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Sample records for human health vegetation

  1. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

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    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  2. Vegetable microbiomes: is there a connection among opportunistic infections, human health and our 'gut feeling'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Erlacher, Armin; Smalla, Kornelia; Krause, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The highly diverse microbiomes of vegetables are reservoirs for opportunistic and emerging pathogens. In recent years, an increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of vegetables together with an increased number of immunocompromised individuals resulted in an enhanced number of documented outbreaks of human infections associated with the consumption of vegetables. Here we discuss the occurrence of potential pathogens in vegetable microbiomes, the impact of farming and processing practices, and plant and human health issues. Based on these results, we discuss the question if vegetables can serve as a source of infection for immunocompromised individuals as well as possible solutions to avoid outbreaks. Moreover, the potentially positive aspects of the vegetables microbiome for the gut microbiota and human health are presented.

  3. Accumulation of Nitrate in Vegetables and Its Possible Implications to Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Shao-ting; ZHANG Yong-song; LIN Xian-yong

    2007-01-01

    In recent times, there are two kinds of completely opposite viewpoints about the impacts of nitrate on human health. To further objectively understand the effects of nitrate on human health, both of harmfulness and possible benefits of nitrate to human body, it is discussed in this review from the aspects of nitrate accumulation in vegetables, the source of nitrate ingested into human body, and the transformation of nitrate in human body, as well as the pathogenesis and physiological functions of nitrate metabolism.

  4. Human health risk assessment: heavy metals contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

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    Hafiza Hira Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure of toxic metals is of vital concern for human health through vegetable consumption, especially in developing countries. Aim of the current study was to determine the health risk associated with vegetables contamination by heavy metals being irrigated with sewage and turbine water. The water sources, soils and vegetables were analyzed for selected metals viz: Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Heavy metals in water samples are found to be lower than the international norms except Cd in sewage water. By contrast, concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with turbine water were lower than the safe limits. In case of vegetables irrigated with sewage water, Cd was higher in soil while Pb, Cd and Cr were higher in most of the vegetables. Furthermore, health risk index values for Cd, Pb and Ni were exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002. Bio-concentration factor (BCF was found to be maximum (16.4 mg/kg in Coriandrum sativum, cultivated with sewage water. Raphanus caudatus, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Allium sativum and Solanum tuberosum showed Health Risk Index of Cd > 1 in adults and children. Allium sativum also showed HRI of Pb > 1 in children. We conclude that the quality of vegetables irrigated with sewage water is poor and not fit for human health, evident from the high concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr. Urgent measures are required to prevent consumption and production vegetables irrigated with of sewage water in the study area.

  5. Human health risk assessment: heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiza Hira Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure of toxic metals is a vital concern for human health through vegetable consumption, especially in developing countries. Aim of the current study was to determine the health risk related to vegetables contamination of heavy metals by irrigated with sewage and turbine water. Irrigation water sources, soils and vegetables were analyzed for selected metals viz: Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. Heavy metals in water samples were within the permissible limits except Cd in sewage water. The concentration of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with turbine water were lower than the safe limits. In case of vegetables irrigated with sewage water, Cd was higher in soil while Pb, Cd and Cr were higher in most of the vegetables. Daily intake of metals, health risk index and Bio-concentration factor was also determined. Health risk index values for Cd, Pb and Ni were exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002. Bio-concentration factor (BCF found to be maximum (16.4 mg/kg in Coriandrum sativum cultivated with sewage water. Raphanus caudatus, Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Allium sativum and Solanum tuberosum showed Health Risk Index of Cd > 1 in adults and children. Allium sativum also showed HRI of Pb > 1 in children. We conclude that the quality of vegetables irrigated with sewage water is poor and not fit for human health, evident from the high concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr. Urgent measures are required to prevent consumption and production vegetables irrigated with of sewage water in the study area.

  6. Comprehensive assessment of fruits and vegetables human health effects in a LCA context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Jolliet, O.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional effects from the ‘use stage’ of food items life cycle can have a substantial effect on human health; yet, they are often not considered in life cycle assessment (LCA). In our study we explore the case of increased fruit and vegetable consumption, a healthy dietary option – that could ...... for nutritional foods such as fruits and vegetables. This approach could be used for making recommendations about sustainable diets and food choices....... of disease that are based on epidemiological studies. Results and discussion: Adding one serving of fruits or vegetables to the current average diet in Europe may lead to substantial nutritional health benefits. These nutritional benefits are slightly increased when we consider substitution scenarios...

  7. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

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    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R., E-mail: colin.black@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ{sub M}), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  8. Human Health Implications of Waste Dump Cultivated Vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

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    Musa, Salihu Danlami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is purposely to determine the level of heavy metals in vegetables cultivated on waste dumps and seek its implication on the health of its consumers. Many of these waste dump sites have been converted to agricultural sites particularly for the cultivation of vegetables, to achieve both dietary and economic advantages. Farmers are taking advantage of the positive crop yield effect of these dumpsites. However, there are fears about the possible hazards of the consumption of such crops because of the presence of heavy metals. Amaranthus caudatus vegetables grown on an abandoned dumpsite and an adjacent plot were sampled and subjected to laboratory analysis to determine the levels of heavy metals. The result indicated a slightly higher presence of heavy metals in the adjacent plot, 7.27, 6.53 and 0.72 ppm for Fe, Zn and Cu respectively compared to the abandoned dumpsite where 7.10, 5.37 and 0.58 ppm respectively were recorded for the same elements; the values of the heavy metals were found to be within acceptable limits for human consumption. Although, it has been revealed that consumption of the vegetable may be safe in the short run; constant check must be made on the quality of the crop to avert possible human health hazards as a result of possible build up of the heavy metals due to mineralization.

  9. Human health risk from hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane pesticides, through consumption of vegetables: estimation of daily intake and hazard quotients

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    Bhupander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available People are encouraged to consume more fresh vegetables due to the high nutritional value and fibre contents in vegetables. At the same time, due to pesticidal residue in vegetables, vegetable consumption is considered as an important route of pesticides uptake by human beings. Pesticides, particularly organochlorines such as Aldrin, heptachlor and isomers of dichlorodiphe - nyltrichloroethane (DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH are a major concern because of their persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range environmental transport ability. Hence information on such toxic contaminants in vegetables is very essential, due to human health concern. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with vegetable consumption due to pesticidal residues of DDT and HCH, sixty four samples of commonly available vegetables were collected from a local market in West Bengal, India and analysed for DDT and HCH. In this study, estimated average daily intake of HCHs and DDTs through vegetables was ranged between 5.0x10–8–9.1x10–6 mg kg–1 day–1 with an average value of 2.0x10–6 mg kg–1 day–1. Human health risk was assessed in terms of incremental lifetime cancer risk and health hazard index was between 1.7x10–8–8.8x10–6 and 1.5x10–7– 1.7x10–2, respectively. Generated results were compared with maximum residual levels and reference values, were within acceptable limits and suggested no health risk to the human populations. Therefore, an extensive study on vegetables with the inclusion of other persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals should be carried out to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetables.

  10. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

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    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  11. [Prediction of PCBs uptake by vegetable in a representative area and evaluation of the human health risk by Trapp model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shao-Po; Luo, Yong-Ming; Song, Jing; Teng, Ying; Chen, Yong-Shan

    2010-12-01

    Air, soil and vegetable samples were collected from an e-waste disassembly site and analyzed for characteristic contaminants PCBs. Based on the measured PCBs concentrations in soil and air, PCBs concentration in leafy vegetables was predicted by Trapp Model and the sources, composition of PCBs in vegetable and influencing factors were analyzed. By using human health risk assessment model of USEPA, risk to human health from consumption of vegetable that take up PCBs from environment was evaluated. The results showed that the Trapp Model could give good prediction of PCBs concentrations in leafy vegetables based on PCBs concentration in the soil and air. For instance, the measured sum of seven PCBs in vegetable was 51.2 microg x kg(-1) and the predicted value was 39.9 microg x kg(-1). So the predicted value agrees well with the measured value. The gaseous PCBs were the main source of PCBs in leafy vegetables, and the model predicting results indicated that the contribution rate was as high as 98.8%. The uptake pathway, n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and the n-octanol/air partition coefficient (K(oa)) of PCBs determine the concentration and composition of PCBs in vegetables. The duration needed for PCBs uptake to reach equilibrium was in good correlation with lgK(ow) and lgK(oa). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that lgK(oa) was more important. Carcinogenic risk from consumption of PCBs contaminated vegetables was 10 000 times higher than that of gaseous PCBs, and the no-carcinogenic risk was increased by approximately 200 times. The main reasons are firstly the vegetables take up and accumulate more toxic PCBs with high-chloride substitutes and consequently the oral toxic factors of PCBs increase dramatically. Secondly, an adult takes 71 times more PCBs via consumption of vegetables than via inhalation of air.

  12. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis

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    Liu, Xingmei; Song, Qiujin; Tang, Yu; Li, Wanlu [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Jianming, E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wu, Jianjun, E-mail: wujianjun@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Fan [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Brookes, Philip Charles [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Vegetable fields near villages in China are suffering increasing heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agriculture, traffic, mining and Chinese typical local private family-sized industry. 268 vegetable samples which included rape, celery, cabbages, carrots, asparagus lettuces, cowpeas, tomatoes and cayenne pepper and their corresponding soils in three economically developed areas of Zhejiang Province, China were collected, and the concentrations of five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in all the samples were determined. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) were employed to explore the potential health hazards of heavy metals in soils growing vegetables. Results showed that heavy metal contaminations in investigated vegetables and corresponding soils were significant. Pollution levels varied with metals and vegetable types. The highest mean soil concentrations of heavy metals were 70.36 mg kg{sup −1} Pb, 47.49 mg kg{sup −1} Cr, 13.51 mg kg{sup −1} As, 0.73 mg kg{sup −1} for Cd and 0.67 mg kg{sup −1} Hg, respectively, while the metal concentrations in vegetables and corresponding soils were poorly correlated. The health risk assessment results indicated that diet dominated the exposure pathways, so heavy metals in soil samples might cause potential harm through food-chain transfer. The total non-cancer and cancer risk results indicated that the investigated arable fields near industrial and waste mining sites were unsuitable for growing leaf and root vegetables in view of the risk of elevated intakes of heavy metals adversely affecting food safety for local residents. Chromium and Pb were the primary heavy metals posing non-cancer risks while Cd caused the greatest cancer risk. It was concluded that more effective controls should be focused on Cd and Cr to reduce pollution in this study area. - Highlights: • Flourishing private economy caused increasing

  13. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Adeel Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution with heavy metals due to discharge of untreated urban and industrial wastewater is a major threat to ecological integrity and human well-being. The presenting study aimed to determine human health risks associated via food chain contamination of heavy metals routing from irrigation of urban and industrial wastewater. Irrigated water, soil and vegetables were analyzed for Cr2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+; transfer factor (TF, daily intake of metals (DIM and health risk index (HRI were also calculated. Cr2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ in vegetables cultivated by wastewater exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002 while TF was lower for all metals except Co2+ and HRI was found to be maximum for Spinacia oleracea (2.42 mg/kg and Brassica campestris (2.22 mg/kg cultivated by wastewater. S. oleracea, B. campestris, Coriandrum sativum posed a severe health risk with respect to Cd and Mn.

  14. Scorched Earth: how will changes in the strength of the vegetation sink to ozone deposition affect human health and ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, L. D.; Kitwiroon, N.; Beevers, S.; Büker, P.; Cinderby, S.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of ozone (O3) deposition on ground level O3 concentrations and subsequent human health and ecosystem risk under hot summer "heat wave" type meteorological events. Under such conditions, extended drought can effectively "turn off" the O3 vegetation sink leading to a substantial increase in ground level O3 concentrations. Two models that have been used for human health (the CMAQ chemical transport model) and ecosystem (the DO3SE O3 deposition model) risk assessment are combined to provide a powerful policy tool capable of novel integrated assessments of O3 risk using methods endorsed by the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study investigates 2006, a particularly hot and dry year during which a heat wave occurred over the summer across much of the UK and Europe. To understand the influence of variable O3 dry deposition three different simulations were investigated during June and July: (i) actual conditions in 2006, (ii) conditions that assume a perfect vegetation sink for O3 deposition and (iii) conditions that assume an extended drought period that reduces the vegetation sink to a minimum. The risks of O3 to human health, assessed by estimating the number of days during which running 8 h mean O3 concentrations exceeded 100 μg m-3, show that on average across the UK, there is a difference of 16 days exceedance of the threshold between the perfect sink and drought conditions. These average results hide local variation with exceedances between these two scenarios reaching as high as 20 days in the East Midlands and eastern UK. Estimates of acute exposure effects show that O3 removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition during the June and July period would have been responsible for approximately 460 premature deaths. Conversely, reduced O3 dry deposition will decrease the amount of O3 taken up by vegetation and, according to flux-based assessments of vegetation damage, will lead to a reduction in

  15. Scorched Earth: how will changes in the strength of the vegetation sink to ozone deposition affect human health and ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Emberson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of ozone (O3 deposition on ground level O3 concentrations and subsequent human health and ecosystem risk under hot summer "heat wave" type meteorological events. Under such conditions, extended drought can effectively "turn off" the O3 vegetation sink leading to a substantial increase in ground level O3 concentrations. Two models that have been used for human health (the CMAQ chemical transport model and ecosystem (the DO3SE O3 deposition model risk assessment are combined to provide a powerful policy tool capable of novel integrated assessments of O3 risk using methods endorsed by the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study investigates 2006, a particularly hot and dry year during which a heat wave occurred over the summer across much of the UK and Europe. To understand the influence of variable O3 dry deposition three different simulations were investigated during June and July: (i actual conditions in 2006, (ii conditions that assume a perfect vegetation sink for O3 deposition and (iii conditions that assume an extended drought period that reduces the vegetation sink to a minimum. The risks of O3 to human health, assessed by estimating the number of days during which running 8 h mean O3 concentrations exceeded 100 μg m−3, show that on average across the UK, there is a difference of 16 days exceedance of the threshold between the perfect sink and drought conditions. These average results hide local variation with exceedances between these two scenarios reaching as high as 20 days in the East Midlands and eastern UK. Estimates of acute exposure effects show that O3 removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition during the June and July period would have been responsible for approximately 460 premature deaths. Conversely, reduced O3 dry deposition will decrease the amount of O3 taken up by vegetation and, according to flux-based assessments of vegetation damage, will lead

  16. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  17. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  18. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  19. Functional Foods for Health: The Interrelated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs, Spices and Cocoa in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Peluso, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of plant food-based diets could be related to both integrated antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms exerted by a wide array of phytochemicals present in fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. Therefore, there is mounting interest in identifying foods, food extracts and phytochemical formulations from plant sources which are able to efficiently modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This paper reviews available evidence about the effect of supplementation with selected fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and their extracts or galenic formulation on combined markers of redox and inflammatory status in humans.

  20. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M., E-mail: anna.augustsson@lnu.se [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Hogmalm, K. Johan [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Filipsson, Monika E.M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  1. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions.

  2. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed.

  3. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  4. Responses of human health and vegetation exposure metrics to changes in ozone concentration distributions in the European Union, United States, and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefohn, Allen S.; Malley, Christopher S.; Simon, Heather; Wells, Benjamin; Xu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The impacts of surface ozone (O3) on human health and vegetation have prompted O3 precursor emission reductions in the European Union (EU) and United States (US). In contrast, until recently, emissions have increased in East Asia and most strongly in China. As emissions change, the distribution of hourly O3 concentrations also changes, as do the values of exposure metrics. The distribution changes can result in the exposure metric trend patterns changing in a similar direction as trends in emissions (e.g., metrics increase as emissions increase) or, in some cases, in opposite directions. This study, using data from 481 sites (276 in the EU, 196 in the US, and 9 in China), investigates the response of 14 human health and vegetation O3 exposure metrics to changes in hourly O3 concentration distributions over time. At a majority of EU and US sites, there was a reduction in the frequency of both relatively high and low hourly average O3 concentrations. In contrast, for some sites in mainland China and Hong Kong, the middle of the distribution shifted upwards but the low end did not change and for other sites, the entire distribution shifted upwards. The responses of the 14 metrics to these changes at the EU, US, and Chinese sites were varied, and dependent on (1) the extent to which the metric was determined by relatively high, moderate, and low concentrations and (2) the relative magnitude of the shifts occurring within the O3 concentration distribution. For example, the majority of the EU and US sites experienced decreasing trends in the magnitude of those metrics associated with higher concentrations. For the sites in China, all of the metrics either increased or had no trends. In contrast, there were a greater number of sites that had no trend for those metrics determined by a combination of moderate and high O3 concentrations. A result of our analyses is that trends in mean or median concentrations did not appear to be well associated with some exposure metrics

  5. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As. The target hazard quotient (THQ method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  6. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  7. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1.2, toxi...... in bioassay; and 2.3, possibility to control content in food. Falcarinol from carrots fulfilled all 6 criteria and subsequently showed anticancer effect in rats....

  9. Long-term wastewater irrigation of vegetables in real agricultural systems: Concentration of pharmaceuticals in soil, uptake and bioaccumulation in tomato fruits and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Karaolia, Popi; Hapeshi, Evroula; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2017-02-01

    Wastewater (WW) reuse for vegetable crops irrigation is regularly applied worldwide. Such a practice has been found to allow the uptake of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) by plants and their subsequent entrance to the food web, representing an important alternative pathway for the exposure of humans to PhACs, with potential health implications. Herein we report the impacts of the long-term (three consecutive years) WW irrigation of a tomato crop with two differently treated effluents under real agricultural conditions, on (1) the soil concentration of selected PhACs (i.e. diclofenac, DCF; sulfamethoxazole, SMX; trimethoprim, TMP), (2) the bioaccumulation of these PhACs in tomato fruits, and (3) the human risks associated with the consumption of WW-irrigated fruits. Results revealed that the concentration of the studied PhACs in both the soil and tomato fruits varied depending on the qualitative characteristics of the treated effluent applied and the duration of WW irrigation. The PhAC with the highest soil concentration throughout the studied period was SMX (0.98 μg kg(-1)), followed by TMP (0.62 μg kg(-1)) and DCF (0.35 μg kg(-1)). DCF was not found in tomato fruits harvested from WW-irrigated plants during the first year of the study. However, DCF displayed the highest fruit concentration (11.63 μg kg(-1)) throughout the study (as a result of prolonged WW irrigation), followed by SMX (5.26 μg kg(-1)) and TMP (3.40 μg kg(-1)). The calculated fruit bioconcentration factors (BCFF) were extremely high for DCF in the 2nd (108) and 3rd year (132) of the experimental period, with the respective values for SMX (0.5-5.4) and TMP (0.2-6.4) being significantly lower. The estimated threshold of toxicity concern (TTC) and hazard quotients (HQ) values revealed that the consumption of fruits harvested from tomato plants irrigated for long period with the WW applied for irrigation under field conditions in this study represent a de minimis risk to human

  10. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  11. Evaluating Vegetation Health Condition Using MODIS Data in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵锋; 谢雨丝; 蔡智

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-based vegetation condition index (VCI) and temperature condition index (TCI) have been used extensively for drought detection and tracking, the assessment of weather impacts on vegetation and evaluation of the health and productivity of vegetation. In this study, in order to detect and monitor the growth condition of vegetation, we have collected data on vegetation indices and land surface temperature derived from MODIS (2001-2012) and deifned a vegetation health index (VHI) based on VCI and TCI for assessing vegetation health condition in the Three Gorges Area, China (TGA). The results of the study show that temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetation health condition can be detected, tracked and mapped by the VHI index. In most parts of the TGA, the vegetation health condition showed an overall increasing trend during the study period, especially in Wulong, Fengdu, Shizhu and other regions located in the midstream sections of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In addition, the four studied vegetation types all showed clear increasing trends during the study period. The increasing trend in the vegetation health condition shows a strong positive correlation with topographical slope and altitude (below 500 m). Over the seasons, this trend is strongest in autumn, followed by spring. However, the correlations between vegetation health condition and climatic factors are more frequently significant in summer and winter than in autumn and spring. The vegetation health condition has been low in 2006 and 2011. This finding is consistent with the extreme weather conditions in those two years. However, only in the summer is vegetation health condition signiifcantly correlated with three climatic factors in most of the study area. This result implies that vegetation growth may show a lagged response to climatic factors and may also be affected by human activities, including agricultural activities, industrial activities and other economic activities.

  12. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...

  13. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  14. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in white vegetables: links to health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-05-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets.

  15. [Vegetation landscape health assessment in Changshan Archipelago, North Yellow Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, An-ning; Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Bin-yong; Lin, Yong; Zhang, Yong-hua

    2015-04-01

    Island vegetation is an important component of island ecosystem. Multi-targets of island ecosystem health integrated with landscape ecology theory were employed to construct the index system for island vegetation health assessment in terms of landscape vigor, landscape stressing intensity and landscape stability. The Changshan Archipelago in the North Yellow Sea was chosen as a case to apply the island vegetation health assessment index system. The results showed that the overall vegetation health status in Changshan Archipelago was good and had a big island variation. The vegetation health index for Haiyang Island and Zhangzi Island was above 0.80, belonging to first eco-health level area, whereas that for Dachangshan Island, Xiaochangshan Island and Dawangjia Island ranged from 0.70 to 0.80, which could be categorized as the second eco-health level area. Guanglu Island and Shichen Island could be termed as the third eco-health level area with the vegetation health index below 0.70. The distance of island to mainland, area of island together with industrial structure were the main driving forces for the variation of vegetation landscape heath between different islands.

  16. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Over several decades a number of epidemiological studies have identified the inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables and the risk of several cancers, including gastric, breast, colo-rectal, lung, prostate, bladder and endometrial cancers, via plausible physiological mechanisms. Although retrospective case-control studies have consistently reported inverse associations between the risk of these cancers and the intake of cruciferous vegetables and isothiocyanate-containing plants, current prospective cohort studies have found these associations to be weaker and less consistent. Genetic variations affecting the metabolism of glucosinolate hydrolysis products may modulate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on cancer risk, which may be one of the reasons for the discrepancies between retrospective and prospective studies. In addition, methodological issues such as measurement errors of dietary exposure, misclassification, recall bias, publication bias, confounding and study design should be carefully considered in interpreting the results of case-control and cohort studies and in drawing conclusions in relation to the potential effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancers. Although recent comprehensive reviews of numerous studies have purported to show the specific protective role of cruciferous vegetables, and particularly Brassicas, against cancer risk, the current epidemiological evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce the risk only of gastric and lung cancers. However, there is at present no conclusive evidence that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables attenuates the risk of all other cancers.

  17. Effect of fatty acids on human health in edible vegetable oils%食用植物油中脂肪酸对人体健康影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉凯; 李晓晖; 袁洪; 吴红; 肖志红; 李昌珠

    2015-01-01

    根据我国市售植物食用油脂肪酸含量与人体摄取脂肪酸平衡的差异性以及各种脂肪酸对人体健康的影响,提出应根据人体的生理状况和脂肪营养水平有针对性地开发不同脂肪酸比例的调和油,从而改善和保障人们脂肪营养健康。%According to the difference between fatty acid content of commercial vegetable oil in China and the bal-ance of human body's intake of fatty acids, and effects of various fatty acid on human health, the cooking oil with differ-ent fatty acid ratio should be developed based on human physiological condition and fat nutrition level, which can im-prove and guarantee people's fat nutrition and health.

  18. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  19. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  20. The Health Potential of Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals: Notable Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2016-05-18

    Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of five to eight portions (400-600 g) daily of fruits and vegetables to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, poor cognitive performance, and other diet-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies. Much of their potential for disease prevention is thought to be provided by phytochemicals, among which the preventive activity of antioxidants is most well documented. Since numerous meta-studies published indicate variable and often contradictory results about the impact of isolated phytochemicals on health, their consumption as supplements must be carried out with care, because doses may exceed the recommended nutritional intake. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that whole fruit and vegetable intake is more important in providing health benefits than that of only one of their constituent, because of additive and synergistic effects. This review describes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of some selected fruits and vegetables. Importantly, since some phytochemicals regulate the same genes and pathways targeted by drugs, diets rich in fruits and vegetables in combination with medical therapies are being considered as novel approaches to treatment. Therefore, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetable might be a promising tool for the prevention and/or amelioration of a wide range of diseases.

  1. Health risks of heavy metals for Population via Consumption of greenhouse vegetables in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Sohrabi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The last 25 years have seen a remarkable increase in public concern about food contamination. Food and water are the main sources of our essential metals.These are also the media through which we are exposed to various toxic metalsAs such, this study aimed to assess the risks arising from the use of greenhouse vegetables, cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers in Hamadan Province. Materials & Methods: Soil and plant samples were digested using wet digestion method (HClO 4 /HNO 3 , 2:1 ratio solution, and the concentrations of total As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AE. Results: High concentrations of elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were found in vegetables sampled from overused phosphate fertilized soils, which increased the daily intake of metals in food. The Health risk assessment values of all tested vegetables (pepper, cucumber and tomato were below 1 in As and Cd. The health risk index (HRI value above 1 indicated a relative health risk through the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Conclusions: Heavy metal concentrations should be periodically monitored in vegetables grown in contaminated soils. This study found that long-term fertilizer use led to a growing accumulation of heavy metals (HMs in soils. It would also be beneficial to implement effective remediation technologies to minimize possible impacts on human health

  2. Health Risks of Heavy Metals for Population via Consumption of Greenhouse Vegetables in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Sohrabi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The last 25 years have seen a remarkable increase in public concern about food contamination. Food and water are the main sources of our essential metals.These are also the media through which we are exposed to various toxic metalsAs such, this study aimed to assess the risks arising from the use of greenhouse vegetables, cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers in Hamadan Province. Materials & Methods: Soil and plant samples were digested using wet digestion method (HClO4/HNO3, 2:1 ratio solution, and the concentrations of total As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AE. Results: High concentrations of elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were found in vegetables sampled from overused phosphate fertilized soils, which increased the daily intake of metals in food. The Health risk assessment values of all tested vegetables (pepper, cucumber and tomato were below 1 in As and Cd. The health risk index (HRI value above 1 indicated a relative health risk through the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Conclusions: Heavy metal concentrations should be periodically monitored in vegetables grown in contaminated soils. This study found that long-term fertilizer use led to a growing accumulation of heavy metals (HMs in soils. It would also be beneficial to implement effective remediation technologies to minimize possible impacts on human health.

  3. APPLICATION OF MACHINE LEARNING TO THE PREDICTION OF VEGETATION HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Burchfield

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This project applies machine learning techniques to remotely sensed imagery to train and validate predictive models of vegetation health in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. For both locations, we downloaded and processed eleven years of imagery from multiple MODIS datasets which were combined and transformed into two-dimensional matrices. We applied a gradient boosted machines model to the lagged dataset values to forecast future values of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI. The predictive power of raw spectral data MODIS products were compared across time periods and land use categories. Our models have significantly more predictive power on held-out datasets than a baseline. Though the tool was built to increase capacity to monitor vegetation health in data scarce regions like South Asia, users may include ancillary spatiotemporal datasets relevant to their region of interest to increase predictive power and to facilitate interpretation of model results. The tool can automatically update predictions as new MODIS data is made available by NASA. The tool is particularly well-suited for decision makers interested in understanding and predicting vegetation health dynamics in countries in which environmental data is scarce and cloud cover is a significant concern.

  4. Application of Machine Learning to the Prediction of Vegetation Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Emily; Nay, John J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    This project applies machine learning techniques to remotely sensed imagery to train and validate predictive models of vegetation health in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. For both locations, we downloaded and processed eleven years of imagery from multiple MODIS datasets which were combined and transformed into two-dimensional matrices. We applied a gradient boosted machines model to the lagged dataset values to forecast future values of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The predictive power of raw spectral data MODIS products were compared across time periods and land use categories. Our models have significantly more predictive power on held-out datasets than a baseline. Though the tool was built to increase capacity to monitor vegetation health in data scarce regions like South Asia, users may include ancillary spatiotemporal datasets relevant to their region of interest to increase predictive power and to facilitate interpretation of model results. The tool can automatically update predictions as new MODIS data is made available by NASA. The tool is particularly well-suited for decision makers interested in understanding and predicting vegetation health dynamics in countries in which environmental data is scarce and cloud cover is a significant concern.

  5. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  6. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  7. Monitoring Rangeland Health With MODIS Vegetation Index Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Rangelands cover approximately one third of the land area of the conterminous U.S. These lands supply much of the forage for the U.S. cattle industry. Large area monitoring of these vast expanses of range has proved challenging since most of these lands are in the western U.S., are relatively sparsely populated, and are not well covered by meteorological weather stations. Improvements in the spatial and temporal precision of rangeland health information would be useful both for the cattle industry and for scientific studies of soil erosion, water runoff, ecosystem health, and carbon cycling. Optical multispectral remote sensing data from satellites are an objective source of synoptic, timely information for monitoring rangeland health. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a method for measuring and monitoring rangeland health over large areas. In the past, data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer has proved useful for this purpose, however the basic 1 km spatial resolution is not ideal when scaling up from ground observations. This study assesses MODIS 250 meter resolution vegetation index data for this purpose. MODIS data not only have finer spatial resolution and improved geolocation, but they also exhibit enhanced vegetation sensitivity and minimized variations associated with external atmospheric and non-atmospheric effects. Ground data collected over 51 sites in western South Dakota over four years are used as training for regression tree models of range health. Range health maps for the growing season derived from the models are presented and evaluated.

  8. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  9. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  10. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  11. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  12. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ying; Wu, Pingping; Shao, Yufang; Ying, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    ...) were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable...

  13. A survey of nickel concentrations in vegetables and soils in Guilin and the potential risks to human health%桂林市菜地土壤和蔬菜中的镍含量及其健康风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁立竹; 宋波; 蒙冬柳; 钟雪梅; 张学洪

    2012-01-01

    对桂林市菜地土壤和蔬菜中的镍含量进行大规模调查,评价其污染程度,并用目标危险系数(THQ)评估通过食用蔬菜摄入镍对人体造成的健康风险.采集菜地土壤样品1 60个,新鲜蔬菜样品566个,样品中镍含量采用石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法测定.结果表明,桂林市菜地土壤镍质量浓度范围、算术平均值和Box-Cox平均值分别为9.01~1200.00、39.04、25.18 mg/kg,其中有14.38%的菜地土壤样品镍含量超过《土壤环境质量标准》(GB 15618 - 1995)中农田土壤的二级质量标准(pH<6.5);桂林市蔬菜中镍质量浓度范围、中值和几何平均值分别为0.001~0.981、0.035、0.036 mg/kg,与其他城市蔬菜镍含量相比,桂林市蔬菜镍含量总体处于较低水平,通过蔬菜摄人镍的健康风险小.蔬菜对镍的富集能力以豆苗和豌豆最高,因而其抗污染能力较差,茄子、西红柿和生菜富集能力低.%A large scale survey of nickel levels in soil and vegetables in Guilin was carried out for assessing the potential health risk to local inhabitants. 160 soil samples were collected from fields used to grow vegetable plants. In addition,566 fresh vegetable samples were obtained from vegetable production fields and vegetable stalls, and their nickel concentrations were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that nickel concentrations in soil ranged from 9. 01-1 200. 00 mg/kg,with arithmetic and Box-Cox means was 39. 04 and 25. 18 mg/kg,respectively. 14. 38% of vegetable field soil samples exceeded the second level criterion of soil environment standard (GB 15618-1995) for farmland soil (pH<6. 5). Nickel concentration range,median and arithmetic mean in vegetable samples was 0. 001-0. 981,0. 035 and 0. 036 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with other cities at home and abroad,the nickel concentration in vegetable of Guilin was generally in a low level,nickel ingestion from vegetable

  14. [Contamination and health risk for heavy metals via consumption of vegetables grown in fragmentary vegetable plots from a typical nonferrous metals mine city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Pan, Cheng-Rong; Xu, Jing-Jing; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yan-Min

    2013-03-01

    A systematic survey of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations in eight kinds of vegetables (involving 226 samples) and their corresponding soils at 35 sampling sites in the fragmentary vegetable plots of a typical nonferrous metals mine city, Tongling, was carried out for assessing heavy metal pollution, bio-accumulation ability and potential health risk to local inhabitants due to exposure via consumption of vegetables. The results showed that: (1) The soils of the studied vegetable plots were seriously contaminated by heavy metals and the mean concentrations of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn reached 96.96, 56.64, 1 247.82, 313.59, 6.743 and 600.96 mg x kg(-1), respectively, all significantly exceeding the soil background value of Tongling city; (2) The mean values of integrated pollution index corresponding to eight varieties of vegetables were all higher than the threshold value (i. e. 3.0) of heavy pollution; (3) In general, the largest bioaccumulation factor of heavy metals in vegetables was As, followed by Ni and Cu, and the order of pollution degree of heavy metals in vegetables was Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; (4) The target hazard quotients (THQs) of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn were 17.92, 1.01, 10.14, 0.73, 0.21 and 1.93, respectively. Arsenic and copper were the major risk contributors for inhabitants since the THQs of them respectively mounted to 56.10% and 31.75% of the total THQ value according to the average vegetable consumption; (5) The estimated daily intake (DI) of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn from vegetables was 324.38, 1 211.25, 24 326.25, 176.25, 12.75 and 34 800 microg x d(-1) for adult residents, respectively; and (6) The target cancer risk (TR) of vegetables polluted by As to individual human health was 8.06 x 10(-3), significantly higher than the management standard (i. e. 10(-6) - 10(-4)) of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the standard (i. e. 5.0 x 10(-5)) of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP

  15. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Suyun; Liu, Danru; Wang, Kebo; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhou, Jingyang; Wang, Liansen; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of 301 vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were 94.08 μg kg(-1) and 38.67 μg kg(-1), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p mining and control areas, respectively) and gourd vegetable had the lowest rare earth elements concentration (37.34 μg kg(-1) and 24.63 μg kg(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively). For both areas, the rare earth elements concentration in vegetables declined in the order of leaf vegetable > taproot vegetable > alliaceous vegetable > gourd vegetable. The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes (0.69 μg kg(-1) d(-1) and 0.28 μg kg(-1) d(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively) of rare earth elements through vegetable consumption were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  17. Health professionals' and dietetics practitioners' perceived effectiveness of fruit and vegetable parenting practices across six countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable intake may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. However, many children consume less-than-recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Because health professionals and dietetics practitioners often work with parents to increase children’s fruit and vegetable intake, assessing...

  18. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  19. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  20. Bioaccumulation of Antimony and Arsenic in Vegetables and Health Risk Assessment in the Superlarge Antimony-Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in soils caused by mining and smelting has attracted worldwide attention for its potential health risks to residents. This paper studies the concentrations and accumulations of Sb and As in both soils and vegetables and the human health risks of Sb and As in vegetables from Xikuangshan (XKS Sb mine, Hunan, China. Results showed that the soils were severely polluted by Sb and As; Sb and As have significant positive correlation. Sb and As concentrations in vegetables were quite different: Coriandrum sativum L. was the highest in Sb, Allium fistulosum L. was the highest in As, and Brassica pekinensis L. was the lowest in both Sb and As; Daucus carota L. and Coriandrum sativum L. showed advantage in accumulating Sb and As; Coriandrum sativum L. had higher capacity of redistributing Sb and As within the plant. Health risk assessment results showed that the hazard quotient (HQ values of Sb and As in vegetables were in the ranges of 1.61–3.33 and 0.09–0.39, respectively; the chronic daily intake (CDI and hazard quotient (HQ values of Sb were over the safe limit recommended by FAO and WHO, indicating that long-term consumption of vegetables from the surrounding soils of XKS mine may bring health risks to residents.

  1. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available employment. Current use of fossil-fuel causes substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Nevertheless, health challenges still exist (lower health scores) dealing with rural conditions such as distance from medical facilities...] ecological degradation, the pumping and treatment of extraneous water, compliance to the conditions of the environmental authorisation and the management and sustainable closure thereof, until the Minister has issued [an] a closure certificate in terms...

  2. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  3. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu (China); Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Jia, Hui-Hui [State High-Tech Industrial Innovation Center, Shenzhen 518057, Guangdong (China); Wang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: junjian.wang@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  4. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  5. Use of an in vitro digestion method to estimate human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables grown in smelter-impacted soils: the influence of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Waterlot, Christophe; Guerin, Annie; Proix, Nicolas; Richard, Antoine; Douay, Francis

    2015-08-01

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown vegetables has caused major concern. Some studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was among the most significant hazards in kitchen garden soils and prolonged exposure to this metal could cause deleterious health effects in humans. In general, most risk assessment procedures are based on total concentrations of metals in vegetables. The present study assesses human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables cultivated in smelter-impacted kitchen garden soils. Seven vegetables (radish, lettuce, French bean, carrot, leek, tomato, and potato) were considered. Using the UBM protocol (unified BARGE bioaccessibility method), the bioaccessibility of Cd was measured in raw/cooked vegetables. A considerable amount of Cd was mobilized from raw vegetables during the digestion process (on average 85% in the gastric phase and 69% in the gastrointestinal phase), which could be attributed to a high uptake of Cd during the growth of the vegetables. Most Cd is accumulated in the vacuoles of plant cells, except what is absorbed by the cell wall, allowing Cd to be released from plant tissues under moderate conditions. Cooking by the steaming process generally increased the bioaccessibility of Cd in French bean, carrot, and leek. For potato, few or no significant differences of Cd bioaccessibility were observed after the steaming process, while the frying process strongly decreased bioaccessibility in both phases. The estimation of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment.

  6. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  7. Vegetation dynamics and responses to climate change and human activities in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liangliang; Guli Jiapaer; Bao, Anming; Guo, Hao; Ndayisaba, Felix

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013. Further analysis distinguished between the effects of climatic change and those of human activities on vegetation dynamics by means of a residual analysis trend method. The results show that vegetation pixels significantly decreased for shrubs and sparse vegetation compared with those for the other vegetation types and that the degradation of sparse vegetation was more serious in the Karakum and Kyzylkum Deserts, the Ustyurt Plateau and the wetland delta of the Large Aral Sea than in other regions. The Hurst exponent results indicated that forests are more sustainable than grasslands, shrubs and sparse vegetation. Precipitation is the main factor affecting vegetation growth in the Kazakhskiy Melkosopochnik. Moreover, temperature is a controlling factor that influences the seasonal variation of vegetation greenness in the mountains and the Aral Sea basin. Drought is the main factor affecting vegetation degradation as a result of both increased temperature and decreased precipitation in the Kyzylkum Desert and the northern Ustyurt Plateau. The residual analysis highlighted that sparse vegetation and the degradation of some shrubs in the southern part of the Karakum Desert, the southern Ustyurt Plateau and the wetland delta of the Large Aral Sea were mainly triggered by human activities: the excessive exploitation of water resources in the upstream areas

  8. Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Salka E.; Freese, R.; Kleemola, P.

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously found in human diets. We have studied the association between urinary excretion of flavonoids and the intake of fruits and vegetables to evaluate the usefulness of flavonoids as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Levels of 12 dietary rel...

  9. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  10. Health professionals' and dietetics practitioners' perceived effectiveness of fruit and vegetable parenting practices across six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia; Watson, Kathy; Hughes, Sheryl; Beltran, Alicia; Hingle, Melanie; Baranowski, Janice; Campbell, Karen; Canal, Dolors Juvinyà; Lizaur, Ana Bertha Pérez; Zacarías, Isabel; González, Daniela; Nicklas, Theresa; Baranowski, Tom

    2010-07-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. However, many children consume less-than-recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Because health professionals and dietetics practitioners often work with parents to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake, assessing their opinions about the effectiveness of parenting practices is an important step in understanding how to promote fruit and vegetable intake among preschool-aged children. Using a cross-sectional design, collaborators from six countries distributed an Internet survey to health and nutrition organization members. A self-selected sample reported their perceptions of the effectiveness of 39 parenting practices intended to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool-aged children from May 18, 2008, to September 16, 2008. A total of 889 participants (55% United States, 22.6% Mexico, 10.9% Australia, 4.4% Spain, 3.3% Chile, 2.2% United Kingdom, and 1.6% other countries) completed the survey. The fruit and vegetable intake-related parenting practices items were categorized into three dimensions (structure, responsiveness, and control) based on a parenting theory conceptual framework and dichotomized as effective/ineffective based on professional perceptions. The theoretically derived factor structures for effective and ineffective parenting practices were evaluated using separate confirmatory factor analyses and demonstrated acceptable fit. Fruit and vegetable intake-related parenting practices that provide external control were perceived as ineffective or counterproductive, whereas fruit and vegetable intake-related parenting practices that provided structure, nondirective control, and were responsive were perceived as effective in getting preschool-aged children to consume fruit and vegetables. Future research needs to develop and validate a parent-reported measure of these fruit and vegetable intake-related parenting practices and to empirically evaluate the

  11. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Uses of Screener Estimates in CHIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods.

  12. Forests, Trees and Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European...

  13. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  14. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and appraisal of health risk in Koka and Wonji farms, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliku, Temesgen; Leta, Seyoum

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural crops has grown a major concern globally as a result of a significant health impact on human. The quantification of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) in the soil and vegetables at two sites (Koka and Wonji Gefersa) was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in vegetable fields' soil samples obtained from Koka were higher for Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The overall results of soil samples ranged 0.52-0.93, 13.6-27.3, 10.0-21.8, 44.4-88.5, 11.9-30.3, and 14.7-34.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals were maximum for Cd (0.41 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.54 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)), Zn (14.4 ± 0.72 mg kg(-1)), Cu (2.84 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1)), and Ni (1.09 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) in Cabbage and for Cr (2.63 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) in green pepper. The result indicated that Cd has high transfer factor value and Pb was the lowest. The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb. Among different vegetables, cabbage showed the highest value of metal pollution index and bean had the lowest value. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the consumption of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  15. Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: Health risk implications in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Irfan, Nafis Md; Khan, Ishrat Nourin; Islam, Saiful; Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser

    2016-06-01

    The presence of toxic heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn in nationally representative samples of highly consumed fruits and vegetables was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Their concentrations exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by FAO/WHO for Pb in mango and Cd in tomato among the analyzed fruits and vegetables. Pb content in mango was found to be six times higher than the safe limit at production level. Health risks associated with the intake of these metals were evaluated in terms of estimated daily intake (EDI), and carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks by target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI). EDI values of all the metals were found to be below the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI). The THQs of all metals were 1 through consumption of all vegetables, indicating significant health risks. HI was found to be fruits; however, it was >1 (3.727) for vegetable consumption, suggesting adverse health effects from vegetable consumption only. The total carcinogenic risk (CR) of As was below the threshold level (10(-6)) and 9.82E-05 for Pb, suggesting no potential CR from As consumption, but indicating the risk of Pb-induced carcinogenesis. The findings of this study reveal the health risks associated with the consumption of heavy metals through the intake of selected fruits and vegetables in adult population of Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan; Pereg, Lily; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is important for the maintenance of soil quality. Healthy, biodiverse soils are crucial for human health and wellbeing from several reasons, for example: biodiversity has been shown to be important in controlling populations of pathogens; healthy, well-covered soils can reduce disease outbreaks; carbon-rich soils may also reduce outbreaks of human and animal parasites; exposure to soil microbes can reduce allergies; soils have provided many of our current antibiotics; soil organisms can provide biological disease and pest control agents, healthy soils mean healthier and more abundant foods; soil microbes can enhance crop plant resilience; healthy soils promote good clean air quality, less prone to wind and water erosion; and healthy soils provide clean and safe water through filtration, decontamination by microbes and removal of pollutants. Soil microbes and other biota provide many benefits to human health. Soil microbes are a source of medicines, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs and many more. Organisms that affect soil health and thus human health include those involved in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter and determining soil structure (e.g. aggregation). Again these are related to food security but also affect human health in other ways. Many beneficial organisms have been isolated from soil - plant growth promoting and disease suppressive microbes used as inoculants, foliar inoculants for improvement of ruminant digestion systems and inoculants used in bioremediation of toxic compounds in the environment. Soil biodiversity is highly recognised now as an important feature of healthy soil and imbalances have been shown to give advantage to harmful over beneficial organisms. This presentation will highlight the many connections of biodiversity to soil quality and human health.

  17. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  18. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  19. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control.

  20. Observational Quantification of Climatic and Human Influences on Vegetation Greening in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Hua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to quantify the relative contributions of vegetation greening in China due to climatic and human influences from multiple observational datasets. Satellite measured vegetation greenness, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and relevant climate, land cover, and socioeconomic data since 1982 are analyzed using a multiple linear regression (MLR method. A statistically significant positive trend of average growing-season (April–October NDVI is found over more than 34% of the vegetated areas, mainly in North China, while significant decreases in NDVI are only seen in less than 5% of the areas. The relationships between vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and radiation vary by geographical location and vegetation type. We estimate the NDVI changes in association with the non-climatic effects by removing the climatic effects from the original NDVI time series using the MLR analysis. Our results indicate that land use change is the dominant factor driving the long-term changes in vegetation greenness. The significant greening in North China is due to the increase in crops, grasslands, and forests. The socioeconomic datasets provide consistent and supportive results for the non-climatic effects at the provincial level that afforestation and reduced fire events generally have a major contribution. This study provides a basis for quantifying the non-climatic effects due to possible human influences on the vegetation greening in China.

  1. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    , ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...

  2. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah P; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea D

    2017-07-01

    Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was assessed. The between-participants design consisted of four conditions. A generic health message served as a control condition; personalisation was applied using the recipient's first name, feedback was given on the personal state, or the message was adapted to the recipient's value. The study consisted of a pre-test questionnaire (measuring fruit and vegetable intake and perceived difficulty of performing these behaviours, indicating self-efficacy), exposure to the auditory message and a follow-up questionnaire measuring fruit and vegetable intake two weeks after message exposure (n = 112). ANCOVAs showed no main effect of condition on either fruit or vegetable intake, but a moderation was found on vegetable intake: When self-efficacy was low, vegetable intake was higher after listening to the personalisation message. No significant differences between the conditions were found when self-efficacy was high. Individuals with low self-efficacy seemed to benefit from incorporating personalisation, but only regarding vegetable consumption. This finding warrants further investigation in tailoring research.

  3. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study.

  4. Climate Change and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on human health span the trajectory of time—past, present, and future. The key finding from the Working Group II, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that health impacts due to climate change have already occurred in the past, are currently occurring and will continue to occur, at least for the foreseeable future, even with immediate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions [1]. According to the IPCC, there has been increased heat-related mortality and decreased cold-related mortality in some regions as a result of warming (Box 1. Moreover, local changes in temperature and rainfall have altered the distribution of some water-borne illnesses and disease vectors. Impacts of climate-related extremes include alteration of ecosystems, disruption of food production and water supply, damage to infrastructure and settlements, morbidity and mortality, and consequences for mental health and human well-being [1]. [...

  5. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  6. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  7. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  8. Vegetable and fruit: the evidence in their favour and the public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Antoniou, Anna; Friel, Sharon; Trygg, Kerstin; Turrini, Aida

    2003-03-01

    There is strong evidence that the intake of vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is inversely associated with several forms of cancer. In contrast, information concerning specific macro- or micronutrients in relation to chronic diseases is limited and largely inconclusive. The beneficial role of vegetable and fruit consumption can also be inferred by considering the health effects of two dietary patterns, the Mediterranean and Japanese ones, in both of which the consumption of plant foods holds a prominent position. Time-trend data, retrieved from the DAFNE databank on the vegetable and fruit availability in four European countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy and Norway) indicate that, during the last decade, fruit availability decreased in Greece and Italy and increased in Ireland and Norway, whereas vegetable availability decreased only in Italy. In Greece, Italy and Norway, the daily fruit availability was higher than that of vegetables, a dietary pattern not in accordance to recommendations for higher vegetable consumption. This information, which is crucial for nutrition policies and health education, also demonstrates the value of the DAFNE surveillance system.

  9. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangkun; Fan, Wenxiu; Wang, Xuejing; Qu, Li; Yao, Shuwen

    2011-12-01

    Eight heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and As, in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from China were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (GBW10018 and GBW08551). The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.214-0.875, 0.742-2.56, 16.2-45.3, 0.113-0.556, 0.026-0.075, 0.009-0.018 and 0.009-0.019 μg g(-1), respectively. Cadmium was found to be 2.64-8.43 μg/kg. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in the investigated edible vegetable oils. Comparing with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the dietary intakes of the eight heavy metals from weekly consumption of 175 g of edible vegetable oils or daily consumption 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no risk to human health.

  10. Human-modified landscapes: patterns of fine-scale woody vegetation structure in communal savannah rangelands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available precipitation at one site, and human population density and intensity of use at the other four sites. Size class distributions of woody vegetation revealed human disturbance gradients around settlements. Intensity of use affected the amplitude, not the shape...

  11. Momordica charantia: a popular health-promoting vegetable with multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Li, Zhiliang; Yang, Guliang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shiming

    2017-05-24

    Products derived from edible medicinal plants have been used for centuries to prevent, treat, and even cure multiple diseases. Momordica charantia L., widely cultivated around the world, is a typical one bred for vegetables and medicinal usage. All parts of M. charantia possess important medicinal properties, including antidiabetic, anticancer, hypotensive, anti-obesity, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anthelmintic, neuro-protective, as well as hepato-protective properties both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes the active components and medicinal properties of M. charantia, especially the activities and mechanisms of its anti-diabetic and anti-cancer properties. The anti-diabetic properties involve inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase and glucose transport, protecting islet β-cells, enhancing insulin secretion, increasing hepatic glucose disposal, decreasing gluconeogenesis, and even ameliorating insulin resistance. Moreover, the expressions of PPARs could also be activated and up-regulated. Meanwhile, its anticancer properties are mostly due to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and expression of serum factors associated with immunity. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of M. charantia and its benefits for development as a functional food.

  12. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  13. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  14. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  15. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau(1981―2006):Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981―1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990―1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999―2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002―2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation

  16. Spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover on the Chinese Loess Plateau (1981―2006): Impacts of climate changes and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of Chinese Loess Plateau vegetation cover during 1981-2006 have been investigated using GIMMS and SPOT VGT NDVI data and the cause of vegetation cover changes has been analyzed, considering the climate changes and human activities. Vegetation cover changes on the Loess Plateau have experienced four stages as follows: (1) vegetation cover showed a continued increasing phase during 1981-1989; (2) vegetation cover changes came into a relative steady phase with small fluctuations during 1990-1998; (3) vegetation cover declined rapidly during 1999-2001; and (4) vegetation cover increased rapidly during 2002-2006. The vegetation cover changes of the Loess Plateau show a notable spatial difference. The vegetation cover has obviously increased in the Inner Mongolia and Ningxia plain along the Yellow River and the ecological rehabilitated region of Ordos Plateau, however the vegetation cover evidently decreased in the hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau, Liupan Mountains region and the northern hillside of Qinling Mountains. The response of NDVI to climate changes varied with different vegetation types. NDVI of sandy land vegetation, grassland and cultivated land show a significant increasing trend, but forest shows a decreasing trend. The results obtained in this study show that the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation cover are the outcome of climate changes and human activities. Temperature is a control factor of the seasonal change of vegetation growth. The increased temperature makes soil drier and unfavors vegetation growth in summer, but it favors vegetation growth in spring and autumn because of a longer growing period. There is a significant correlation between vegetation cover and precipitation and thus, the change in precipitation is an important factor for vegetation variation. The improved agricultural production has resulted in an increase of NDVI in the farmland, and the implementation of large-scale vegetation construction has

  17. Human capital, schooling and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  18. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Erk, M.J. van; Klöpping, W.A.A.; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Bijlsma, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether vegetable consumption according to guidelines has beneficial health effects determined with classical biomarkers and nutrigenomics technologies. Fifteen lean (age 36 ± 7 years; BMI 23.4 ± 1.7 kg m−2) and 17 obese (age 40 ± 6 years; BMI 30.3 ± 2.4 kg m−2) men consumed 50-

  20. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low... affect the risk of cancer. Risk factors include a family history of a specific type of cancer, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, exposure...

  1. Nutrigenomics approach elucidates health-promoting effects of high vegetable intake in lean and obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Erk, M.J. van; Klöpping, W.A.A.; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Bijlsma, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether vegetable consumption according to guidelines has beneficial health effects determined with classical biomarkers and nutrigenomics technologies. Fifteen lean (age 36 ± 7 years; BMI 23.4 ± 1.7 kg m−2) and 17 obese (age 40 ± 6 years; BMI 30.3 ± 2.4 kg m−2) men consumed 50-

  2. Levels and potential health risk of heavy metals in marketed vegetables in Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Jiang, Xian-Gen

    2016-02-01

    The present study analyzed 5785 vegetables for concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg, and estimated the health risk to local consumers by deterministic (point estimates) approaches. Levels of elements varied in different vegetables. Average levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb were 0.013, 0.017, 0.057, 0.002, 0.094 and 0.034 mg/kg (fresh weight), respectively. The samples with 0.25% for Cd and 1.56% for Pb were exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) set by the Chinese Health Ministry. No obvious regular geographical distribution for these metals in vegetables was found in areas of Zhejiang, China. The mean and 97.5 percentile levels of heavy metal and metalloid were used to present the mean and high exposure assessment. The health indices (HIs) were less than the threshold of 1 both in mean and high exposure assessment. It indicates that for the general people there is very low health risk to As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg by vegetable intake.

  3. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  4. Metal speciation in soil and health risk due to vegetables consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the contamination level of heavy metals in soil and vegetables, chemical speciation, and their transfer to the edible part of vegetables. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils were 3.7-41, 3.9-36, 3.7-46, 2.3-26, 0.6-13, and 4.5-32 mg/kg, respectively. The metals were predominantly associated with the residual fractions of 39, 41, 40, 40, 34, and 41 % for Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Considering the metal transfer from soil to the edible part of vegetables, the mean transfer factors (TFs) were in the descending order of Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > As > Cd. In the edible tissues of vegetables, the concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb in most vegetable samples exceeded the maximum permissible levels, indicating not safe for human consumption. Total target hazard quotient (THQ) of the studied metals (except Cr) from all vegetables were higher than 1, indicated that if people consume these types of vegetables in their diet, they might pose risk to these metals. Total values of carcinogenic risk (CR) were 3.2 for As and 0.15 for Pb which were higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold level (0.000001), indicating that the inhabitants consuming these vegetables are exposed to As and Pb with a lifetime cancer risk.

  5. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  6. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  7. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  8. Vegetable dietary fibres made with minimal processing improve health-related faecal parameters in a valid rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John; Mishra, Suman; Redman, Claire; Somerfield, Sheryl; Ng, Jovyn

    2016-06-15

    Dietary fibre-induced faecal bulking and hydration are important contributors to large bowel function and health, and are affected by the dietary fibre structure. To determine faecal bulk-related parameters for vegetable dietary fibres with retained structure, cold water fragmentation of vegetables was used to make minimally processed vegetable fibres (MPVF) from swede, broccoli and asparagus. A valid adult rat model was used to subject the fibres to processes of hind gut fermentation and faecal accumulation similar to those in humans. All the MPVFs had high faecal bulking indexes (FBIs, mean ± sem: wheat bran (reference), 100 ± 6.0; asparagus 168 ± 5.7; swede 135 ± 6.1; broccoli 135 ± 5.9; broccoli rind 205 ± 10.4), and caused large increases in the theoretical colonic water load at 10 g per 100 g diet (increase over baseline (%): wheat bran, 137 ± 8.3; asparagus, 236 ± 25, swede 193 ± 8.8; broccoli 228 ± 12; broccoli rind 223 ± 8.5). Faecal bulking by MPVFs was much greater than by fermentable extracted polysaccharides such as pectin and raftilose, or by commercial fibres made from highly processed cell walls. The results show natural, non-degraded vegetable fibres with retained botanical structure have beneficial effects not provided by structure-less fermentable dietary fibres. Dietary fibre-deficient diets supplemented with prebiotics cannot, therefore, adequately substitute for varied diets containing adequate vegetables, fruits and wholegrain cereals in which fermentation is associated with enough retained structure to conserve physicochemical properties of benefit to colonic function.

  9. Prevalence of plant beneficial and human pathogenic bacteria isolated from salad vegetables in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Angamuthu; Babu, Subramanian

    2017-03-14

    The study aimed at enumerating, identifying and categorizing the endophytic cultivable bacterial community in selected salad vegetables (carrot, cucumber, tomato and onion). Vegetable samples were collected from markets of two vegetable hot spot growing areas, during two different crop harvest seasons. Crude and diluted vegetable extracts were plated and the population of endophytic bacteria was assessed based on morphologically distinguishable colonies. The bacterial isolates were identified by growth in selective media, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The endophytic population was found to be comparably higher in cucumber and tomato in both of the sampling locations, whereas lower in carrot and onion. Bacterial isolates belonged to 5 classes covering 46 distinct species belonging to 19 genera. Human opportunistic pathogens were predominant in carrot and onion, whereas plant beneficial bacteria dominated in cucumber and tomato. Out of the 104 isolates, 16.25% are human pathogens and 26.5% are human opportunistic pathogens. Existence of a high population of plant beneficial bacteria was found to have suppressed the population of plant and human pathogens. There is a greater potential to study the native endophytic plant beneficial bacteria for developing them as biocontrol agents against human pathogens that are harboured by plants.

  10. Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Wei; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Shou-Jiang; He, Jin-Feng; Long, Fang-Yan

    2011-09-01

    Concentration and daily intake (DI) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr) in market vegetables in Chongqing of China are investigated and their potential health risk for local consumers is simultaneously evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ). The results showed that the measured Pb and Cd concentrations exceeded the safety limits given by FAO/WHO and Chinese regulations, indicating serious contamination of market vegetables by these metals. As respective DI values for Pb, Mn and Cd were also above the international guideline bases, health risk to the consumers is obvious. The individual THQ for Pb and Cd in pakchoi and Cd in mustard, and the combined THQ for all metals in each vegetable species excluding cos lettuce were above the threshold 1.0, implying the obviously adverse effect on health. Therefore, attention should be paid particularly to the potential hazardous exposure to vegetable heavy metals, especially for Pb and Cd, over a lifetime for people in Chongqing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  12. 佛山市南海区本土种植蔬菜重金属污染现状及对人体健康的风险分析%Heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Nanhai District and risk analysis on human health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝玲; 关世宏; 关汉坤; 黄晓媚; 柯志攀; 唐凯莲; 黄杰周; 李周明

    2011-01-01

    beyond the limit, followed by total mercury (7.47% ,18/241). Of 40 irrigation water samples, total mercury contents of 5 samples (12. 50% ) exceeded the standard. Conclusion Heavy metal contamination of vegetable exists potential risk to human health. It is an effective way to control mercury pollution in water resources, irrigation water and soil to reduce local vegetables mercury levels.%目的 测定佛山市南海区本土土壤、灌溉水和蔬菜重金属含量水平,对经蔬菜途径摄入重金属暴露接触人体的健康风险进行评估.方法2009年7月至2010年9月在佛山市南海区8个镇(街)内分别按照东南西北中的地理位置进行布点,共设调查点40个,每个调查点分别对土壤、灌溉水及蔬菜进行随机抽样.分析蔬菜样品的铅、镉、总汞、铬、无机砷含量水平以及种植地土壤样品和灌溉水样品的铅、铜、镉、锌、总汞、铬、总砷含量水平,并用单因子污染评价指数、尼梅罗污染指数评价蔬菜中重金属污染程度,用靶标危害系数(THQ)评估人体通过食物摄入重金属的风险.结果共采集本土种植的叶菜类、根茎类、瓜豆类共47种品种241份样品,本土种植的蔬菜超标率为46.47%( 112/241),其中总汞、铅、镉、无机砷、铬超标率分别为36.93%(89/241)、8.30%( 20/241)、5.81%( 14/241)、3.73% (9/241)、0.41% (1/241).从重金属单因子污染评价指数分级来看,总汞的超标情况最严重,重污染占21.16% (51/241);从尼梅罗污染指数来看,叶菜类、根茎类、瓜豆类总汞含量均为重污染,综合指数分别为19.17、14.53、15.62.居民经食用本土种植蔬菜日均铅、镉、总汞、铬、无机砷摄入量(DI值)均未超过FAO/WHO每日允许量(ADI值),但叶菜中总汞、铅、镉分别占ADI值的17.26%、12.95%、22.41%.THQ结果显示蔬菜中5种重金属的THQ均<1,但叶菜类铅、镉的THQ值也达0.541、0.575;3类蔬菜

  13. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jane V; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized

  14. Promoting consumption of fruit and vegetables for better health. Have campaigns delivered on the goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Reetica; McConchie, Robyn

    2014-08-01

    Daily intake of fruits and vegetables worldwide remains well below the recommended WHO levels, despite the established health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. A diversity of policy interventions designed to increase consumption have been conducted in the developed economies around the globe for over a decade, involving significant monetary outlays. The impact of these initiatives remains at best, modest to low, in effecting a significant increase in daily consumption on a sustained basis. Several factors have been identified in both promoting and impeding the increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, including the effects of consumer behaviour. This paper reviews several of the major promotional campaigns from around the world and provides analysis of their level of success, with a view to developing novel approaches for formulating more effective marketing and promotional interventions that will prompt significant change.

  15. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  16. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  17. Human Activity Influences on Vegetation Cover Changes in Beijing, China, from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meichen Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the rapid development of human society has already made human activity the dominant factor in the terrestrial ecosystem. As the city of greatest importance in China, the capital Beijing has experienced eco-environmental changes with unprecedented economic and population growth during the past few decades. To better understand the ecological transition and its correlations in Beijing, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Operational Land Imager (OLI images were used to investigate vegetation coverage changes using a dimidiate pixel model. Piecewise linear regression, bivariate-partial correlation analysis, and factor analysis were applied to the probing of the relationship between vegetation coverage changes and climatic/human-induced factors. The results showed that from 2000 to 2005, 2005 to 2010, and 2010 to 2015, Beijing experienced both restoration (6.33%, 10.08%, and 12.81%, respectively and degradation (13.62%, 9.35%, and 9.49%, respectively. The correlation analysis results between climate and vegetation changes demonstrated that from 2000 to 2015, both the multi-year annual mean temperature (r = −0.819, p < 0.01 and the multi-year annual mean precipitation (r = 0.653, p < 0.05 had a significantly correlated relationship with vegetation change. The Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Control Project (BTSSCP has shown beneficial spatial effects on vegetation restoration; the total effectiveness in conservation areas (84.94 in 2000–2010 was much better than non-BTSSCP areas (34.34 in 2000–2010. The most contributory socioeconomic factors were the population (contribution = 54.356% and gross domestic product (GDP (contribution = 30.677%. The population showed a significantly negative correlation with the overall vegetation coverage (r = −0.684, p < 0.05. The GDP was significantly negatively correlated with vegetation in Tongzhou, Daxing, Central city, Fangshan, Shunyi, and Changping (r = −0.601, p < 0.01, while positively

  18. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Carmen; Roşu, Cristina; Piştea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru; Baciu, Călin

    2016-04-01

    Information about heavy metal concentrations in food products and their dietary intake are essential for assessing the health risk of local inhabitants. The main purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in several vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania); (2) to assess the human health risk associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables and fruits by calculating the daily intake rate (DIR) and the target hazard quotient (THQ); and (3) to establish some recommendations on human diet in order to assure an improvement in food safety. The concentration order of heavy metals in the analyzed vegetable and fruit samples was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The results showed the heavy metals are more likely to accumulate in vegetables (10.8-630.6 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.4-196.6 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.2-155.7 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.03-6.61 mg/kg dw for Cd) than in fruits (4.9-55.9 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.9-24.7 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.04-8.82 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.01-0.81 mg/kg dw for Cd). Parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce proved to be high heavy metal accumulators. By calculating DIR and THQ, the data indicated that consumption of parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce from the area on a regular basis may pose high potential health risks to local inhabitants, especially in the area located close to non-ferrous metallurgical plants (Romplumb SA and Cuprom SA) and close to Tăuții de Sus tailings ponds. The DIR for Zn (85.3-231.6 μg/day kg body weight) and Cu (25.0-44.6 μg/day kg body weight) were higher in rural areas, while for Pb (0.6-3.1 μg/day kg body weight) and Cd (0.22-0.82 μg/day kg body weight), the DIR were higher in urban areas, close to the non-ferrous metallurgical plants SC Romplumb SA and SC Cuprom SA. The THQ for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd was higher than 5 for health risks.

  19. Fruit and vegetables consumption in relation to health and diet of medical students in Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsias, George; Linardakis, Manolis; Mammas, Ioannis; Kafatos, Anthony

    2005-03-01

    In Greece, prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing during the last few decades. From a public health point of view, it is important to identify lifestyle practices associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. As part of the Clinical Nutrition course at the University of Crete School of Medicine, 507 medical students (292 men, 215 women) were examined during the period 1995-2001. Individual 24-hour dietary recalls were taken, lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and anthropometric and serum lipid measurements were performed. Fruits and vegetables were consumed by 90% of men (370 +/- 275 g/day) and 94% of women (354 +/- 283 g/day). Among non/ex-smokers who ate fruit and vegetables, 41% consumed > or = 400 g/day, compared to 31% of current smokers (p = 0.05). The risk for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 130 mg/dL, and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (TC:HDL-C) > or = 5 decreased with increasing quartile of fruit and vegetables consumption (trend p Fruit and vegetable intake was favorably related to intake of dietary fiber, calcium, magnesium, potassium, folate, and vitamins C, E, A, B1 and B6, and inversely related to saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol. Prospective studies should be performed within the general young adult population to assess the long-term effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on chronic disease risk development.

  20. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  1. Impacts of Climate Change/Variability and Human Activities on Contemporary Vegetation Productivity across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbaje, S. U.; Odeh, I. A.; Bishop, T.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation productivity is increasingly being impacted upon by climate change/variability and anthropogenic activities, especially in developing countries, where many livelihoods depend on the natural resource base. Despite these impacts, the individual and combined roles of climate and anthropogenic factors on vegetation dynamics have rarely been quantified in many ecosystems and regions of the world. This paper analyzes recent trend in vegetation productivity across Africa and quantified the relative roles of climate change/variability and human activities in driving this trend over 2000-2014 using net primary productivity (NPP) as an indicator. The relative roles of these factors to vegetation productivity change were quantified by comparing the trend slope (pchange in interannual actual NPP (NPPA), potential NPP (NPPP), and human appropriated NPP (NPPH). NPP significantly increased across Africa relative to NPP decline, though the extent of NPP decline is also quite appreciable. Whereas estimated NPP declined by 207 Tg C over 140 X 104 km of land area, vegetation productivity was estimated to improve by 1415 Tg C over 786 X 104 km of land area. NPP improvement is largely concentrated in equatorial and northern hemispheric Africa, while subequatorial Africa exhibited the most NPP decline. Generally, anthropogenic activities dominated climate change/variability in improving or degrading vegetation productivity. Of the estimated total NPP gained over the study period, 32.6, 8.8, and 58.6 % were due to individual human, climate and combined impacts respectively. The contributions of the factors to NPP decline in the same order are: 50.7, 16.0 and 33.3 %. The Central Africa region is where human activities had the greatest impact on NPP improvement; whereas the Sahel and the coastlines of west northern Africa are areas associated with the greatest influence of climate-driven NPP gain. Areas with humans dominating NPP degradation include eastern Angola, western

  2. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  3. Identification of human urinary biomarkers of cruciferous vegetable consumption by metabonomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Beckonert, Olaf P; Stella, Cinzia; Campbell, Alison; Lake, Brian G; Lindon, John C; Holmes, Elaine; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2011-10-07

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CVs) is inversely correlated to many human diseases including cancer (breast, lung, and bladder), diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurological disease. Presently, there are no readily measurable biomarkers of CV consumption and intake of CVs has relied on dietary recall. Here, biomarkers of CV intake were identified in the urine of 20 healthy Caucasian adult males using (1)H NMR spectroscopy with multivariate statistical modeling. The study was separated into three phases of 14 days: a run-in period with restricted CV consumption (phase I); a high CV phase where participants consumed 250 g/day of both broccoli and Brussels sprouts (phase II); a wash-out phase with a return to restricted CV consumption (phase III). Each study participant provided a complete cumulative urine collection over 48 h at the end of each phase; a spot urine (U0), 0-10 h (U0-10), 10-24 h (U10-24), and 24-48 h (U24-48) urine samples. Urine samples obtained after consumption of CVs were differentiated from low CV diet samples by four singlet (1)H NMR spectroscopic peaks, one of which was identified as S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO) and the three other peaks were tentatively identified as other metabolites structurally related to SMCSO. These stable urinary biomarkers of CV consumption will facilitate future assessment of CVs in nutritional population screening and dietary intervention studies and may correlate to population health outcomes.

  4. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.

  5. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  6. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  7. Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle

    2015-09-01

    Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.

  8. PRICE, QUALITY, AND PESTICIDE RELATED HEALTH RISK CONSIDERATIONS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PURCHASES: AN HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF TUCSON, ARIZONA SUPERMARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Edmund A.; Smith, V. Kerry

    1996-01-01

    National opinion polls indicate that pesticide residues on fresh fruits and vegetables remain an important concern of American consumers, despite a decade-long increase in per capita consumption levels for fresh fruits and vegetables. Increased availability of organically grown fruits and vegetables may change consumer produce purchase behavior which is often dominated by appearance considerations. Domestic consumers likely consider and tradeoff price, visual appearance, and health risk when ...

  9. The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Our knowledge is far from complete regarding the relationship between vegetarian diets and human health. However, scientific advances in the last decades have considerably changed the role that vegetarian diets may play in human nutrition. Components of a healthy vegetarian diet include a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, legumes and nuts. Numerous studies show important and quantifiable benefits of the different components of vegetarian diets, namely the reduction of risk for many chronic diseases and the increase in longevity. Such evidence is derived from the study of vegetarians as well as other populations. While meat intake has been related to increased risk for a variety of chronic diseases, an abundant consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, and legumes all have been independently related with a lower risk for several chronic degenerative diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and many cancers. Hence, whole foods of plant origin seem to be beneficial on their own merit for chronic disease prevention. This is possibly more certain than the detrimental effects of meats. Vegetarian diets, as any other diet pattern, have potential health risks, namely marginal intake of essential nutrients. However, from the public health viewpoint the health benefits of a well-planned vegetarian diet far outweigh the potential risks.

  10. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP.

  11. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP.

  12. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health.

  13. Study of Cyclospora cayetanensis in health care facilities, sewage water and green leafy vegetables in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchand, J B; Cross, J H; Jimba, M; Sherchand, S; Shrestha, M P

    1999-03-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging parasite, is endemic in Nepal. A total of 2,123 stool specimens were collected from 3 health care facilities based on clinical symptoms during the period between 1995 to October, 1998. Out of these specimens, cayetanensis oocysts were found in 632 (29.8%). To identify possible sources for Cyclospora infection, drinking water, sewage water, green-leafy vegetables including fecal samples of various animals were collected and examined. The vegetable leaves were washed in distilled water then the washings, sewage water and drinking water were centrifuged and the sediment were examined microscopically. As a result, oocyst of Cyclospora were identified in sewage water and vegetable washings on four different occasions in June, August, October and November. The positive results were also confirmed as C. cayetanensis by development of 2 sporocysts after 2 week incubation period in potassium dichromate. A survey of 196 domestic animals from the same areas demonstrated that two chickens were positive for Cyclospora-like organism and others were negative. Although further studies are needed to clarify the direct link between Cyclospora infection and these sources, the results suggest that sewage water, green leafy vegetables are possible sources of infection and chickens could be possible reservoir host of Cyclospora in Nepal.

  14. Food environment of fruits and vegetables in the territory of the Health Academy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-11-01

    This study provides a spatial analysis of distribution and access to commercial fruit and vegetable establishments within the territory of a representative sample of public fitness facilities known as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study evaluated commercial food establishments within a buffer area based on a radius of 1,600 meters around each of 18 randomly selected fitness facilities. Quality of access to fruits and vegetables was assessed by the Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI), consisting of the variables availability, variety, and advertising of fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods. The analysis was based on calculation of the Kernel intensity estimator, nearest neighbor method, and Ripley K-function. Of the 336 food establishments, 61.3% were green grocers and open-air markets, with a median HFSI of 11 (5 to 16). In only 17% of the territories, the majority of the "hot area" establishments displayed better access to healthy foods, and only three areas showed a clustering pattern. The study showed limited access to commercial establishments supplying healthy fruits and vegetables within the territory of the public fitness program.

  15. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  16. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant–pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  17. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J; Morley, David W; Atkinson, Peter M; Wardrop, Nicola A; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J

    2015-03-01

    Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  19. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  20. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption.

  1. Use of Vegetation Health Data for Estimation of Aus Rice Yield in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nizamuddin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a vital staple crop for Bangladesh and surrounding countries, with interannual variation in yields depending on climatic conditions. We compared Bangladesh yield of aus rice, one of the main varieties grown, from official agricultural statistics with Vegetation Health (VH Indices [Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Temperature Condition Index (TCI and Vegetation Health Index (VHI] computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data covering a period of 15 years (1991–2005. A strong correlation was found between aus rice yield and VCI and VHI during the critical period of aus rice development that occurs during March-April (weeks 8–13 of the year, several months in advance of the rice harvest. Stepwise principal component regression (PCR was used to construct a model to predict yield as a function of critical-period VHI. The model reduced the yield prediction error variance by 62% compared with a prediction of average yield for each year. Remote sensing is a valuable tool for estimating rice yields well in advance of harvest and at a low cost.

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  3. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Definition of Acceptable Dietary Data Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collected on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are coded as frequency and time unit - times per day, week, or month. The data contain some values that are very unlikely.

  4. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  5. Prevalence of Some Human Enteroparasites in Commonly Consumed Raw Vegetables in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabre, Refaat M; Shakir, Abdelazim

    2016-04-01

    The problem of parasitic contamination of food, especially fresh vegetables, is not limited to personal hygiene during food preparation but is also widely dependent on the source of the food and the handling it undergoes before it gets to the consumer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate parasitic contamination in eight common raw vegetables in Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 400 samples of raw vegetables obtained from wholesale and retail markets were examined for helminth eggs and larvae and for cysts of different parasites, using standard methods. The prevalence of the parasites was 20.65% in cucumber, 15.76% in cabbage, 14.67% in pea, 14.13% in cress, 13.04% in lettuce, 10.33% in carrot, 8.70% in green onion, and 2.72% in tomato. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P parasite cysts. Parasites are common in vegetables that are frequently eaten raw and, for this reason, may pose a health risk for consumers in Tabuk.

  6. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-04-17

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  7. The accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables around a zinc smelter in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Yong; Li, Guochen; Cui, Jiehua; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Shicheng; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Ruzhen

    2016-12-01

    Mining and smelting activities engender soil contamination by metals severely. A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, As, and Hg) in soils and vegetables in the surrounding area of an 80-year-old zinc smelter in northeastern China. Soil pH, organic matter (SOM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined, and their relations with heavy metal contents in edible parts of vegetables were analyzed. Results showed that the smelting had led to the significant contamination of the local soils by Cd and Zn, with average concentrations of 3.88 and 403.89 mg kg(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in greenhouse soils were much lower than those in open farmland soils. Cd concentrations in vegetable edible parts exceeded the permissible limits severely, while other metal concentrations were much lower than the corresponding standards. Leaf and root vegetables had higher concentrations and bioaccumulation factors (BCFs) of Cd than fruit vegetables. Hazard quotient and hazard index showed that cadmium is imposing a health risk to local residents via vegetable consumption. Cd uptake of some vegetables can be predicted by empirical models with the following parameters: soil pH, SOM, CEC, Zn concentrations, and Cd concentrations. Vegetables such as cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato, cucumber, and green bean were screened out as being suitable to grow in the studied area.

  8. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  10. The Use of Image Analysis of Leaf Samples to Determine Vegetation Health at Lake Merritt, Oakland, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, J.; Galvez, D.; Iqbal, A.; Mar, L.; Ngilbus, A.; Phan, J.

    2006-12-01

    The primary objective of our investigation was to use a newly developed image analysis technique to examine the overall health of vegetation located along the edge of the Lake Merritt Park and National Wildlife Refuge in downtown Oakland, California. Adapting techniques typically used in remote sensing, we developed a strategy to calculate the amount of damaged area in individual leaves. Relative health of trees was determined by collecting leaf samples from various trees in designated areas, recording digital images of these samples, and then utilizing image analysis software to determine the percentage of apparent damage on a given leaf sample. Then we calculated the average damage area of our samples to infer the health of the entire tree, as well as the entire designated area. We decided to compare three different areas of the park surrounding the lake based on proximity to the lake, nearby streets, and surrounding vegetation. We made the assumption that areas with heightened activity and traffic flow would produce the most damage of vegetation due to air pollution. Thus, designation of areas was based on general observations of the vicinity. The first area, which was located along the northeastern edge of the lake, had minimum damage, averaging only about six percent per tree. This area was characterized by its close proximity to the lake. The second area, situated in Lakeside Park along the lake's northern edge, was distinctive due to its dense stand of trees and minimum human activity. Nevertheless, this location showed the greatest amount of leaf damage, about nine percent. The last area was located along the western edge of the lake, along Lakeside Drive. This area, adjacent to heavy traffic, averaged the least amount of damage, less than one percent. Being only our first attempt at correlating the % damage area on a sample of leaves to the quality of the environment, we had to develop several iterations of procedural strategies to enable us to generate

  11. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  12. Health effects of mixed fruit and vegetable concentrates: a systematic review of the clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Truan, Jennifer; Villa, Christopher R; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2011-10-01

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables (FV) have been associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, public health campaigns to increase FV intake have had limited success. A number of mixed concentrated FV products have been studied, which may help certain individuals improve nutrient status. However, the possible health benefits of FV supplements have not been systematically reviewed. We, therefore, undertook a systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify clinical interventions that examined the effect of commercially available concentrated mixed FV supplements on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Twenty-two reports, which used commercially available products, were identified. None of the studies reported any serious adverse effects. Overall, daily consumption of FV supplements significantly increased serum concentrations of the major antioxidant provitamins and vitamins found in plant foods (β-carotene, vitamins C and E) and folate. Functional changes, such as reduced serum homocysteine and markers of protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation, were also reported; in addition, the health advantages on markers of inflammation, immunity, and endothelial function are promising. Limitations of the available studies were related to the diversity of studies conducted with respect to design and study population and the variability in the measured outcomes and assays utilized. While mixed FV supplements may serve as an efficacious complement for individuals who have difficulty achieving their daily FV intake requirement, further research on additional retail preparations is warranted. Key teaching points: Mixed fruit and vegetable supplements produced from plant foods may serve as an efficacious complement to the habitual diet in individuals who have suboptimal intake or variety of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. Current research indicates that fruit and vegetable concentrates significantly increase serum levels

  13. Holocene grassland vegetation, climate and human impact in central eastern Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Fei; Kealhofer; Lisa; XIONG; Shangfa; HUANG; Fengb

    2005-01-01

    Phytolith and pollen preserved in the Taipusi Banner paleosol profile, central eastern Inner Mongolia, provide evidence of Holocene grassland vegetation, climate and human impact. The combined phytolith and pollen records reveal a major change in vegetation composition about 5000 a BP. Before 5000 a BP, the vegetation was dominated by Aneurolepidium chinese-Stipa grandis grassland of C4 grasses. After 5000 a BP, C4 grasses rapidly retreated,indicating a shift to colder and more arid conditions. The gradual invasion of Stipa krylovii, Agropyron desertorum, Ephedra, Chenopodiaceae and Caragana reveal the onset of grassland degeneration. Between 10000 and 8720 a BP, the Aneurolepidium chinese-Stipa grandis grassland included a small proportion of Artemisia shrub and Echionopos type plants, implying a strong winter monsoon and very weak summer monsoon. From 8720 to 7000 a BP, C4 grasses were common, indicating a strengthening of the summer monsoon. Between 7000 and 5000 a BP,the Holocene thermal maximum was evident, with a significant expansion of C4 grasses and the presence of some trees (such as Pinus and Betula, and so on) in or near the study site. From 4200-3000 a BP, a sandy grassland of Artemisia and Agropyron desertorum together with As ter-type taxa occurred. Precipitation amelioration took place between 3000 and 2170 a BP, with a rapid development of Echinops type plants and a small expansion of C4 grasses. From 2170 a BP to present, human activities accelerated the process of grassland degeneration.

  14. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  15. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  16. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  17. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF CAROTENOIDS FOR HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih ÖTLEŞ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are brightly yellow to red pigments occuring in plants and are introduced into humans through dietary intake of vegetables and fruits. They do not dissolve in water, they can give maximum absorption in UV region at 400-450 nm., and they are stable in alkali. Some carotenoids have provitamin A activity and they are important because of the synthesis of Vitamin A needed to be taken into the body. In addition to this function, carotenoids play very important roles in preventing diseases caused by Vitamin A deficiency, coronary heart diseases, and cancer. They are effective in preventing or at least slowering cancer as a result of their antioxidative properties. Studies are shown that cancer risk (especially the lung cancer decreases with the intake of carotenoids. As a conclusion vegetables and fruits-rich diet is always important and valuable for healty populations.

  19. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  20. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  1. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  2. Dynamics of Fractional Vegetation Coverage and Its Relationship with Climate and Human Activities in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqin Tong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term remote sensing normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI datasets have been widely used in monitoring vegetation changes. In this study, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS NDVI3g dataset was used as the data source, and the dimidiate pixel model, intensity analysis, and residual analysis were used to analyze the changes of vegetation coverage in Inner Mongolia—from 1982 to 2010—and their relationships with climate and human activities. This study also explored vegetation changes in Inner Mongolia with respect to natural factors and human activities. The results showed that the estimated vegetation coverage exhibited a high correlation (0.836 with the actual measured values. The increased vegetation coverage area (49.2% of the total area was larger than the decreased area (43.3% from the 1980s to the 1990s, whereas the decreased area (57.1% was larger than the increased area (35.6% from the 1990s to the early 21st century. This finding indicates that vegetation growth in the 1990s was better than that in the other two decades. Intensity analysis revealed that changes in the average annual rate from the 1990s to the early 21st century were relatively faster than those in the 1980s–1990s. During the 1980s–1990s, the gain of high vegetation coverage areas was active, and the loss was dormant; in contrast, the gain and loss of low vegetation coverage areas were both dormant. In the 1990s to the early 21st century, the gains of high and low vegetation coverage areas were both dormant, whereas the losses were active. During the study period, areas of low vegetation coverage were converted into ones with higher coverage, and areas of high vegetation coverage were converted into ones with lower coverage. The vegetation coverage exhibited a good correlation (R2 = 0.60 with precipitation, and the positively correlated area was larger than the negatively correlated area. Human activities not only promote the

  3. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  4. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  5. EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH | Waling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... add variety to household diets and nutrients, and improve household incomes for improved food security situation.

  6. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  7. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  8. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  9. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  10. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  11. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  12. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody...... cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO2, and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services...

  13. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  14. Report of second LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipt. Sviluppo Tecnologie di Punta

    1993-09-15

    The second European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Oberpfaffenhofen (D) (30 Jun-9 Jul 1992) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. Italian groups, from ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), CNR (Italian National Research Council) and Viterbo University participated in this campaign together with German, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for the remote sensing of water and territory was improved, on the basis of the former field experience on plant fluorescence remote detection gained during the first LASFLEUR campaign held in Viterbo, and carried out on-site by means of a movable container. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (spruce, maple, elm and cornel trees, and mais plants). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the present spectral domain measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (nutrition or water) stress conditions. Several correlations were found between different pigment concentrations in various vegetables and spectrally resolved remote sensed data on the same species. It was demonstrated that the measurements, when performed from an airborne platform, would allow for a remote vegetation recognition across large areas (monitoring cultivations or forests). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the inter-calibration of different lidar systems operating in the spectrally resolved mode: this point is discussed here as well. Some conclusions drawn at the end of the LASFLEUR project Phase 1 are presented at the end of this report, as discussed during the last Project Workshop held in Florence from October 22nd to 26th, 1992.

  15. Cognitive-behavioural health-promotion intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity among South African adolescents: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; O'Leary, Ann; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry; Bellamy, Scarlett; Jones, Shasta; Landis, J Richard; Heeren, G Anita; Tyler, Joanne C; Makiwane, Monde B

    2011-02-01

    Rates of chronic diseases are high among Black South Africans but few studies have tested cognitive-behavioural health-promotion interventions to reduce this problem. We tested the efficacy of such an intervention among adolescents in a cluster-randomised controlled trial. We randomly selected 9 of 17 matched pairs of schools and randomised one school in each pair to the cognitive-behavioural health-promotion intervention designed to encourage health-related behaviours and the other to a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction intervention that served as the control. Interventions were based on social cognitive theory, the theory of planned behaviour and qualitative data from the target population. Data collectors, blind to participants' intervention, administered confidential assessments at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes were fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Participants were 1057 grade 6 learners (mean age = 12.4 years), with 96.7% retained at 12-month follow-up. Generalised estimating equations revealed that averaged over the follow-ups, a greater percentage of health-promotion intervention participants than HIV/STD control participants met 5-a-Day fruit and vegetable and physical activity guidelines. The intervention also increased health-promotion knowledge, attitude and intention, but did not decrease substance use or substance-use attitude and intention. The findings suggest that theory based and contextually appropriate interventions may increase health behaviours among young adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  17. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activities in Languedoc (Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azuara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Holocene climate fluctuations and human activities since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to reconstruct Mediterranean paleoenvironments over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France. These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics over the last 4500 years. Results are compared with climatic, historical and archeological archives. A long-term aridification trend is highlighted during the Late Holocene and three superimposed arid events are recorded at 4600–4300, 2800–2400 and 1300–1100 cal BP. These periods of climatic instability coincide in time with the rapid climatic events depicted in the Atlantic Ocean (Bond et al., 2001. From the Bronze Age (4000 cal BP to the end of the Iron Age (around 2000 cal BP, the spread of evergreen taxa and loss of forest cover result from anthropogenic impact. The Antiquity is characterized by a major reforestation event related to the concentration of rural activities and populations in coastal plains leading to forest recovery in the mountains. A major regional deforestation occurred at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. Around 1000 cal BP, forest cover is minimal while cover of olive, chestnut and walnut expands in relation to increasing human influence. The present day vegetation dominated by Mediterranean shrubland and pines has been in existence since the beginning of the 20th century.

  18. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  19. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 μg kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 μg kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations.

  20. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  1. Intake of fruits and vegetables, and risk of endometrial cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Rohan, Thomas E

    2010-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables contain a wide variety of phytochemicals which may have anti-carcinogenic effects. Although the results of case-control studies have suggested a possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable intake on the risk of endometrial carcinoma, few cohort studies have examined this association. We used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to assess the association of fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as intake of specific botanical groupings of fruits and vegetables, with endometrial cancer risk among 112,088 women who completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline, in 1995-1996. During 8 years of follow-up 1142 incident cases of endometrial cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). After adjustment for covariates, HRs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of total fruit and total vegetable intake were 1.30 (95% CI 1.04-1.61, P for trend 0.05) and 1.09 (95% CI 0.90-1.33, P for trend 0.55), respectively. No inverse associations were observed for intake of any of 13 botanical groupings of fruits and vegetables. Results from this large prospective study do not support a protective role of a high intake of fruits or vegetables on the risk of endometrial cancer in older women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of human noroviruses in frozen marketed shellfish, red fruits and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutreul, Julie; Cazeaux, Catherine; Levert, Delphine; Nicolas, Aline; Vautier, Sandrine; Le Sauvage, Anne Laure; Perelle, Sylvie; Morin, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs), currently recognised as the most common human food-borne pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment and can be transmitted to humans through multiple foodstuffs. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of human NoV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII) in 493 food samples including soft red fruits (n = 200), salad vegetables (n = 210) and bivalve mollusc shellfish (n = 83), using the Bovine Enterovirus type 1 as process extraction control for the first time. Viral extractions were performed by elution concentration and genome detection by TaqMan Real-Time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Experimental contamination using hepatitis A virus (HAV) was used to determine the limit of detection (LOD) of the extraction methods. Positive detections were obtained from 2 g of digestive tissues of oysters or mussels kept for 16 h in seawater containing 2.0-2.7 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/L of HAV. For lettuces and raspberries, the LOD was, respectively, estimated at 2.2 and 2.9 log10 PFU per 25 g. Of the molluscs tested, 8.4 and 14.4% were, respectively, positive for the presence of GI NoV and GII NoV RNA. Prevalence in GI NoVs varied from 11.9% for the salad vegetables samples to 15.5% for the red soft fruits. Only 0.5% of the salad and red soft fruits samples were positive for GII NoVs. These results highlight the high occurrence of human NoVs in foodstuffs that can be eaten raw or after a moderate technological processing or treatment. The determination of the risk of infection associated with an RT-qPCR positive sample remains an important challenge for the future.

  3. Report of third LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1994-11-01

    The third european joint field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health has been held in Avignon F (September 6th to 17th, 1993) in the frame of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. The Italian group from ENEA (Italian Agency forn New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) participated to this campaign together with Germany, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for remote sensing of water and territory has been improved with the addition of a new short pulse laser source more suitable to time resolved measurements. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (different trees, maize and sorghum cultivations). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the fluorescence measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (chemical- or water-) stress conditions.

  4. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  5. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  6. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  7. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  8. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Russell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05 improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato. Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01. However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01 contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  9. Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables...

  10. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought...... or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  11. [Preliminary study on occurrence and health risk assessment of quinolone antibiotics in vegetables from Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Ce-Hui; Tai, Yi-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Ji-Yang; Su, Qing-Yun

    2010-10-01

    Quinolone antibiotics (QNs) including norfloxacin (NOR), enrofolxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin (LOM) in vegetable samples collected from Guangzhou were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescent detector (FLD). The detected frequency of QNs was 96% in vegetables. The total concentration of quinolones (sigma QNs) detected in vegetable ranged from 1.0 microg/kg to 1 683.1 microg/kg (F.W.). Leafy vegetable topped the content of quinolones among the three types of vegetables, followed by the melon-fruit vegetable and rhizome vegetable. The detected frequency of the four quinolone antibiotics ranked as NOR > CIP > LOM > ENR. Except ENR, concentrations of CIP, NOR, LOM and sigma QNs in pollution-free vegetable, green vegetable and organic vegetable were higher than those in routine cultivated vegetables. The maximum contribution to ADI value (caculated by the sum of CIP and ENR) is estimated up to 41.5% and 83% for adults and children respectively via consumption of vegetables.

  12. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  13. Human resources for health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country.

  14. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure assessment of cadmium and lead in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Su, Feng; Zhang, Chaosheng; Mo, Hui; Li, Zhian

    2016-12-01

    A systematic investigation into cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations and their oral bioaccessibility in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta region were carried out to assess their potential health risks to local residents. The average concentrations of Cd and Pb in six species of fresh vegetables varied within 0.09-37.7 and 2.3-43.4 μg kg(-1), respectively. Cadmium and Pb bioaccessibility were 35-66 % and 20-51 % in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be significantly higher than the cooked vegetables with 34-64 % for Cd and 11-48 % for Pb. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase (except for fruit vegetables). Cooking slightly reduced the total concentrations and bioaccessibility of Cd and Pb in all vegetables. The bioaccessible estimated daily intakes of Cd and Pb from vegetables were far below the tolerable limits.

  15. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  16. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  17. Whole grains and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  18. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  19. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  20. Employing UAVs to Acquire Detailed Vegetation and Bare Ground Data for Assessing Rangeland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Herrick, J. E.; Winters, C.

    2007-12-01

    Because of its value as a historical record (extending back to the mid 1930s), aerial photography is an important tool used in many rangeland studies. However, these historical photos are not very useful for detailed analysis of rangeland health because of inadequate spatial resolution and scheduling limitations. These issues are now being resolved by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) over rangeland study areas. Spatial resolution improvements have been rapid in the last 10 years from the QuickBird satellite through improved aerial photography to the new UAV coverage and have utilized improved sensors and the more simplistic approach of low altitude flights. Our rangeland health experiments have shown that the low altitude UAV digital photography is preferred by rangeland scientists because it allows, for the first time, their identification of vegetation and land surface patterns and patches, gap sizes, bare soil percentages, and vegetation type. This hyperspatial imagery (imagery with a resolution finer than the object of interest) is obtained at about 5cm resolution by flying at an altitude of 150m above the surface of the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Additionally, the UAV provides improved temporal flexibility, such as flights immediately following fires, floods, and other catastrophic disturbances, because the flight capability is located near the study area and the vehicles are under the direct control of the users, eliminating the additional steps associated with budgets and contracts. There are significant challenges to improve the data to make them useful for operational agencies, namely, image distortion with inexpensive, consumer grade digital cameras, difficulty in detecting sufficient ground control points in small scenes (152m by 114m), accuracy of exterior UAV information on X,Y, Z, roll, pitch, and heading, the sheer number of images collected, and developing reliable relationships with ground-based data across a broad

  1. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a market basket study made in Nanjing, China, in which the most common consumed nine kinds of vegetables foodstuffs were sampled, the contents of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The results showed that the total amount of 16 PAHs was within the range of 60.5~312 ng g−1 (wet weight. The ranking of total concentrations for different types of vegetables in decreasing order was leafy vegetable, fruit vegetable, and rhizome vegetable. Source analysis suggested that coal, oil, or other incomplete combustion of biomass mainly contributed to the concentration of PAHs. The margin of exposure (MOE approach with age/gender group-specific daily dietary exposure level was used to estimate the carcinogenic risk. The calculated total mean MOE in the case of BaP and PAH4 (sum of BaA, CHR, BbF, and BaP was 14960 and 7723, respectively, for local residents. In addition, the MOEs in PAH4 for some groups of both male and female were below the critical limit of 10 000 proposed by EFSA. Therefore, health effect owing to the consumption of vegetables on local residents needs high concern.

  2. Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Martin Stefan; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody...... an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km2), mostly in humid zones. Increases in woody cover were associated with low population growth, and were driven by increases in CO2 in the humid zones and by increases in precipitation in drylands, whereas decreases in woody...... cover were associated with high population growth. The spatially distinct pattern of these opposing trends reflects, first, the natural response of vegetation to precipitation and atmospheric CO2, and second, deforestation in humid areas, minor in size but important for ecosystem services...

  3. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  4. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  5. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  7. Fruit and vegetable consumption and hypertriglyceridemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Lee, H-J; Shin, H J; Stampfer, M J; Cho, E

    2015-11-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the association between intake of fruits and vegetables and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the association between total fruit and vegetable intake, as well as subgroups of fruit and vegetable intake, with hypertriglyceridemia among Korean adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7934 adults aged 19-64 years from the fourth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Subgroups of fruits and vegetables included citrus, non-citrus and carotene-rich fruits and cruciferous, green leafy and carotene-rich vegetables. Hypertriglyceridemia (plasma triglyceride ⩾150 mg/dl) was diagnosed using a blood sample drawn after 12+ hours of fasting. There were 2001 (25.2%) cases of hypertriglyceridemia among the participants. Total fruit intake was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia; the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hypertriglyceridemia across increasing quintiles were 1.00 (ref), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), 0.72 (0.58, 0.90), 0.68 (0.54, 0.85) and 0.64 (0.49, 0.82; Ptrend=0.001) after controlling for survey year, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, education and income. Similar inverse associations were found for all fruit subgroups. However, we found no significant association between intakes of total or subgroups of vegetable and hypertriglyceridemia; the odds ratio for top vs bottom quintile was 1.00 (0.81-1.24) for total vegetable intake. Our findings support a potential beneficial role of fruit consumption to reduce blood triglyceride levels in Asian populations.

  8. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system. In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4x10CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4x105CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in

  9. Historical landscape elements in preserving steppic species - vegetation responses on micro-topography and human disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Balázs; Valkó, Orsolya; Török, Péter; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-04-01

    Land use changes of past centuries resulted in a considerable loss and isolation of grassland habitats worldwide which also led to a serious loss in ecosystem functions. In intensively used agricultural landscapes remnants of natural flora persisted only in small habitat islands embedded in a hostile matrix, which are inadequate for arable farming or construction. In the steppe zone of Eurasia burial mounds, so-called kurgans, have a great potential to preserve the natural flora and habitats and act as local biodiversity hotspots. Their special micro-topography and historical origin makes kurgans characteristic landscape elements of the steppe region. These features also result in a specific soil development and micro-climate, which makes kurgans especially adequate habitats for several steppe specialist plant species. Furthermore, they are proper objects for studying the effects of present and past human disturbances on the vegetation of semi-natural habitats. Exploration of the main factors driving biodiversity in isolated habitat fragments is crucial for understanding the ecological processes shaping their vegetation and for designing effective strategies for their protection. We surveyed the vegetation of 44 isolated kurgans in East-Hungary and studied the effects of habitat area, slope, recent disturbance, past destruction and the level of woody encroachment on the species richness and cover of grassland specialist and weedy species. We used model selection techniques and linear models for testing relevant factors affecting specialist species in grassland fragments. We found that the biodiversity conservation potential of kurgans is supported by their steep slopes, which provide adequate habitat conditions and micro-climate for steppic specialist plant species. By harbouring several grassland specialist species, kurgans have a great potential for preserving the natural species pool of even considerably altered agricultural landscapes, and can mitigate the

  10. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, H.

    2015-01-01

    factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot...... ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive...... for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects...

  11. The Influences of Climate Change and Human Activities on Vegetation Dynamics in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands occupy nearly three quarters of the land surface of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (QTP and play a critical role in regulating the ecological functions of the QTP. Ongoing climate change and human interference have greatly affected grasslands on the QTP. Differentiating human-induced and climate-driven vegetation changes is vital for both ecological understanding and the management of husbandry. In this study, we employed statistical analysis of annual records, various sources of remote sensing data, and an ecosystem process model to calculate the relative contribution of climate and human activities to vegetation vigor on the QTP. The temperature, precipitation and the intensity and spatial pattern of livestock grazing differed between the periods prior to and after the year 2000, which led to different vegetation dynamics. Overall, increased temperature and enhanced precipitation favored vegetation growth. However, their combined effects exhibited strong spatial heterogeneity. Specifically, increased temperature restrained vegetation growth in dry steppe regions during a period of slightly increasing precipitation from 1986 to 2000 and in meadow regions during a period of precipitation decline during 2000–2011, thereby making precipitation a dominant factor. An increase in precipitation tended to enhance vegetation growth in wet meadow regions during warm periods, and temperature was the limiting factor in Tibet during dry periods. The dominant role played by climate and human activities differed with location and targeted time period. Areas dominated by human activities are much smaller than those dominated by climate. The effects of grazing on grassland pasture were more obvious under unfavorable climate conditions than under suitable ones.

  12. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific

  13. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  14. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific evidenc

  15. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Wang; Min Qiao; Yunxia Liu; Yongguan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The possible health risks of heavy metals contamination to local population through food chain were evaluated in Beijing and Tianjin city cluster,China,where have a long history of sewage irrigation.The transfer factors (TF) for heavy metals from soil to vegetables for six elements including Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr,As and Cd were calculated and the pollution load indexes (PLI) were also assessed.Results indicate that only Cd exceeded the maximum acceptable limit in these sites.So far,the heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables were all below the permissible limits set by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China and World Health Organization.The transfer factors of six heavy metals showed the trend as Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cr,which were dependent on the vegetable species.The estimated dietary intakes of Cu,Zn,Pb,Cr,As and Cd were far below the tolerable limits and the target hazard quotient (THQ) values were less than 1,which suggested that the health risks of heavy metals exposure through consuming vegetables were generally assumed to be safe.

  17. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  18. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  19. Holocene fire history in Western China - relationships with climate and human impact, and the role of fire in vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Q.

    2015-12-01

    It is well recognised that studies of past fire regimes and their causes (human and/or climatic) are useful to understand the long-term ecological effects of fire on vegetation communities. Further, information on the long-term fire history and its effect on vegetation dynamics may provide useful insights for vegetation management in fragile eco-environment of Western China. The main aim of this study is to quantitatively reconstruct high-resolution fire history in West China based on charcoal records from peatlands in Zoige basin (Tibet) and Altai Mountains (Xinjiang). We investigate the long-term relationships between fire, climate, human-impact and the history of biodiversity based on four Holocene macro- and micro- charcoal records and a synthesis on previously published pollen data and geochemistry data. Three hypotheses based on global charcoal records and former studies on palaeofire carried out in China need to be test by this study: 1) during early-mid Holocene period, fire frequency in the study area is relative low and best explained by the changes of regional climate; 2) during the late Holocene, fire activities in the study area increased might due to impacts of the human activities over the climate changes, and human activities is responsible for the temporal and spatial variations in fire regime; 3) the difference of fire histories can be explained by the difference of vegetation composition at site.

  20. Public Health Relevance of Cross-Contamination in the Fresh-Cut Vegetable Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno; Evers, Eric; Franz, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Although quantitative studies have revealed that cross-contamination during the washing stage of fresh produce occurs, the importance of cross-contamination in terms of public health relevance has rarely been assessed. The direct distribution of initially contaminated leafy vegetables to a multitude of servings by cutting and mixing also has not been addressed. The goal of this study was to assess the attribution of both contamination pathways to disease risk. We constructed a transparent and exploratory mathematical model that simulates the dispersion of contamination from a load of leafy greens during industrial washing. The risk of disease was subsequently calculated using a Beta-Poisson dose-response relation. The results indicate that up to contamination loads of 10(6) CFU the direct contamination route is more important than the indirect route (i.e., cross-contamination) in terms of number of illnesses. We highlight that the relevance of cross-contamination decreases with more diffuse and uniform contamination, and we infer that prevention of contamination in the field is the most important risk management strategy and that disinfection of washing water can be an additional intervention to tackle potentially high (>10(6) CFU) point contamination levels.

  1. Quality characteristics and lutein bioavailability from maize and vegetable-based health food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2014-06-01

    Health food (ready-mix) was prepared from maize and vegetables a source of lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and studied for its quality characteristics (moisture sorption isotherm, sensory, microbiological, chemical composition, and storage stability) on storage at varying temperatures for 3 months and L+Z bioavailability in mice. Results revealed a decrease in the L+Z level (4.70, 9.24, and 13.85%) of ready-mix stored at 4, 27, and 37°C, respectively. Critical relative humidity and critical moisture content of the product was 64% and 12.24%, respectively. The product is well accepted and was not affected adversely during storage. L+Z bioavailability from ready-mix in mice was higher in plasma (29.4%), liver (58.7%), and eye (14.6%) than control (mice received diet with purified L). To conclude, L+Z in the ready-mix is stable and more bioavailable than control. These findings may help in understanding the importance of simple food processing to improve L bioavailability under its deficient condition among an elderly population.

  2. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Johnson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF, availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design: Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods: Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results: Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] > 25 was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d. Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion: Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents.

  3. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  4. Comparative analysis of the potential probiotic abilities of lactobacilli of human origin and from fermented vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve strains of Lactobacillus plantarum derived from spontaneously fermented vegetables (carrots and beetroot and traditionally prepared sauerkraut were compared for their potential probiotic abilities with seven Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin. The tested strains were investigated for some technological properties and in vitro functional characteristics for potential probiotic strains. Selection probiotic criteria included the ability of the strains to withstand conditions similar to the digestive tract, antimicrobial activity against a wide range of intestinal pathogens and sensitivity to antibiotics. The total acidity in milk was generally higher in intestinal strains in relation to plant strains. The ability of the tested strains to survive simulated gastric conditions showed a greater resistance of the human strains at a low pH 2.5 and the presence of pepsin, while in the presence of bile salts and pancreatin, some intestinal strains were more sensitive compared to plant strains. A wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities was observed in all tested strains. Most of the plant strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin and penicillin, while only some intestinal strains were resistant to these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  5. Hyperspectral Monitoring of Green Roof Vegetation Health State in Sub-Mediterranean Climate: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Patrizia; Porti, Michele; Veltri, Simone; Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica

    2017-03-23

    In urban and industrial environments, the constant increase of impermeable surfaces has produced drastic changes in the natural hydrological cycle. Decreasing green areas not only produce negative effects from a hydrological-hydraulic perspective, but also from an energy point of view, modifying the urban microclimate and generating, as shown in the literature, heat islands in our cities. In this context, green infrastructures may represent an environmental compensation action that can be used to re-equilibrate the hydrological and energy balance and reduce the impact of pollutant load on receiving water bodies. To ensure that a green infrastructure will work properly, vegetated areas have to be continuously monitored to verify their health state. This paper presents a ground spectroscopy monitoring survey of a green roof installed at the University of Calabria fulfilled via the acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. This study is part of a larger research project financed by European Structural funds aimed at understanding the influence of green roofs on rainwater management and energy consumption for air conditioning in the Mediterranean area. Reflectance values were acquired with a field-portable spectroradiometer that operates in the range of wavelengths 350-2500 nm. The survey was carried out during the time period November 2014-June 2015 and data were acquired weekly. Climatic, thermo-physical, hydrological and hydraulic quantities were acquired as well and related to spectral data. Broadband and narrowband spectral indices, related to chlorophyll content and to chlorophyll-carotenoid ratio, were computed. The two narrowband indices NDVI705 and SIPI turned out to be the most representative indices to detect the plant health status.

  6. An assessment of health risks associated with arsenic exposure via consumption of homegrown vegetables near contaminated glassworks sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E; Gunnarsson, Sara J; Hogmalm, K Johan; Lindegård, M I Boel G; Augustsson, Anna L M

    2015-12-01

    The health risk posed by arsenic in vegetables grown in private gardens near 22 contaminated glassworks sites was investigated in this study. Firstly, vegetable (lettuce and potato) and soil samples were collected and arsenic concentrations measured to characterize the arsenic uptake in the selected crops. Secondly, a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the average daily intake (ADIveg), which was then evaluated against toxicological reference values by the calculation of hazard quotients (HQs) and cancer risks (CRs). The results show that elevated arsenic concentrations in residential garden soils are mirrored by elevated concentrations in vegetables, and that consumption of these vegetables alone may result in an unacceptable cancer risk; the calculated reasonable maximum exposure, for example, corresponded to a cancer incidence 20 times higher than the stated tolerance limit. However, the characterization of risk depends to a great extent on which toxicological reference value is used for comparison, as well as how the exposure is determined. Based on the assumptions made in the present study, the threshold levels for chronic non-carcinogenic or acute effects were not exceeded, but the cancer risks indicated highlight the need for further exposure studies, as dietary intake involves more than just homegrown vegetables and total exposure is a function of more than just one exposure pathway. In addition, glassworks sites--and contaminated sites in general--contain multiple contaminants, affecting the final and total risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  8. Eat Your Fruit and Vegetables (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-07

    Getting kids to eat their fruits and vegetables is a common problem for many parents, but it’s a battle worth fighting. In this podcast, Dr. Latetia Moore discusses the importance of encouraging children to eat their fruit and vegetables.  Created: 8/7/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/7/2014.

  9. Brief report: Compensatory health beliefs are negatively associated with intentions for regular fruit and vegetable consumption when self-efficacy is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Reinwand, Dominique; Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-28

    Compensatory health beliefs (the beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated by a healthy behaviour) can interfere with adherence to fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations. Fruit and vegetable consumption, social cognitive variables and compensatory health beliefs were investigated via self-report at baseline (T0) and 8-week follow-up (T1) in N = 790 participants. Self-efficacy predicted fruit and vegetable consumption intentions. Planning mediated between intentions and T1 fruit and vegetable consumption. Compensatory health beliefs negatively predicted intentions at low self-efficacy levels only. The results propose the use of self-efficacy interventions to diminish the negative effects of compensatory health beliefs when forming fruit and vegetable consumption intentions and foster planning to translate intentions into behaviour.

  10. The association between fruit and vegetable intake, knowledge of the recommendations, and health information seeking within adults in the U.S. mainland and in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Moser, Richard P; Colón-Lopez, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus

    2015-01-01

    Health information correlates of fruit and vegetable intake and of knowledge of the fruit and vegetable recommendations were examined using bivariate and multivariate regressions with data from the 2007-2008 U.S. National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey in the United States and in Puerto Rico. Residents from Puerto Rico had the lowest reported fruit and vegetable intake and the lowest knowledge of the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables to maintain good health, compared with U.S. Hispanics, non-Hispanic Whites, and Blacks. Sixty-seven percent of Puerto Rican residents and 62% of U.S. Hispanics reported never seeking information on health or medical topics. In multivariate analysis, those who never sought information on health or medical topics reported significantly lower fruit and vegetable intake (coefficient = -0.24; 95% CI [-0.38, -0.09]), and were less likely to know the fruit and vegetable recommendations (OR = 0.32; 95% CI [0.20, 0.52]), compared with those who obtained information from their health care providers. Health promotion initiatives in the United States and Puerto Rico have invested in mass media campaigns to increase consumption of and knowledge about fruit and vegetables, but populations with the lowest intake are less likely to seek information. Strategies must be multipronged to address institutional, economic, and behavioral constraints of populations who do not seek out health information from any sources.

  11. Inhibition of human breast cancer xenograft growth by cruciferous vegetable constituent benzyl isothiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Renaud; Xiao, Dong; Arlotti, Julie A; Bommareddy, Ajay; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-05-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as garden cress, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture. The present study was undertaken to determine in vivo efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The BITC administration retarded growth of MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously implanted in female nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The BITC-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth correlated with reduced cell proliferation as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 expression. Analysis of the vasculature in the tumors from BITC-treated mice indicated smaller vessel area compared with control tumors based on immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis marker CD31. The BITC-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo correlated with downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 protein levels in the tumor. Consistent with these results, BITC treatment suppressed VEGF secretion and VEGF receptor 2 protein levels in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the BITC-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited reduced capacity for migration compared with vehicle-treated control cells. In contrast to cellular data, BITC administration failed to elicit apoptotic response as judged by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 xenografts in association with reduced cell proliferation and suppression of neovascularization. These preclinical observations merit clinical investigation to determine efficacy of BITC against human breast cancers.

  12. Do behavioural health intentions engender health behaviour change? A study on the moderating role of self-affirmation on actual fruit intake versus vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this persuasion research was to show that self-affirmation (SA) increases intentions in the advocated direction and that these intentions predict actual health behaviour change. That is, these intentions not only serve the function of short-term relief of the threat caused by the persuasive message. We proposed that the effect of SA depends on the level of value-involvement. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (no SA vs. SA) of a between-subjects design. After the SA manipulation, all participants read a threatening health text about the consequences of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake. At pre-test, value-involvement was determined. Participants included were undergraduate students. The SA manipulation consisted of a writing exercise. After reading the health message, participants reported their intention to eat sufficient fruit and vegetables (N= 537). After 1 week (N= 293) and 4 weeks (N= 261), participants completed self-reports of fruit and vegetable intake. No main effect was found for SA on any outcome measure. We did find that involvement moderated the effect of SA on cooked vegetables consumption. This effect was not present for raw vegetables/salad consumption or for fruit consumption. The moderated effect on cooked vegetable consumption was most evident after 1 week and the effect was mediated by the immediate intentions of participants. SA can lead to genuine intentions that predict actual behaviour, but the effect of SA depends on the type of behaviour and people's value-involvement. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable in...

  14. Applications of deuterium oxide in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Mariano, Reysla Maria da Silveira; Silva, Valmin Ramos; Santos, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira

    2017-02-06

    The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.

  15. Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chapters: 1) Convergence or divide in the movement for sustainable and just agriculture. 2) No-till agriculture in the USA. 3) Organic fertilizers in sub-Saharan farming systems. 4) Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. 5) Pseudomonas and microbes for disease-suppressive soils. 6) Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation, Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity. 7) Sustainable agricultural NP turnover in the 27 European countries. 8) Tomato production for human health, not...

  16. A dynamic human health risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

    2012-05-01

    An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors.

  17. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  19. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  1. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    OpenAIRE

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidant...

  2. Do we produce enough fruits and vegetables to meet global health need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Siegel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low fruit and vegetable (FV intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, but much of the world's population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. It remains unknown whether global supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs. We sought to determine whether supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs, globally and in individual countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used global data on agricultural production and population size to compare supply of FV in 2009 with population need, globally and in individual countries. We found that the global supply of FV falls, on average, 22% short of population need according to nutrition recommendations (supply:need ratio: 0.78 [Range: 0.05-2.01]. This ratio varies widely by country income level, with a median supply:need ratio of 0.42 and 1.02 in low-income and high-income countries, respectively. A sensitivity analysis accounting for need-side food wastage showed similar insufficiency, to a slightly greater extent (global supply:need ratio: 0.66, varying from 0.37 [low-income countries] to 0.77 [high-income countries]. Using agricultural production and population projections, we also estimated supply and need for FV for 2025 and 2050. Assuming medium fertility and projected growth in agricultural production, the global supply:need ratio for FV increases slightly to 0.81 by 2025 and to 0.88 by 2050, with similar patterns seen across country income levels. In a sensitivity analysis assuming no change from current levels of FV production, the global supply:need ratio for FV decreases to 0.66 by 2025 and to 0.57 by 2050. CONCLUSION: The global nutrition and agricultural communities need to find innovative ways to increase FV production and consumption to meet population health needs, particularly in low-income countries.

  3. Ethics and health policy of dialyzing a patient in a persistent vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skold, Anna; Lesandrini, Jason; Gorbatkin, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Each year, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occur in approximately 300,000 Americans. Of these patients, less than 10% survive. Survivors often live with neurologic impairments that neurologists classify as anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (AIE). Neurologic impairments under AIE can vary widely, each with unique outcomes. According to the American Academy of Neurology Practice Parameter paper, the definition of poor outcome in AIE includes death, persistent vegetative state (PVS), or severe disability requiring full nursing care 6 months after event. In a recent survey, participants deemed an outcome of PVS as "worse than dead." Lay persons' assessments of quality of life for those in a PVS provide assistance for surrogate decision-makers who are confronted with the clinical decision-making for a loved one in a PVS, whereas clinical practice guidelines help health care providers to make decisions with patients and/or families. In 2000, the Renal Physicians Association and the American Society of Nephrology published a clinical practice guideline, "Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis." In 2010, after advances in research, a second edition of the guideline was published. The updated guideline confirmed the recommendation to withhold or withdraw ongoing dialysis in "patients with irreversible, profound neurological impairments such that they lack signs of thought, sensation, purposeful behavior and awareness of self and environment," such as found in patients with PVS. Here, the authors discuss the applicability of this guideline to patients in a PVS. In addition, they build on the guideline's conception of shared decision-making and discuss how continued dialysis violates ethical and legal principles of care in patients in a PVS.

  4. Drought, vegetation change, and human history on Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua, Easter Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Daniel; Edwards, James; Chase, Julie; Beck, Warren; Reanier, Richard; Mass, Michele; Finney, Bruce; Loret, John

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic records from lake sediment cores and slope deposits on Rapa Nui document prehistoric human impacts and natural environmental changes. A hiatus in sedimentation in Rano Raraku suggests that this lake basin dried out sometime after 4090-4410 cal yr BP and refilled only decades to centuries before AD 1180-1290. Widespread ecosystem changes caused by forest clearance by Polynesian farmers began shortly after the end of this drought. Terrestrial sections show a chronology of burning and soil erosion similar to the lake cores. Although changing sediment types and shifts in the pollen rain suggest that droughts occurred earlier in the Holocene, as yet there is no evidence for droughts occurring after AD 1180-1290. The timing of the agricultural colonization of Rapa Nui now seems well established at ca. AD 1200 and it was accompanied by rapid deforestation that was probably exacerbated by the island's small size, its droughty climate, and the rarity of primeval fires. Detailed records of a large interval of Rapa Nui's ecological history remain elusive due to the drought hiatus in the Rano Raraku sediment record. We find no evidence for a "rat outbreak impact" on Rapa Nui's vegetation preceding anthropogenic forest clearance.

  5. HUMAN HEALTH AND TRENBOLONE RESIDUE IN BOVINE MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajimahmoodi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, hormones and hormone-like compounds have been frequently used in vegetable and livestock production to obtain a high yield performance in a shorter period of time, but depending on the use of anabolics in animal feed, anabolic residues that may occur in meat and meat products would present the risks to the human health. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of trenbolone residues (a potent synthetic analog of testosterone in the market meat in Iran. Cattle meat samples were collected from the markets in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for level of trenbolone by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay method. The average experimental values of trenbolone in cattle meat were 3.765.26ng/kg. This value gave no evidence for the illegal use of hormones in Tehran, but these results do not exclude the possibility of misuse of these potentially harmful chemicals in future. There is, therefore, need to routinely monitor these chemicals as a food quality and health control measure.

  6. Fruits and vegetables increase plasma carotenoids and vitamins and decrease homocysteine in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Schuurman, C.R.W.C.; Verhagen, H.; Berg, H. van den; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, G. van

    2000-01-01

    Observational epidemiologic studies have shown that a high consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases. Little is known about the bioavailability of constituents from vegetables and fruits and the effect of these constituents on markers for disease ri

  7. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable /sup 26/Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.; Spencer, H.; Welsh, J.J.

    1984-04-01

    Collards, turnip greens, leaf lettuce, and spinach, grown in nutrient solution so that their Mg content was 80 to 90% /sup 26/Mg, were tested in ambulant male volunteers stabilized on a constant metabolic diet. The freeze-dried vegetables were incorporated in bran muffins in which the vegetables replaced part of the bran. Bran muffins without vegetables were consumed for breakfast each day. They were also used as a standard test meal to which the vegetable muffins were compared. All subjects participated in three consecutive isotope absorption tests: one of the standard test meal and two of the vegetables. The standard test was carried out after at least 30 days on the controlled diet. Subsequent tests of vegetables followed at 4-wk intervals. Each test meal contained 30 microCi /sup 28/MgCl2 and 50 mg stable /sup 26/Mg, the latter either as the intrinsic label of a test vegetable or as /sup 26/MgCl/sub 2/ in solution taken with the standard bran muffins. Net absorption of both isotopes was measured to establish exchangeability and to determine relative Mg absorption from the vegetables. Exchangeability was 90% or higher from all meals tested. Relative Mg absorption was highest from collards and least from the standard test meal. Net absorption values ranged from 40 to 60%.

  8. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of selected vegetables/Sun's soup as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  9. Opportunity for selection in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection defined by differential survival and reproduction of individuals in populations is influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors operating at every age and stage in human life history: generation of gametes, conception, birth, maturation, reproduction, senescence, and death. Biological systems are built upon a hierarchical organization nesting subcellular organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within individuals, individuals within families, and families within populations, and the latter among other populations. Natural selection often acts simultaneously at more than one level of biological organization and on specific traits, which we define as multilevel selection. Under this model, the individual is a fundamental unit of biological organization and also of selection, imbedded in a larger evolutionary context, just as it is a unit of medical intervention imbedded in larger biological, cultural, and environmental contexts. Here, we view human health and life span as necessary consequences of natural selection, operating at all levels and phases of biological hierarchy in human life history as well as in sociological and environmental milieu. An understanding of the spectrum of opportunities for natural selection will help us develop novel approaches to improving healthy life span through specific and global interventions that simultaneously focus on multiple levels of biological organization. Indeed, many opportunities exist to apply multilevel selection models employed in evolutionary biology and biodemography to improving human health at all hierarchical levels. Multilevel selection perspective provides a rational theoretical foundation for a synthesis of medicine and evolution that could lead to discovering effective predictive, preventive, palliative, potentially curative, and individualized approaches in medicine and in global health programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human tumor cell growth inhibition by nontoxic anthocyanidins, the pigments in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Vareed, Shaiju K; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2005-02-11

    Anthocyanidins, the aglycones of anthocyanins, impart brilliant colors in many fruits and vegetables. The widespread consumption of diets rich in anthocyanin and anthocyanidins prompted us to determine their inhibitory effects on human cancer cell proliferation. Five anthocyanidins, cyanidin (1), delphinidin (2), pelargonidin (3), petunidin (4) and malvidin (5), and four anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside and pelargonidin-3-galactoside were tested for cell proliferation inhibitory activity against human cancer cell lines, AGS (stomach), HCT-116 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), NCI H460 (lung), and SF-268 (Central Nervous System, CNS) at 12.5-200 microg/mL concentrations. The viability of cells after exposure to anthocyanins and anthocyanidins was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) colorimetric methods. The anthocyanins assayed did not inhibit cell proliferation of cell lines tested at 200 microg/mL. However, anthocyanidins showed cell proliferation inhibitory activity. Malvidin inhibited AGS, HCT-116, NCI-H460, MCF-7 and SF-268 cell growth by 69, 75.7, 67.7, 74.7 and 40.5%, respectively, at 200 microg/mL. Similarly, pelargonidin inhibited AGS, HCT-116, NCI H460, MCF-7 and SF-268 cell growth by 64, 63, 62, 63 and 34%, respectively, at 200 microg/mL. At 200 microg/mL, cyanidin, delphinidin and petunidin inhibited the breast cancer cell growth by 47, 66 and 53%, respectively. This is the first report of tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activity by anthocyanidins.

  11. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  12. Rhizobium promotes non-legumes growth and quality in several production steps: towards a biofertilization of edible raw vegetables healthy for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    Full Text Available The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic cycles in Southern Europe - implications for early human environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Angela; Bertini, Adele

    2013-04-01

    The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Plant fossils usually are rare or even absent at hominin sites. Thus, direct evidence on local vegetation and environment is generally missing. Independent from such localities, pollen profiles from the Mediterranean realm show the response of regional vegetation on global climate changes and cyclicity, with distinct spatial and temporal differences. Furthermore, plant fossils provide proxies for climate quantification that can be compared to the global signal, and add data to understanding the regional differentiation of Mediterranean environments. In this presentation we will discuss various palaeobotanical data from Southern Europe to assess Early Pleistocene climate and vegetation in time and space as part of the environment during the first expansions of early humans out of Africa.

  14. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  15. Vitamin D and Human Health: Celebrating Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Spedding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of Nutrients: Vitamin D and Human Health celebrates diversity in vitamin D research with articles from bench-to-bedside, examining mechanisms, epidemiology, and clinical issues in the management of non-skeletal disease following themes set by an earlier review in Nutrients [1]. Vitamin D became synonymous with calcium and bone metabolism originating from Casimir Funk’s concept of “Vitamines”. This suggests that vitamin D is an amine found in food with a single mode of action affecting calcium and bone metabolism [2], whereas vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone derived from sunshine with a plethora of physiological functions (autocrine, paracrine, endocrine [3], and epigenetic [4] associating vitamin D deficiency with many illnesses [1]. Deficiency is pandemic and most prevalent where sun exposure is limited by culture climate and skin colour [5]. Whilst reports have focused on diet and bone metabolism [6], this Special Issue of Nutrients about Vitamin D and Human Health focuses on non-skeletal disease, and research driven by industry and community health concerns.

  16. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  17. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  18. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  19. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  20. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  1. Health and human development: nursing and the human right to health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2008-03-01

    This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health.

  2. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens on human growth regulation: imprinting in health & disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Griffiths

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This group has advocated a return to the notional Palζolithic diet with fruits, vegetables, roots, leaves, seeds, phytochemical antioxidants and proteins, etc. Phytoestrogens, viz. lignans, isoflavonoids and flavonoids are weak oestrogenic constituents of such a diet and may have a considerable impact on human health and disease. The aim of this paper was to conduct a preliminary overview of about 2000 research-led studies from the 1930s to the present time reported in the literature on flavonoids/isoflavonoids/lignans and to assemble evidence for a future strictly formal literature review on the health benefits and risks of flavonoids in a variety of diseases.

  3. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens on human growth regulation: imprinting in health & disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, K; Wilson, D W; Singh, R B; De Meester, F

    2014-11-01

    This group has advocated a return to the notional Palæolithic diet with fruits, vegetables, roots, leaves, seeds, phytochemical antioxidants and proteins, etc. Phytoestrogens, viz. lignans, isoflavonoids and flavonoids are weak oestrogenic constituents of such a diet and may have a considerable impact on human health and disease. The aim of this paper was to conduct a preliminary overview of about 2000 research-led studies from the 1930s to the present time reported in the literature on flavonoids/isoflavonoids/lignans and to assemble evidence for a future strictly formal literature review on the health benefits and risks of flavonoids in a variety of diseases.

  4. Isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables: kinetics, biomarkers and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables like cabbages, broccoli, mustard and cress, have been reported to be beneficial for human health. They contain glucosinolates, which are hydrolysed into isothiocyanates that have shown anticarcinogenic properties in animal experiments. To study the bioavailability, kinetics

  5. Companion animals and human health: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Edney, A T

    1995-01-01

    Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reac...

  6. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  7. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  9. Natural and human impacts in a 35 000-year vegetation history in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentfer, Carol; Pavlides, Christina; Specht, Jim

    2010-12-01

    Phytoliths and micro-charcoal from the Yombon Airstrip archaeological site in central New Britain, Papua New Guinea, provide the longest vegetation history record yet available for the New Guinea islands. The record begins about 35 kya with the first evidence for human presence at the site and, with the exception of the Last Glacial Maximum period, is continuous to the present. Three other sites provide supplementary evidence, including plant macro-remains, from the early Holocene onwards. The record is punctuated by a series of volcanic events, which are reflected in the vegetation record by alternating frequencies of closed forest and regrowth elements. Micro-charcoal is present from the oldest levels and fluctuates in frequency throughout the sequence, increasing substantially from the terminal Pleistocene-early Holocene onwards. This coincides with the first appearance of panicoid grasses and a range of potential cultivars including bananas and Saccharum. Increased levels of burning coinciding with the appearance of potential plant cultivars may indicate shifts in plant food production leading to cultivation from the early Holocene onwards. This compares favourably with previously reported evidence from Garua Island off the north coast of New Britain. The combination of trends in burning, vegetation clearance and appearance of potential cultivars on New Britain appears to parallel changes in the Papua New Guinea highlands at a similar time, and suggests regional similarities in subsistence and vegetation management practices from before the LGM onwards. Further studies are needed to clarify the timing and extent of these shifts across the region, and to provide a vegetation picture for the period before human colonisation of New Britain.

  10. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Adriana E S; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C L

    2015-12-01

    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.

  11. Study on Effects of Human Activities on Rehabilitation of Vegetation on Red Soil in Hilly Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2000-01-01

    Based on the two long-term experiments on red soil in hilly areas in the southern part of Hunan Province, a study on rehabilitation of natural vegetation in this area has been carried out.The results showed that when the more frequently vegetation was cut, the less bio-mass and the fewer the species of the vegetation were year by year, especially the growth of xylophyto. For example,in plot 1 (under annual cutting), the bio-mass of vegetation decreased from 90. 2kg/plot to 45. 0kg/polt, the species of the vegetation decreased from 15 to 4, and the proportion of the xylophyta biomass decreased from 17% to 0.9% in 1991. As for imparata cylindrica var. major during the process of restoration of natural vegetation, applying fertilizer made it reproduced excessively, then eliminate. With frequently cutting, the soil fertility was exhausted gradually and the biomass of Imparata cylindrica decreased sharply, especially under the condition of N fertilizer application.

  12. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  13. The impact of greenhouse vegetable farming duration and soil types on phytoavailability of heavy metals and their health risk in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination in vegetables from greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) in China requires major attention. For GVP sustainability at a large regional level, 441 surface GVP soil and 132 corresponding greenhouse vegetable samples were collected from six typical GVP bases in eastern China to systematically evaluate the impact of GVP duration and soil types (Anthrosols and Cambosols) on phytoavailability of four major metals, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb, and their health risk. The results revealed high Cd accumulation in leaf vegetables grown in Anthrosols, which might pose potential health risk. Regardless of soil types in the study region, greenhouse farming lowered soil pH and enhanced metal availability with rising GVP duration, which might exacerbate Cd phytoavailability and vegetable Cd contamination as well as potential health risk. Also, increased GVP soil organic matter contents over time, found in some locations, affected crop-depending Cu and Zn uptakes. Furthermore, due to GVP, the annual decrease rate of soil pH and increase rates of soil available metal concentrations were generally much greater in Anthrosols than those in Cambosols, which contributed a lot to high Cd uptake by leaf vegetables grown in Anthrosols and their potential health risk. From sustainable GVP perspective, fertilization strategy with reduced frequency and rate is especially important and effective for abating soil and vegetable contamination by heavy metals under greenhouse farming.

  14. Land Use and Land Cover Change, and Woody Vegetation Diversity in Human Driven Landscape of Gilgel Tekeze Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuale Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC change through inappropriate agricultural practices and high human and livestock population pressure have led to severe land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands. This has led to further degradation such as biodiversity loss, deforestation, and soil erosion. The study examined woody vegetation diversity status and the impact of drivers of change across different LULC types and agroecological zones in Gilgel Tekeze catchment, northern Ethiopian highlands. LULC dynamics were assessed using GIS techniques on 1976, 1986, and 2008 satellite images. Vegetation data were collected from 135 sample plots (20 m × 20 m from five LULC types, namely, forest, shrub-bush, grazing, settlement, and cultivated land, in the three agroecological zones; Kolla, Weyna-Dega, and Dega. Differences in vegetation structure and composition and their relationship to agroecological zones were tested using two-way ANOVA and PCA technique. The results show that vegetation structure and composition significantly differed across all LULC types in different agroecological zones particularly in sapling density, tree height, and shrub height and in each agroecological zone between forest land, shrub-bush land, and settlement area. Overall, Weyna-Dega agroecological zone and the shrub-bush land had more structural and compositional diversity than the other agroecological zones and LULC types.

  15. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Arthur, J R

    2001-04-01

    Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications, particularly in relation to the chronic disease prevalence of the Western world such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ten years have elapsed since recommended dietary intakes of selenium were introduced on the basis of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. Since then 30 new selenoproteins have been identified, of which 15 have been purified to allow characterisation of their biological function. The long term health implications in relation to declining selenium intakes have not yet been thoroughly examined, yet the implicit importance of selenium to human health is recognised universally. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine at the active site of a wide range of selenoproteins. The four glutathione peroxidase enzymes (classical GPx1, gastrointestinal GPx2, plasma GPx3, phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx4)) which represent a major class of functionally important selenoproteins, were the first to be characterised. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a recently identified seleno-cysteine containing enzyme which catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of thioredoxin and therefore plays a regulatory role in its metabolic activity. Approximately 60% of Se in plasma is incorporated in selenoprotein P which contains 10 Se atoms per molecule as selenocysteine, and may serve as a transport protein for Se. However, selenoprotein-P is also expressed in many tissues which suggests that although it may facilitate whole body Se distribution, this may not be its sole function. A second major class of selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes which catalyse the 5'5-mono-deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4

  16. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  17. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  18. Scorched earth: how will changes in ozone deposition caused by drought affect human health and ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, L. D.; Kitwiroon, N.; Beevers, S.; Büker, P.; Cinderby, S.

    2012-10-01

    This unique study investigates the effect of ozone (O3) deposition on ground level O3 concentrations and subsequent human health and ecosystem risk under hot summer "heat wave" type meteorological events. Under such conditions, extended drought can effectively "turn off" the O3 vegetation sink leading to a substantial increase in ground level O3 concentrations. Two models that have been used for human health (the CMAQ chemical transport model) and ecosystem (the DO3SE O3 deposition model) risk assessment are combined to provide a powerful policy tool capable of novel integrated assessments of O3 risk using methods endorsed by the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This study investigates 2006, a particularly hot and dry year during which a heat wave occurred during the summer across much of the UK and Europe. To understand the influence of variable O3 dry deposition three different simulations were investigated during June and July: (i) actual conditions in 2006; (ii) conditions that assume a perfect vegetation sink for O3 deposition and (iii) conditions that assume an extended drought period that reduces the vegetation sink to a minimum. The risk of O3 to human health, assessed by estimating the number of days during which running 8-h mean O3 concentrations exceeded 100 μg m-3, show that on average across the UK, there is a difference of 16 days exceedance of the threshold between the perfect sink and drought conditions. These average results hide local variation with exceedances reaching as high as 20 days in the East Midlands and Eastern UK. Estimates of acute exposure effects show that O3 removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition during the June and July period would have been responsible for approximately 460 premature deaths. Conversely, reduced O3 dry deposition will decrease the amount of O3 taken up by vegetation and, according to flux-based assessments of vegetation damage, will lead to protection from O3 across the UK

  19. Eat Your Fruit and Vegetables (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-07

    Getting kids to eat their fruits and vegetables is a common problem for many parents, but it’s a battle worth fighting. This podcast discusses the importance of developing good eating habits during childhood.  Created: 8/7/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/7/2014.

  20. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Scoring Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  1. Family Ties to Health Program: A Randomized Intervention to Improve Vegetable Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Tate, Deborah F.; Stevens, June; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a home-based intervention targeted toward parents to improve vegetable intake in preschool-aged children. Methods: Four-month feasibility study of home-based intervention consisting of 4 tailored newsletters and 2 motivational phone calls compared to control; 4 children's books for the control group; and measured pre and post…

  2. Towards an Operational Vegetation Health Monitoring System for the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N.; Kim, H. J.

    2007-12-01

    Farmers and Rangers in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States had been devastated by the extremely dry weather conditions in the summer of 2006. The entire state of North Dakota was declared a primary agricultural disaster area in September, 2006 by the US Department of Agriculture. Emergency grazing on CRP lands was extended in several NGP states. On the contrary, the summer of 2005 had been exceptionally wet in certain parts of NGP which ruined crops. The occurrences of these weather extremes severely affect the natural resource based enterprises like farming and ranching, the effects of which ripple through the economies of several states in the region. In order to monitor and assess the impacts of these extreme events and to take mitigation strategies, variety of physical and environmental conditions have to be taken into consideration. Remote sensing based vegetation indices such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI), climate information and drought indices are employed to assess the growth of vegetation and its vigor, both spatially and temporally. A 25-year history of NDVI and seven-year history of EVI data were used to develop a near real-time vegetation growth monitoring system for the five Northern Great Plains states (ID, MT, ND, SD and WY). The EVI and EVI anomaly, computed based on 2000-2005 averages, are updated twice monthly for the growing season, April through September. In addition, precipitation anomalies based on a 30-year average and Palmer Z-index (a short term moisture availability index) are also updated monthly for the 45 climate divisions within the NGP states. The presentation will highlight how the near real-time monitoring of the combination of vegetation and climate parameters can help to identify the temporal and spatial patterns of vegetation dynamics at different spatial (from individual farms, climate divisions to states and, even, the whole NGP region) and temporal

  3. Middle-Late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda (Southwestern Siberia): vegetation, climate, humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, N.; Nazarova, L.; Papin, D.; Nourgaliev, D.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental reconstruction of Mid-Late Holocene vegetation and climate was inferred from pollen records of Lake Big Yarovoe (Kulunda steppe, Southwestern Siberia). Reconstruction suggests generally prevalence of steppe during last 4.45 ka. Relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.45 and 3.80 ka BP. The largest development of conifers forest started in Kulunda after 3.80 ka BP. Constant presence of dark-coniferous trees Abies and especially Picea between 3.80 and 2.7 ka BP indicates the most humid period in the region during studied time. Onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominated parallel to sharp reduction of conifers in Kulunda. These results are in agreement with general scheme of Holocene environmental history of surrounding areas including Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. Territory of Kulunda consists many archaeological sites of Bronze, Iron and Middle Ages. Second half of Bronze Age (4.45-3.80 ka BP) was represented by local human cultures or migrants from the North Kazakhstan. The main archaeological culture of Kulunda alike in the whole Ob`-Irtysh interfluve in this period was Elunino culture. The economical activities of Elunino community were connected with animal breeding especially with sheep and goats. The most humid period (~1795-710 BC; 3.8-2.7 ka BP) in Kulunda corresponded to the end of early Bronze Age and to the onset of the Iron Age. In 18 century BC Andronovo culture, associated with the Indo-Iranians and migrants from Central Kazakhstan, spread in the region. Cattle breeding economy was distinctive features of Andronovo people, however, increase of sheep, goats and horses with transition to nomadic life style was characteristic of the late Bronze Age. This trend is in

  4. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea: a long-term study on safety and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Woong; Kim, Kwang Gon; Choi, Eun Ah; Kang, Gyeong Ri; Kim, Tae Sun; Yang, Yong Shik; Moon, Su Jin; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Cho, Bae Sik

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has a unique food culture. South Koreans enjoy wrapping meat and eating or making kimchi (traditionally fermented Korean food) and eating using raw leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables. Therefore, there is a high chance of being exposed to pesticide residues of vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea. A total of 8496 samples were mainly collected from Gwangju and Jeonnam area (the largest production region of leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. A total of 230 pesticides were used for multi-residue analysis of pesticides. Among 8496 samples, 61 different pesticides (1029 times) were detected in 890 samples, of which 118 samples (1.4%) exceeded the Korea maximum residue limits (MRLs). Samples exceeding the MRLs were mostly found in leafy vegetables (brassica lee ssp. namai, leafy lettuce, spinach, perilla leaves, crown daisy, marsh mallow, aster scaber, pimpinella brachycarpa) and Chinese chive. Procymidone, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin were the most frequently found pesticides. A risk assessment of pesticides exceeding the MRLs was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ratio of EDI to ADI was 0.003-30.4%.

  5. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  6. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  7. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  8. Holocene ethnobotanical and paleoecological record of human impact on vegetation in the Little Tennessee River Valley, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.; Cridlebaugh, Patricia A.; Chapman, Jefferson

    1986-05-01

    Human occupation and utilization of plant resources have affected vegetation in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley of East Tennessee for 10,000 yr. Changes in Indian cultures and land use are documented by radiocarbon chronologies, lithic artifacts, ceramics, settlement patterns, and ethnobotanical remains from 25 stratified archaeological sites within the Holocene alluvial terrace. The ethnobotanical record consists of 31,500 fragments (13.7 kg) of wood charcoal identified to species and 7.7 kg of carbonized fruits, seeds, nutshells, and cultigens from 956 features. Pollen and plant macrofossils from small ponds both in the uplands and on lower stream terraces record local vegetational changes through the last 1500 to 3000 yr. Human impact increased after cultigens, including squash and gourd, were introduced ca. 4000 yr B.P. during the Archaic cultural period. Forest clearance and cultivation disturbed vegetation on both the floodplain and lower terraces after 2800 yr B.P., during the Woodland period. Permanent Indian settlements and maize and bean agriculture extended to higher terraces 1.5 km from the floodplain by the Mississippian period (1000 to 300 yr B.P.). After 300 yr B.P., extensive land clearance and cultivation by Historic Overhill Cherokee and Euro-Americans spread into the uplands beyond the river valley.

  9. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  10. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming.

  11. Unraveling Anthocyanin Bioavailability for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Grace, Mary; Kalt, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of health-protective anthocyanin pigments from foods, in light of the multiple molecular structures and complicated traffic patterns taken by anthocyanins both as flavonoid metabolites and as phenolic acid metabolites within the body. Anthocyanins have generally been considered to have notoriously poor bioavailability, based on the very low levels typically detected in routine human blood draws after ingestion. Although some investigations have assessed anthocyanin bioavailability solely based on the measurement of parent anthocyanins or phenolic acid breakdown products, more recent research has increasingly revealed the presence, qualitative diversity, relatively high concentrations, and tenacity of molecular intermediates of anthocyanins that retain the unique flavonoid C6-C3-C6 backbone structure. We argue that the persistence of anthocyanin metabolites suggests enterohepatic recycling, leading to prolonged residence time, and supports the notion that anthocyanins are far more bioavailable than previously suggested.

  12. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  13. The impact of human frequentation on coastal vegetation in a biosphere reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbiriou, Christian; Leviol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Julliard, Romain

    2008-09-01

    We aimed to assess the impacts of recreational trampling on rare species, plant communities and landscape structure in the Iroise Biosphere Reserve (western France). Focusing on coastal grasslands, we first identified indicators discriminating human-induced short grasslands (i.e. maintained short by intensive trampling) from natural short grasslands (i.e. maintained by environmental constraints): the presence of lichens and succulent or woody species, which are known to be highly sensitive to trampling, as well as a shallow soil were good indicators of natural short grasslands. Recreational activities affected the majority of plots containing rare species, but one third of rare species (according to their habitat preference) appeared currently not threatened by recreational activities. The other rare species were found in grasslands with low trampling intensity and were not found in grasslands with greater trampling intensity. One lichen species (Teloshistes flavicans) was not affected by trampling intensity, while two plants species (Scilla verna and Ophioglossum lusitanicum) showed higher abundances when trampling was low to medium. When it occurs in natural short grasslands, tourist trampling reduced drastically plant species richness. However, when considering maritime high grasslands, we observed that species richness was higher under low trampling vs. no trampling, but decreased at higher trampling intensity. At a landscape scale, the mean annual rate of path creation was about 1.6% and tourist trampling has already completely destroyed 3.5 ha of natural coastal vegetation. Trampling of maritime-high grassland has also created 31 ha of short grasslands, which represent 50.8% of the whole short grassland habitat of the island. Moreover trampling affected respectively, 41% and 15% of natural short grasslands and maritime-high grasslands. One of the main suggestions for managers to minimise trampling impacts should be to protect areas of rocky soil covered by

  14. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  15. Vegetation changes and human settlement of Easter Island during the last millennia: a multiproxy study of the Lake Raraku sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Rull, Valentí; Sáez, Alberto; Margalef, Olga; Bao, Roberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Blaauw, Maarten; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-07-01

    Earlier palynological studies of lake sediments from Easter Island suggest that the island underwent a recent and abrupt replacement of palm-dominated forests by grasslands, interpreted as a deforestation by indigenous people. However, the available evidence is inconclusive due to the existence of extended hiatuses and ambiguous chronological frameworks in most of the sedimentary sequences studied. This has given rise to an ongoing debate about the timing and causes of the assumed ecological degradation and cultural breakdown. Our multiproxy study of a core recovered from Lake Raraku highlights the vegetation dynamics and environmental shifts in the catchment and its surroundings during the late Holocene. The sequence contains shorter hiatuses than in previously recovered cores and provides a more continuous history of environmental changes. The results show a long, gradual and stepped landscape shift from palm-dominated forests to grasslands. This change started c. 450 BC and lasted about two thousand years. The presence of Verbena litoralis, a common weed, which is associated with human activities in the pollen record, the significant correlation between shifts in charcoal influx, and the dominant pollen types suggest human disturbance of the vegetation. Therefore, human settlement on the island occurred c. 450 BC, some 1500 years earlier than is assumed. Climate variability also exerted a major influence on environmental changes. Two sedimentary gaps in the record are interpreted as periods of droughts that could have prevented peat growth and favoured its erosion during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, respectively. At c. AD 1200, the water table rose and the former Raraku mire turned into a shallow lake, suggesting higher precipitation/evaporation rates coeval with a cooler and wetter Pan-Pacific AD 1300 event. Pollen and diatom records show large vegetation changes due to human activities c. AD 1200. Other recent vegetation changes also

  16. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  17. Health risk assessment of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in withdrawed parsley vegetable from some farms in Hamedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2014-11-01

    Results: Average concentration of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in parsley vegetable is in the order of 1/14, 2/56, 16/65 and 25/23 mg/kg and average concentration of this metals in soil is in the order of 0/23, 23/51, 20/85 and 57/5 mg/kg. Results of this study showed that average concentration of Cadmium and Leadin parsley is above WHO/FAO whereas average concentration of Nickel and Zink in parsleywas assessed less than WHO/FAO. Also the average concentration of every four metals in soil of farms was less than WHO/FAO levels.On the other hand the amount of risk and health index (HRI in parsley for lead metal was above 1 and for cadmium, nickel and zinc metals was less than 1. Conclusion: According to the studing results, cultivated parsley in this area was polluted to the heavy metalsCadmium and Lead, and the results indicates the very easy transferring of this metals from soil to parsley that was not healthy for human daily consumption and risk and health index (HRI that was above 1 for lead metal shows the hygienic potential risk of this metal in relation to the polluted parsley consumption in human daily alimentary diet.

  18. Reconstructing Holocene vegetation on the island of Gran Canaria before and after human colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Criado, Constantino

    2016-01-01

    period, pollen composition resembled contemporary thermophilous communities, with palms (Phoenix canariensis) and junipers (Juniperus cf. turbinata) being the dominant trees, suggesting that these elements were more widespread in the past. Vegetation in Valleseco began to change at around 2300 cal. yr BP...

  19. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  20. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  1. Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive strategies – a review. ... The impact of human-induced climate change and ozone depletion are now ... and death that is more premature and disease related to air pollution.

  2. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Michael; Roth, Angelika; Guth, Sabine; Diel, Patrick; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Epe, Bernd; Fürst, Peter; Heinz, Volker; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Knorr, Dietrich; de Kok, Theo; Kulling, Sabine; Lampen, Alfonso; Marko, Doris; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Rietjens, Ivonne; Stadler, Richard H; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Rudi; Steinberg, Pablo; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented.

  3. An examination of sociodemographic, health, psychological factors, and fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese U.S. veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K; Allicok, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K; Valle, Carmina G; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol; Dundon, Margaret; Anthony, Tammy

    2011-11-01

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. This study investigated the relationship between sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial factors and F&V consumption among overweight and obese U.S. veterans. Participants were recruited from two Veterans Affairs medical center sites in 2005. Two hundred eighty-nine participants completed a self-administered survey. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models were built to examine the association between sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables and F&V consumption. Older age (B = 0.01; p obese conditions. Age, race, tobacco use, and psychosocial factors should be considered carefully when developing dietary interventionsamong overweight ana obese U.S. veterans.

  4. Application of advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)-based vegetation health indices for estimation of malaria cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiqur; Krakauer, Nir; Roytman, Leonid; Goldberg, Mitch; Kogan, Felix

    2010-06-01

    Satellite data may be used to map climatic conditions conducive to malaria outbreaks, assisting in the targeting of public health interventions to mitigate the worldwide increase in incidence of the mosquito-transmitted disease. This work analyzes correlation between malaria cases and vegetation health (VH) indices derived from satellite remote sensing for each week over a period of 14 years for Bandarban, Bangladesh. Correlation analysis showed that years with a high summer temperature condition index (TCI) tended to be those with high malaria incidence. Principal components regression was performed on patterns of weekly TCI during each of the two annual malaria seasons to construct a model as a function of the TCI. These models reduced the malaria estimation error variance by 57% if first-peak (June-July) TCI was used as the estimator and 74% if second-peak (August-September) was used, compared with an estimation of average number of malaria cases for each year.

  5. NDVI-Based Analysis on the Influence of Climate Change and Human Activities on Vegetation Restoration in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Region, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, climate change has affected vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau’s Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region in central China using MODIS-NDVI data for 2000–2014. We examined the roles of regional climate change and human activities in vegetation restoration, particularly from 1999 when conversion of sloping farmland to forestland or grassland began under the national Grain-for-Green program. Our results indicated a general upward trend in average NDVI values in the study area. The region’s annual growth rate greatly exceeded those of the Three-North Shelter Forest, the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the Qinling–Daba Mountains, and the Three-River Headwater region. The green vegetation zone has been annually extending from the southeast toward the northwest, with about 97.4% of the region evidencing an upward trend in vegetation cover. The NDVI trend and fluctuation characteristics indicate the occurrence of vegetation restoration in the study region, with gradual vegetation stabilization associated with 15 years of ecological engineering projects. Under favorable climatic conditions, increasing local vegetation cover is primarily attributable to ecosystem reconstruction projects. However, our findings indicate a growing risk of vegetation degradation in the northern part of Shaanxi Province as a result of energy production facilities and chemical industry infrastructure, and increasing exploitation of mineral resources.

  6. Evaluation of health risk and arsenic levels in vegetables sold in markets of Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Salamanca (Spain) by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain Md; Garcia-Sanchez, A; Hossain, Md Nur; Akter, Shamima

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine arsenic (As) levels in vegetables collected from the markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh and for comparison from Salamanca, Spain by HGAAS under optimal conditions, and the potential health risk from consumption of these vegetables. The mean and range of the total As concentration in the vegetables from the markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh were 114 and 1.0-293 μg/kg, respectively. Total As concentration in 77% of Bangladesh vegetables measured was higher than that recommended by the standard. The mean and range of As concentrations for vegetables grown in Spain were 65 and bdl-130 μg/kg, respectively, for Salamanca, 102 and bdl-423 μg/kg, respectively, for Almeria. The As content of the Bangladesh vegetables was approximately twofold to threefold higher than those observed for the vegetables from Almeria and Salamanca (Spain), but in some cases, were similar or less. Daily consumption of As-rich vegetables may result in an additional source of As in the diet, based on the provisional tolerable intake of As for adults recommended by WHO.

  7. Sedimentary archives of fire, vegetation history, and human impacts during the late Holocene in the eastern lowland of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Chi

    2017-04-01

    The Hualien Plain is one of the richest prehistoric sites in eastern Taiwan, and the reconstruction of late Holocene environment on the basis of the lacustrine sediments near Hualien Plain can benefit to the understandings of human-climate-environment interactions in past. The multi-decadal records of vegetation history, agriculture evidences and fire events in Liyu Lake of eastern Taiwan were reconstructed by using palynological and charcoal analysis of lake sediments. A 2.8 m sediment core covering a time period from 2,680 cal BP to the present was used to investigate the alterations in the landscape with respect to human activities and climate change. During 2680-2410 cal yr BP, frequent burning and high preservation of cultivated Poaceae pollen indicated the early cultivation during the late Neolithic period. There followed a warm climate during 2,410-1,510 cal yr BP, and the increase of lowland forest pollen showed a period of forest recovery as a consequence of reducing human activity. Following a phase of recolonization of prehistory human during 1510-560 cal yr BP, a slightly increasing trend of cultivated Poacease indicated the human activities, but the human population was low. The last 560 years record showed an intense trend of deforestation and cultivation which may correlate to a rapid increase in the human population in this area.

  8. [Pesticide detection in Costarican vegetables based on the inhibition of serum and erythrocytic human cholinesterases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevermann, Karl Schosinsky; Guzmán, Eugenia Quintana

    2004-12-01

    A simple and low cost method able to detect the presence of pesticides, organophosphates and carbamates based on the inhibition of serum and erythrocytic cholinesterases, was used in lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cilantro (Coriandum santivum) and celery (Apium graveolens) obtained from the Ferias del Agricultor from Valle Central of Costa Rica. The percentage inhibition of cholinesterases is related to the presence of plaguicide in the vegetable. Thirteen percent of the analyzed samples were positive for plaguicides using serum cholinesterase and 33% for erythrocytic cholinesterase. Washing and cooking the vegetables does not eliminate the presence of plaguicides but they lower slightly the concentration. Statistical evidence (p = 0.0001) indicates that erythrocytic cholinesterase has higher analytical sensitivity than serum cholinesterase. It is very important to establish the degree of contamination with pesticides in these agricultural products because they are exposed to direct contamination by fumigation, soil contamination and irrigation water, and are products that are often consumed without adequate cooking and washing.

  9. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human impact on the vegetation of limestone cliffs in the northern Swiss Jura mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Cliffs provide unique habitats for many specialised organisms, including chamaephytes and slowly growing trees. Drought, high temperature amplitude, scarcity of nutrients and high insolation are general characteristics of exposed limestone cliff faces. The vegetation of limestone cliffs in the Swiss Jura mountains consists of plants of arctic-alpine, continental and Mediterranean origin. Several populations exhibit relicts from post- or interglacial warm or cold climatic per...

  11. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  12. Governance and human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-11-24

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  13. 南京市售蔬菜重金属污染状况及对人体健康风险分析%Analysis of the health risk of heavy metal contamination in vegetables sold in markets in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳莉; 谢国祥; 郭宝福; 赵士权; 李建新; 李春野; 姜云

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the level of heavy metal contamination in vegetables sold in markets in Nanjing and the risks of the contamination to human health,aiming to provide a scientific reference for the supervision and management of food safety and the health protection of the residents.Methods 940 vegetable samples were collected from main farmers' markets in Nanjing.The contents of mercury,plumbum,and chromium in the samples were examined in accordance with the national standards.The level of heavy metal contamination in the vegetables and its influence on human health were evaluated by pollution indices and risk models for non-carcinogenic contaminants-caused health hazards,respectively.Results The worst heavy metal contamination was detected in leaf vegetables.Broad beans,among other legume vegetables,had the highest mercury content,surpassing the standard limits by 12.40-fold; and the content of mercury in green onions was 19.3-fold higher than the standards.The average annual risks of health hazards caused by intake of vegetables per person among Nanjing residents were 2.918 × 10-8 person/year for plumbum,4.480 × 10-7 person/year for mercury,and 3.845 × 10-8 person/year for chromium.Conclusion Except for a few vegetables contaminated by mercury,levels of plumbum,mercury,and chromium in most vegetables sold in Nanjing are considered safe for human consumption,suggesting that the risk of exposure to these three heavy metals through intake of vegetables is small.%目的 了解南京市售蔬菜中重金属污染水平及其对人体健康的危害,为食品安全监督管理和保护居民健康提供科学依据.方法 采集南京市区主要农贸市场的940份蔬菜样品,按照国标方法测定蔬菜中重金属总汞、铅、铬的含量.蔬菜重金属污染程度及对人体健康影响分别采用污染指数法和非致癌污染物所致健康危害的风险模型进行评价.结果 叶菜类蔬菜中重金属污染较严重,豆类蔬菜中

  14. 75 FR 21508 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... maintenance, and other activities involving live vertebrate animals conducted under contract (see Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy), Rev. 1986, Repr. 1996... Compliance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,...

  15. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  16. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  17. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-06-11

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health.

  18. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world.

  19. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  20. Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Junges, José Roque

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis. RESULTS Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users. CONCLUSIONS Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes

  1. Chemopreventive effects of synthetic C-substituted diindolylmethanes originating from cruciferous vegetables in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Sun; Leem, Dae-Ho; Kwon, Ki Han; Lee, Syng-Ook; Safe, Stephen; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2011-09-01

    Diindolylmethane (DIM), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to have cancer chemopreventive effects. A series of synthetic C-substituted DIMs (C-DIMs) analogs was developed, including DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5, which exhibited better inhibitory activity in cancer cells than DIM. This study examined the effects of C-DIMs on the growth of human oral cancer cells. DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 decreased the number of viable KB cells and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death was accompanied by a change in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and damage to mitochondrial membrane potential through the induction of death receptor 5 and the cleavage of Bid and caspase 8. Studies on the mechanism of action showed that the apoptotic cell death induced by DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC6H5 was mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, C-DIMs inhibited cell proliferation and induced PARP cleavage through death receptor 5 and CHOP in HEp-2 and HN22 cells. This provides the first evidence that synthetic C-DIMs originating from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptosis in human oral cancer cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

  2. Occupational health nursing practice through the Human Caring lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.

  3. Use of color, color infrared, black and white films, and video systems in detecting health, stress, and disease in vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.

    1991-02-01

    Ground and aerial experiments were conducted with color (NC) color infrared (CIR) and black and white film and video systems to compare the limitations! advantages of each method of image acquisition with photographs of natural vegetation including cypress stands wetlands and cultivated crops such as: tomatoes cucumbers and citrus. Image analysis with a Linear Measuring System (LMS) and a scanning densitometer were used to quantify healthy stressed and diseased foliage!canopy of each crop for comparisons with visual estimates. videography and photography were useful in delineating topographic features and location of vegetation. The NC video systems yielded images that distinctly separated healthy and dying foliage but did not compare with the CIR video or photography in outlining distinct areas of stress and disease. Aerial photography provided a synoptic view of the fields and cypress stands not otherwise possible. CIR images were easier to process with the LMS than NC video or photographic frames. CIR video and photographic systems produced clearer differences between healthy and stressed foliage. Spectral curves produced with the scanning densitometer correlated well with visual grading of health and stress. . 2.

  4. Red fresh vegetables smoothies with extended shelf life as an innovative source of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Noelia; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Two fresh red vegetables smoothies based on tomato, carrots, pepper and broccoli and rich in health-promoting compounds were developed. The smoothies showed a viscoelastic behaviour. According to sensory analyses, a shelf life of 28 days at 5 °C for fresh blended smoothies was established while thermally-treated ones (3 min, 80 °C) reached up to 40 days at 20 °C and 58 days at 5 °C. For those mild heat treated smoothies, total vitamin C degradation was 2-fold reduced during storage at 5 °C compared to samples stored at 20 °C while the initial total carotenoids, lycopene and total chlorophylls contents were not greatly affected. A 250-g portion of such smoothies covers in a great extend the established recommended daily nutrient intakes for dietary fibre, minerals and vitamin C of different population groups. As main conclusion, a mild thermal treatment and low temperature storage greatly increased the shelf life of red fresh vegetables smoothies and reduced total vitamin C degradation.

  5. [Medical assistance for health and human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesqui, A M

    1987-12-01

    Brazil's federal health policy is examined, with separate focus on the periods before and after 1964. Special attention is given to sanitation and to maternal and child health care. The impact of government involvement on health policy development and the policy's subsequent effects on demographic processes, especially fertility, are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali markets, Taraba State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ukwubile, Cletus A.; Yohanna, Emohseh

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, leafy vegetables form essential part of dietary foods especially in the South-eastern part. This is because of enormous supplements derived from them that affect human health positively. These benefits derived were however reduced drastically by incidence of soil-transmitted helminthes associated ailments in humans who consumed these vegetables on daily basis. This present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali m...

  7. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  8. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  9. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  10. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals.

  11. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  12. The application of humanization theory to health-promoting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    It has been identified that if public health interventions do not account for what it means to be human, they are likely to fail. The aim of this article is to introduce humanization theory and to show how it can be applied to health-promoting practice. Health promotion can feature humanizing and dehumanizing elements, and these appear to impact on how people may (or may not) engage with interventions. The primary prevention of skin cancer in young people is an illustration of this. The practice implications of applying humanization theory to health promotion are potentially vast and complex; however, it is proposed that considering the dimensions of humanization may be a useful activity to inform the early stages of health-promotion intervention designs. Furthermore, developing the qualitative research evidence base about peoples' experiences of humanizing dimensions of health promotion would also be a valuable step towards ensuring that interventions account for the 'human dimension'. Applying humanization theory to the specific example of skin cancer prevention in young people has been a new venture but based on work so far, suggestions for humanizing principles for skin cancer prevention would need to be inclusive of the needs of young people, to support them and to involve them in research and intervention development.

  13. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  14. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  15. Lentic wetland inventory, health assessment, and vegetation mapping of the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, central Montana [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study is to characterize and quantify the wetland vegetation present on Benton Lake NWR in terms of individual species, as well as vegetation...

  16. [Modern conceptions about the possible impact of palm oil on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components and adverse effects on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. PO is solid or semisolid at room temperature and often is used as a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which increase risks of hypercholesteremia. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats as well as substances with antioxidant activity. Taking into account the lipid theory of atherosclerosis pathogenesis, and sn-2 hypothesis, PO was compared with other vegetable oils, like olive, sunflower or soybean oils, and did not show great differences in changes of LDL, HDL or total cholesterol levels. Comparison of diets rich in PO with diets rich in trans fatty acids shows improvement of lipid profiles in groups with PO, and serves as a basis for replacement of trans fatty acids in food with PO and its fractions. In addition to fatty acids content, PO contains several phytonutrients including 4 forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, sterols, and some others. Most of these compounds are considered beneficial for human health, mainly on account of their antioxidant activity. It is concluded that PO is safe component of food, when we pay attention to the rather high content of saturated fats in it.

  17. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Serghini, Mansour

    2006-12-28

    The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators) are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High). Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal mortality and infant mortality which are really challenging health

  18. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  19. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  20. Urban river restoration: implications on channel sedimentation patterns and associated ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Urban river restoration, which alters the physical and hydraulic conditions of rivers, creates rivers favourable to increased sedimentation through greater sediment availability and heterogeneous flow patterns. Sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals which can have detrimental impacts upon aquatic ecosystems and potentially human health. This research therefore looks at the effect of urban river restoration practices upon sedimentation patterns, the associated changes in sediment metal storage and the potential impact upon river function and use in terms of the aquatic ecosystem and human health. Research was undertaken at four sites on urban rivers in London. The spatial extent of different bed sediment types (unvegetated gravel, sand, finer and sediment around in-channel vegetation) in adjacent restored and unrestored stretches was mapped in July 2010. Additionally, sediments were sampled through the year and analysed for a range of metals and sediment characteristics. Two sites (Chinbrook Meadows and Sutcliffe Park) showed a clear difference in bed sediment type channel cover between the restored and unrestored stretches. The majority of the concrete-lined unrestored stretch at Chinbrook Meadows had no sediment deposition, whereas the restored stretch had over half of the channel occupied by finer sediment either on the open channel bed or accumulated around in-channel vegetation. At Sutcliffe Park, the dominant bed sediment type in the restored stretch was finer sediment on the open bed and accumulated around in-channel vegetation, whereas in the unrestored stretch the dominant bed sediment type was gravel. At both sites there were significant differences in metal concentrations and sediment characteristics between bed sediment types. Metal concentrations, organic matter and % <63µm were generally higher in the finer sediment whether on the open bed or around in-channel vegetation. Total loadings of all metals were greater in

  1. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  2. The relationship between health and mating success in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian 

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans. PMID:28280558

  3. The relationship between health and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans.

  4. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  5. Development of Technosols in abandoned mine lands to reduce hazards to ecosystems and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, Jose A.; Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Gómez-Garrido, Melisa; Gabarrón, Maria; Gómez-López, Maria Dolores; Faz, Ángel

    2017-04-01

    structure increased, associated to increased microbial biomass and activity and development of vegetation. Vegetation cover at the end of the study was 65% of the total surface, with appearance of second generation individuals, suggesting the self-sustainability of the new ecosystem. Owing to the creation of a soil, metals are immobilized and soil particles are retained by increased soil aggregate stability and vegetation cover; so, the dispersion of metals to the surroundings by erosion and leaching is minimized, decreasing the hazards for human health and the environment.

  6. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  7. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Davis

    Full Text Available Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations.We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale was moderate/high in 91 (13.2% households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%, and 210 households (30.6% reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes.Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  8. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  9. Fruit, Vegetables, Fatness, and Foucault: Governing Students and Their Families through School Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schee, Carolyn Vander

    2009-01-01

    In an era of curricular accountability where everything from reading and math scores to body fat are events to be assembled, scrutinized, and standardized, the health-conscious school plays an ever-important role in community and the nation (or so we are told). This qualitative study analyzes interviews with school leaders in their role in…

  10. Vegetational response to human colonisation of the coastal and volcanic environments of Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Edwards, Kevin J.; Buckland, Paul C.

    2009-09-01

    Tephra-dated, high-resolution pollen profiles from Ketilsstaðir, southern Iceland, indicate a largely unwooded pre-settlement environment, a probable consequence of the exposed coastal location. The degree of change associated with the Norse landnám is more limited than in many Icelandic pollen diagrams. There are three main periods of change in the post-settlement vegetational development of the area. Firstly, Norse settlement affected the hydrology of the bog, resulting in the near-disappearance of Sphagnum and agricultural activity led to a reduction of some species (e.g. Angelica spp. and, Salix). Secondly, the establishment of probable permanent settlement in the mid-11th century AD initiated expansion of such apophytic taxa as Plantago spp. Lactuceae, Ranunculus spp. and Pteridophytes. Thirdly, the ≥ 10 cm thick Katla tephra, deposited in AD 1357, enhanced drainage of the bog surface, favouring dryland taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Galium and Lactuceae). The tephra deposit and the associated drainage probably caused or contributed to the local extinction of the wetland beetle Hydraena britteni. The study has enabled a series of natural and humanly-related issues to be addressed including tephra-vegetation relationships, the anthropogenic reduction in plant diversity, and comparisons between historical and environmental settlement records.

  11. Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast Mexico: Assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A; Morales-Ojeda, Sara M

    2009-01-01

    The coastal environment of the Yucatan Peninsula (SE, Mexico) includes a wide variety of ecosystems ranging from mangroves to coral reefs, resulting in a heterogeneous landscape. Specifically, the marine system is characterized by environmental differences which respond to regional and local forcing functions such as marine currents and groundwater discharges (GD). Such functional characteristics were used here to define four subregions across the Yucatan coast and diagnose the health status of this coastal marine ecosystem. To achieve this goal, we conducted an analysis and integration of water quality variables, an eutrophic assessment, evaluated changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), and analyzed the community structure and distribution of harmful phytoplankton. The first step was to determine the reference values for each subregion based on data previously collected from 2002 to 2006 along the coast of Yucatan, 200m offshore. The trophic index (TRIX) and Canadian index for aquatic life (CCMEWQI) were used to diagnose each subregion and then the ASSETS approach was conducted for Dzilam and Progreso, sampling localities on each end of the health status continuum (those with the best and worst conditions). Overall, results indicated that the marine coastal ecosystem of Yucatan is in good condition; however, differences were observed between subregions that can be attributed to local forcing functions and human impacts. Specifically, the central region (zone HZII, Progreso-Telchac) showed symptoms of initial eutrophication due to nutrient inputs from human activities. The eastern region (zone HZ III, Dzilam-Las Bocas) showed a meso-eutrophic condition linked to natural groundwater discharges, while the other two subregions western (zone HZI Celestun-Palmar) and caribbean (zone HZ IV Ria Lagartos-El Cuyo) exhibited symptoms of oligo-mesotrophic condition. These findings may be considered baseline information for coastal ecosystem monitoring programs in

  12. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Yin, Fei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soils and vegetables in a multi-metal mining area, Gejiu, China. Furthermore, three vegetables (water spinach, potato, and summer squash) containing high metal concentrations were selected to further analyze metal speciation. The results showed that the average concentrations of five metals in soil exceeded the limiting values, and their bioavailable concentrations were significantly positively correlated to the total ones. Heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables also exceeded the corresponding standards. The leaves of pakchoi, peppermint, and coriander had a strong metal-accumulative ability and they were not suitable for planting. Except the residue forms, the main forms of metals in the edible parts of three selected vegetables were ethanol-, NaCl-, and HAc-extractable fractions for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively; however, Cu was mainly presented as NaCl-extractable and Zn as HAc-extractable fractions. A high proportion of ethanol-extractable As showed that As bioactivity and toxic effects were the highest. Although the total and bioavailable Cd were high in soil, its speciation in vegetables was mainly presented as HAc-extractable fraction, which has a relatively low bioactivity. Lead and arsenic were imposing a serious threat on the local residents via vegetable consumption.

  14. Enhanced removal of a human norovirus surrogate from fresh vegetables and fruits by a combination of surfactants and sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Ashley; Li, Jianrong

    2011-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are major vehicles for transmission of food-borne enteric viruses since they are easily contaminated at pre- and postharvest stages and they undergo little or no processing. However, commonly used sanitizers are relatively ineffective for removing human norovirus surrogates from fresh produce. In this study, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants on removal of a human norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), from fresh produce. We showed that a panel of surfactants, including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Nonidet P-40 (NP-40), Triton X-100, and polysorbates, significantly enhanced the removal of viruses from fresh fruits and vegetables. While tap water alone and chlorine solution (200 ppm) gave only <1.2-log reductions in virus titer in all fresh produce, a solution containing 50 ppm of surfactant was able to achieve a 3-log reduction in virus titer in strawberries and an approximately 2-log reduction in virus titer in lettuce, cabbage, and raspberries. Moreover, a reduction of approximately 3 logs was observed in all the tested fresh produce after sanitization with a solution containing a combination of 50 ppm of each surfactant and 200 ppm of chlorine. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the combination of a surfactant with a commonly used sanitizer enhanced the efficiency in removing viruses from fresh produce by approximately 100 times. Since SDS is an FDA-approved food additive and polysorbates are recognized by the FDA as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) products, implementation of this novel sanitization strategy would be a feasible approach for efficient reduction of the virus load in fresh produce.

  15. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  16. Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. ... keep animals with low genetic merit, employ crude implements and primitive ... involved in procurement and distribution of improved agricultural inputs.

  17. An urgent issue of public health and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carballo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sexual violence permeates most societies, especially in situations of social disruption, it is an area of public health and human rights where we can collectively already do a great deal and show results quickly.

  18. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  19. Ecosystem Services Connect Environmental Change to Human Health Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayles, Brett R.; Brauman, Kate A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Allan, Brian F.; Ellis, Alicia M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Golden, Christopher D.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ofosky, Steven A.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Ristaino, Jean B.

    2016-06-29

    Global environmental change, driven in large part by human activities, profoundly impacts the structure and functioning of Earth’s ecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). We are beginning to push beyond planetary boundaries (Steffan et al. 2015), and the consequences for human health remain largely unknown (Myers et al. 2013). Growing evidence suggests that ecological transformations can dramatically affect human health in ways that are both obvious and obscure (Myers and Patz 2009; Myers et al. 2013). The framework of ecosystem services, designed to evaluate the benefits that people derive from ecosystem products and processes, provides a compelling framework for integrating the many factors that influence the human health response to global change, as well as for integrating health impacts into broader analyses of the impacts of this change

  20. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  1. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  2. Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis and Evolution ... a program to dramatically improve nursing and midwifery education and practice. ... academic institutions requires flexibility, respect, and thoughtful planning.

  3. Human rights and public health working together: an approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home ... and violence against women, will be considered. In conclusion ... Keywords: human rights, public health, child injuries, violence prevention. African Safety ...

  4. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Corvalan, C

    2006-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change may affect health through a range of pathways, for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, reduction in cold related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. The overall balance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations in low-income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Europe shows that high-income countries may also be adversely affected. Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution.

  5. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  6. Health care, human worth and the limits of the particular.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    An ethics concerned with health care developments and systems must be historically continuous, especially as it concerns the application to managed structures of key moral-epistemic concepts such as care, love and empathy. These concepts are traditionally most at home in the personal, individual domain. Human beings have non-instrumental worth just because they are human beings and not by virtue of their capacities. Managed health care systems tend to abstract from this worth in respect of bo...

  7. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  8. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view

    OpenAIRE

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  9. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions.

  10. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  11. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  12. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  13. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  14. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; Crimmins, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  15. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  16. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human induced dryland degradation in Ordos Plateau, China, revealed by multilevel statistical modeling of normalized difference vegetation index and rainfall time-series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing ZHANG; JianMing NIU; Tongliga BAO; Alexander BUYANTUYEV; Qing ZHANG; JianJun DONG; XueFeng ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation causes serious environmental problems in many regions of the world, and although it can be effectively assessed and monitored using a time series of rainfall and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remotely-sensed imagery, dividing human-induced land degradation from vegetation dynamics due to climate change is not a trivial task. This paper presented a multilevel statistical modeling of the NDVI-rainfall relationship to detect human-induced land degradation at local and landscape scales in the Ordos Plateau of Inner Mongolia, China, and recognized that anthropogenic activities result in either positive (land restoration and re-vegetation) or negative (degradation) trends. Linear regressions were used to assess the accuracy of the multi-level statistical model. The results show that:(1) land restoration was the dominant process in the Ordos Plateau between 1998 and 2012;(2) the effect of the statistical removal of precipitation revealed areas of human-induced land degradation and improvement, the latter reflecting successful restoration projects and changes in land man-agement in many parts of the Ordos; (3) compared to a simple linear regression, multilevel statistical modeling could be used to analyze the relationship between the NDVI and rainfall and improve the accuracy of detecting the effect of human activities. Additional factors should be included when analyzing the NDVI-rainfall relationship and detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands to improve the accuracy of the approach and elimi-nate some observed non-significant residual trends.

  18. The quest for One Health: Human Resource training aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angwara Kiwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH are key inputs into One Health. ‘… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin’ (Rweyemamu et al. 2006. A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools’ curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates’ understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools’ curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  19. Human health risk assessment for potentially toxic metals (PTEs) in Acerra' s area (Campanian Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Sorvari, Jaana; Albanese, Stefano; Matar, Thiombane; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-04-01

    Acerra's territory is situated in the Agro Aversano area. It is characterized by considerable anthropogenic pollution, caused by the illegal dumping and burning of waste since the 1990s. This area has also become highly urbanized and it is undergoing continuous changes in land-use patterns. Altogether 60 % of the total area is dedicated to agriculture, cereals, potato, tobacco and vegetables being the main crops, while 20 % of the area is urban and peri-urban. The remaining part is devoted to industrial use. The waste treatment plant, which incinerates mixed municipal solid waste from most of the municipalities around the city of Naples since 2009, is a potential major source of industrial pollution in the area. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of environmental contamination in Acerra and assess the consequential health risks. 178 topsoil samples and 10 food samples (corn and Chicorium endive) were taken within the whole study area. All samples were analysed for 15 elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) at Bureau Veritas Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua-regia digestion. We calculated enrichment factors and pollution indexes of the PTEs in soil and vegetables by comparing their concentrations with the regional background level and trigger and action values for residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use set in the Italian Environmental Law (152/06). We also calculated the soil-to-plant bio-concentration factor for critical PTEs. In the human health risk assessment, we focused on Be, Cu, Pb, and Zn since they were identified as the most critical elements based on the pollution indexes. We drew up a conceptual model to describe the formation of human health risks in the study area and divided it into agricultural, urban and industrial subareas. Considering the land use and environmental conditions, the following exposure routes are relevant in the formation

  20. Point-of-purchase health information encourages customers to purchase vegetables: objective analysis by using a point-of-sales system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshiko; Tanabe, Naohito; Honda, Akiko; Azuma, Tomoko; Seki, Nao; Suzuki, Tsubasa; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Point-of-purchase (POP) information at food stores could help promote healthy dietary habits. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the effects of such intervention on customers' behavior. We objectively evaluated the usefulness of POP health information for vegetables in the modification of customers' purchasing behavior by using the database of a point-of-sales (POS) system. Two supermarket stores belonging to the same chain were assigned as the intervention store (store I) and control store (store C). POP health information for vegetables was presented in store I for 60 days. The percent increase in daily sales of vegetables over the sales on the same date of the previous year was compared between the stores by using the database of the POS system, adjusting for the change in monthly visitors from the previous year (adjusted ∆sales). The adjusted ∆sales significantly increased during the intervention period (Spearman's ρ = 0.258, P for trend = 0.006) at store I but did not increase at store C (ρ = -0.037, P for trend = 0.728). The growth of the mean adjusted ∆sales of total vegetables from 30 days before the intervention period through the latter half of the intervention period was estimated to be greater at store I than at store C by 18.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval 1.6-35.9). Health-related POP information for vegetables in supermarkets can encourage customers to purchase and, probably, consume vegetables.

  1. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  2. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H

    2001-04-01

    Research and teaching in environmental health have centered on the hazardous effects of various environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, radiation, and biological and physical agents. However, some kinds of environmental exposures may have positive health effects. According to E.O. Wilson's "biophilia" hypothesis, humans are innately attracted to other living organisms. Later authors have expanded this concept to suggest that humans have an innate bond with nature more generally. This implies that certain kinds of contact with the natural world may benefit health. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented from four aspects of the natural world: animals, plants, landscapes, and wilderness. Finally, the implications of this hypothesis for a broader agenda for environmental health, encompassing not only toxic outcomes but also salutary ones, are discussed. This agenda implies research on a range of potentially healthful environmental exposures, collaboration among professionals in a range of disciplines from public health to landscape architecture to city planning, and interventions based on research outcomes.

  3. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  4. Peanut fatty acids and their impact on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts contain a large amount of fat. Much of it is unsaturated, giving peanuts a positive effect on human health. A number of positive health effects from consuming peanuts have been reported in the scientific literature. These include lowering blood pressure, decreasing the risk of heart disea...

  5. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the l

  6. School Health Education about Human Sexuality. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…

  7. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  8. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research gr

  9. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  10. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  11. Quality of vegetable oil prior to fortification is an important criteria to achieve a health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarwulan, Nuri; Gitapratiwi, Desty; Laillou, Arnaud; Fitriani, Dwi; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Martianto, Drajat

    2014-11-11

    Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i) cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV) below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1); (ii) cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2); and (iii) cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3). The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT), where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2-3 months, while PO2's shelf life was a few weeks and PO3's only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  12. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Andarwulan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1; (ii cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2; and (iii cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3. The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT, where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  13. The impact of Arabidopsis on human health: diversifying our portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan M; Chory, Joanne; Dangl, Jeffery L; Estelle, Mark; Jacobsen, Steven E; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Nordborg, Magnus; Weigel, Detlef

    2008-06-13

    Studies of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana may seem to have little impact on advances in medical research, yet a survey of the scientific literature shows that this is a misconception. Many discoveries with direct relevance to human health and disease have been elaborated using Arabidopsis, and several processes important to human biology are more easily studied in this versatile model plant.

  14. Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?Elizabeth D. HilbornWarm, eutrophic surface water systems support the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in North Carolina and worldwide. These conditions are increasing with expanding human populations and clima...

  15. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  16. Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?Elizabeth D. HilbornWarm, eutrophic surface water systems support the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in North Carolina and worldwide. These conditions are increasing with expanding human populations and clima...

  17. Plant prebiotics and human health: Biotechnology to breed prebiotic-rich nutritious food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam Dwivedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota in the gut play essential roles in human health. Prebiotics are non-digestible complex carbohydrates that are fermented in the colon, yielding energy and short chain fatty acids, and selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillae in the gastro-intestinal tract. Fructans and inulin are the best-characterized plant prebiotics. Many vegetable, root and tuber crops as well as some fruit crops are the best-known sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, while the prebiotic-rich grain crops include barley, chickpea, lentil, lupin, and wheat. Some prebiotic-rich crop germplasm have been reported in barley, chickpea, lentil, wheat, yacon, and Jerusalem artichoke. A few major quantitative trait loci and gene-based markers associated with high fructan are known in wheat. More targeted search in genebanks using reduced subsets (representing diversity in germplasm is needed to identify accessions with prebiotic carbohydrates. Transgenic maize, potato and sugarcane with high fructan, with no adverse effects on plant development, have been bred, which suggests that it is feasible to introduce fructan biosynthesis pathways in crops to produce health-imparting prebiotics. Developing prebiotic-rich and super nutritious crops will alleviate the widespread malnutrition and promote human health. A paradigm shift in breeding program is needed to achieve this goal and to ensure that newly-bred crop cultivars are nutritious, safe and health promoting.

  18. Global health policies that support the use of banked donor human milk: a human rights issue

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold Lois DW

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This review examines the role of donor human milk banking in international human rights documents and global health policies. For countries looking to improve child health, promotion, protection and support of donor human milk banks has an important role to play for the most vulnerable of infants and children. This review is based on qualitative triangulation research conducted for a doctoral dissertation. The three methods used in triangulation were 1) writing as a method of inquiry...

  19. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  20. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodi

  1. Policy and evidence in Canadian health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The health human resources supply in Canada swings reactively between over- and under-supply. There are numerous policy actors in this arena, each of whom could contribute to good data collection and an agreed-on process for decision-making. This could form the basis for evidence-informed policy. Absent these tools for pan-Canadian health human resources policy development, smaller health jurisdictions are experimenting with quality improvement initiatives which, when properly evaluated, can discover useful methods of aligning patient and community needs with healthcare resources.

  2. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  3. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  4. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  5. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  6. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  7. How chaosity and randomness control human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Yulmetyeva, Dinara; Gafarov, Fail M.

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the fundamental role that chaosity and randomness play in the determination of quality and efficiency of medical treatment. The statistical parameter of non-Markovity from non-equilibrium statistical physics of condensed matters is offered as a quantitative information measure of chaosity and randomness. The role of chaosity and randomness is determined by the phenomenological property, which includes quantitative informational measures of chaosity and randomness and pathology (disease) in a covariant form. Manifestations of the statistical informational behavior of chaosity and randomness are examined while analyzing the chaotic dynamics of RR intervals from human ECG's, the electric signals of a human muscle's tremor of legs in a normal state and at Parkinson disease, the electric potentials of the human brain core from EEG's during epileptic seizure and a human hand finger tremor in Parkinson's disease. The existence of the above stated informational measure allows to introduce the quantitative factor of the quality of treatment. The above-stated examples confirm the existence of new phenomenological property, which is important not only for the decision of medical problems, but also for the analysis of the wide range of problems of physics of complex systems of life and lifeless nature.

  8. 40 shades of black: regional differences in vegetation response to a changing human influence in the Low Countries during the Dark Ages (AD 300-1000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw-Bouman, Marjolein T. I. J.; Donders, Timme H.; Hoek, Wim Z.

    2016-04-01

    During the Dark Ages, which includes the Late Roman Period (LRP, AD 300-500) and the Early Middle Ages (EMA, AD 500-1000), large scale vegetation development in Northwestern Europe is generally characterized by a forest regeneration. This forest redevelopment phase was not uniformous across the Netherlands. A comparison between existing pollen records shows that forest redevelopment started earlier and was more severe in the southern part of the Netherlands than in the northeastern Netherlands. The prevailing view advocates that the forest redevelopment is the result of a diminishing human influence on the landscape due to the collapse of the Roman Empire. Following this view, regional changes in forest regeneration are explained by varying population densities. However, existing climate-records indicate a colder and wetter climate during the Dark Ages and the geomorphological record points to a changing landscape. How and to what extent these climatic and environmental changes contributed to the changes in vegetation development or even to the decline of the Roman Empire is largely unknown. To understand the relative importance of the factors (climate, environment, economy and demography) influencing vegetation development it is important to accurately map regional differences in vegetation both on a regional and extra-regional scale. For an extra-regional overview all available pollen records in the Netherlands from this period are compiled to show differences in amplitude of the vegetation development during the Dark Ages. On a regional scale, vegetation reconstruction maps have been produced reflecting the influence of geological/geomorphological factors.

  9. HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF GARDEN SOILS IN SZEGED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA FARSANG

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soils of the big cities, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The surroundings of the roads with heavy traffic as significant metal emitter source can be contaminated by heavy metals. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. Most metals are well-known to have toxic characters but we have known little what extent these metals exert influence on people living directly along road with busy traffic. During our research, metal contamination has been investigated in the gardens near the roads with heavy traffic in Szeged by measuring of metal contents in soil and plants samples. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads having heavily traffic. Besides determination of the metal content of soil and plant samples, soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility has been examined in order to characterize the buffering capacity of the studied soils. The health risk quotients have also been determined to evaluate human health risk of the contaminated soils.

  10. Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: One Health, spillover and human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania.

  11. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  12. Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Stewart, Donna E

    2007-09-01

    Human trafficking is an international challenge that increasingly affects industrialized countries. It represents a gross violation of a person's right to liberty and freedom of movement, and is often accompanied by violence and degrading treatment which can have detrimental effects on health. In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women. Mental health and other health outcomes are reviewed, and differences between countries in organized activities for victim assistance and protection are assessed. Finally, we discuss the roles of mental health and other healthcare providers in identifying and helping trafficked women, and recommend a tailored multidisciplinary approach for victim assistance.

  13. Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Dada, Foluke O; Adelakun, Folake E

    2016-05-01

    The emigration of sub-Saharan African health professionals to developed Western nations is an aspect of increasing global mobility. This article focuses on the human resources for health challenges in Nigeria and the emigration of nurses from Nigeria as the country faces mounting human resources for health challenges. Human resources for health issues in Nigeria contribute to poor population health in the country, alongside threats from terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and political corruption. Health inequities within Nigeria mirror the geographical disparities in human resources for health distribution and are worsened by the emigration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Nigerian nurses are motivated to emigrate to work in healthier work environments, improve their economic prospects, and advance their careers. Like other migrant African nurses, they experience barriers to integration, including racism and discrimination, in receiving countries. We explore the factors and processes that shape this migration. Given the forces of globalization, source countries and destination countries must implement policies to more responsibly manage migration of nurses. This can be done by implementing measures to retain nurses, promote the return migration of expatriate nurses, and ensure the integration of migrant nurses upon arrival in destination countries.

  14. Challenging orthodoxies: the road ahead for health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Two decades of work delivering health care in poor communities provide a standpoint from which to challenge conventional doctrines in human rights and public health. These orthodoxies include the priority often assigned to civil and political rights over economic and social rights and a narrow concept of cost-effectiveness in public health policy. An analysis based on economic and social rights underscores, for example, that effectively treating infectious diseases in poor communities requires ensuring that people receive adequate food The challenge of maternal mortality in low-income settings similarly shows the need for an approach to rights that is simultaneously comprehensive and pragmatic. In many settings, paying community health workers for their efforts on behalf of their neighbors can also be seen as a critical strategy to realize right. Across contexts, the yield on the expanded and pragmatic view of health and human rights adumbrated here may be considerable. In forthcoming issues, Health and Human Rights will continue to investigate the conceptual, but above all the practical aspects of such issues, seeking to shift the health and rights agenda in a way that may make sense to the world's poor and marginalized, the chief victims of contemporary human rights violations.

  15. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  16. Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) products, grape and grape juice, represent a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals, synthesized by three secondary metabolic pathways (phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic routes) and stored in different plant tissues. In the last decades, compelling evidence suggested that regular consumption of these products may contribute to reducing the incidence of chronic illnesses, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders and aging, in a context of the Mediterranean dietary tradition. The health benefits arising from grape product intake can be ascribed to the potpourri of biologically active chemicals occurring in grapes. Among them, the recently discovered presence of melatonin adds a new element to the already complex grape chemistry. Melatonin, and its possible synergistic action with the great variety of polyphenols, contributes to further explaining the observed health benefits associated with regular grape product consumption.

  17. Human resource issues in university health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W

    2001-07-01

    To provide first-rate services to students, college health services need the best possible staff. Managers and supervisors play a critical role in guiding the work of their employees so as to enhance performance. Reference checks for new employees and regular performance appraisal dialogues for ongoing employees are important tools in this process. The author discusses these issues and suggests formats for reference checks and performance appraisals.

  18. Vegetation dynamics and its driving forces from climate change and human activities in the Three-River Source Region, China from 1982 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaobin; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Gang, Chengcheng [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210046 (China); An, Ru [School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Xikang Road 129, Nanjing, 210098 (China); Li, Jianlong, E-mail: lijianlongnju@163.com [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210046 (China)

    2016-09-01

    The Three-River Source Region (TRSR), a region with key importance to the ecological security of China, has undergone climate changes and a shift in human activities driven by a series of ecological restoration projects in recent decades. To reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation dynamics and calculate the contributions of driving factors in the TRSR across different periods from 1982 to 2012, net primary productivity (NPP) estimated using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model was used to assess the status of vegetation. The actual effects of different climatic variation trends on interannual variation in NPP were analyzed. Furthermore, the relationships of NPP with different climate factors and human activities were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed the following: from 1982 to 2012, the average NPP in the study area was 187.37 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −1}. The average NPP exhibited a fluctuation but presented a generally increasing trend over the 31-year study period, with an increase rate of 1.31 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}. During the entire study period, the average contributions of temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation to NPP interannual variation over the entire region were 0.58, 0.73, and 0.09 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}, respectively. Radiation was the climate factor with the greatest influence on NPP interannual variation. The factor that restricted NPP increase changed from temperature and radiation to precipitation. The average contributions of climate change and human activities to NPP interannual variation were 1.40 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2} and − 0.08 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}, respectively. From 1982 to 2000, the general climate conditions were favorable to vegetation recovery, whereas human activities had a weaker negative impact on vegetation growth. From 2001 to 2012, climate conditions began to have a negative impact on vegetation growth, whereas human activities made a favorable impact on vegetation

  19. Buying health: assessing the impact of a consumer-side vegetable subsidy on purchasing, consumption and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Drelich, Noah

    2016-02-01

    To measure the impact of a reimbursement-based consumer subsidy on vegetable expenditures, consumption and waste. Two-arm randomized controlled trial; two-week baseline observation period, three-week intervention period. Participants' vegetable expenditures, consumption and waste were monitored using receipts collection and through an FFQ. During the intervention period, the treatment group received reimbursement of up to 50 US dollars ($) for purchased vegetables. Participants were solicited from Palo Alto, CA, USA using materials advertising a 'consumer behavior study' and a small participation incentive. To prevent selection bias, solicitation materials did not describe the specific behaviour being evaluated. One hundred and fifty potential participants responded to the solicitations and 144 participants enrolled in the study; 138 participants completed all five weekly surveys. Accounting for the control group (n 69) and the two-week baseline period, the intervention significantly impacted the treatment group's (n 69) vegetable expenditures (+$8.16 (sd 2.67)/week, Pconsumer subsidy significantly increased participants' vegetable expenditures, but not consumption or waste, suggesting that this type of subsidy might not have the effects anticipated. Reimbursement-based consumer subsidies may therefore not be as useful a policy tool for impacting vegetable consumption as earlier studies have suggested. Moreover, moderation analysis revealed that the subsidy's effect on participants' vegetable expenditures was significant only in men. Additional research should seek to determine how far reaching gender-specific effects are in this context. Further research should also examine the effect of a similar consumer subsidy on high-risk populations and explore to what extent increases in participants' expenditures are due to the purchase of more expensive vegetables, purchasing of vegetables during the study period that were consumed outside the study period, or a shift

  20. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR) crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP) is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  1. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Mary L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  2. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR) crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP) is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference. PMID:18570657

  3. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  4. Introducing human rights and health into a nursing curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mayers

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An important component of nursing programmes in South Africa has been teaching of the principles of ethical practice and relevant ethical codes. A number of factors have contributed to the need to include human rights as an integral component of nursing curricula in South Africa. These include the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of South Africa and the implications thereof for health care delivery, the primary health care approach in the delivery of health care in South Africa, the development and acceptance o f Patients’ Rights Charters, and the recognition of the role that health professionals played - whether through lack of knowledge and awareness or direct involvement - in the human rights violations in the health sector exposed during the hearings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

  5. Helminth genomics: The implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Brindley

    Full Text Available More than two billion people (one-third of humanity are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings.

  6. Health and Human Rights: New challenges for social responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s struggle against apartheid discrimination, including struggles in the health sector, laid the basis for a vibrant engagement of staff and students in human rights research, teaching and outreach in the Health Sciences Faculty at the University of Cape Town (UCT. This article provides a brief overview of this background context, then shows how this engagement has continued with new challenges emerging in the post-apartheid democratic period. Teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels has been complemented by a programme of ‘Training the Trainers’ in health and human rights. The programme targets teachers of health professionals at institutions in South and Southern Africa, resulting in national adoption of human rights competencies as an essential component of health professionals’ skills base. Research has also extended lessons learnt from the apartheid period into work with vulnerable groups, such as rural farm workers and the deaf, and seeks to build the capacity of marginal populations to change the conditions of their vulnerability in order to realize their rights. Partnerships with civil society organisations have been a strong thread, creating new knowledge and new ways of joint work towards realizing the right to health, including advocacy engagement in civil society movements and regional networks. Further, a focus on health professionals’ practice, in terms of dealing with potential dual loyalty conflicts and their role as gatekeepers in the health services on matters of patients’ rights, has shaped the research agenda. This article illustrates how knowledge production for the public good extends beyond notions of enhancing economic productivity for national development and provides a base for transdisciplinary and transinstitutional engagement. Additionally, non-traditional forms of knowledge networking and transfer have also been explored, including engagement with policy-makers and health managers

  7. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  8. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  9. Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Brenda J; Gatherer, Alex; Fraser, Andrew; Moller, Lars

    2011-09-01

    The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems. The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance.Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children.National governments, policy-makers and prison management need to address gender insensitivity and social injustice in prisons. There are immediate steps which could be taken to deal with public health neglect, abuses of human rights and failures in gender sensitivity.

  10. 21 CFR 101.42 - Nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fish. 101.42 Section 101.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Guidelines § 101.42 Nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. (a) The Food and Drug... fruit, vegetables, and fish at the point-of-purchase. If retailers choose to provide such...

  11. Public Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Uptake by Vegetables Grown at a Waste-water-Irrigated Site in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakhaoat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher values in the metal pollution index and health risk index indicate heavy metal contamination in wastewater-irrigated soils that present the potential for a significant negative impact on human health.

  12. Fipronil: environmental fate, ecotoxicology, and human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, Colin C D; Rother, Joachim A; Dewhurst, Charles F; Lauer, Sasha; King, William J

    2003-01-01

    Madagascar, where two endemic species of lizard and an endemic mammal decline in abundance because of their food chain link to termites. Fipronil is highly toxic to bees (LD50 = 0.004 microgram/bee), lizards [LD50 for Acanthodactylus dumerili (Lacertidae) is 30 micrograms a.i./g bw], and gallinaceous birds (LD50 = 11.3 mg/kg for Northern bobwhite quail), but shows low toxicity to waterfowl (LD50 > 2150 mg/kg for mallard duck). It is moderately toxic to laboratory mammals by oral exposure (LD50 = 97 mg/kg for rats; LD50 = 91 mg/kg for mice). Technical fipronil is in toxicity categories II and III, depending on route of administration, and is classed as a nonsensitizer. There are indications of carcinogenic action in rats at 300 ppm, but it is not carcinogenic to female mice at doses of 30 ppm. The acute toxicity of fipronil varies widely even in animals within the same taxonomic groups. Thus, toxicological findings from results on standard test animals are not necessarily applicable to animals in the wild. Testing on local species seems particularly important in determining the suitability of fipronil-based products for registration in different countries or habitats and the potential associated risk to nontarget wildlife. Risk assessment predictions have shown that some fipronil formulations present a risk to endangered bird, fish, and aquatic and marine invertebrates. Great care should thus be taken in using these formulations where they may impact any of these endangered wildlife groups. Work in Madagascar has highlighted field evidence of this risk. The dose levels at which fipronil produces thyroid cancer in rats are very high and are unlikely to occur under normal conditions of use. There is also dispute as to whether this is relevant to human health risk. However, as fipronil is a relatively new insecticide that has not been in use for long enough to evaluate the risk it may pose to human health, from data on human exposure to the product, a precautionary approach may

  13. Social responsibility of nursing in policies of health humanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Trentini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: new conceptions of the world have focused on restructuring health policies and designing a new healthcare model.Objective: to reflect on the humanization policy as part of health promotion with emphasis on nursing care.Content: The article mentions paradigm changes and refers to the biomedical model and the new condition of diversity in models of care practices for health promotion and co-responsibility of nursing in generating and sustaining the humanization of nursing care. It rethinks strategies and commitment to co-responsibility by nursing staff in promoting population health. Participation of nurses in promoting humanization care has shown signs of development in its acceptance, bonding healthcare service professionals and its users. An interview-conversation as a strategy for collecting information is highlighted, whether to care or to research based on a humanization framework.Conclusions: Sensitive listening, modality of dialogue, and the conversational interview method are relationship techniques and means to acquire skills for policy development in humanizing care in health promotion.

  14. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  15. When is genetic modification socially acceptable? When used to advance human health through avenues other than food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk Widmar, Nicole J; Dominick, S R; Tyner, Wallace E; Ruple, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Given the potential for genetic modification (GM) to impact human health, via food and health mechanisms, a greater understanding of the social acceptance of GM is necessary to facilitate improved health outcomes. This analysis sought to quantify U.S. residents' acceptance of GM across five potential uses (grain production, fruit or vegetable production, livestock production, human medicine, and human health, i.e. disease vector control) and provides an in-depth analysis of a timely case study-the Zika virus (ZIKV). The two categories with the highest levels of acceptance for GM use were human medicine (62% acceptance) and human health (68% acceptance); the proportions agreeing with the use of GM for these two categories were statistically different from all other categories. Acceptance of GM in food uses revealed 44% of the sample accepted the use of GM in livestock production while grain production and fruit and vegetable production showed similar levels of agreement with 49% and 48% of responses, respectively. Two variables were significant in all five models predicting GM acceptance; namely, being male and GM awareness. Being male was significant and positive for all models; respondents who reported being male were more likely (than those who reported female) to agree with all five of the uses of GM studied. Those who were reportedly aware of GM mosquito technology were also more likely to agree with all uses of GM technology investigated. The potential relationship between awareness of GM technology uses and acceptance of other uses could help inform rates of acceptance of new technologies by various population segments.

  16. Total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Paonessa, Joseph D.; Zhang, Yuesheng; Ambrosone, Christine B.; McCann, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates are a group of promising chemopreventive agents obtained primarily from cruciferous vegetables. Due to their potent chemopreventive and/or anti-cancer activities, there is a growing interest in assessing dietary isothiocyanate exposure and its impact on human health. Using the HPLC-based cyclocondensation assay, the current study measured total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables. A total of 73 samples comprising nine types of cruciferous vegetables we...

  17. Part 1: The Human Gut Microbiome in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Matthew J.; Plummer, Nigel T.

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial cells harbored within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) outnumber the host’s cells by a factor of 10 and the genes encoded by the bacteria resident within the GIT outnumber their host’s genes by more than 100 times. These human digestive-tract associated microbes are referred to as the gut microbiome. The human gut microbiome and its role in both health and disease has been the subject of extensive research, establishing its involvement in human metabolism, nutrition, physi...

  18. Concentration and health risk evaluation of heavy metals in market-sold vegetables and fishes based on questionnaires in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Feng; Die, Qingqi; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) in market vegetables and fishes in Beijing, China, are investigated, and their health risk to local consumers is evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ). The heavy metal concentrations in vegetables and fishes ranged from not detectable (ND) to 0.21 mg/kg fresh weight (f.w.) (As), ND to 0.10 mg/kg f.w. (Cd), and n.d to 0.57 mg/kg f.w. (Pb), with average concentrations of 0.17, 0.04, and 0.24 mg/kg f.w., respectively. The measured concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn are generally lower than the safety limits given by the Chinese regulation safety and quality standards of agriculture products (GB2762-2012). As, Cd, and Pb contaminations are found in vegetables and fishes. The exceeding standard rates are 19 % for As, 3 % for Cd, and 25 % for Pb. Pb contaminations are found quite focused on the fish samples from traditional agri-product markets. The paper further analyzed the health risk of heavy metals in vegetables and fishes respectively from supermarkets and traditional agri-product markets; the results showed that the fishes of traditional agri-product markets have higher health risk, while the supermarkets have vegetables of higher heavy metal risk, and the supervision should be strengthened in the fish supply channels in traditional agri-product markets.

  19. Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and specific botanical groups in relation to lung cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Margaret E; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Freedman, Neal D; Albanes, Demetrius; Hollenbeck, Albert; Leitzmann, Michael F; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-11-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against lung cancer, although epidemiologic findings are inconclusive. The authors prospectively examined associations between lung cancer risk and intakes of fruit, vegetables, and botanical subgroups in 472,081 participants aged 50-71 years in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline (1995-1996) with a 124-item dietary questionnaire. A total of 6,035 incident lung cancer cases were identified between 1995 and 2003. Total fruit and vegetable intake was unrelated to lung cancer risk in both men and women. Higher consumption of several botanical subgroups, however, was significantly inversely associated with risk, but only in men. For example, the relative risks of lung cancer among men in the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake of rosaceae, convolvulaceae, and umbelliferae were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 0.91), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.96), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively; corresponding relative risks in women were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.12), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.09), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.06). These results provide support for a protective role of specific botanical subgroups of fruits and vegetables in lung cancer prevention in men, although the findings could also be due to residual confounding by smoking or chance.

  20. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  1. Human adipose dynamics and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Tracy; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    The two types of adipose tissue in humans, white and brown, have distinct developmental origins and functions. Human white adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis by storing triglycerides when energy is in surplus, releasing free fatty acids as a fuel during energy shortage, and secreting adipokines that are important for regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. The size of white adipose mass needs to be kept at a proper set point. Dramatic expansion of white fat mass causes obesity--now become a global epidemic disease--and increases the risk for the development of many life-threatening diseases. The absence of white adipose tissue or abnormal white adipose tissue redistribution leads to lipodystrophy, a condition often associated with metabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ whose mass is inversely correlated with body mass index and age. Therapeutic approaches targeting adipose tissue have been proven to be effective in improving obesity-related metabolic disorders, and promising new therapies could be developed in the near future. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, K Akhilender

    2003-08-21

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important water soluble vitamins. It is essential for collagen, carnitine and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Most plants and animals synthesize ascorbic acid for their own requirement. However, apes and humans can not synthesize ascorbic acid due to lack of an enzyme gulonolactone oxidase. Hence, ascorbic acid has to be supplemented mainly through fruits, vegetables and tablets. The current US recommended daily allowance (RDA) for ascorbic acid ranges between 100-120 mg/per day for adults. Many health benefits have been attributed to ascorbic acid such as antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulator and prevents cold etc. However, lately the health benefits of ascorbic acid has been the subject of debate and controversies viz., Danger of mega doses of ascorbic acid? Does ascorbic acid act as a antioxidant or pro-oxidant? Does ascorbic acid cause cancer or may interfere with cancer therapy? However, the Panel on dietary antioxidants and related compounds stated that the in vivo data do not clearly show a relationship between excess ascorbic acid intake and kidney stone formation, pro-oxidant effects, excess iron absorption. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies on anti-carcinogenic effects of ascorbic acid in humans did not show any conclusive beneficial effects on various types of cancer except gastric cancer. Recently, a few derivatives of ascorbic acid were tested on cancer cells, among them ascorbic acid esters showed promising anticancer activity compared to ascorbic acid. Ascorbyl stearate was found to inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells by interfering with cell cycle progression, induced apoptosis by modulation of signal transduction pathways. However, more mechanistic and human in vivo studies are needed to understand and elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-carcinogenic property of ascorbic acid. Thus, though ascorbic acid was discovered in 17th century, the exact role of

  3. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery ? An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidu K Akhilender

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascorbic acid is one of the important water soluble vitamins. It is essential for collagen, carnitine and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Most plants and animals synthesize ascorbic acid for their own requirement. However, apes and humans can not synthesize ascorbic acid due to lack of an enzyme gulonolactone oxidase. Hence, ascorbic acid has to be supplemented mainly through fruits, vegetables and tablets. The current US recommended daily allowance (RDA for ascorbic acid ranges between 100–120 mg/per day for adults. Many health benefits have been attributed to ascorbic acid such as antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulator and prevents cold etc. However, lately the health benefits of ascorbic acid has been the subject of debate and controversies viz., Danger of mega doses of ascorbic acid? Does ascorbic acid act as a antioxidant or pro-oxidant ? Does ascorbic acid cause cancer or may interfere with cancer therapy? However, the Panel on dietary antioxidants and related compounds stated that the in vivo data do not clearly show a relationship between excess ascorbic acid intake and kidney stone formation, pro-oxidant effects, excess iron absorption. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies on anti-carcinogenic effects of ascorbic acid in humans did not show any conclusive beneficial effects on various types of cancer except gastric cancer. Recently, a few derivatives of ascorbic acid were tested on cancer cells, among them ascorbic acid esters showed promising anticancer activity compared to ascorbic acid. Ascorbyl stearate was found to inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells by interfering with cell cycle progression, induced apoptosis by modulation of signal transduction pathways. However, more mechanistic and human in vivo studies are needed to understand and elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-carcinogenic property of ascorbic acid. Thus, though ascorbic acid was discovered in

  4. Human Impact and Vegetation History on Salt Spring Exploitation (Halabutoaia - Tolici, Petricani, Neamt, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salt exploitation from the mineral spring of Halabutoaia - Tolici (Neamt, Romania is one of the earliest in Europe. Salt production is documented from the Early Neolithic to the end of Chalcolithic period (6000-3500 BC with an important stratigraphy of 8 m high. In 2008, a core drilling with a Russian auger in the salty swamp of the spring closed to archaeological site, was realized. Pollen analysis, study of non-pollen palynomorphs and sedimentary signal (geophysical measurements of magnetic susceptibility, suggest a very anthropic environment since the Early Neolithic. Salt exploitation, agriculture and pastoralism (presence of spores of coprophilous fungi are directly in connection with these variations. After this intense exploitation, the forest environment closes but the human impact is always perceptible.

  5. Facing the challenges in human resources for humanitarian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Nowak, Kristin; Hein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The human resources crisis in humanitarian health care parallels that seen in the broader area of health care. This crisis is exacerbated by the lack of resources in areas in which humanitarian action is needed--difficult environments that often are remote and insecure--and the requirement of specific skill sets is not routinely gained during traditional medical training. While there is ample data to suggest that health outcomes improve when worker density is increased, this remains an area of critical under-investment in humanitarian health care. In addition to under-investment, other factors limit the availability of human resources for health (HRH) in humanitarian work including: (1) over-reliance on degrees as surrogates for specific competencies; (2) under-development and under-utilization of national staff and beneficiaries as humanitarian health workers; (3) lack of standardized training modules to ensure adequate preparation for work in complex emergencies; (4) and the draining of limited available HRH from countries with low prevalence and high need to wealthier, developed nations also facing HRH shortages. A working group of humanitarian health experts from implementing agencies, United Nations agencies, private and governmental financiers, and members of academia gathered at Hanover, New Hampshire for a conference to discuss elements of the HRH problem in humanitarian health care and how to solve them. Several key elements of successful solutions were highlighted, including: (1) the need to develop a set of standards of what would constitute "adequate training" for humanitarian health work; (2) increasing the utilization and professional development of national staff; (3) "training with a purpose" specific to humanitarian health work (not simply relying on professional degrees as surrogates); (4) and developing specific health task-based competencies thereby increasing the pool of potential workers. Such steps would accomplish several key goals, such as

  6. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  7. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  8. Nutrition, microRNAs, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Juan; Zhou, Beiyan; Ross, Sharon A; Zempleni, Janos

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk. Encapsulation of miRs in exosomes and exosome-like particles confers protection against RNA degradation and creates a pathway for intestinal and vascular endothelial transport by endocytosis, as well as delivery to peripheral tissues. Evidence suggests that the amount of miRs absorbed from nutritionally relevant quantities of foods is sufficient to elicit biological effects, and that endogenous synthesis of miRs is insufficient to compensate for dietary miR depletion and rescue wild-type phenotypes. In addition, nutrition alters the expression of endogenous miR genes, thereby compounding the effects of nutrition-miR interactions in gene regulation and disease diagnosis in liquid biopsies. For example, food components and dietary preferences may modulate serum miR profiles that may influence biological processes. The complex crosstalk between nutrition, miRs, and gene targets poses a challenge to gene network analysis and studies of human disease. Novel pipelines and databases have been developed recently, including a dietary miR database for archiving reported miRs in 15 dietary resources. miRs derived from diet and endogenous synthesis have been implicated in physiologic and pathologic conditions, including those linked with nutrition and metabolism. In fact, several miRs are actively regulated in response to overnutrition and tissue inflammation, and are involved in facilitating the development of chronic

  9. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  10. [Water for human consumption and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; D'Alessandro, D

    2003-01-01

    Providing enough water of good quality to all human communities is a difficult task, which has been satisfied only recently and only for the developed world. A large part of the developing world still suffers from scarcity and/or bad quality of water supply. Examples from the past are described, including the cholera epidemics of London 1848-1853 and the chromium pollution of the Milan area, 1958. A synthetic description of the different kinds of biological and chemical pollution are also described, then the complex mechanisms of biological and chemical pollution of the waters are illustrated, which require complicated interventions for reclamation after pollution or, better, even more complicated surveillance to avoid pollution. Finally the problem of safeguard of waters during the distribution is illustrated, when a bad maintenance of the aqueducts can inactivate all the precautions taken during the supply an the treatment of waters.

  11. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, S R

    1998-02-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation.

  12. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of total cancer and cardiovascular disease: Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takachi, Ribeka; Inoue, Manami; Ishihara, Junko; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of fruit and vegetables on the risk of both cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The authors examined associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of total cancer and CVD in the same Japanese population. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered in nine areas to 77,891 men and women aged 45-74 years. During as many as 459,320 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2002, 3,230 cancer cases and 1,386 CVD cases were identified. Higher consumption of fruit, but not vegetables, was associated with significantly lower risk of CVD: multivariate hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake were 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 0.97; trend p = 0.01) for fruit and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.15; trend p = 0.66) for vegetables. Consumption of fruit or vegetables was not associated with decreased risk of total cancer: corresponding hazard ratios were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.14; trend p = 0.95) for fruit and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.05; trend p = 0.16) for vegetables. This prospective cohort study demonstrated that, in the Japanese population, consumption of fruit is associated with lower risk of CVD, whereas fruit or vegetables may not be associated with lower risk of total cancer.

  13. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Rebecca S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United States has declined over the past decade; consequently, the gap between dietary recommendations and vegetable intake is widening. The primary aim of this study is to determine if drinking vegetable juice is a practical way to help meet daily dietary recommendations for vegetable intake consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet. The secondary aim is to assess the effect of a vegetable juice on measures of cardiovascular health. Methods We conducted a 12-week, randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study consisting of 3 groups of free-living, healthy volunteers who participated in study visits at the Ragle Human Nutrition Research Center at the University of California, Davis. All subjects received education on the DASH diet and 0, 8 or 16 fluid ounces of vegetable juice daily. Assessments were completed of daily vegetable servings before and after incorporation of vegetable juice and cardiovascular health parameters including blood pressure. Results Without the juice, vegetable intake in all groups was lower than the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and DASH diet recommendations. The consumption of the vegetable juice helped participants reach recommended intake. In general, parameters associated with cardiovascular health did not change over time. However, in the vegetable juice intervention groups, subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the study showed a significant decrease in blood pressure during the 12-week intervention period. Conclusion Including 1-2 cups of vegetable juice daily was an effective and acceptable way for healthy adults to close the dietary vegetable

  14. Human Milk Fat Substitute Produced by Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oil Blend

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    Semra Turan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil, palm kernel oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, and marine oil blend, formulated in the mass ratio of 4.0:3.5:1.0:1.5:0.2, was subjected to interesterification catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme® TL IM for obtaining a product that contains similar triacylglycerol (TAG structure to that of human milk fat (HMF. Reactions were carried out in a double jacketed glass vessel equipped with magnetic stirrer at 60 °C for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h. The blend was analyzed for fatty acid composition of both total fatty acids and those at the sn-2 position after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. After interesterification, TAGs were purified by thin layer chromatography and TAG species were determined according to the carbon number (CN by high-temperature gas chromatography. Enzymatic interesterification generated significant differences for all TAG species from CN30 to CN54. Concentrations of some TAG species (CN30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52 and 54 decreased, while some (CN40 to 48 increased after 24 h. TAG species with higher CN reached maximum levels at the end of 6 h of reaction time. The predominant TAGs of the reaction product after 24 h were CN46, 48, 50, 52 and 54 with ratios of 13.8, 18.2, 13.9, 17.8, and 12.1 %, respectively. These TAG species contain mainly 1,3-diunsaturated-2-saturated structure, like HMF.

  15. Sulforaphane, a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate, inhibits protein synthesis in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczk, Aleksandra; Hofman, Dagmara; Konopa, Grażyna; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a compound derived from cruciferous plants. Its anticancer properties have been demonstrated both, in cancer cell lines as well as tumors in animal models. It has been shown that SFN inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, autophagy, and sensitizes cancer cells to therapies. As induction of catabolic processes is often related to perturbation in protein synthesis we aimed to investigate the impact of SFN on this process in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In the present study we show that SFN inhibits protein synthesis in PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner which is accompanied by a decreased phosphorylation of mTOR substrates. Translation inhibition is independent of mitochondria-derived ROS as it is observed in PC-3 derivatives devoid of functional mitochondrial respiratory chain (Rho0 cells). Although SFN affects mitochondria and slightly decreases glycolysis, the ATP level is maintained on the level characteristic for control cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis might be a protective response of prostate cancer cells to save energy. However, translation inhibition contributes to the death of PC-3 cells due to decreased level of a short-lived protein, survivin. Overexpression of this anti-apoptotic factor protects PC-3 cells against SFN cytotoxicity. Protein synthesis inhibition by SFN is not restricted to prostate cancer cells as we observed similar effect in SKBR-3 breast cancer cell line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bioactive compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchini, Antonietta; Traka, Maria H; Catania, Stefania; Miceli, Natalizia; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Maimone, Patrizia; Francisco, Marta; Mithen, Richard F; Costa, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that many dietary agents, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables, can retard or prevent the process of prostate carcinogenesis. Erucin (ER) is a dietary ITC, which has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. The potential protective activity of ER against prostate cancer was investigated using prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC3), to analyze its effects on pathways involved in cell growth regulation, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) (p21), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 signaling pathways. We have shown for the first time that ER increases significantly p21 protein expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner to inhibit PC3 cell proliferation (P ≤ 0.01). Compared to the structurally related sulforaphane, a well-studied broccoli-derived ITC, ER showed lower potency in inhibiting proliferation of PC3 cells, as well as in modulating p21 and pERK1/2 protein levels. Neither of the naturally occurring ITCs was able to affect significantly pAKT protein levels in prostate cells at all concentrations tested (0-25 μM). It is clearly important for the translation of laboratory findings to clinical approaches to investigate in animal and cell studies the molecular mechanisms by which ITCs may exert health promoting effects.

  17. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC.

  18. Climate change and human health : Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam K. Singh & Ramesh C. Dhiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the issue of climate change and health in the Indian context. The importance of climatechange leading to estimated loss of above 2.5 million DALYs in southeast Asia, mortality due to heat waves, andthe importance of air quality related respiratory diseases, disasters due to excessive floods, malnutrition due toreduction in rice, maize and sorghum crops etc. Latest work undertaken in India, vis-a-vis current scenario andneed for further work has been discussed. There is felt need of further studies on assessing the impact on dengueand chikungunya as the transmission dynamics of these diseases involve water availability, storage and lifestyle, etc. Uncertainties and knowledge gaps identified in the studies undertaken so far have also been highlighted.As regards to vector borne diseases, there is a need to concentrate in the areas which are presently free frommalaria and with use of best available tools of interventions in already disease endemic areas like northeasternstates, the risk of climate change impacts can be minimized.

  19. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  20. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

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    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases.

  1. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setti...

  2. Mental health and human rights: never waste a serious crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Harry

    2009-01-01

    A serious health and human rights crisis is unfolding in Indonesia. Media reports in the Jakarta press have highlighted the high death rates in shelters for people with mental illness that are run by the Jakarta Social Affairs Agency. This crisis represents an opportunity to bring about systematic and substantial changes in the Indonesian mental health system. In order to realise this opportunity the necessary elements of an approach are presented and briefly discussed.

  3. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin-Ragaven Laurel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28% completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%. Twenty-two respondents (48% implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66 to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation

  4. [Human resources and health work: challenges for a research agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Avila; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Campos, Francisco Eduardo; D'Avila, Luciana Souza

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses several key concepts for human resources policy in health in the context of Latin America's regional integration efforts. The article focuses on different concepts of integration to emphasize the analytical distinction between regional and conceptual integration. It also presents labor and human resources concepts before discussing, in the final analysis, the challenges that a common research agenda faces in the context of current health sector reforms in Latin America. The conclusion emphasizes the need to develop a technology and research system capable of supporting the agenda for exchange between MERCOSUR member countries.

  5. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E

    2010-07-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  6. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  7. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G S

    2008-02-01

    Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. At the mycotoxin contamination levels generally found in food products traded in these market economies, adverse human health effects have largely been overcome. However, in the developing world, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. The extent to which mycotoxins affect human health is difficult to investigate in countries whose health systems lack capacity and in which resources are limited. Aflatoxin B(1), the toxin on which major resources have been expended, has long been linked to liver cancer, yet its other effects, such as immune suppression and growth faltering previously observed in veterinary studies, are only now being investigated and characterized in human populations. The extent to which factors such as immune suppression contribute to the overall burden of infectious disease is difficult to quantify, but is undoubtedly significant. Thus, food safety remains an important opportunity for addressing current health problems in developing countries.

  8. Ten years development of human resources in Serbian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Maja; Grozdanov, Jasmina; Ivanovic, Ivan; Korac, Vesna; Vasic, Milena

    2010-01-01

    A key component of any healthcare reform process is to ensure that the services are delivered by the right numbers of staff with appropriate skills and training. In 2007, public health institutions in Serbia had 2% more employees than before the economic transition. Nevertheless, the trend of the total number of employees in the Serbian health care system still preserved a mild rising trend. The most prominent changes in the structure of human resources were effectuated in the total numbers of physicians, nurses and administrative and technical staff. Development of medical science and practice in Serbia is characterized by more intensive processes of specializations, resulting in increased number of specialists among medical doctors. Health care provided in in-patient institutions still employs most of the doctors. The number of unemployed physicians, dentists and pharmacists has been rising since 2000. Another aspect that explains the rise of unemployed, university educated human resources is the rising number of graduated physicians, dentist and pharmacists. Health care policy makers may recognize the need for more integrated planning of human resources in health care, in particular, making management of human resources responsive to system needs and design, instead of vice versa.

  9. Dating of rock art and the effect of human activity on vegetation: The complementary use of archaeological and scientific methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Kari Loe; Lødøen, Trond Klungseth

    2017-07-01

    One of the main aims of Scandinavian rock art research in recent years has been to identify the culture or society responsible for the imagery. This is of mutual importance, as studies of material culture can shed light on the rock art, while the iconography can be used to understand the contemporary material remains. A major challenge however, has been to determine the exact age of the images, as there are no direct dating materials. In order to overcome this challenge archaeological excavations and palynological analyses have been carried out at Vingen in Western Norway, one of Scandinavia's largest rock art areas. The archaeological and palynological data achieved, as well as loss-on-ignition are independent means for the dating of human activity. Since these methods provided similar results, an indirect connection to the rock art production activity may be inferred. Dates from archaeological contexts indicate a peak of activity between 6900 and 6300 cal. BP, with a potential start 7350 cal. BP and a culmination 6100 cal. BP. Palynological data from three different types of basins have documented forest disturbance in the same time period. Local vegetation reconstructions using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm has proved useful to identify anthropogenic-induced land cover changes in the Mesolithic period and a marked reforestation at the transition to the Neolithic period. The applied methods have helped to considerably improve our understanding of past activity and the environment, and demonstrates the potential of archaeological excavations and palynological studies for dating of rock art.

  10. Identical assemblage of Giardia duodenalis in humans, animals and vegetables in an urban area in southern Brazil indicates a relationship among them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Colli

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infects humans and other mammals by ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food, or directly in environments with poor hygiene. Eight assemblages, designated A-H, are described for this species.We investigated by microscopy or by direct immunofluorescence technique the occurrence of G. duodenalis in 380 humans, 34 animals, 44 samples of water and 11 of vegetables. G. duodenalis cysts present in samples were genotyped through PCR-RFLP of β giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh genes and sequencing of gdh. The gdh gene was amplified in 76.5% (26/34 of the human faeces samples with positive microscopy and in 2.9% (1/34 of negative samples. In 70.4% (19/27 of the positive samples were found BIV assemblage. In two samples from dogs with positive microscopy and one negative sample, assemblages BIV, C, and D were found. Cysts of Giardia were not detected in water samples, but three samples used for vegetable irrigation showed total coliforms above the allowed limit, and Escherichia coli was observed in one sample. G. duodenalis BIV was detected in two samples of Lactuca sativa irrigated with this sample of water. BIV was a common genotype, with 100% similarity, between different sources or hosts (humans, animals and vegetables, and the one most often found in humans.This is the first study in Brazil that reports the connection among humans, dogs and vegetables in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in the same geographic area finding identical assemblage. BIV assemblage was the most frequently observed among these different links in the epidemiological chain.

  11. Nanotechnology and human health: risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Anna Giulia; Gornati, Rosalba; Sabbioni, Enrico; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cobos, Everardo; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to be promising in many fields of medical applications, mainly in cancer treatment. While a large number of very attractive exploitations open up for the clinics, regulatory agencies are very careful in admitting new nanomaterials for human use because of their potential toxicity. The very active research on new nanomaterials that are potentially useful in medicine has not been counterbalanced by an adequate knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The different nanocarriers used to transport and release the active molecules to the target tissues should be treated as additives, with potential side effects of themselves or by virtue of their dissolution or aggregation inside the body. Only recently has a systematic classification of nanomaterials been proposed, posing the basis for dedicated modeling at the nanoscale level. The use of in silico methods, such as nano-QSAR and PSAR, while highly desirable to expedite and rationalize the following stages of toxicological research, are not an alternative, but an introduction to mandatory experimental work.

  12. Mapping the governance of human resources for health in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Vasic, Milena; Edwards, Matt

    2015-12-01

    This article maps the current governance of human resources for health (HRH) in relation to universal health coverage in Serbia since the health sector reforms in 2003. The study adapts the Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization four-dimensional framework of HRH in the context of governance for universal health coverage. A set of proxies was established for the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of HRH. Analysis of official HRH documentation from relevant institutions and reports were used to construct a governance profile of HRH for Serbia from the introduction of the reform in 2003 up to 2013. The results show that all Serbian districts (except Sremski) surpass the availability threshold of 59.4 skilled midwives, nurses and physicians per 10,000 inhabitants. District accessibility of health workforce greatly differed from the national average with variances from +26% to -34%. Analysis of national averages and patient load of general practitioners showed variances among districts by ± 21%, whilst hospital discharges per 100 inhabitants deviated between +52% and -45%. Pre-service and in-service education of health workforce is regulated and accredited. However, through its efforts to respond to population health needs Serbia lacks a single coordinating entity to take overall responsibility for effective and coordinated HRH planning, management and development within the broader landscape of health strategy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoasa Ioan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to measure the levels of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb found in common vegetables (parsley, carrot, onion, lettuce, cucumber and green beans grown in contaminated mining areas compared with those grown in reference clear area and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the daily metal intake (DImetal and Target Hazard Quotients (THQ for normal daily consumption of these vegetables, for male and female gender. Results Compared with the reference in contaminated areas, soil and plant contents of all analyzed metals are higher, usually over normally content for Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Particularly, in soil, higher values than intervention threshold values (ITV were found for Cu and Pb and higher than maximum allowable limits (MAL for Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for parsley roots and leaves, carrot roots, cabbage, lettuce and cucumber. DImetal and THQ values for male and female were calculated for each vegetable and metal and for which oral reference doses exist. The combined THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are usually below the safe level of THQ Conclusion The results of this study regarding metal contents in soils, vegetables, DImetal and THQ suggest that the consumption of some vegetables (especially parsley, carrot and cabbage and less for lettuce, cucumber and green beans is not free of risks in these areas. The complex THQ parameter use in health risk assessment of heavy metals provides a better image than using only a simple parameter (contents of metals in soils and vegetables.

  14. Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is well recognized to produce serious human infections, including a blinding keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. This review presents our current understanding of the burden of Acanthamoeba infections on human health, their pathogenesis and pathophysiology, and molecular mechanisms associated with the disease, as well as virulence traits of Acanthamoeba that may be targets for therapeutic interventions and/or the development of preventative measures.

  15. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  16. Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K; Xiao, Dong; Lew, Karen L; Hershberger, Pamela; Kokkinakis, Demetrius M; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2003-10-01

    We have shown previously that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibits survival of PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture, whereas proliferation of a normal prostate epithelial cell line is minimally affected by AITC even at concentrations that are highly cytotoxic to the prostate cancer cells. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that AITC administration may retard growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Bolus i.p. injection of 10 micromol AITC, three times per week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) beginning the day of tumor cell implantation, significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 xenograft (P < 0.05 by two-way ANOVA). For example, 26 days after tumor cell implantation, the average tumor volume in control mice (1025 +/- 205 mm3) was approximately 1.7-fold higher compared with AITC-treated mice. Histological analysis of tumors excised at the termination of the experiment revealed a statistically significant increase in number of apoptotic bodies with a concomitant decrease in cells undergoing mitosis in the tumors of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Western blot analysis indicated an approximately 70% reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the tumor lysate of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Moreover, the tumors from AITC-treated mice, but not control mice, exhibited cleavage of BID, which is known to promote apoptosis. Statistically significant reduction in the expression of several proteins that regulate G2/M progression, including cyclin B1, cell division cycle (Cdc)25B and Cdc25C (44, 45 and 90% reduction, respectively, compared with control), was also observed in the tumors of AITC-treated mice relative to control tumors. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that AITC administration inhibits growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo by inducing apoptosis and reducing mitotic activity.

  17. The effects of eating marine- or vegetable-fed farmed trout on the human plasma proteome profiles of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Maria L; Lametsch, René; Bügel, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-02-28

    Most human intervention studies have examined the effects on a subset of risk factors, some of which may require long-term exposure. The plasma proteome may reflect the underlying changes in protein expression and activation, and this could be used to identify early risk markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of regular fish intake on the plasma proteome. We recruited thirty healthy men aged 40 to 70 years, who were randomly allocated to a daily meal of chicken or trout raised on vegetable or marine feeds. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of intervention, and after the removal of the twelve most abundant proteins, plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots 4·3 visualised by silver staining were matched by two-dimensional imaging software. Within-subject changes in spots were compared between the treatment groups. Differentially affected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight/time of flight MS and the human Swiss-Prot database. We found 23/681 abundant plasma protein spots, which were up- or down-regulated by the dietary treatment (P spots differed from those in subjects given the chicken meal, but only three of these were common, and only one spot differed between the two trout groups. In both groups, the affected plasma proteins were involved in biological processes such as regulation of vitamin A and haem transport, blood fibrinolysis and oxidative defence. Thus, regular fish intake affects the plasma proteome, and the changes may indicate novel mechanisms of effect.

  18. Teleconnection between ENSO and Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, F.

    Since 1980s strong ENSO disturbed weather environment economy and human lives worldwide Total impact of these events on society is estimated in billions of dollars and consequences include famine human health problems loss of life property damage and destruction of the environment Areas sensitive to ENSO have been identified in some world areas from climatic records and recently from 15-year satellite data This presentation examines teleconnection between ENSO and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide using 24-year satellite and in situ data records ENSO events were characterized by monthly sea surface temperature SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific They were collected from the improved SST analysis data set Reynolds and Smith 1994 Average anomalies were calculated for the region 5 r N - 5 r S and 170 r - 120 r E 3 4 area Terrestrial ecosystems were presented by the vegetation health condition indices VHI Kogan 1997 The VHIs derived from AVHRR-based NDVI and 10-11 Phi m thermal radiances were designed to monitor moisture and thermal impacts on vegetation health greenness and vigor Two types of responses were identified In boreal winter ecosystems of northern South America southern Africa and Southeast Asia experienced severe moisture and thermal stress during El Ni n o and favorable conditions during La Ni n a years In central South America and the Horn of Africa regions the response was opposite World ecosystems are less sensitive to SSTs during boreal summer except for the areas in northern Brazil

  19. Vegetation cover and topography rather than human disturbance control gully density and sediment production on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Chen, Longqian; Govers, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    absence of a clear climate signal, both with respect to the variation in gully density and in E, can be explained by the overwhelming effect that climate has on vegetation cover. Our research showed that non-topsoil erosion processes are the dominant sediment sources on the CLP and are strongly controlled by natural factors. The effect of human disturbance on non-topsoil erosion processes is far less important than its effect on topsoil erosion. Given the dominance of non-topsoil erosion processes on the CLP, this suggests that the high sediment production of the CLP is mainly attributable to natural factors.

  20. [The prospective model of human resources' management in health institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorgueva, T I; Shchepin, V O

    2009-01-01

    The article postulates the actuality of developing the concept of the psychological aspects of institution management as projected into health care area where the medical personnel is working in the conditions of higher responsibility, emotional and intellectual overloads under permanent nervous psychological stress. This contingent of medical institutions stuff very often ignore the positive psychological interventions both due to the poor labor management and the corresponding knowledge lacking. The topicality of this research vector is determined by the deficiency of the human resources' management studies in the public health field. The need in searching the investigation prospective directions is ascertained by the unexploredness of personnel management in national health care.