GR was accompanied by adecrease in GR functional activity.Furthermore,when the induction of HSPs was inhibited by the treatmentof cells with quercetin,the stimulatory effects of Dex on AKP activity could still be inhibited completely bythe heat shock treatment.The results of this part,on the basis of GR functional activity,further demonstratethat quercetin could not inhibit the heat shock-induced decrease in GR,even though it could inhibit the induc-tion of HSPs.To clarify further the effects of quercetin alone on GR binding activity in HOS-8603 cells,theregulation of GR by quercetin was also studied.It was found for the first time that quercetin coulddown-regulate GR in a time-dependent manner significantly,and that the down-regulation of GR by quercetinin HOS-8603 cells paralelled with a decrease in glucocorticoid-mediated functional responses,suggesting thatthe down-regulation of GR by quercetin is of biological significance.

  3. On some experiments of heat transfer On some experiments of heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Murgai

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available This note describes the results of some experiments on the heat transfer, in an earthenware vessel, used for storing and cooling water in the summer season, and depending for its cooling effect on the evaporative loss. This vessel makes a good approach to a human body; all covered with sweat, and lends itself to an alternative method of measurement of the parameters, in the basic equation of the heat balance of the human body. The results obtained are comparable to those of Brunt, got by observations on human beings.

  4. Development and Application of General Software for Mass and Heat Balance Calculation in Converter Steelmaking%转炉炼钢物料平衡热量平衡通用计算软件开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮飞; 赵凤光; 富晓阳; 刘卓承; 揭畅

    2015-01-01

    Converter steelmaking is a process including series of complicated physical and chemical reactions at high temperature. Mass and heat balance calculation can be used for studying mass and heat budget, selecting suitable process parameters, improving smelting process, reducing energy consumption, increasing technical and economic indexs in convertor steelmaking process. As mass and heat balance calculation in converter steelmaking process includes many projects to calculate, traditional manual calculation method has some disadvantages of low computing efficiency, error prone, more repeated workload. Aiming at the above problems, a general calculation software BLCG was developed for mass and heat balance calculation in the converter steelmaking process, and the software can be widely applied to high education for metallurgical engineering major, online virtual steelmaking competition, metallurgical enterprise production and scientific research.%转炉炼钢过程是包含一系列复杂高温物理化学反应的过程,而通过转炉炼钢物料及热量平衡计算可以研究转炉冶炼工艺过程中的物料及能量收支情况,确定合理的工艺参数,改进炼钢工艺制度,降低能耗,提高炼钢生产技术经济指标。然而由于转炉炼钢物料平衡及热量平衡计算涉及内容较多,传统的人工计算效率低,容易出错、重复性工作量大,针对这一问题,研究开发了转炉炼钢物料平衡及热量平衡通用计算软件BLCG,该软件可广泛应用于冶金工程专业教学、网络虚拟炼钢竞赛、冶金企业生产及科学研究。

  5. Evaluation of vegetative fraction coverage (VFC) parameter for modeling urban heat fluxes using two remote sensing-based surface energy balance models of Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable estimation of the surface energy budgets over urban areas is crucial for many applications such as water resource management and weather forecasting. Among the urban heat fluxes required inputting parameters, the vegetative fraction coverage (VFC) factor is one of the most difficult to be retrieved over intra-urban scales. Traditional methods for the extraction of VFC from remote sensing data using vegetation indices such as NDVI were found to have large uncertainty due to its sensitivity to the surface heterogeneous characteristic. This study presents a Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) based approach of Landsat TM data to map the VFC for the use in the modeling of urban heat fluxes, in the case of Beijing, China. Two models (Two-Source model (TSEB) and Pixel Component Arranging and Comparing Algorithm (PCACA)), which have different input requirements and levels of complexity, but both owe operational capabilities, were adopted for evaluation of VFC on urban heat fluxes. A comparative analysis between NDVI-based and SMA-based urban VFC showed that the latter achieved more accurate VFC values for complex urban regions. Moreover, the SMA-based urban VFC could be utilized to produce a more detailed spatial variability in studied urban heat fluxes (i.e. Bowen ratio and latent heat flux (LE)) as well as a higher precision when used as input to both Big-Leaf and PCACA model. Our study also revealed that the LANDSAT TM retrieved VFC value is more sensitive in obtaining urban heat fluxes for Big-Leaf model relative than PCACA model. PCACA model may be more practical for surface heat flux research when the study region is relatively complex and the required parameters are insufficient. In addition, for the three selected metropolises (Beijing, Shijiazhuang and Suzhou) with dissimilar urban vegetation cover conditions, an exponential relationship was found obviously between the VFC and LE/VFC in terms of both overall and zonal analysis regarding on both TSEB and

  6. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (PDiet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (PDiet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (PDiet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved

  7. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  8. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  9. Managing the Risky Humanity of Academic Workers: Risk and Reciprocity in University Work-Life Balance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Sue; Randell-Moon, Holly

    2015-01-01

    University work-life balance policies increasingly offer academic workers a range of possible options for managing the competing demands of work, family, and community obligations. Flexible work arrangements, family-friendly hours and campus facilities, physical well-being and mental health programs typify strategies for formally acknowledging the…

  10. Um modelo para a determinação do equilíbrio térmico de bovinos em ambientes tropicais A heat balance model for cattle in tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma equação com base na teoria da transferência térmica foi apresentada para estimativa da termólise em bovinos expostos a um ambiente tropical especificado por temperatura e umidade do ar, radiação solar e vento. As variáveis do animal (taxa de sudação, temperatura retal, frequência respiratória, temperatura da superfície cutânea, coloração do pelame e peso corporal foram consideradas em conjunto com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura do ar e umidade, radiação solar, velocidade do vento e temperatura do globo. A equação permite a predição de: (1 o nível de termogênese metabólica necessária para equilibrar as perdas térmicas sob condições ambientais especificadas; (2 a combinação de fatores ambientais que proporcionam determinado fluxo de calor entre um dado animal e o seu ambiente.An equation based on heat transfer theory was presented to estimate the rate of heat loss from cattle exposed to a tropical environment, specified by the air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed. The animals' variables (sweating rate, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, surface temperature, haircoat color, and body weight were considered together with environmental variables (air temperature and humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and globe temperature. The equation allows the prediction of (a the metabolic heat production level necessary to balance heat losses under specified environmental conditions; (b the combination of environmental factors that provide a determined heat flux between a given animal and its environment.

  11. Human resting extracellular heat shock protein 72 concentration decreases during the initial adaptation to exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen C.; Ferguson, Richard A.; Nimmo, Myra A.

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a cytosolic protein that also is present in the circulation. Extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) is inducible by exercise and is suggested to act as a danger signal to the immune system. The adaptive response of eHsp72 to repeated exercise-heat exposures in humans remains to be determined. An intracellular animal study found a reduced Hsp72 response, with no change in resting levels, during heat stress after a single day of passive heat acclimation. The current study therefore tested whether adaptations in human eHsp72 levels would similarly occur 24 hours after a single exercise-heat exposure. Seven males completed cycle exercise (42.5% V̇O2peak for 2 hours) in a hot, humid environment (38°C, 60% relative humidity) on each of 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein before exercise and 0 hours and 22 hours postexercise for the analysis of eHsp72. Exercise-heat stress resulted in enhanced eHsp72, with a similar absolute increase found on both days (day 1: 1.26 ng/mL [0.80 ng/mL]; day 2: 1.29 ng/mL [1.60 ng/mL]). Resting eHsp72 decreased from rest on day 1 to day 2's 22-hour postexercise sample (P < 0.05). It is suggested that the reduction in resting eHsp72 after 2 consecutive exercise-heat exposures is possibly due to an enhanced removal from the circulation, for either immunoregulatory functions, or for improved cellular stress tolerance in this initial, most stressful period of acclimation. PMID:16817318

  12. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  13. A mathematical model of endovascular heat transfer for human brain cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan Carlos; Yon, Steven; Magers, Mike; Dobak, John

    2000-11-01

    Selective cooling of the brain has been shown to exhibit protective effects in cerebral ischemia, trauma, and spinal injury/ischemia. A multi-compartment, unsteady thermal model of the response of the human brain to endovascular cooling is discussed and its results compared to recent experimental data conducted with sheep and other mammals. The model formulation is based on the extension of the bioheat equation, originally proposed by Pennes(1) and later modified by Wissler(2), Stolwijk(3) and Werner and Webb(4). The temporal response of the brain temperature and that of the various body compartments to the cooling of the blood flowing through the common carotid artery is calculated under various scenarios. The effect of the boundary conditions as well as the closure assumptions used in the model, i.e. perfusion rate, metabolism heat production, etc. on the cooling rate of the brain are systematically investigated. (1) Pennes H. H., “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperature in the resting forearm.” J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 93-122, 1948. (2) Wissler E. H., “Steady-state temperature distribution in man”, J. Appl. Physiol., 16: 764-740, 1961. (3) Stolwick J. A. J., “Mathematical model of thermoregulation” in “Physiological and behavioral temperature regulation”, edited by J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge and A. J. Stolwijk, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfiels, Ill., 703-721, 1971. (4) Werner J., Webb P., “A six-cylinder model of human thermoregulation for general use on personal computers”, Ann. Physiol. Anthrop., 12(3): 123-134, 1993.

  14. Heat Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional-Like Proliferation of Normal Human Fibroblasts Mediated by Pressed Silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Inoue

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal heat treatment conditions for enhancement of pressed silk-mediated 3D-like proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts, as well as to determine the responses to heat shock of cells and intracellular signaling pathways. The beginning of 3D-like pattern formation of cells was observed in the second week after the start of the experiment. The mean rates of beginning of 3D-like pattern formation by cells heat-treated at 40 ºC and 43 ºC for 10 min were significantly higher (3.2- and 8.6-fold, respectively than that of untreated cells. We found that apoptosis had occurred in 7.5% and 50.0% of the cells at one week after heat treatment for 10 min at 43 ºC and 45 ºC, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and that of Hsp27 were markedly increased by heat treatment at 43 ºC for 10 min. The results of an experiment using a p38 MAPK inhibitor and Hsp27 inhibitor suggest that activation of p38 MAPK by heat shock is associated with 3D-like cell proliferation and that Hsp27 contributes to the inhibition of apoptosis. The results of this study should be useful for further studies aimed at elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms underlying thermotherapy.

  15. Protein carbonylation and heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle: relationships to age and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Valls, Maria R; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Narici, Marco V; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E; Caporossi, Daniela; Atherton, Philip J

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into "old" and "old sarcopenic") were studied. The abundance of protein carbonyl adducts within skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein subfractions from musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were determined using Oxyblot immunoblotting techniques. In addition, concentrations of recognized cytoprotective proteins (eg, heat shock proteins [HSP], αβ-crystallin) were also assayed. Aging was associated with increased mitochondrial (but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic) protein carbonyl adducts, independently of (stage-I) sarcopenia. Correlation analyses of all subjects revealed that mitochondrial protein carbonyl abundance negatively correlated with muscle strength ([1-repetition maximum], p = .02, r (2) = -.16), but not muscle mass (p = .13, r (2) = -.08). Abundance of cytoprotective proteins, including various HSPs (HSP 27 and 70), were unaffected by aging/sarcopenia. To conclude, these data reveal that mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases moderately with age, and that this increase may impact upon skeletal muscle function, but is not a hallmark of (stage-I) sarcopenia, per se. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  16. Human heat shock protein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes display potent antitumour immunity in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Qian, Jianfei; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Weijun; Du, Juan; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chunyang; Xi, Hao; Yi, Qing; Hou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Tumour cell–derived heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as vaccines for immunotherapy of cancer patients. However, it is proposed that the peptide chaperoned on HSPs, not HSPs themselves, elicited a potent immune response. Given that HSPs are highly expressed by most myeloma cells and vital to myeloma cell survival, we reasoned that HSPs themselves might be an ideal myeloma antigen. In the present study, we explored the feasibility of targeting HSPs themselves for treating multiple myeloma. We identified and chose HLA-A*0201-binding peptides from human HSPB1 (HSP27) and HSP90AA1 (HSP90), and confirmed their immunogenicity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Dendritic cells pulsed with HSPB1 and HSP90AA1 peptides were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and myeloma patients to generate HSP peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HSP peptide-specific CTLs efficiently lysed HLA-A*0201+ myeloma cells (established cell lines and primary plasma cells) but not HLA-A*0201− myeloma cells in vitro, indicating that myeloma cells naturally express HSP peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. More importantly, HSP peptide-specific CTLs effectively reduced tumour burden in the xenograft mouse model of myeloma. Our study clearly demonstrated that HSPs might be novel tumour antigens for immunotherapy of myeloma. PMID:24824351

  17. Effects of Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap on human platelets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Guo, You-chi

    1993-03-01

    Human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was irradiated in vitro with a fiberoptic Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap to study its effects on platelets. The energy of the laser was 5 and 10 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 6, and 9 seconds and 14 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 4, and 5 seconds, respectively. The irradiated PRPs were analyzed for platelet count, aggregation reaction, thromboxane (TX)B2 measurement and electron microscopy. Various degrees of decrease in platelet count were observed in all groups. Except the 5Wx3S group, the other groups showed an increase in the maximum aggregation rate of platelets, which corresponded to the enhancement of TXB2 formation. It was also demonstrated by a transmission electron microscopy in 10Wx3S, 10Wx6S, 10Wx9S, 14Wx3S, 14Wx4S, and 14Wx5S energy groups that alpha- and dense-particles in irradiated platelets became sparse in number or even disappeared, less electron density, irregularity in size and shape, and a tendency for these particles to cluster around platelet membranes and open canalicular systems, which dilated apparently. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy depicted the appearance of short and thick pseudopods on the surfaces of some irradiated platelets and an increase in the axis rate in most of the irradiated platelets.

  18. The upregulation of heat shock protein 47 expression in human buccal fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-04-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. HSP47 is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. The mRNA levels of HSP47 from fibroblasts cultured from 20 OSF and 10 normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effect of arecoline, the major areca nut alkaloid, was added to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Furthermore, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, p38 inhibitor SB203580, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, and glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine were added to find the possible mechanisms. OSF demonstrated significantly higher HSP47 mRNA expression than BMFs (P Arecoline was also found to elevate HSP47 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner (P arecoline when compared with control (P arecoline-induced HSP47 mRNA expression (P arecoline in fibroblasts may be mediated by MEK, PI3K, and COX-2 signal transduction pathways.

  19. Influence of heat stress on the cortisol and oxidant-antioxidants balance during oestrous phase in buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis): thermo-protective role of antioxidant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, G A; Anwar, M M; Wasfy, S I; Hammadeh, M E

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat stress, which is commonly observed in the animals of Upper Egypt area in summer, as well as the effect of antioxidant treatment as a thermo-protective was examined. In this study, the animals (n = 120) were divided into winter group (n = 40, bred during winter) and summer group (n = 80, bred during summer) as well as, animals in the summer group were divided into first subgroup animals (n = 40) and injected with Viteselen intramuscularly (15 ml) twice weekly for 10 weeks and second subgroup animals (n = 40) were not treated (as control). Serum levels of progesterone (P4), oestradiol (E2), cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The pregnancy rate of all animals was detected rectally. The levels of oestradiol and the activity of the antioxidant SOD were decreased in serum of animals in behavioural oestrus during summer as compared with those in winter. During the same time period the levels of oxidants such as LPO and NO were increased in the serum of animals again in the phase of oestrus. In another group of animals treated by intramuscular injection with 15 ml viteselen (antioxidant) twice weekly for 6 weeks during hot months, the activities of serum SOD showed an increase and the levels of oxidants and cortisol decreased. Moreover, the levels of oestradiol were increased during the oestrous behaviour. The pregnancy rate was decreased in animals under heat stress and the pregnancy rate was enhanced dramatically when these animals received antioxidants during the heat stress. This means that the heat-stress in Upper Egypt may affect the fertility of animals and pregnancy rate and this effect may be through an increased production of free radicals and decreased production of antioxidants as well as increased levels of cortisol. Treatment of animals or supplementation with antioxidants before the beginning of months of heat-stress and also during the stress period may

  20. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat...... plus central vasculature (17 +/- 2%), thorax (14 +/- 2%), inferior vena cava (23 +/- 2%) and liver (23 +/- 2%) (all P Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/1...

  1. Human IGF1 regulates midgut oxidative stress and epithelial homeostasis to balance lifespan and Plasmodium falciparum resistance in Anopheles stephensi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drexler, Anna L; Pietri, Jose E; Pakpour, Nazzy; Hauck, Eric; Wang, Bo; Glennon, Elizabeth K K; Georgis, Martha; Riehle, Michael A; Luckhart, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    ...) within a physiologically relevant range (0.013-0.13 µM) in human blood reduced development of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum in the Indian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Low IGF1 (0.013 µM...

  2. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  3. Human Rights Education in Japan: An Historical Account, Characteristics and Suggestions for a Better-Balanced Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sachiko

    2012-01-01

    Although human rights are often expressed as universal tenets, the concept was conceived in a particular socio-political and historical context. Conceptualisations and practice of human rights vary across societies, and face numerous challenges. After providing an historical account of the conceptualisation of human rights in Japanese society,…

  4. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fall may affect an older adult's life. BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) There are many types of balance disorders. One of the most common is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or BPPV. In BPPV, you experience a brief, ...

  5. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that acute lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  7. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Hales, David [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Gordon, Andy [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Spencer, Melinda [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program

    2016-02-18

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP)research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH. Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  8. Response of Local Nitric Oxide Release to Manual Acupuncture and Electrical Heat in Humans: Effects of Reinforcement Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Xing Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine the influences of manual acupuncture (MA and electrical heat corresponding to reinforcing methods on nitric oxide (NO release over the skin regions in humans. A device with collecting solution was taped to the skin surface along pericardium (PC or lung (LU meridian. Acupuncture needles were gently inserted into PC 4 with reinforcing stimulation (low force/rate for 20 minutes in the MA group. LU11 on the finger was heated (43-44°C by electrical heat for 20 minutes. Biocapture was consecutively conducted for two 20-minute intervals during and after each treatment. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx- in the collecting samples were quantified using chemiluminescence in blinded fashion. Baseline NOx- levels are higher and tended to be higher over PC and LU acupoints during the 1st biocapture. NOx- levels over PC regions were consistently increased by MA during both intervals. NOx- concentrations over LU acupoints were increased and tended to be increased by electrical heat in the 1st and 2nd biocapture. The results suggest that reinforcing MA and electrical heat induce NO released from the local skin regions with higher levels at acupoints, which improve local circulation and contribute to the beneficial effects of the therapies.

  9. Development of a new diagnosis method for caries in human teeth based on thermal images under pulse heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Kaneko, Kenji

    2001-03-01

    A new diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for the incipient caries of human teeth. Experimental study was made on the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth in various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. Coefficients of the temperature descent were obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i.e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from temperature descent coefficients.

  10. 区域集中供热系统水力平衡探讨%Hydraulic balance of district central heating systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国军

    2011-01-01

    从理论上分析了水力失调现象,提出了有效的水力平衡调节方法.详细探讨了区域集中供热系统的两种集中控制策略:流量控制和温度控制.%Analyses hydraulic disorder occurrences theoretically, and presents effective regulation methods.Discusses the two central control strategies i.e.flow rate control and temperature control for district central heating system in detail.

  11. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  12. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  13. Calculation of heat balance considering the reflection, refraction of incident ray and salt diffusion on solar pad; Hikari no hansha kussetsu oyobi shio no kakusan wo koryoshita solar pond no netsukeisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Li, X.; Baba, H.; Endo, N. [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In calculating heat balance of solar pond, calculation was made considering things except quality of the incident ray and physical properties of pond water which were conventionally considered. The real optical path length was determined from the reflection ratio of ray on the water surface based on the refraction ratio of pond water and the locus of water transmitted ray in order to calculate a total transmission rate. The rate of absorption of monochromatic lights composing of solar light in their going through the media is different by wavelength, and therefore, calculation was made in each monochromatic light. As to four kinds of salt water solution, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, these phenomena seen in solar pond are taken in, and a total transmission rate based on reality can be calculated by the wavelength integration method. Moreover, in the salt gradient layer, there are gradients in both concentration and temperature, and thermal physical values of each layer change. Accordingly, mass transfer and thermal transfer by both gradients were considered at the same time. An analytic solution was introduced which analyzes salt diffusion in the temperature field in the gradient layer and determines the concentration distribution. By these, concentration and physical values of each layer were calculated according to phenomena, and thermal balance of each layer of the solar pond was able to be accurately calculated. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Hybrid Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation of heat transfer and ionization balance in overdense plasmas irradiated by subpicosecond pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, A.; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A 1D hybrid electromagnetic particle-in-cell code with new methods to include particle collisions and atomic kinetics is developed and applied to ultra-short-pulse laser plasma interaction. Using the Langevin equation to calculate the Coulomb collision term, the present code is shown to be fast and stable in calculating the particle motion in the PIC simulation. Furthermore, by noting that the scale length of the change of atomic kinetics is much longer than the Debye radius, we calculate ionization and X-ray emission on kinetics cells, which are determined by averaging plasma parameters such as the electron density and energy over number of PIC cells. The absorption of short-pulse laser by overdense plasmas is calculated in self-consistent manner, including the effect of rapid change of density and temperature caused by instantaneous heating and successive fast ionization of the target material. The calculated results agree well with those obtained from the Fokker-Planck simulation as well as experiments, for non-local heat transport in plasmas with steep temperature gradient, and for the absorption of a short laser pulse by solid density targets. These results demonstrate usefulness of the code and the computational method therein for understanding of physics of short pulse laser plasma interaction experiments, and for application to the gain calculation of short-pulse laser excited X-ray laser as well. (author)

  15. Sauna, shower, and ice water immersion. Physiological responses to brief exposures to heat, cool, and cold. Part I. Body fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, K

    1989-04-01

    Nine men were subjected to four temperature exposures to detect changes in weight, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and relative volumes of plasma. The exposures were: (A) sauna and head-out ice water immersion; (B) sauna and 15 degrees C shower; (C) sauna and room temperature; (D) head-out ice water immersion and room temperature. All experiments were repeated and ended with recovery at room temperature. The greatest weight loss (mean +/- S.D.) (i.e. sweating) was observed in C, 544 +/- 207 g. The weight losses (mean +/- S.D.) in A and B were equal, 417 +/- 253 g and 437 +/- 221 g. The relative post-exposure plasma volumes decreased 7.2% in A, 8.0% in B, and 5.6% in C; the decrease in D (1.3%) was statistically not significant. Combinations of heat and cold or cool (A and B) reduced the plasma volumes more than mere heat (C), suggesting a disturbance of cutaneous circulation producing transient edema in the skin.

  16. A multi-objective genetic algorithm for a mixed-model assembly U-line balancing type-I problem considering human-related issues, training, and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Montazeri, Mona; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Rafiei, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    Mixed-model assembly lines are increasingly accepted in many industrial environments to meet the growing trend of greater product variability, diversification of customer demands, and shorter life cycles. In this research, a new mathematical model is presented considering balancing a mixed-model U-line and human-related issues, simultaneously. The objective function consists of two separate components. The first part of the objective function is related to balance problem. In this part, objective functions are minimizing the cycle time, minimizing the number of workstations, and maximizing the line efficiencies. The second part is related to human issues and consists of hiring cost, firing cost, training cost, and salary. To solve the presented model, two well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and multi-objective particle swarm optimization, have been used. A simple solution representation is provided in this paper to encode the solutions. Finally, the computational results are compared and analyzed.

  17. Phospholipid-protein balance in affective disorders: Analysis of human blood serum using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, Joanna; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Parlińska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2016-11-30

    Raman and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopies provide information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. In the present study, both spectroscopic techniques were used for investigating the phospholipid - protein balance in blood serum of depressed subjects (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder type I or II) taking also into account their age and gender. The obtained results were compared with those of healthy subjects. The Raman and FTIR (using ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) technique), spectra show that a correlation between the level of phospholipids and proteins exists. Indeed, in depressed subjects the quantity of phospholipids and proteins is lower, compared to healthy ones. The second derivative of FTIR spectra shows that phospholipids directly affect the structure of proteins and their functions. In all male depressed subjects a higher amount of phospholipids and proteins compared to female depressed subjects was measured, offering them faster recovery perspectives. Spectroscopy results show that the phospholipids' and proteins' levels are lower in depressed subjects from 41 to 65 compared to the age group between 20 and 40, independently from the gender. Consequently, this study shows that Raman and infrared spectroscopies might be applied as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the balance between phospholipids and proteins in blood serum as a potential biomarker in depressive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Blood Flow on Skin Heating Induced by Millimeter Wave Irradiation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Johnson and Proppe 1996), resulting in an effi- cient removal of heat by the increased SkBF. Presum- ably, the noted inter-species variability in the...over the majority of their surface area (Johnson and Proppe 1996). Furthermore, mathe- matical modeling indicated that the rate of skin heating could...New York: The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.; Report IEEE Std C95.1.1999; 1999. Johnson JM, Proppe DW. Cardiovascular

  19. Heat Sensing Receptor TRPV1 Is a Mediator of Thermotaxis in Human Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegazzo, Massimo; Magagna, Sabina; Di Nisio, Andrea; Šabović, Iva; Rocca, Maria Santa; Scattolini, Valentina; Filippi, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The molecular bases of sperm thermotaxis, the temperature-oriented cell motility, are currently under investigation. Thermal perception relies on a subclass of the transient receptor potential [TRP] channels, whose member TRPV1 is acknowledged as the heat sensing receptor. Here we investigated the involvement of TRPV1 in human sperm thermotaxis. We obtained semen samples from 16 normozoospermic subjects attending an infertility survey programme, testis biopsies from 6 patients with testicular germ cell cancer and testis fine needle aspirates from 6 patients with obstructive azoospermia undergoing assisted reproductive technologies. Expression of TRPV1 mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR. Protein expression of TRPV1 was determined by western blot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Sperm motility was assessed by Sperm Class Analyser. Acrosome reaction, apoptosis and intracellular-Ca2+ content were assessed by flow cytometry. We found that TRPV1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the testis, in both Sertoli cells and germ-line cells. Moreover, compared to no-gradient controls at 31°C or 37°C (Ctrl 31°C and Ctrl 37°C respectively), sperm migration towards a temperature gradient of 31–37°C (T gradient) in non-capacitated conditions selected a higher number of cells (14,9 ± 4,2×106 cells T gradient vs 5,1± 0,3×106 cells Ctrl 31°C and 5,71±0,74×106 cells Ctrl 37°C; P = 0,039). Capacitation amplified the migrating capability towards the T gradient. Sperms migrated towards the T gradient showed enriched levels of both TRPV1 protein and mRNA. In addition, sperm cells were able to migrate toward a gradient of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1, whilst capsazepine, a specific agonist of TRPV1, blocked this effect. Finally, capsazepine severely blunted migration towards T gradient without abolishing. These results suggest that TRPV1 may represent a facilitating mediator of sperm thermotaxis. PMID:27992447

  20. Estimativa do fluxo de calor latente pelo balanço de energia em cultivo protegido de pimentão Estimate of the latent heat flux by the energy balance in protected cultivation of sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ribeiro da Cunha

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e relacionar a radiação líquida com o calor latente equivalente, em mm de água, nos cultivos protegido e de campo, na cultura de pimentão. O experimento foi feito em Botucatu, SP. A estimativa do fluxo de calor latente foi feita pelo método do balanço de energia, por meio da razão de Bowen. Foram feitas medidas instantâneas da radiação líquida (Rn, dos fluxos convectivos de calor latente (LE e sensível (H, do fluxo de calor no solo (G, e dos gradientes psicrométricos sobre a cultura. O cultivo protegido, apesar de receber menor quantidade de radiação solar global, foi mais eficiente na conversão da radiação líquida disponível em matéria seca total e na produtividade de frutos. No balanço de energia, o cultivo protegido apresentou razões G/Rn e LE/Rn inferiores e H/Rn superior, com um fluxo de calor latente, equivalente em milímetros, 45,43% menor que no cultivo no campo. Apresentou, ainda, menor quantidade de radiação líquida disponível e menores perdas de energia, mostrando-se mais eficiente no uso da água.The aim of this work was to characterize and bring into relationship the net radiation with the latent heat flux equivalent to water mm, in sweet pepper crops in the field and in protected cultivation. The estimate of latent heat flux was made by the energy balance method through the Bowen ratio. Instantaneous measures were made of net radiation (Rn, sensitive (H and latent (LE heat fluxes, heat flux into the soil (G, and of psychrometers gradients in the crop canopy. In protected cultivation, the conversion of the available net radiation in total dry matter and fruit productivity was more efficient than in the field, in spite of lower amounts of global solar radiation received by the crop. Ratios of G/Rn and LE/Rn were lower, and that of H/Rn was higher in protected cultivation, with an equivalent latent heat flux in millimeters, 45.43% lower than that determined in the

  1. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K R; Wilby, Robert L; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-11

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  2. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K. R.; Wilby, Robert L.; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-01

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  3. Balancing device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, W.D.; Herder, J.L.; Wisse B.M.; Barents, R.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a balancing device for a mass, comprising an arm that is adjustable about a pivoting point and with which the mass is coupled, and an adjustable spring system that is coupled with the arm, which spring system comprises at least one spring, wherein the spring system comprises

  4. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  5. Balanced Steady State Free Precession for Arterial Spin Labeling MRI: Initial Experience for Blood Flow Mapping in Human Brain, Retina, and Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Danny J.J.; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2013-01-01

    We implemented pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) with 2D and 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) readout for mapping blood flow in the human brain, retina, and kidney, free of distortion and signal dropout, which are typically observed in the most commonly used echo-planar imaging acquisition. High resolution functional brain imaging in the human visual cortex was feasible with 3D bSSFP pCASL. Blood flow of the human retina could be imaged with pCASL and bSSFP in conjunction with a phase cycling approach to suppress the banding artifacts associated with bSSFP. Furthermore, bSSFP based pCASL enabled us to map renal blood flow within a single breath hold. Control and test-retest experiments suggested that the measured blood flow values in retina and kidney were reliable. Because there is no specific imaging tool for mapping human retina blood flow and the standard contrast agent technique for mapping renal blood flow can cause problems for patients with kidney dysfunction, bSSFP based pCASL may provide a useful tool for the diagnosis of retinal and renal diseases and can complement existing imaging techniques. PMID:23664680

  6. Construction, Expression and Identification of a Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Human Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Heat Shock Protein 65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五星; 梁靓; 高红; 黄海浪; 陈智浩; 程继忠; 皇甫永穆

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) is one of the most important protective immunogens against the tuberculosis infection. The signal sequence of antigen 85B and the whole HSP65 DNA sequence of human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) were amplified from BCG genome and plasmid pCMV-MTHSP65 respectively by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). These two sequences were cloned into the plasmid pBCG-2100 under the control of the promoter of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from human M. tuberculosis, yielding the prokaryotic shuttle expression plasmid pBCG-SP-HSP65. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR detection and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the two cloned DNA sequences were consistent with those previously reported, and the direction of their inserting into the recombinant was correct and the reading frame had been maintained. The recombinants were electroporated into BCG to construct the recombinant BCG vaccine and induced by heating. The induced expression detected by SDS-PAGE showed that the content of 65 kD protein expressed in recombinant BCG was 35.69 % in total bacterial protein and 74.09 % in the cell lysate supernatants, suggesting that the recombinant HSP65 gene could express in BCG with high efficiency and the expressed proteins were mainly soluble. Western-blot showed that the secretive recombinant proteins could specifically combine with antibody against M.tuberculosis HSP65, indicating that the recombinant proteins possess the biological activity of HSP65.

  7. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a

  8. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  9. To Investigate the Influence of Building Envelope and Natural Ventilation on Thermal Heat Balance in Office Buildings in Warm and Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Pradeep G.; Garg, Naresh Kumar; Kamath, Kiran

    2017-07-01

    India’s commercial building sector is witnessing robust growth. India continues to be a key growth market among global corporates and this is reflective in the steady growth in demand for prime office space. A recent trend that has been noted is the increase in demand for office spaces not just in major cities but also in smaller tier II and Tier III cities. Growth in the commercial building sector projects a rising trend of energy intensive mechanical systems in office buildings in India. The air conditioning market in India is growing at 25% annually. This is due to the ever increasing demand to maintain thermal comfort in tropical regions. Air conditioning is one of the most energy intensive technologies which are used in buildings. As a result India is witnessing significant spike in energy demand and further widening the demand supply gap. Challenge in India is to identify passive measures in building envelope design in office buildings to reduce the cooling loads and conserve energy. This paper investigates the overall heat gain through building envelope components and natural ventilation in warm and humid climate region through experimental and simulation methods towards improved thermal environmental performance.

  10. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help ... whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance retraining exercise ...

  11. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Bifidobacterium longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1 and GII.4 strains to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E.coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders and one non-HBGA expressing E.coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E.coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E.coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission.

  12. 燃气一蒸汽联合循环的热平衡热效率计算及评价%Calculation and Assess on Heating balance and Heating efficiency of Combined cycle Gas Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宗汉

    2004-01-01

    It is well——known that heating——balance calculation and assess are essential to gas turbine combined—cycle based on engineering practice In calculating heat—efficiency of each main plant and entire combined—cycle system,all factors/resn-lutions pertinent to the issues of heat—-efficiency and power·-distribution are briefly analysed and evaluated in this paper.%通过对燃气一蒸汽联合循环的热平衡计算及分析,从__I二程实用的要求出发,计算各主要设备的热效率和整个联合循环装置的热效率,并分别进行评价。分析影响热效率的主要因素和对策。同时对燃气一蒸汽联合循环的功率分配问题进行了阐述和分析。,

  13. Heat balance of a molten carbonate fuel cell production hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell-CoCell; Waermehaushalt einer Karbonat-Brennstoffzelle zur Wasserstoffherstellung fuer eine Polymerelektrolyt-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamek, L.

    2006-10-17

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being used in decentralised power plants, as they can reform hydrocarbon bound fuels internally, e.g. natural gas with a energy density of 10 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions, and the efficiency of this mode of operation is around 50 %. However in comparison to other fuel cell systems the power density is only 5 kW/m{sup 3}. The power density of a polymerelectrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is much higher (50 kW/m{sup 3}). These systems can be run with an efficiency of 50 %, too. Therefore they need hydrogen as a fuel, with an energy density of 2,9 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions. Efficiency decreases to 35 to 40% using Methane as fuel, because of the reforming losses. The power density than is 6 kW/m3 and therefore as high as for a MCFC-system. Acombination of MCFC and PEFC, the so called CoCell, offers the following advantages: - A highly energetic, hydrocarbon based fuel can be used, e.g. Methane. - A high electrical efficiency is achieved. - The power density of this system is higher than for a fuel cell with reformer. In the CoCell the MCFC is working as electricity producing reformer for the PEFC. The off heat of the MCFC is used for reforming, whereby hydrogen is available, being utilised further in the power dense PEFC. The reforming capacity of the MCFC is limited by the internal heat balance. If the endothermic reforming consumes more heat than supplied by the material streams and the fuel cell waste heat, the stack cools down. The performance of such a combined fuel cell system has been evaluated in this thesis using the thermodynamic simulation software Aspen. Calculations reducing the utilisation in the MCFC by various heating techniques showed, that additional heat is supplied most efficiently by increasing the current density of the MCFC. Thereby the stack is heated electrically and the power density of the system is increased by the improved power density of the MCFC. The reduction of the utilisation is achieved

  14. Development of a New Diagnosis Method for Incipient Caries in Human Teeth Based on Thermal Images under Pulse Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Nakashima, Shoji; Kaneko, Kenji

    A new noninvasive diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for incipient caries of human teeth. Experiments were conducted to study the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth with various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. A coefficient of the temperature descent was obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i. e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from the temperature descent coefficient. Further the proposed technique was applied to the detection of natural incipient caries in an extracted human molar tooth. It was found that natural incipient caries was also clearly identified in the thermal images.

  15. Influência do calor armazenado no sistema solo-planta no balanço de energia em pomar de mangueiras Influence of the heat stored in the soil-plant system in the energy balance over a mango orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícera J. R. Borges

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo se objetivou a avaliação da contribuição do calor armazenado acima das placas de fluxo de calor no solo e no dossel vegetativo sobre os componentes do balanço de energia, no pomar de mangueiras. Os componentes do balanço de energia foram obtidos pelo método do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen. O teste t-Student foi usado para avaliar a existência de diferença significativa entre as médias dos componentes do balanço de energia, obtidas mediante as seguintes condições: (i considerando-se o calor armazenado acima dos fluxímetros e (ii desconsiderando-se o calor armazenado acima dos fluxímetros, cujos resultados indicaram que: 1 o efeito do calor armazenado no dossel vegetativo é irrelevante quando comparado com os outros componentes do balanço de energia em pomar de mangueiras; 2 o calor armazenado acima das placas de calor no solo não interfere significativamente no cálculo dos fluxos de calor sensível e latente nem na evapotranspiração da mangueira irrigada; 3 o fluxo de calor no solo, corrigido com o calor armazenado acima dos fluxímetros, difere estatisticamente a nível de 5% de probabilidade, daquele obtido sem a correção do fluxo.The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the heat storage above the soil heat flux plates and within the canopy upon the components of the energy balance in the mango orchard. The Bowen energy-ratio balance method was used for obtaining the energy balance components and evapotranspiration of the mango orchard. The t-Student test was applied to evaluate statistical significance of the difference between energy balance component averages under the following conditions: (i considering and (ii not considering the heat storage above the fluximeters. The results suggested that: 1 the canopy heat storage is irrelevant compared to the other energy balance components; 2 the above soil heat plates heat storage does not influence the sensible and

  16. Stem heat balance method to estimate transpiration of young orange and mango plants Balanço de calor caulinar para estimativa da transpiração de plantas jovens de laranja e manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Vellame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as its main objective the evaluation of the heat balance method in young orange and mango plants under protected environment. The work was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits, Cruz das Almas, BA. Later on, estimates of sap flow were conducted for two mango plants cultivated in pots of 15 and 50 L installed on weighting platforms of 45 and 140 kg; sap flow was determined in three orange plants, two of which were also installed on weighing platforms. The values of sap flow were compared to the transpiration measured by lysimeters at integrated intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 24 h. The heat balance method showed good precision for estimating daily transpiration (R² = 0.95 and R² = 0.90, accompaning the availability of energy in the system, underestimating on average 4.6% of the daily transpiration in orange plants and overestimating in about 0.3% the daily transpiration of mango plants under conditions of good water supply. The heat balance method underestimated by 16% the transpiration in orange under conditions of water deficit.Com o presente estudo se objetivou avaliar o método de balanço de calor em plantas jovens de laranja e manga em ambiente protegido. O trabalho foi conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA. Realizaram-se estimativas de fluxo de seiva em duas plantas de manga plantadas em vasos de 15 e 50 L, instalados sobre plataformas de pesagem de 45 e 140 kg; posteriormente, o fluxo de seiva foi determinado em três plantas de laranja, duas também instaladas em lisímetros de pesagem. Os valores de fluxo de seiva obtidos foram comparados com a transpiração medida pelos lisímetros em intervalos de integração de 1, 2, 4 e 24 h. O método do balanço de calor mostrou-se preciso na estimativa da transpiração diária (R² = 0,95 e R² = 0,90, que acompanhou a disponibilidade de energia do sistema, subestimando em média, 4,6% a transpiração diária em plantas de laranja e

  17. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1994-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on heat production and oxidation of nutrients was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. The experiment included 6 male and 4 female healthy subjects who, during a 24-hour stay in the respiration chambers, performed, in the morning and afternoon, 15 min cycling...

  18. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, JJW; van den Berg, CAT

    PURPOSE: One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of

  19. The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, K.C.; Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Nilsson, H.; Malchaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational

  20. Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.; Shibasaki, M.; Aoki, K.; Koga, S.; Inoue, Y.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.

  1. The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, K.C.; Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Nilsson, H.; Malchaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygi

  2. a-Adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness is preserved in the heated human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, David M; Sander, Mikael; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that passive leg heating attenuates a-adrenergic vasoconstriction within that limb. Femoral blood flow (FBF, femoral artery ultrasound Doppler) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC, FBF/mean arterial blood pressure), as well as calf muscle blood flow (CalfBF, ¹³³...

  3. Dynamics of the full length and mutated heat shock factor 1 in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Herbomel

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 is the key transcription factor of the heat shock response. Its function is to protect the cell against the deleterious effects of stress. Upon stress, HSF1 binds to and transcribes hsp genes and repeated satellite III (sat III sequences present at the 9q12 locus. HSF1 binding to pericentric sat III sequences forms structures known as nuclear stress bodies (nSBs. nSBs represent a natural amplification of RNA pol II dependent transcription sites. Dynamics of HSF1 and of deletion mutants were studied in living cells using multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mFCS and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP. In this paper, we show that HSF1 dynamics modifications upon heat shock result from both formation of high molecular weight complexes and increased HSF1 interactions with chromatin. These interactions involve both DNA binding with Heat Shock Element (HSE and sat III sequences and a more transient sequence-independent binding likely corresponding to a search for more specific targets. We find that the trimerization domain is required for low affinity interactions with chromatin while the DNA binding domain is required for site-specific interactions of HSF1 with DNA.

  4. Heat Shock Protein Induction in Human Cells by CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-14

    Boorstein W. A review of the role of 70 kD heat shock proteins in protein translocation across membranes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1990:58:137-46. 32...1991;65:363-366. 55. Young DB. Stress proteins and the immune response. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1990;58:203-208. 56. Craig EA, Kramer J, Kosic-Smithers

  5. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates cutaneous vasodilation during local heating and is attenuated in middle-aged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Rebecca S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Smith, Caroline J; Berkowitz, Dan E; Kenney, W Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A

    2012-06-01

    Local skin heating is used to assess microvascular function in clinical populations because NO is required for full expression of the response; however, controversy exists as to the precise NO synthase (NOS) isoform producing NO. Human aging is associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation but little is known about the middle aged, an age cohort used for comparison with clinical populations. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the primary isoform mediating NO production during local heating, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation would be reduced in middle-aged skin. Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) and during acetylcholine dose-response (ACh-DR: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0 mmol/l) protocols. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of 24 men and women; age cohorts were 12 middle-aged (53 ± 1 yr) and 12 young (23 ± 1 yr). Sites served as control, nonselective NOS inhibited [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)], inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibited (1400W), and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibited (N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine). After full expression of the local heating response, l-NAME was perfused at all sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance was measured and normalized to maximum (%CVC(max): Nitropress). l-NAME reduced %CVCmax at baseline, all phases of the local heating response, and at all ACh concentrations compared with all other sites. iNOS inhibition reduced the initial peak (53 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2%CVC(max); P vasodilation during local heating (52 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 4%CVC(max); P = 0.013) and ACh perfusion (50 mmol/l: 83 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 2%CVC(max); 100 mmol/l: 83 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 3%CVC(max); both P = 0.03) were reduced in middle-aged skin. There were no differences in NOS isoform expression obtained from skin biopsy samples between groups (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that eNOS mediates the production of NO during local heating and that cutaneous vasodilation is attenuated in middle-aged skin.

  6. Balancing priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Troels; Johansen, Andreas Kaas; Lauridsen, Frederik Vahr Bjarnø

    2016-01-01

    a heterogeneous ensemble of care providers. In this paper, we present findings from a field study of coordinative work in distributed elder care in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the coordinative challenges of distributed elder care, and to inform design of new care......, that are needed by the healthcare system, but also the work involved in balancing priorities....

  7. The HumanIndexMod and New Calculations Demonstrating Heat Stress Effects All Aspects of Human Life Through Industry, Agriculture, and Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2014-12-01

    We show the new climatic tool, HumanIndexMod (HIM), for quantitatively assessing key climatic variables that are critical for decision making. The HIM calculates 9 different heat stress and 4 moist thermodynamic quantities using meteorological inputs of T, P, and Q. These heat stress metrics are commonly used throughout the world. We show new methods for integrating and standardizing practices for applying these metrics with the latest Earth system models. We implemented the HIM into CLM4.5, a component of CESM, maintained by NCAR. These heat stress metrics cover philosophical approaches of comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to the Urban, Canopy, Bare Ground, and Lake modules, to differentiate distinct regimes within each grid cell. The module calculates the instantaneous moisture-temperature covariance at every model time step and in every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity. The HIM uses the most accurate and computationally efficient moist thermodynamic algorithms available. Additionally, we show ways that the HIM may be effectively integrated into climate modeling and observations. The module is flexible. The user may decide which metrics to call, and there is an offline version of the HIM that is available to be used with weather and climate datasets. Examples include using high temporal resolution CMIP5 archive data, local weather station data, and weather and forecasting models. To provide comprehensive standards for applying the HIM to climate data, we executed a CLM4.5 simulation using the RCP8.5 boundary conditions. Preliminary results show moist thermodynamic and heat stress quantities have smaller variability in the extremes as compared to extremes in T (both at the 95th percentile). Additionally, the magnitude of the moist thermodynamic changes over land is similar to sea surface temperature changes. The metric changes from the early part of the 21st century as compared to the

  8. CELLULAR MULTITASKING: THE DUAL ROLE OF HUMAN CU-ATPASES IN COFACTOR DELIVERY AND INTRACELLULAR COPPER BALANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gupta, Arnab; Burkhead, Jason L.; Zuzel, Vesna

    2008-01-01

    The human copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases) are essential for dietary copper uptake, normal development and function of the CNS, and regulation of copper homeostasis in the body. In a cell, Cu-ATPases maintain the intracellular concentration of copper by transporting copper into intracellular exocytic vesicles. In addition, these P-type ATPases mediate delivery of copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway and in specialized cell compartments such as secretory granules...

  9. Cellular multitasking: the dual role of human Cu-ATPases in cofactor delivery and intracellular copper balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gupta, Arnab; Burkhead, Jason L; Zuzel, Vesna

    2008-08-01

    The human copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases) are essential for dietary copper uptake, normal development and function of the CNS, and regulation of copper homeostasis in the body. In a cell, Cu-ATPases maintain the intracellular concentration of copper by transporting copper into intracellular exocytic vesicles. In addition, these P-type ATPases mediate delivery of copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway and in specialized cell compartments such as secretory granules or melanosomes. The multiple functions of human Cu-ATPase necessitate complex regulation of these transporters that is mediated through the presence of regulatory domains in their structure, posttranslational modification and intracellular trafficking, as well as interactions with the copper chaperone Atox1 and other regulatory molecules. In this review, we summarize the current information on the function and regulatory mechanisms acting on human Cu-ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B. Brief comparison with the Cu-ATPase orthologs from other species is included.

  10. Heat shock protein 90 has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-responsive sperm function in human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 plays critical roles in client protein maturation, signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution; however, its function in human sperm is not fully understood. Therefore, our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which heat shock protein 90 exerts its effects on human sperm function. By performing indirect immunofluorescence staining, we found that heat shock protein 90 was localized primarily in the neck, midpiece, and tail regions of human sperm, and that its expression increased with increasing incubation time under capacitation conditions. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, was shown to inhibit this increase in heat shock protein 90 expression in western blotting analyses. Using a multifunctional microplate reader to examine Fluo-3 AM-loaded sperm, we observed for the first time that inhibition of heat shock protein 90 by using geldanamycin significantly decreased intracellular calcium concentrations during capacitation. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that geldanamycin enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including heat shock protein 90, in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of geldanamycin on human sperm function in the absence or presence of progesterone was evaluated by performing chlortetracycline staining and by using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. We found that geldanamycin alone did not affect sperm capacitation, hyperactivation, and motility, but did so in the presence of progesterone. Taken together, these data suggest that heat shock protein 90, which increases in expression in human sperm during capacitation, has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-stimulated sperm function. In this study, we provide new insights into the roles of heat shock protein 90 in sperm function.

  11. Absorption, by humans, of beta-carotene from fortified soybean oil added to rice: effect of heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, J E; Fávaro, R M; Leonardo, I R; Jordão Júnior, A A; Vannucchi, H

    1998-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption of beta-carotene in humans when rice is prepared with refined cooking soybean oil fortified with beta-carotene and to assess the effect of heat treatment on its bioavailability. Sixteen healthy adults subjects participated in two experimental trials. Studies were carried out during two experimental periods of 11 days with a 12-day interval between them. Beta carotene was added to the soybean cooking oil and rice was cooked with it or it was added to the rice after cooking. Experimental diets included these two kinds of rice during the first day and fasting blood samples were collected on different days. All of the test diets were low in carotenoids. Plasma carotenoids were measured by HPLC method. beta-carotene absorption was calculated through postabsorptive peak rise in plasma beta-carotene and the total area under the absorption curve was determined by the trapezoidal method for the 11-day period. Absorption of carotene from heated or unheated fortified soybean oil were similar. Peak plasma carotene rise was different in men and women, p oil used in the preparation of rice is absorbed, heated or not, and could be a practical source of provitamin A. Developing countries looking for strategies to increase vitamin A intake could use fortification of vegetable oils with synthetic beta-carotene as a simple method.

  12. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Modulates Heat Nociception in the Human Brain - An fMRI Study in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Becerra, Lino; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we record...... cortex. Sumatriptan injection reversed these changes. CONCLUSION: The changes in BOLD-signals in the brain after CGRP infusion suggests that systemic CGRP modulates nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal pain pathways in response to noxious heat stimuli.......BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we recorded...

  13. Studying the effects of the heat stress on the various layers of human skin using damage function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijaz, Mir; Khanday, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a model to identify the effects of thermal stress on temperature distribution and damage in human dermal regions. The design and selection of the model takes into account many factors effecting the temperature distribution of skin, e.g., thermal conductance, perfusion, metabolic heat generation and thermal protective capabilities of the skin. The transient temperature distribution within the region is simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model of the Pennes’ bioheat equation. The relationship between temperature and time is integrated to view the damage caused to human skin by using Henriques’ model Henriques, F. C., Arch. Pathol. 43 (1947) 489-502]. The Henriques’ damage model is found to be more desirable for use in predicting the threshold of thermal damage. This work can be helpful in both emergency medicines as well as to plastic surgeon in deciding upon a course of action for the treatment of different burn injuries.

  14. Capillary growth in human skeletal muscle: physiological factors and the balance between pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Hoier, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either...... by mechanical or by chemical signalling. Mechanical signals originate from shear stress forces on the endothelial cell layer induced by the blood flowing through the vessel, but include also mechanical stretch and compression of the vascular structures and the surrounding tissue, as the muscle contracts...

  15. Binding of natural and synthetic inhibitors to human heat shock protein 90 and their clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrikaitė, Vilma; Matulis, Daumantas

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the recent progress in the field of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor design. Hsp90 is a heat shock protein with a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa. Hsp90 is considered a good anticancer target because its inhibition leads to inactivation of its numerous client proteins participating in various signaling and other processes involved in cancer progression. Numerous Hsp90 inhibitors-leads currently tested in clinical trials are presented in this review. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the application of biophysical binding assays in the development of Hsp90 inhibitors. The binding of designed lead compounds to various Hsp90 constructs is measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and thermal shift assay. These assays provide a detailed energetic insight of the binding reaction, including the enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and the Gibbs free energy. A detailed description of the binding energetics helps to extend our knowledge of structure-activity relationships in the design of more potent inhibitors. The most active compounds are then tested for their absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicity, and activity against cancer cell lines.

  16. Social Balance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir; Deni Khanafiah

    2004-01-01

    We construct a model based on social balance theory proposed by Fritz Heider to analyze the interpersonal network among social agents. The model of social balance theory provides us an interesting tool to see how a social group evolves to the possible balance state. We introduce the balance index that can be used to measure social balance in macro structure level (global balance index) or in micro structure (local balance index) to see how the local balance index influences the global balance...

  17. Comparison of biological effects of modulated electro-hyperthermia and conventional heat treatment in human lymphoma U937 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andocs, G; Rehman, M U; Zhao, Q-L; Tabuchi, Y; Kanamori, M; Kondo, T

    2016-01-01

    Loco-regional hyperthermia treatment has long history in oncology. Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT, trade name: oncothermia) is an emerging curative treatment method in this field due to its highly selective actions. The impedance-matched, capacitive-coupled modulated radiofrequency (RF) current is selectively focused in the malignant cell membrane of the cancer cells. Our objective is studying the cell-death process and comparing the cellular effects of conventional water-bath hyperthermia treatment to mEHT. The U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cell line was used for the experiments. In the case of conventional hyperthermia treatment, cells were immersed in a thermoregulated water bath, whereas in the case of mEHT, the cells were treated using a special RF generator (LabEHY, Oncotherm) and an applicator. The heating dynamics, the maximum temperature reached (42 °C) and the treatment duration (30 min) were exactly the same in both cases. Cell samples were analysed using different flow cytometric methods as well as microarray gene expression assay and western blot analysis was also used to reveal the molecular basis of the induced effects. Definite difference was observed in the biological response to different heat treatments. At 42 °C, only mEHT induced significant apoptotic cell death. The GeneChip analysis revealed a whole cluster of genes, which are highly up-regulated in case of only RF heating, but not in conventional heating. The Fas, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and ERK signalling pathway was the dominant factor to induce apoptotic cell death in mEHT, whereas the cell-protective mechanisms dominated in case of conventional heating. This study has clearly shown that conventional hyperthermia and RF mEHT can result in different biological responses at the same temperature. The reason for the difference is the distinct, non-homogenous energy distribution on the cell membrane, which activates cell death-related signalling pathways in m

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Heat Shock Protein 70 Genes are Positively Associated with Human Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter Gerd

    2010-01-01

    A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes...

  19. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics.

  20. Oral administration of γ-aminobutyric acid affects heat production in a hot environment in resting humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa Taiki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central administration of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA induces lower body temperature in animals in hot ambient air. However, it is still unknown whether oral GABA administration affects temperature regulation at rest in a hot environment in humans. Therefore, in the present study, we specifically hypothesized that systemic administration of GABA in humans would induce hypothermia in a hot environment and that this response would be observed in association with decreased heat production. Methods Eight male participants drank a 200-ml sports drink with 1 g of GABA (trial G or without GABA (trial C, then rested for 30 minutes in a sitting position in a hot environment (ambient air temperature 33°C, relative humidity 50%. Results We found that changes in esophageal temperature from before drinking the sports drink were lower in trial G than in trial C (-0.046 ± 0.079°C vs 0.001 ± 0.063°C; P 2 vs 47 ± 8 W/m2; P Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that a single oral administration of GABA induced a larger decrease in body core temperature compared to a control condition during rest in a hot environment and that this response was concomitant with a decrease in total heat production.

  1. Use of postmortem temperature decay response surface plots of heat transport in the human eye to predict time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jimmy L

    2014-03-01

    A finite element heat transfer model of the human eye was previously constructed and applied to experimental postmortem temperature decay curves collected in eyeballs of ten human bodies. The model was applied in the early postmortem period of 0–24 h under conditions of natural convection–radiation. Based upon this previous model, response surfaces for postmortem temperature decay were constructed based upon variable ranges of the natural convective–radiation heat transfer coefficient from 7–13 W/m2 K, ambient temperatures of 10–33°C, and times of 0–24 h. Mathematical equations to describe these response surfaces have been developed. This response surface method is demonstrated for use by coroners/medical personnel to estimate time of death from recorded field temperature data collected over a 30-min period. Sensitivity of the model to small changes in the key variable of ambient temperature is explored. The response surface model is applied to two cases of previously collected experimental eyeball temperature data. This response surface model method is only valid for constant surrounding temperatures, conditions of natural convection, no radiation effects, and postmortem times of 0–24 h.

  2. Material and heat balance calculations for manufacturing of phosphoric acid activated carbon used in sugar refining%磷酸活化法制备糖用活性炭的物料和热量衡算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芸; 左宋林; 孙康; 许玉; 邓先伦

    2013-01-01

    按照目前磷酸活化杉木屑生产活性炭的常规工艺,分析并计算了年产1 500t糖用粉状活性炭生产的各个工序的物料和热量平衡.分析计算结果可以为磷酸活化法生产活性炭的工厂工艺设计、设备选型、能量消耗和成本核算提供基本依据,并可以为磷酸活化法工艺的改进和优化提供参考.%This paper calculated the material and heat balance of manufacturing phosphoric acid activated carbon used in sugar refining. The calculation was based on a conventional production line with Chinese fir sawdust as raw material and an annual capacity of 1 500 t. The results provided the fundamental data for process design, equipment selection, energy consumption evaluation and cost accounting of activated carbon manufacturing and helped optimizing the phosphoric acid activation process.

  3. Differential translocation of heat shock factor-1 after mild and severe stress to human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2014-12-01

    Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41 °C) or severe (43 °C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuation of heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not.

  4. Human IGF1 regulates midgut oxidative stress and epithelial homeostasis to balance lifespan and Plasmodium falciparum resistance in Anopheles stephensi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Drexler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS regulates cell death, repair, autophagy, and renewal in response to stress, damage, and pathogen challenge. Therefore, IIS is fundamental to lifespan and disease resistance. Previously, we showed that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 within a physiologically relevant range (0.013-0.13 µM in human blood reduced development of the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum in the Indian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Low IGF1 (0.013 µM induced FOXO and p70S6K activation in the midgut and extended mosquito lifespan, whereas high IGF1 (0.13 µM did not. In this study the physiological effects of low and high IGF1 were examined in detail to infer mechanisms for their dichotomous effects on mosquito resistance and lifespan. Following ingestion, low IGF1 induced phosphorylation of midgut c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis, but high IGF1 did not. Low and high IGF1 induced midgut mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis and nitric oxide (NO synthase gene expression, responses which were necessary and sufficient to mediate IGF1 inhibition of P. falciparum development. However, increased ROS and apoptosis-associated caspase-3 activity returned to baseline levels following low IGF1 treatment, but were sustained with high IGF1 treatment and accompanied by aberrant expression of biomarkers for mitophagy, stem cell division and proliferation. Low IGF1-induced ROS are likely moderated by JNK-induced epithelial cytoprotection as well as p70S6K-mediated growth and inhibition of apoptosis over the lifetime of A. stephensi to facilitate midgut homeostasis and enhanced survivorship. Hence, mitochondrial integrity and homeostasis in the midgut, a key signaling center for IIS, can be targeted to coordinately optimize mosquito fitness and anti-pathogen resistance for improved control strategies for malaria and other vector-borne diseases.

  5. Aspirin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells independently of NF-kappaB and MAPKs through alteration of the Mcl-1/Noxa balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Serret, Daniel; Piqué, Maria; Barragán, Montserrat; Cosialls, Ana M; Santidrián, Antonio F; González-Gironès, Diana M; Coll-Mulet, Llorenç; de Frias, Mercè; Pons, Gabriel; Gil, Joan

    2010-02-01

    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce apoptosis in most cell types. In this study we examined the mechanism of aspirin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. We analyzed the role of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways. Furthermore, we studied the changes induced by aspirin in some genes involved in the control of apoptosis at mRNA level, by performing reverse transcriptase multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (RT-MLPA), and at protein level by Western blot. Our results show that aspirin induced apoptosis in leukemia Jurkat T cells independently of NF-kappaB. Although aspirin induced p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, selective inhibitors of these kinases did not inhibit aspirin-induced apoptosis. We studied the regulation of Bcl-2 family members in aspirin-induced apoptosis. Aspirin increased the mRNA levels of some pro-apoptotic members, such as BIM, NOXA, BMF or PUMA, but their protein levels did not change. In contrast, aspirin decreased the protein levels of Mcl-1. Interestingly, in the presence of aspirin the protein levels of Noxa remained high. This alteration of the Mcl-1/Noxa balance was also found in other leukemia cell lines and primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL). Furthermore, in CLL cells aspirin induced an increase in the protein levels of Noxa. Knockdown of Noxa or Puma significantly attenuated aspirin-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that aspirin induces apoptosis through alteration of the Mcl-1/ Noxa balance.

  6. Heat shock protein 70 antisense oligonucleotide inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao; Wen-Lu Shen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Heat shock protein (HSP)70 is over-expressed in human gastric cancer and plays an important role in the progression of this cancer. We investigated the effects of antisense HSP70 oligomer on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, and its potential role in gene therapy for this cancer.METHODS: Human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was treated in vitro with various concentrations of antisense HSP70 oligonucleotides at different intervals. Growth inhibition was determined as percentage by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Extracted DNA was electrophoresed on agarose gel, and distribution of cell cycle and kinetics of apoptosis induction were analyzed by propidium iodide DNA incorporation using flow cytometry, which was also used to detect the effects of antisense oligomer pretreatment on the subsequent apoptosis induced by heat shock in SGC-7901 cells. Proteins were extracted for simultaneous measurement of HSP70 expression level by SDS-PAGE Western blotting.RESULTS: The number of viable cells decreased in a doseand time-dependent manner, and ladder-like patterns of DNA fragments were observed in SGC-7901 cells treated with antisense HSP70 oligomers at a concentration of 10 μmol/L for 48 h or 8 μmol/L for 72 h, which were consistent with inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic rate by HSP70 antisense oligomers. This response was accompanied with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, suggesting inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, flow cytometry also showed that pretreatment of SGC-7901 cells with HSP70 antisense oligomers enhanced the subsequent apoptosis induced by heat shock treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that HSP70 antisense oligomers inhibited HSP70 expression, which preceded apoptosis, and HSP70 was undetectable at the concentration of 10 μmol/L for 48 h or 8 μmol/L for 72 h.CONCLUSION: Antisense HSP70 oligomers

  7. Mathematical Simulation of Dynamic Heat Transfer in a Human Clothing-Environment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-ying

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the dynamic heat transfer in the clothing microclimate under transient wear conditions. This model is solved numerically by the implicit finite difference method. If the physical activity and ambient conditions are specified, the model can predict the thermoregulatory response of the body, Experimentad measurements with garments made of fibers with different levels of hygroscopicity are compared with predictions by the model. There is good agreement between prediction and experiment for the temperature of the clothing microclimate.

  8. Review on modeling heat transfer and thermoregulatory responses in human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming; Weng, Wenguo; Chen, Weiwang; Luo, Na

    2016-12-01

    Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders. The experimental validated methods for human subjects and manikin are compared. The coupled method is provided for the manikin, controlled by the thermal model as an active system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is also used along with the manikin or/and the thermal model, to evaluate the thermal responses of human body in various applications, such as evaluation of thermal comfort to increase the energy efficiency, prediction of tolerance limits and thermal acceptability exposed to hostile environments, indoor air quality assessment in the car and aerospace industry, and design protective equipment to improve function of the human activities.

  9. Additive effect of heat on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis via ERK/p38/MITF pathway in human epidermal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei-Jie; Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Wen; Ma, Li-Juan; Lei, Xiao-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 °C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB combined with heat resulted in much more significant tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis as compared with UVB alone in melanocytes from skin phototype III. Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation. Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.

  10. From mandatory to voluntary testing: balancing human rights, religious and cultural values, and HIV/AIDS prevention in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginaah, Isaac N; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K; Taabazuing, Mary-Margaret

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines efforts by some churches in Ghana to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. The analysis is based on focus group discussions with two groups of men and two groups of women, along with in-depth interviews with 13 pastors and marriage counsellors in the churches studied. In response to government and public criticisms about human rights violations, churches that previously imposed mandatory HIV testing on members planning to marry now have voluntary testing programmes. However, the results suggest that what the churches refer to as voluntary testing may not be truly voluntary. Cultural values and traditional practices, including traditional courtship and marriage rites (which are performed before church weddings), not only clash with considerations about pre-marital HIV testing but also complicate the contentious issue of confidentiality of information on HIV testing. Associated with these complexities and issues of confidentiality is a reluctance among participants, particularly those from northern Ghana, to test for HIV. The results reveal how broader social impacts of HIV testing for those planning to marry may extend beyond individuals or couples in different cultural contexts. The findings also support the general view that there are no perfect or easy solutions to combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Practical solutions and programs for Ghana cannot be neutral to cultural values and need to be tailored for particular (ethnic) populations.

  11. UVB exposure of a humanized skin model reveals unexpected dynamic of keratinocyte proliferation and Wnt inhibitor balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Teresa; Biedermann, Thomas; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Klar, Agnes S; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2017-07-17

    We developed human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes which are presently applied in phase I and II clinical trials. Here we used these very same skin equivalents containing melanocytes, named MelSkin, as an experimental skin model. We investigated the effects of UVB irradiation on the skin grafts transplanted on immune-compromised rats. The irradiation induces a strong wound healing response going along with massive proliferation of basal keratinocytes, basically quiescent under non-irradiated, homeostatic conditions. As a consequence of UVB irradiation, the initially clearly defined basal keratinocyte (mono)layer expands into about three layers of keratinocytes, all of which still express the basal keratinocyte marker Keratin15. In contrast, epidermal melanocytes remain quiescent under these circumstances. Moreover, the Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf 3 and Wif1 are downregulated upon UVB irradiation in basal keratinocytes, whereas melanocytes continue to express Wnt inhibitors. These findings suggest that there is 1) a suprabasal population, proliferating in the homeostatic state, hence maintaining the integrity of the epidermis, and 2) a basal, usually quiescent keratinocyte population that is induced to massively proliferate upon irradiation. Importantly, the finding that MelSkin responds in a physiological fashion to UVB is of paramount importance in light of the planned clinical application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-04-01

    One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of this research is testing the feasibility of measuring thermoregulation in vivo using MR methods. The calves of 13 volunteers were scanned at 3 tesla. A Proton Resonance Frequency Shift method was used for temperature measurement. Arterial Spin Labeling and phase contrast scans were used for perfusion and flow measurements respectively. The calves were monitored during extreme RF exposure (20 W/kg, 16 min) and after physical exercise. Temperature increases due to RF absorption (range of the 90th percentile of all volunteers: 1.1-2.5°C) matched with the reference skin temperature changes. Increases in perfusion and flow were defined on the whole leg and normalized to baseline. Perfusion showed a significant increase due to RF heating (ratio compared with baseline: 1.28 ± 0.37; P thermoregulation, which will become essential when new safety guidelines are based on thermal dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in regulating human sperm-egg recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Brett; Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Dun, Matthew D; Redgrove, Kate A; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Aitken, R John

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2), as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  14. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 in regulating human sperm-egg recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Nixon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2, as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  15. The balance of positive and negative effects of TGF-β signaling regulates the development of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors in human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Xie, Yin-Liang; Gao, Yong-Xing; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Zack Z

    2013-10-15

    Derived from mesoderm precursors, hemangioblasts are bipotential common progenitors of hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. The regulatory events controlling hematopoietic and endothelial lineage specification are largely unknown, especially in humans. In this study, we establish a serum-free and feeder-free system with a high-efficient embryoid body (EB) generation to investigate the signals that direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Consistent with previous studies, the CD34(+)CD31(+)VE-cadherin(+) (VEC(+)) cells derived from hPSCs contain hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors. In the presence of hematopoietic and endothelial growth factors, some of CD34(+)CD31(+)VEC(+) cells give rise to blast colony-forming cells (BL-CFCs), which have been used to characterize bipotential hemangioblasts. We found that the level of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) 1 protein is increased during hPSC differentiation, and that TGF-β signaling has the double-edged effect on hematopoietic and endothelial lineage differentiation in hPSCs. An addition of TGF-β to hPSC differentiation before mesoderm induction promotes the development of mesoderm and the generation of CD34(+)CD31(+)VEC(+) cells. An addition of TGF-β inhibitor, SB431542, before mesoderm induction downregulates the expression of mesodermal markers and reduces the number of CD34(+)CD31(+)VEC(+) progenitor cells. However, inhibition of TGF-β signaling after mesoderm induction increases CD34(+)CD31(+)VEC(+) progenitors and BL-CFCs. These data provide evidence that a balance of positive and negative effects of TGF-β signaling at the appropriate timing is critical, and potential means to improve hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis from hPSCs.

  16. A single dose mass balance study of the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib (GDC-0449) in humans using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard A; Lum, Bert L; Morrison, Glenn; Chang, Ilsung; Jorga, Karin; Dean, Brian; Shin, Young G; Yue, Qin; Mulder, Teresa; Malhi, Vikram; Xie, Minli; Low, Jennifer A; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2011-08-01

    Vismodegib (GDC-0449), a small-molecule Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, was well tolerated in patients with solid tumors and showed promising efficacy in advanced basal cell carcinoma in a Phase I trial. The purpose of the study presented here was to determine routes of elimination and the extent of vismodegib metabolism, including assessment and identification of metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces. Six healthy female subjects of nonchildbearing potential were enrolled; each received a single 30-ml oral suspension containing 150 mg of vismodegib with 6.5 μg of [(14)C]vismodegib to yield a radioactivity dose of approximately 37 kBq (1000 nCi). Plasma, urine, and feces samples were collected over 56 days to permit sample collection for up to 5 elimination half-lives. Nonradioactive vismodegib was measured in plasma using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry, and total radioactivity in plasma, urine, and feces was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Vismodegib was slowly eliminated by a combination of metabolism and excretion of parent drug, most of which was recovered in feces. The estimated excretion of the administered dose was 86.6% on average, with 82.2 and 4.43% recovered in feces and urine, respectively. Vismodegib was predominant in plasma, with concentrations representing >98% of the total circulating drug-related components. Metabolic pathways of vismodegib in humans included oxidation, glucuronidation, and uncommon pyridine ring cleavage. We conclude that vismodegib and any associated metabolic products are mainly eliminated through feces after oral administration in healthy volunteers.

  17. Heat Shock Protein–Based Therapeutic Strategies Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Brenner

    1999-01-01

    the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:80–90, 1999.

  18. Parametric Variations of a Heat Balanced Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    OTTO Engine Performance...0.5 IHP -0.4 6 - -0.3 10 12 14 16 AIR/FUEL Fig. V11-2 OTTO Engine Performance OTTO Mode co r 7.2 (11.) 10 RPM 15s0 8 Fuel Reg. Spark z 150 BTDC File... OTTO Engine Performance waft..................... I I NAHBE Mode 1, OTTO ISFC r 7.0 7.2 (LBS/IHP-HR) 0 0.42 - g-- 0.080 - 0.6- RPM - 1300 1300

  19. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  20. Chronic Heat Stress and Cognitive Development: An Example of Thermal Conditions Influencing Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2006-01-01

    Although thermal conditions influence the development of living organisms in a wide variety of ways, this topic has been recently ignored in humans. This paper reintroduces thermal conditions as a topic of importance for developmentalists by presenting an example of how thermal conditions are hypothesized to influence a particular developmental…

  1. Modeling and simulation of heat distribution in human skin caused by laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luan, Y.; Dams, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Study of light-based skin rejuvenation needs prospective insights of mechanism of laser tissue interaction. A well-built model plays a key role in predicting temperature distribution in human skin exposed to laser irradiation. Therefore, it not only provides guidance for in vitro experiment, but

  2. Modeling and simulation of heat distribution in human skin caused by laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luan, Y.; Dams, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Study of light-based skin rejuvenation needs prospective insights of mechanism of laser tissue interaction. A well-built model plays a key role in predicting temperature distribution in human skin exposed to laser irradiation. Therefore, it not only provides guidance for in vitro experiment, but als

  3. Human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 interferes with Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA)-mediated adhesion and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Paolo; Bozza, Giuseppe; Capecchi, Barbara; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Norais, Nathalie; Capitani, Mirco; Sallese, Michele; Cecchini, Paola; Ciucchi, Laura; Gao, Zhenai; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Merola, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    NadA (N eisseria meningitidisadhesin A), a meningococcal surface protein, mediates adhesion to and invasion of human cells, an activity in which host membrane proteins have been implicated. While investigating these host factors in human epithelial cells by affinity chromatography, we discovered an unanticipated interaction of NadA with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, a molecular chaperone. The specific in vitro interaction of recombinant soluble NadA and Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations, dot and far-Western blot. Intriguingly, ADP, but not ATP, was required for this association, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG promoted complex formation. Hsp90 binding to an Escherichia coli strain used as carrier to express surface exposed NadA confirmed these results in live bacteria. We also examined RNA interference, plasmid-driven overexpression, addition of exogenous rHsp90 and 17-AAG inhibition in human epithelial cells to further elucidate the involvement of Hsp90 in NadA-mediated adhesion and invasion. Together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between the amount of host Hsp90 and the NadA adhesive/invasive phenotype. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that meningococci interact with cellular Hsp90, a completely novel finding. Altogether our results show that variation of host Hsp90 expression or activity interferes with adhesive and invasive events driven by NadA.

  4. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  5. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  6. Large-eddy Simulation of Heat and Water Vapor Transfer in CT-Based Human Airway Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel imaging-based thermodynamic model to study local heat and mass transfers in the human airways. Both 3D and 1D CFD models are developed and validated. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is adopted to solve 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with Boussinesq approximation along with temperature and water vapor transport equations and energy-flux based wall boundary condition. The 1D model provides initial and boundary conditions to the 3D model. The computed tomography (CT) lung images of three healthy subjects with sinusoidal waveforms and minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min are considered. Between 1D and 3D models and between subjects, the average temperature and water vapor distributions are similar, but their regional distributions are significantly different. In particular, unlike the 1D model, the heat and water vapor transfers in the 3D model are elevated at the bifurcations during inspiration. Moreover, the correlations of Nusselt number (Nu) and Sherwood number (Sh) with local Reynolds number and airway diameter are proposed. In conclusion, use of the subject-specific lung model is essential for accurate prediction of local thermal impacts on airway epithelium. Supported in part by NIH grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494 and S10-RR022421.

  7. Stereospecific anticancer effects of ginsenoside Rg3 epimers isolated from heat-processed American ginseng on human gastric cancer cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hwa Park

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: HAG significantly reduced the cancer cell proliferation, and the contents of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re were markedly decreased, whereas the peaks of less-polar ginsenosides [20(S,R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5] were newly detected. Based on the activity-guided fractionation of HAG, ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3 played a key role in inducing apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells, and it was generated mainly from ginsenoside Rb1. Ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3 induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that heat-processing serves as an increase in the antitumor activity of American ginseng in AGS cells, and ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3, the active component produced by heat-processing, induces the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, which contributes to the apoptotic cell death.

  8. Fluoxetine-induced regulation of heat shock protein 90 and 14-3-3ε in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daeyoung; Choi, Mi Ran; Han, Dal Mu Ri; Chai, Young Gyu; Choi, Joonho

    2014-12-03

    Fluoxetine, a serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, exerts antidepressant and antianxiety effects on major depressive and anxiety disorders. Previous studies suggest that treatment with fluoxetine influences the expression of various proteins that are involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the neuronal cells of the brain. However, many aspects of the molecular pathways that modulate antidepressant action are not well understood. Here, with the aim of identifying proteins involved in antidepressant action, we examined the protein expression profile of human embryonic carcinoma (NCCIT) cells in response to fluoxetine treatment using proteomic techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We found several upregulated and downregulated proteins in fluoxetine-treated NCCIT cells, and then biochemically confirmed the increased expression of heat shock protein 90 and 14-3-3ε, which play an essential role in many cellular mechanisms including cell cycle control and other signaling pathways. Our data suggest that the regulated expression of heat shock protein 90, 14-3-3ε, and other identified proteins may be associated with the therapeutic action of fluoxetine.

  9. Development of a simple radiant heat induced experimental pain model for evaluation of analgesics in normal healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U.R Naidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Human experimental pain models help to understand the mechanism of the painful conditions and can also be adopted to test analgesic efficacy of drugs. In early phases, the clinical development of new analgesics is hindered due to the lack of reliable tests for the experimental pain models. In the present study, we have developed and validated a simple radiant heat pain model which can be used for future screening of various analgesic agents. Materials and Methods : We have standardized the thermal pain model by recording pain threshold and pain tolerance time in seconds at three different intensities and levels in 24 healthy subjects. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the pain parameters by two observers on three consecutive days. Validity of model was further tested by evaluating the analgesic effect of tramadol. Results and Conclusions : Use of radiant heat pain model with high intensity and short level was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 5%. Interobserver and interperiod reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland - Altman plot; with most of the values within ± 2SD. Tramadol produced statistically significant increase in pain threshold time. The newly developed pain model produces a type of experimental pain which is responsive to analgesic effects of tramadol at clinically relevant doses.

  10. Fever-range whole-body heat treatment stimulates antigen-specific T-cell responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasunobu; Ito, Yusuke; Ostapenko, Valentina V; Sakai, Mayuko; Matsushita, Norimasa; Imai, Kenichiro; Shimizu, Koichi; Aruga, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Keishi

    2014-11-01

    Increase in body temperature has been thought to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses, although its precise mechanisms are still under investigation. Here, we examined the effects of physiologically relevant thermal stress on the cytokine production from human peripheral T cells. Volunteers were heated using a whole-body hyperthermia device, the rectal temperature was maintained above 38.5 °C for more than 60 min, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained before and after the treatment. When T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies, marked increases in the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 were observed in PBMCs prepared immediately after and 24h after the treatment. Similarly, enhanced production of IFN-γ in response to the tuberculin purified protein derivative or antigenic viral peptides was also observed immediately after and 24h after the treatment. Fluorescence photo-bleaching analyses showed heat-induced increase of membrane fluidity in T cells, which probably enables them to induce rapid and efficient cluster formation of molecules involved in antigen recognition and signal transduction for T-cell stimulation. We concluded that physiologically relevant thermal stress could efficiently modify T-cell responsiveness to various stimuli, including enhanced responses to specific antigens.

  11. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sae Tanaka; Junko Tanaka; Yoshihiro Miwa; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Toshiaki Katayama; Kazuharu Arakawa; Atsushi Toyoda; Takeo Kubo; Takekazu Kunieda

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are se...

  12. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros, E-mail: theosama@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10{sup -4} m s{sup -1}. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  13. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  14. Changes in arterial blood pressure elicited by severe passive heating at rest is associated with hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Ichinose, Masashi; Honda, Yasushi; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The arterial blood pressure and ventilatory responses to severe passive heating at rest varies greatly among individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in ventilation seen during severe passive heating of resting humans is associated with a decrease in arterial blood pressure. Passive heating was performed on 18 healthy males using hot water immersion to the level of the iliac crest and a water-perfused suit. We then divided the subjects into two groups: MAP(NOTINC) (n = 8), whose mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at the end of heating had increased by ≤3 mmHg, and MAP(INC) (n = 10), whose MAP increased by >3 mmHg. Increases in esophageal temperature (T (es)) elicited by the heating were similar in the two groups (+2.3 ± 0.3 vs. +2.4 ± 0.4 °C). Early during heating (increase in T (es) was ventilation ([Formula: see text]), and end-tidal CO(2) pressure ([Formula: see text]) were similar between the groups. However, during the latter part of heating (increase in T (es) was ≥1.5 °C), the increase in [Formula: see text] and decrease in [Formula: see text] were significantly greater or tended to be greater, while the increase in MAP was significantly smaller in MAP(NOTINC) than MAP(INC). Among all subjects, heating-induced changes in [Formula: see text] significantly and negatively correlated with heating-induced changes in MAP during the latter part of heating (r = -0.52 to -0.74, P passive heating can be explained by the magnitude of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation.

  15. An atypical human induced pluripotent stem cell line with a complex, stable, and balanced genomic rearrangement including a large de novo 1q uniparental disomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, Clara; Maluenda, Jérôme; Tosca, Lucie; Luce, Eléanor; Pineau, Dominique; Dianat, Noushin; Hannoun, Zara; Tachdjian, Gérard; Melki, Judith; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy through their use as vital tools for regenerative and personalized medicine. However, the genomic integrity of hiPSCs still raises some concern and is one of the barriers limiting their use in clinical applications. Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of aneuploidies, copy number variations, or single point mutations in hiPSCs, and nonintegrative reprogramming strategies have been developed to minimize the impact of the reprogramming process on the hiPSC genome. Here, we report the characterization of an hiPSC line generated by daily transfections of modified messenger RNAs, displaying several genomic abnormalities. Karyotype analysis showed a complex genomic rearrangement, which remained stable during long-term culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the hiPSC line showing that this karyotype is balanced. Interestingly, single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed the presence of a large 1q region of uniparental disomy (UPD), demonstrating for the first time that UPD can occur in a noncompensatory context during nonintegrative reprogramming of normal fibroblasts.

  16. The exodus of health professionals from sub-Saharan Africa: balancing human rights and societal needs in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda; Mill, Judy E; Astle, Barbara; Fanning, Anne; Opare, Mary

    2007-06-01

    Increased international migration of health professionals is weakening healthcare systems in low-income countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. The migration of nurses, physicians and other health professionals from countries in sub-Saharan Africa poses a major threat to the achievement of health equity in this region. As nurses form the backbone of healthcare systems in many of the affected countries, it is the accelerating migration of nurses that will be most critical over the next few years. In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of the literature and argue that, from a human rights perspective, there are competing rights in the international migration of health professionals: the right to leave one's country to seek a better life; the right to health of populations in the source and destination countries; labour rights; the right to education; and the right to non-discrimination and equality. Creative policy approaches are required to balance these rights and to ensure that the individual rights of health professionals do not compromise the societal right to health.

  17. Effects of Helicobacter pylori and Heat Shock Protein 70 on the Proliferation of Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Tao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori changed the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and decreased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70. However, the effects of H. pylori on the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and the roles of HSP70 during the progress need further investigation. Objective. To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 on the proliferation of human gastric epithelial cells. Methods. H. pylori and a human gastric epithelial cell line (AGS were cocultured. The proliferation of AGS cells was quantitated by an MTT assay, and the expression of HSP70 in AGS cells was detected by Western blotting. HSP70 expression in AGS cells was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA to investigate the role of HSP70. The siRNA-treated AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori and cell proliferation was measured by an MTT assay. Results. The proliferation of AGS cells was accelerated by coculturing with H. pylori for 4 and 8 h, but was suppressed at 24 and 48 h. HSP70 expression was decreased in AGS cells infected by H. pylori for 48 h. The proliferation in HSP70-silenced AGS cells was inhibited after coculturing with H. pylori for 24 and 48 h compared with the control group. Conclusions. Coculture of H. pylori altered the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and decreased HSP70 expression. HSP70 knockdown supplemented the inhibitory effect of H. pylori on proliferation of epithelial cells. These results indicate that the effects of H. pylori on the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells at least partially depend on the decreased expression of HSP70 induced by the bacterium.

  18. Nearshore human interventions reverse patterns of decline in lake calcium budgets in central Ontario as demonstrated by mass-balance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huaxia; McConnell, Christopher; Somers, Keith M.; Yan, Norman D.; Watmough, Shaun; Scheider, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Calcium (Ca) has declined to levels threatening aquatic biota in lakes on the eastern Canadian Shield. Predictive models for future changes in lake Ca are generally based on catchment-scale studies, but these models rarely account for unmeasured sources of Ca supply that are common in the nearshore areas of developed lakes. In this study we utilize up to 29 years of hydrological and water chemistry data for three lakes in central Ontario that differ in degree of human intervention to demonstrate that shoreline development may exert large effects on Ca mass balances. In the relative absence of shoreline development, Red Chalk Lake exhibited what we consider to be the normal response, a reduction in Ca load from the catchment over the last three decades, leading to a reduction in lake export and lake Ca concentration. Calcium load, export, and lake water Ca concentration also fell in Harp Lake, but less than in Red Chalk Lake, because Ca loads were elevated by human activities in Harp Lake's moderately developed shoreline area. By contrast, Dickie Lake experienced an exceptional change in Ca dynamics: both export and lake concentrations rose because of elevated load from the shoreline area linked to the use of dust suppressants on gravel roads. Reductions in both stream Ca concentration and flow volume have led to calcium decline in streams and lakes. Long-term soil acidification processes and climatic variability with its link to hydrology can explain the general pattern of Ca decline in lakes on the south-central Canadian Shield. However, given the widespread lakeshore development and use of dust suppressants on gravel roads, predictions of lake Ca levels need to take into account nearshore activities, especially those that augment rates of Ca supply.

  19. Inhibiting Heat Shock Proteins Can Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effect of Cannabidiol in Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Katherine A; Dennis, Jayne L; Dalgleish, Angus G; Liu, Wai M

    2015-11-01

    Cannabinoids possess a number of characteristics that make them putative anticancer drugs, and their value as such is currently being explored in a number of clinical studies. To further understand the roles that cannabinoids may have, we performed gene expression profiling in glioma cell lines cultured with cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and pursued targets identified by this screening. Results showed that a large number of genes belonging to the heat shock protein (HSP) super-family were up-regulated following treatment, specifically with CBD. Increases were observed both at the gene and protein levels and arose as a consequence of increased generation of ROS by CBD, and correlated with an increase in a number of HSP client proteins. Furthermore, increases impeded the cytotoxic effect of CBD; an effect that was improved by co-culture with pharmacalogical inhibitors of HSPs. Similarly, culturing glioma cells with CBD and HSP inhibitors increased radiosensitivity when compared to CBD-alone. Taken together, these data indicate that the cytotoxic effects of CBD can be diminished by HSPs that indirectly rise as a result of CBD use, and that the inclusion of HSP inhibitors in CBD treatment regimens can enhance the overall effect.

  20. Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-MING DUAN; XIAO-PING DONG; SARS RESEARCH TEAM; XIN-SHENG ZHAO; RUI-FU WEN; JING-JING HUANG; GUO-HUA PI; SU-XIANG ZHANG; JUN HAN; SHENG-LI BI; LI RUAN

    2003-01-01

    The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.

  1. Heat-Stress Regions in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.

    The data of 20 climatic stations have been examined to determine heat-stress regions in Israel. The data was interpolated and a model was developed for the calculation of direct and diffuse solar radiation. Thermal perception was calculated according to the energy-balance model of man which considers all relevant energy fluxes affecting the human thermo-regulatory system. It is based on the `Comfort Equation' of Fanger (1972) and the `Klima-Michel-Modell' of Jendritzky et al. (1990). Earlier approaches for the assessment of thermal environmental conditions have been done by Sohar (1980), based on the discomfort index. The average daily duration of severe heat stress which a person is exposed to during various activities in summer months has been analyzed in order to classify the thermal environmental conditions in Israel. Statistical evaluations have led to six heat-stress clusters and regions, respectively. A model calculating the spatial development of climatic data between two measuring stations was set up and served to determine the location of the distinctions between the regions. The resulting heat-stress map shows the different heat-stress regions in Israel. The regions are characterized by graphs that show the average monthly duration of light, medium and severe heat-stress. The average duration of severe heat-stress varies in July from approximately 3 hours along the coastal strip and in the higher mountain regions to approximately 13 hours in the Arava.

  2. Bath Breakfast Project (BBP - Examining the role of extended daily fasting in human energy balance and associated health outcomes: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN31521726

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeans Matthew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidance regarding the role of daily breakfast in human health is largely grounded in cross-sectional observations. However, the causal nature of these relationships has not been fully explored and what limited information is emerging from controlled laboratory-based experiments appears inconsistent with much existing data. Further progress in our understanding therefore requires a direct examination of how daily breakfast impacts human health under free-living conditions. Methods/Design The Bath Breakfast Project (BBP is a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of daily breakfast consumption relative to extended fasting on energy balance and human health. Approximately 70 men and women will undergo extensive laboratory-based assessments of their acute metabolic responses under fasted and post-prandial conditions, to include: resting metabolic rate, substrate oxidation, dietary-induced thermogenesis and systemic concentrations of key metabolites/hormones. Physiological and psychological indices of appetite will also be monitored both over the first few hours of the day (i.e. whether fed or fasted and also following a standardised test lunch used to assess voluntary energy intake under controlled conditions. Baseline measurements of participants' anthropometric characteristics (e.g. DEXA will be recorded prior to intervention, along with an oral glucose tolerance test and acquisition of adipose tissue samples to determine expression of key genes and estimates of tissue-specific insulin action. Participants will then be randomly assigned either to a group prescribed an energy intake of ≥3000 kJ before 1100 each day or a group to extend their overnight fast by abstaining from ingestion of energy-providing nutrients until 1200 each day, with all laboratory-based measurements followed-up 6 weeks later. Free-living assessments of energy intake (via direct weighed food diaries and energy expenditure (via

  3. Evaluation of Energy Balance on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT Alternative Splicing by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Behjati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decreased high-energy phosphate level is involved in endothelial cell injury and dysfunction. Reduced telomerase activity in endothelial cells in parallel with reduced energy levels might be due to altered direction of alternative splicing machine as a complication of depleted energy during the process of atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: Isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were treated for 24 hours by oligomycine (OM and 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG. After 24 hours, the effect of energy depletion on telomerase splicing pattern was evaluated using RT-PCR. Indeed, in both treated and untargeted cells, nitric oxide (NO and von Willebrand factor (vWF were measured. Results: ATP was depleted in treated cells by 43.9% compared with control group. We observed a slight decrease in NO levels (P = 0.09 and vWF (P = 0.395 in the setting of 49.36% ATP depletion. In both groups, no telomerase gene expression was seen. Telomerase and housekeeping gene expression were found in positive control group (colon cancer tissue and sample tissue. Conclusions: The absence of telomerase gene expression in HUVECs might be due to the mortality of these cells or the low level of telomerase gene expression in these cells under normal circumstances.

  4. Evaluation of Energy Balance on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Alternative Splicing by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Hashemi, Mohammad; Kazemi, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansoor; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-01-01

    Decreased high-energy phosphate level is involved in endothelial cell injury and dysfunction. Reduced telomerase activity in endothelial cells in parallel with reduced energy levels might be due to altered direction of alternative splicing machine as a complication of depleted energy during the process of atherosclerosis. Isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated for 24 hours by oligomycine (OM) and 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG). After 24 hours, the effect of energy depletion on telomerase splicing pattern was evaluated using RT-PCR. Indeed, in both treated and untargeted cells, nitric oxide (NO) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured. ATP was depleted in treated cells by 43.9% compared with control group. We observed a slight decrease in NO levels (P = 0.09) and vWF (P = 0.395) in the setting of 49.36% ATP depletion. In both groups, no telomerase gene expression was seen. Telomerase and housekeeping gene expression were found in positive control group (colon cancer tissue) and sample tissue. The absence of telomerase gene expression in HUVECs might be due to the mortality of these cells or the low level of telomerase gene expression in these cells under normal circumstances.

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacc, S M; Gomez, F J; Jesuino, R S; Fonseca, C A; Felipe, M S; Deepe, G S; Soares, C M

    2001-10-01

    A gene encoding the heat shock protein (HSP) 60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) was cloned and characterized. The hsp60 gene is composed of three exons divided by two introns. Structural analysis of the promoter detected canonical sequences characteristic of regulatory regions from eukaryotic genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Pb hsp60 gene and the respective cloned cDNA consists of 592 residues highly homologous to other fungal HSP60 proteins. The hsp60 gene is present as a single copy in the genome, as shown by Southern blot analysis. The HSP60 protein was isolated from Pb yeast cellular extracts. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of HSP60 confirmed that the cloned hsp60 gene correlated to the predicted protein in Pb. HSP60 expression appeared to be regulated during form transition in Pb, as different levels of expression were detected in in vitro labeling of cells and northern blot analysis. The complete coding region of Pb hsp60 was fused with plasmid pGEX-4T-3 and expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase-tagged recombinant protein. The protein reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised to a human recombinant HSP60. Western immunoblot experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein and the native HSP60 were recognized by sera from humans with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM).

  6. Expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human esophageal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Guo-Zhen Liu; Ai-Li Song; Rui-Fen Chen; Hai-Yan Li; Yu Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human esophageal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues.METHODS: The expression of HSP70 and grp94 in 78human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and pathology photograph analysis.RESULTS: Both esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues could express HSP70 and grp94. Of the 78 cases of esophageal carcinoma, 95.0%(72/78) showed positive HSP70, mainly stained in nuclei, while grp94 was mainly stained in cell plasma, and the positive rate was 71.8%(56/78).There was a significant difference in the expression of HSP70 and grp94 between esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). Compared with adjacent normal tissues, there was a significant difference between differential types and HSP70 expression (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: HSP70 and grp94 express differently in cell plasma and nuclei. The expression intensity of HSP70is related to the differentiation of esophageal carcinoma.

  7. Heat shock protein 47 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas and upregulated by arecoline in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tseng, Ling-Hsien; Li, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2011-05-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a product of CBP2 gene located at chromosome 11q13.5, a region frequently amplified in human cancers. Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human oral epithelium and OSCC and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Thirty-two OSCC specimens and ten normal oral tissue biopsy samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The oral epithelial cell line OC2 cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. HSP47 expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens than normal epithelium (P0.05). The lower HSP47 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.015). Arecoline was found to elevate HSP47 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (Parecoline-induced HSP47 expression (Parecoline-induced HSP47 expression was downregulated by NAC, PD98059, LY294002, NS398, and herbimycin A. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  9. Crank-Nicholson Scheme for the Estimation of Thermal Disturbance on the Peripheral Tissues of Human Body Subjected to Oscillatory Boundary Condition and Time Dependent Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M. A.; Hussain, Fida

    2015-07-01

    To predict the behaviour of thermal physiology of a finite biological tissue in severe cold climatic conditions, a mathematical model has been established based on Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation with oscillatory boundary condition and time dependent heat source term. Crank-Nicholson scheme has been employed to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem to understand the change in stable temperature profiles at the peripheral tissues of human body subjected to forced convection due to cold. Thermal stress at these regions with respect to different input parameters has been computed under extreme environmental conditions using MATLAB Software. The results have shown a relative significance and provide a reasonable outcome in terms of variable metabolic heat generation and oscillatory heat source. The oscillations of the temperature profiles from the mean temperatures were computed in relation with tissue medium and other physiological parameters.

  10. Significance of expression of heat shock protein90α in human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sheng Zuo; Jie Dai; Ai-Hua Bo; Jie Fan; Xiu-Ying Xiao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the significance of hsp90α expression in human gastric cancer tissues.METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used in clinical specimens from 33 cases of gastric cancer and 33 cases of gastritis with rabbit anti-human hsp90α multi-clonal antibody in order to explore the relationship between the expression of hsp90α in gastric carcinoma tissue and gastritis tissue as well as in mucous membrane adjacent to cancer and lymph node metastasis.RESULTS: Hsp90α was detected in 88 % of gastric carcinoma cases and 55 % of gastritis cases. The hsp90α positive rate in gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in gastritis group (P<0.01, P=0.005). The hsp90α positive rate in gastric cancer and in mucous membrane adjacent to cancer was 88 % and 55 % respectively (P<0.01,P=0.005). The hsp90α positive rate in lymph node metastasis group and non-lymph node metastasis group was 100 % and 60 %respectively, and a significant correlation between hsp90α expression and lymph node metastasis was shown (P<0.01,P=0.005).CONCLUSION: The hsp90α expression rate in gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in gastritis group as well as that in the group of mucous membrane adjacent to cancer. The hsp90α expression in lymphatic node metastasis group was higher than that in no