WorldWideScience

Sample records for human health toxicological

  1. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  2. Space toxicology: protecting human health during space operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T; Tyl, Rochelle; Lam, Chiu-wing

    2011-02-01

    Space toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation, and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons, and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures while in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation, continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion and other purposes. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies, in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  3. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies.

  4. A brief overview of the 33rd Annual STP Symposium on the translational pathology: relevance of toxicologic pathology to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Silverman, Lee; Francke, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The 33rd Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Annual Symposium focused on translational science and the relevance of toxicologic pathology to human health. Toxicologic pathologists work in diverse settings studying changes elicited by pharmacological, chemical, and environmental agents and factors that modify these responses. Regardless of the work setting, society members are dedicated to the integration of toxicologic pathology into hazard identification, risk assessment, and risk communication regarding human and animal exposure to potentially toxic substances. Toxicologic pathologists routinely face not only questions regarding pathological changes related to compound exposure but also questions concerning what translational relevance those lesions and exposures have to a human population or organ system. This symposium provided a basis for the membership to understand the variety of roles the toxicologic pathologist plays in translational science, where our gaps in translational science are, and how we can move forward to better address the challenges in the field translational science in order to continue to positively impact human health.

  5. Use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry in Human Health and Molecular Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Heather A; Malfatti, Michael A; Zimmermann, Maike; Ognibene, Ted; Henderson, Paul; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2016-12-19

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has been adopted as a powerful bioanalytical method for human studies in the areas of pharmacology and toxicology. The exquisite sensitivity (10(-18) mol) of AMS has facilitated studies of toxins and drugs at environmentally and physiologically relevant concentrations in humans. Such studies include risk assessment of environmental toxicants, drug candidate selection, absolute bioavailability determination, and more recently, assessment of drug-target binding as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy. Combining AMS with complementary capabilities such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can maximize data within a single experiment and provide additional insight when assessing drugs and toxins, such as metabolic profiling. Recent advances in the AMS technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have allowed for direct coupling of AMS with complementary capabilities such as HPLC via a liquid sample moving wire interface, offering greater sensitivity compared to that of graphite-based analysis, therefore enabling the use of lower (14)C and chemical doses, which are imperative for clinical testing. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent efforts in human studies using AMS, including technological advancements and discussion of the continued promise of AMS for innovative clinical based research.

  6. Regulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: critical overview and deficiencies in toxicology and risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2006-03-01

    Regulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is reviewed in terms of hazard assessment (regulatory toxicology) and risk assessment. The current range of regulatory general toxicology protocols can detect endocrine toxicity, but specific endocrine toxicology tests are required to confirm mechanisms (e.g. oestrogenic, anti-androgenic). Strategies for validating new endocrine toxicology protocols and approaches to data assessment are discussed, and deficiencies in regulatory toxicology testing (e.g. lack of adrenocortical function assessment) identified. Recent evidence of a role of prolactin in human breast cancer also highlights deficiencies in regulatory evaluation. Actual human exposure to chemicals and the high-exposure example of chemicals in body-care cosmetics is reviewed with reference to evidence that common ingredients (e.g. parabens, cyclosiloxanes) are oestrogenic. The hypothesis and epidemiology concerning chemical exposure from body-care cosmetics (moisturizers, lotions, sun screens, deodorants) and breast cancer in women is reviewed, applying Bradford-Hill criteria for association and causality, and research requirements are identified.

  7. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  8. Human environments: definition, scope, and the role of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is a brief introduction to the subject matter of the volume including the complexity and definition of human environments. Exposure to complex mixtures and the problem of interactions are considered as well as the important role of toxicology in environmental and human health, including risk analysis, risk management, and risk communication.

  9. Clinical toxicology: clinical science to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D N

    2005-11-01

    1. The aims of the present paper are to: (i) review progress in clinical toxicology over the past 40 years and to place it in the context of modern health care by describing its development; and (ii) illustrate the use of clinical toxicology data from Scotland, in particular, as a tool for informing clinical care and public health policy with respect to drugs. 2. A historical literature review was conducted with amalgamation and comparison of a series of published and unpublished clinical toxicology datasets from NPIS Edinburgh and other sources. 3. Clinical databases within poisons treatment centres offer an important method of collecting data on the clinical effects of drugs in overdose. These data can be used to increase knowledge on drug toxicity mechanisms that inform licensing decisions, contribute to evidence-based care and clinical management. Combination of this material with national morbidity datasets provides another valuable approach that can inform public health prevention strategies. 4. In conclusion, clinical toxicology datasets offer clinical pharmacologists a new study area. Clinical toxicology treatment units and poisons information services offer an important health resource.

  10. TOXNET: A computerized collection of toxicological and environmental health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, G C; Stroup, D; Thomas, P L; Wexler, P

    2000-01-01

    The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, managed by the National Library of Medicine's Division of Specialized Information Services, provides access to a number of online bibliographic and factual computer files concerned with the toxicology, safety and handling, and environmental fate of chemicals, along with other files that cover genetic toxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and toxic chemical releases.

  11. Toxicology of metals and metalloids: Promising issues for future studies in environmental health and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The function and behavior of chemical elements in ecosystems and in human health probably comprise one of the most studied issues and a theme of great interest and fascination in science. Hot topics are emerging on an annual basis in this field. Bearing this in mind, some promising themes to explore in the field of metals and metalloids in the environment and in toxicology are highlighted and briefly discussed herein.

  12. 78 FR 58548 - Request for Information: The National Toxicology Program Requests Information on Use, Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Request for Information: The National Toxicology Program Requests Information on Use, Human Exposure, and Toxicity of Vinpocetine SUMMARY: To facilitate the design... research program for toxicological characterization of vinpocetine. Request for Information: The NTP seeks...

  13. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-01-01

    existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology......A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other...... being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published...

  14. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for modern toxicology and molecular biology. A world leader in toxicology research, NTP has evaluated more than 2800 environmental substances for potential human health effects. Learn More About NTP Director Meet NTP's director Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D. Learn ...

  15. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  16. 75 FR 2545 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); Availability of the Final Expert Panel Report on Soy... whether exposure to soy infant formula is a hazard to human development. The expert panel also...

  17. Scientific Opinion on Exploring options for providing advice about possible human health risks based on the concept of Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Scientific Committee (SC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Synthetic and naturally occurring substances present in food and feed, together with their possible breakdown or reaction products, represent a large number of substances, many of which require risk assessment. EFSA’s Scientific Committee was requested to evaluate the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC approach as a tool for providing scientific advice about possible human health risks from low level exposures, its applicability to EFSA’s work, and to advise on any additional data that might be needed to strengthen the underlying basis of the TTC approach. The Scientific Committee examined the published literature on the TTC approach, undertook its own analyses and commissioned an in silico investigation of the databases underpinning the TTC approach. The Scientific Committee concluded that the TTC approach can be recommended as a useful screening tool either for priority setting or for deciding whether exposure to a substance is so low that the probability of adverse health effects is low and that no further data are necessary. The following human exposure threshold values are sufficiently conservative to be used in EFSA’s work; 0.15 μg/person per day for substances with a structural alert for genotoxicity, 18 μg/person per day for organophosphate and carbamate substances with anti-cholinesterase activity, 90 μg/person per day for Cramer Class III and Cramer Class II substances, and 1800 μg/person per day for Cramer Class I substances, but for application to all groups in the population, these values should be expressed in terms of body weight, i.e. 0.0025, 0.3, 1.5 and 30 μg/kg body weight per day, respectively. Use of the TTC approach for infants under the age of 6 months, with immature metabolic and excretory systems, should be considered on a case-by-case basis. The Committee defined a number of exclusion categories of substances for which the TTC approach would not be used.

  18. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication.

  19. Public health partnerships in medical toxicology education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Joshua G; Rubin, Carol; Schwartz, Michael D; Thomas, Jerry D; Geller, Robert J; Morgan, Brent W; McGeehin, Michael A; Frumkin, Howard

    2010-06-01

    In December 2002, the medical toxicology sub-board, which consists of representatives from emergency medicine, preventive medicine, and pediatrics, released revised core content for medical toxicology, aiming to better meet the academic challenges imposed by the continually expanding knowledge base of medical toxicology. These challenges included the addition of relatively new areas of interest in medical toxicology, including population health, while simultaneously ensuring that a structural framework existed to accommodate future areas of interest. There is no evidence readily available to assess how well the educational curricula of existing fellowship programs are meeting these needs. In an effort to address this, the authors describe a medical toxicology fellowship program that consists of a partnership among the Emory University School of Medicine, the Georgia Poison Control Center, and the CDC, as well as the results of a reorganization of its academic curriculum that occurred in 2006. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report describing such a curriculum redesign. Suggestions and potential resources proposed as enhancements for the public health-associated education of medical toxicology fellows are discussed. The authors also seek to initiate a discussion among programs about how to optimally meet the new challenges developed by the medical toxicology sub-board.

  20. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, ves

  1. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  2. Accelerating the Development of 21st-Century Toxicology: Outcome of a Human Toxicology Project Consortium Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L.; Barrow, Craig; Andersen, Melvin E.; Boekelheide, Kim; Carmichael, Paul L.; Holsapple, Michael P.; Lafranconi, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st century” calls for a fundamental shift in the way that chemicals are tested for human health effects and evaluated in risk assessments. The new approach would move toward in vitro methods, typically using human cells in a high-throughput context. The in vitro methods would be designed to detect significant perturbations to “toxicity pathways,” i.e., key biological pathways that, when sufficiently perturbed, lead to adverse health outcomes. To explore progress on the report’s implementation, the Human Toxicology Project Consortium hosted a workshop on 9–10 November 2010 in Washington, DC. The Consortium is a coalition of several corporations, a research institute, and a non-governmental organization dedicated to accelerating the implementation of 21st-century Toxicology as aligned with the NRC vision. The goal of the workshop was to identify practical and scientific ways to accelerate implementation of the NRC vision. The workshop format consisted of plenary presentations, breakout group discussions, and concluding commentaries. The program faculty was drawn from industry, academia, government, and public interest organizations. Most presentations summarized ongoing efforts to modernize toxicology testing and approaches, each with some overlap with the NRC vision. In light of these efforts, the workshop identified recommendations for accelerating implementation of the NRC vision, including greater strategic coordination and planning across projects (facilitated by a steering group), the development of projects that test the proof of concept for implementation of the NRC vision, and greater outreach and communication across stakeholder communities. PMID:21948868

  3. (Q)SARs for human toxicological endpoints: a literature search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos E; Schielen P; Masilankiewicz L; CSR; NVIC

    1999-01-01

    The goal here was to describe human toxicological SARs (structure-activity relationships) available in the literature and used by the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). The CSR laboratory investigated implementation of SARs for the effect assessment. SARs correlate the molecular structure

  4. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  5. 76 FR 67200 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process... the National Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  6. A Multilaboratory Toxicological Assessment of a Panel of 10 Engineered Nanomaterials to Human Health-ENPRA Project-The Highlights, Limitations, and Current and Future Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gosens, Ilse; MacCalman, Laura; Johnston, Helinor; Danielsen, Pernille H; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Fernandes, Teresa; Schins, Roel P F; Cassee, Flemming R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143038990; Wallin, Håkan; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Stoeger, Tobias; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    ENPRA was one of the earlier multidisciplinary European Commission FP7-funded projects aiming to evaluate the risks associated with nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health across pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and developmental systems. The outputs from this project have formed the ba

  7. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology,...

  8. [Health-toxicologic aspects of some fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmański, W; Barabasz, W

    2000-01-01

    Recent findings of fungi in food products of such renomed companies as Coca-Cola and Danone resulted in society-wide alert in Poland. Humans have contact with fungi everywhere. Every food product covered with mould or having marks of it should be discarded. We should mention that cutting of or skimming the mould is totally ineffective and dangerous, because of the fact that rest of the product will contain products of fungal metabolism such as mikotoxins, which are, of course, invisible. Modern food producing technologies effected in microorganism-free products, but sporadically we can find dead fungi debris due to improper washing procedures of multi-use bottles, like it was observed in Coca-Cola products. As for mould-covered cottage cheese type products of Danone, most probably reason was improper handling of ready, sealed products during transport and storage. Even minimal physical injuries to air-tight containers resulted in sporae penetration to milk products and finally contamination with mikotoxins.

  9. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  10. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  11. Risk assessment and toxicology databases for health effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Scientific and technological developments bring unprecedented stress to our environment. Society has to predict the results of potential health risks from technologically based actions that may have serious, far-reaching consequences. The potential for error in making such predictions or assessment is great and multiplies with the increasing size and complexity of the problem being studied. Because of this, the availability and use of reliable data is the key to any successful forecasting effort. Scientific research and development generate new data and information. Much of the scientific data being produced daily is stored in computers for subsequent analysis. This situation provides both an invaluable resource and an enormous challenge. With large amounts of government funds being devoted to health and environmental research programs and with maintenance of our living environment at stake, we must make maximum use of the resulting data to forecast and avert catastrophic effects. Along with the readily available. The most efficient means of obtaining the data necessary for assessing the health effects of chemicals is to utilize applications include the toxicology databases and information files developed at ORNL. To make most efficient use of the data/information that has already been prepared, attention and resources should be directed toward projects that meticulously evaluate the available data/information and create specialized peer-reviewed value-added databases. Such projects include the National Library of Medicine`s Hazardous Substances Data Bank, and the U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Toxicology Guide. These and similar value-added toxicology databases were developed at ORNL and are being maintained and updated. These databases and supporting information files, as well as some data evaluation techniques are discussed in this paper with special focus on how they are used to assess potential health effects of environmental agents. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. TOXNET and Beyond-Using the National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this training is to familiarize participants with reliable online environmental health and toxicology information, from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources. Skills and knowledge acquired in this training class will enable participants to access, utilize, and refer others to environmental health and toxicology information. After completing this course, participants will be able to: (1) Identify quality, accurate, and authoritative online resources pertaining to environmental health, toxicology, and related medical information; (2) Demonstrate the ability to perform strategic search techniques to find relevant online information; and (3) Apply the skills and knowledge obtained in this class to their organization's health information needs. NLMs TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) is a free, Web-based system of databases on toxicology, environmental health, hazardous chemicals, toxic releases, chemical nomenclatures, and specialty areas such as occupational health and consumer products. Types of information in the TOXNET databases include: (1) Specific chemicals, mixtures, and products; (2) Unknown chemicals; and (3) Special toxic effects of chemicals in humans and/or animals.

  13. 76 FR 68461 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National... from recognized authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology,...

  14. 77 FR 24714 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National... fields such as toxicology, pharmacology, pathology, biochemistry, epidemiology, risk...

  15. 77 FR 60707 - National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors; Announcement of Meeting; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors... Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC). The NTP BSC, a federally chartered, external... authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology, pathology, biochemistry,...

  16. TOXNET and Beyond - Using the NLMs Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal-February

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-02-24

    The purpose of this training is to familiarize participants with reliable online environmental health and toxicology information, from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources. Skills and knowledge acquired in this training class will enable participants to access, utilize, and refer others to environmental health and toxicology information.

  17. TOXNET and Beyond: Using the National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-20

    The National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal provides access to numerous databases that can help you explore environmental chemicals and risks. TOXNET and Beyond: Using NLM's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal conveys the fundamentals of searching the NLM's TOXNET system of databases in chemistry, toxicology, environmental health, and related fields. In addition to TOXNET, the course will highlight various resources available through the Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal.

  18. Human exposure to soil contamination: a qualitative and quantitative analysis towards proposals for human toxicological intervention values (partly revised edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg R van den; LBG

    1994-01-01

    In view of a revision of the Dutch Soil Protection act, proposals are presented in this report for human toxicologically based intervention values for soil and groundwater, calculated from human toxicological guideline values and human exposure. To this purpose the exposure model CSOIL is presented

  19. 75 FR 12244 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the NTP Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison... authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology, pathology, biochemistry, epidemiology, risk assessment, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, molecular biology, behavioral toxicology,...

  20. Towards the regulation of aerosol emissions by their potential health impact: Assessing adverse effects of aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine emissions by combining comprehensive data on the chemical composition and their toxicological effects on human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Streibel, T.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Rheda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Czech, H.; Tiita, P.; Jalava, P.; Kasurinen, S.; Schwemer, T.; Yli-Prilä, P.; Tissari, J.; Lamberg, H.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ship engine emissions are important regarding lung and cardiovascular diseases in coastal regions worldwide. Bio mass burning is made responsible for adverse health effects in many cities and rural regions. The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. Typical lung cell responses to combustion aerosols include inflammation and apoptosis, but a molecular link with the specific chemical composition in particular of ship emissions has not been established. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system (ALI), we exposed human lung cells at-site to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on common heavy fuel oil (HFO) and cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF) as well as to emissions of wood combustion compliances. A special field deployable ALI-exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for this study. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling to characterise the cellular responses. The HFO ship emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds (transition metals, organic toxicants) and particle masses. The cellular responses included inflammation and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the DF ship emissions, which predominantly contain rather "pure" carbonaceous soot and much less known toxicants, induced significantly broader biological effects, affecting essential cellular pathways (e.g., mitochondrial function and intracellular transport). Therefore the use of distillate fuels for shipping (this is the current emission reduction strategy of the IMO) appears insufficient for diminishing health effects. The study suggests rather reducing the particle emissions

  1. Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, Pim E G; Besselink, Harrie; Klungsøyr, Jarle; McHugh, Brendan; Nixon, Eugene; Rimkus, Gerhard G; Brouwer, Abraham; de Boer, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that correlates with the mechanistic potential to cause tumor promotion. In vivo rat studies established the NOAEL for degraded and technical toxaphene at the highest dose tested in the bioassay. Toxaphene residue intakes from European fishery products were estimated and compared to the provisional tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) from various regulatory agencies including Canada, the United States, and Germany. The estimated intake was also compared to a new calculated provisional MATT pTDI. The MATT pTDI is based on new toxicological information (in vivo rat studies) developed on a model for environmental toxaphene residues rather than technical toxaphene. A MATT pTDI (1.08 mg total toxaphene for a person of 60 kg) for tumor promotion potency was adopted for use in Europe and is referred to here as the MATT pTDI. These new data result in a better estimate of safety and a higher TDI than previously used. Based on realistic fish consumption data and recent baseline concentration data of toxaphene in European fishery products, the toxaphene intake for the consumers of Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the Netherlands was estimated. For an average adult fish consumer, the average daily intake of toxaphene was estimated to be 1.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.2 µg for the consumers of Norway, Germany, Ireland, and the Netherlands, respectively. The toxaphene intake of these average fish consumers was far below the MATT pTDI of 1.08 mg/60 kg bw. In conclusion, based on the most relevant toxicological studies and the most realistic estimates of fish consumption and recent concentrations of toxaphene in European fishery

  2. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  3. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Humans are constantly challenged by exposure to a cocktail of chemicals that can have negative health effects, and fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable. Therefore, we need safer chemicals in order to reduce any potential environmental and human hazards. A solid framework to design...... safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...

  4. Advances in the study of toxicology and human health risk assessment of microcystin%微囊藻毒素的致毒机理和人体健康风险评价研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艺; 张郅灏

    2013-01-01

    including making cell necrosis by causing the damage of cell structure ,inducing cell apoptosis,inducing cell mutagenesis,inducing gene mutation and DNA lesion. The present research hotspot has already turn from damaging cell structure to the molecular mechanisms of Microcystin inducing cell toxicity, and researchers has acquired some achievement in the molecular mechanism involved in microcystin toxicity. These findings provide a basis and standard for human health risk assessment. However, the study ofmicrocystin’s toxicology and assessment have a lot of open issues. The defects of the researches in molecular mechanism mediated by microcystin, toxicokinetics of microcystin and the relationship between cell mutagenesis and apoptosis induced by microcystin have been discussed in the article. And the article also presents some opinions on human health risk assessment of microcystin:(1) There is a big difference between the exposure route of animal experiment and actual situation, so we need to build new exposure mode. (2) The poison efficiency of pure microcystin is obviously lower than that of natural water containing with the same concentration of toxin, but the present risk assessment research nearly all relies on the experimental data of based on pure toxin, so we need to correct it. (3) The research of combined toxicity of different types of microcystin are absent. (4) There is a urgent demand of building the method of rapid risk assessment of microcystin.

  5. 75 FR 76995 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in 1998 (63 FR 68782) to... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR); NTP Workshop: Role of Environmental Chemicals in the Development of Diabetes and...

  6. Air pollution toxicology--a brief review of the role of the science in shaping the current understanding of air pollution health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Brown, James S; Stanek, John; Gift, Jeff; Costa, Daniel L

    2011-03-01

    Human and animal toxicology has had a profound impact on our historical and current understanding of air pollution health effects. Early animal toxicological studies of air pollution had distinctively military or workplace themes. With the discovery that ambient air pollution episodes led to excess illness and death, there became an emergence of toxicological studies that focused on industrial air pollution encountered by the general public. Not only did the pollutants investigated evolve from ambient mixtures to individual pollutants but also the endpoints and outcomes evaluated became more sophisticated, resulting in our present state of the science. Currently, a large toxicological database exists for the effects of particulate matter and ozone, and we provide a focused review of some of the major contributions to the biological understanding for these two "criteria" air pollutants. A limited discussion of the toxicological advancements in the scientific knowledge of two hazardous air pollutants, formaldehyde and phosgene, is also included. Moving forward, the future challenge of air pollution toxicology lies in the health assessment of complex mixtures and their interactions, given the projected impacts of climate change and altered emissions on ambient conditions. In the coming years, the toxicologist will need to be flexible and forward thinking in order to dissect the complexity of the biological system itself, as well as that of air pollution in all its varied forms.

  7. Toxicological interactions of silver nanoparticles and non-essential metals in human hepatocarcinoma cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Renata Rank; Bezerra, Arandi Ginane; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Toxicological interaction represents a challenge to toxicology, particularly for novel contaminants. There are no data whether silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), present in a wide variety of products, can interact and modulate the toxicity of ubiquitous contaminants, such as nonessential metals....... In the current study, we investigated the toxicological interactions of AgNP (size=1-2nm; zeta potential=-23mV), cadmium and mercury in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The results indicated that the co-exposures led to toxicological interactions, with AgNP+Cd being more toxic than AgNP+Hg. Early (2-4h) increases...... (MTT), cell viability (neutral red uptake assay), cell proliferation (crystal violet assay) and ABC-transporters activity (rhodamine accumulation assay) were also more pronounced in the co-exposure groups. Foremost, co-exposure to AgNP and metals potentiated cell death (mainly by necrosis) and Hg(2...

  8. Assessing the scientific research productivity of a leading toxicology journal: A case study of Human & Experimental Toxicology from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric studies are increasingly being used for research assessments. Bibliometric indicators involve the application of statistical methods to scientific publications to obtain the bibliographics for each journal. The main objective of this study was to conduct a bibliometric evaluation of Human & Experimental Toxicology retrieved from the Scopus database. This study obtained data from Scopus published from 1 January 2003 till 31 December 2012. The keywords entered in Scopus to accomplish the objective of this study were 'Human', 'Experimental' and 'Toxicology' as 'Source Title'. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing (a) total and trends in Human & Experimental Toxicology contributions in research between 2003 and 2012; (b) Human & Experimental Toxicology authorship patterns and productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; and (d) the citations received by the publications. There were 1229 research articles published in Human & Experimental Toxicology. Of the articles included, 947 (77.1%) were original articles and 104 (8.5%) were review articles. The Hirsch-index of the retrieved documents was 35. The largest number of publications in Human & Experimental Toxicology was from the United States (19.6%), followed by India (12.8%) and Turkey (10.9%). The total number of citations was 9119, with a median (interquartile range) of 3 (1-9) in 6797 documents. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (2.7-12.7) for France, followed by 7.5 (2-22.5) for Iran and 6 (3-13.5) for the United Kingdom. The country most often citing articles that were published in Human & Experimental Toxicology was the United States, which made citations in 1508 documents, followed by India with citations in 792 documents. The documents in Human & Experimental Toxicology focus principally on original data, with very few review articles. Review articles tend to have higher citation rates

  9. Toxicology, an STS Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities suggested through Project L.A.B.S. that involve the topic of toxicology. Activities include suggested research, the risk benefit seesaw, human-made compounds, legislation, a historical perspective, and health. A suggested readings list is provided. (KR)

  10. 76 FR 71037 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens... Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); National Institutes... (see ADDRESSES). Dated: November 8, 2011. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National...

  11. 76 FR 2388 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  12. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  13. Spaceflight Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a review of NASA Johnson Space Center's Toxicology program. The mission of this program is to protect crews from toxic exposures during spaceflight. The presentation reviews some of the health hazards. A toxicological hazard level chart is presented that reviews the rating of hazard level, irritancy, systemic effects and containability. The program also participates in the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group.

  14. Haiti's food and drinking water: a review of toxicological health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzbord, J R; Emmanuel, E; Brown, D L

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Haiti is a developing country in the Caribbean region with a history that challenges toxicologists, yet the historical panoply of toxicological hazards in Haiti has received little scholarly attention. The primary objectives of this paper are to review what is known about Haiti's current toxicological hazards, with a focus on chronic food-borne aflatoxin exposure and heavy metal contamination of water resources, and to compare these with previous large-scale, acute exposures to toxic substances: the 1995-1996 diethylene glycol (DEG) intoxications and the 2000-2001 ackee fruit poisonings. MEDLINE/PUBMED and the library website of Cornell University were searched using the terms "Haiti" and either "heavy metals," "aflatoxin", "diethylene glycol", or "ackee". The search was inclusive of articles from 1950 to 2012, and 15 out of the 37 returned were peer-reviewed articles offering original data or comprehensive discussion. One peer-reviewed article in press, two newspaper articles, two personal communications, and one book chapter from the personal databases of the authors were also referenced, making a total of 21 citations. Elevated concentrations of aflatoxins (greater than 20 μg/kg) were documented for staples of the Haitian food supply, most notably peanut butters and maize. Human exposure to aflatoxin was confirmed with analysis of aflatoxin blood biomarkers. The implications of aflatoxin exposure were reviewed in the light of Haiti's age-adjusted liver cancer risk - the highest in the Caribbean region. Measurement of heavy metals in Port-au-Prince ground water showed contamination of lead and chromium in excess of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 15 μg/L Action Level for lead and 100 μg/L Maximum Contamination Level Goal for total chromium. The DEG contamination of paracetamol (acetaminophen) containing products in 1995-1996 claimed the lives of 109 children and the 2000-2001 epidemic of ackee fruit poisoning resulted in 60 cases of

  15. Plant species forbidden in health food and their toxic constituents, toxicology and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Lin; Shang, Yu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Many plants with pharmacological efficacies are widely used as ingredients in so-called "health foods", but many of them are toxic. In order to ensure the safety of "health food", the Chinese Ministry of Health has listed 59 materials that are forbidden from being used in health food and are called health food forbidden species (HFFS). This review focuses on 47 plants among the HFFS to discuss research regarding their pharmacology, toxicology, and detoxification methods. According to the literature published in the last 2 decades, the main constituents and the pharmacology of such plants are described here, especially their toxic constituents and toxicology. The toxicity mechanisms of several typical toxic components from the 47 plants are outlined and some effective detoxification methods are introduced. Although all HFFS are poisonous, they are considered to be useful in the treatment of many diseases. How to keep their pharmacological effects and at the same time decrease their toxicity is a great challenge. In the future, more attention should be paid to the application of modern science and technology in the exploration of the toxicology and detoxification of HFFS.

  16. Overview: developmental toxicology: new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Dana; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    Since regulatory agencies began implementing the use of standardized developmental toxicology protocols in the mid-1960s, our knowledge base of embryo-fetal development and technologies for experimentation has grown exponentially. These developmental toxicology protocols were a direct result of the thalidomide tragedy from earlier that decade, when large numbers of women were exposed to the drug and over 10,000 cases of phocomelia resulted. In preventing a recurrence of such tragedies, the testing protocols are immensely successful and the field of toxicology has been dedicated to using them to advance safety and risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, our perspectives on toxicity testing have been challenged by a growing awareness that while we have excelled in hazard identification, we are in dire need of improved methodologies for human health risk assessment, particularly with respect to the large numbers of environmental chemicals for which we have little toxicology data and to the growing sentiment that better alternatives to whole animals tests are needed. To provide a forum for scientists, researchers, and regulators, the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute organized a 2-day workshop titled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" to evaluate lessons learned over the past 30 years and discuss the future of toxicology testing. The following four articles describe different presentations and discussions that were held over the course of those 2 days.

  17. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance Sistemas de vigilancia de riesgos ambientales para la salud. Sistemas de toxicovigilancia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Olivia Castillo Soria; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Ana Ferrer Dufol; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.Se presenta ...

  18. Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-12-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data.

  19. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

  20. Quantitative Methods in Toxicology for Human Dose-Response Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer HJ; Jansen EHJM; Zeilmaker MJ; van Kranen HJ; Kroese ED; TOX; LCM

    1995-01-01

    Het proces van de humane risicoschatting kan verdeeld worden in risico-identificatie, vaststellen van dosis-respons relaties, vaststellen van blootstelling en risico-karakterisering. In de humane risicoschatting worden kwantitatieve methoden en modellen toegepast. Welk model dient te worden toegep

  1. Environmental Toxicology and Health Effects Associated with Methyl Parathion Exposure – A Scientific Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion - MP (C8H10NO5PS is a restricted-use pesticide that has been widely used as an agricultural insecticide. It belongs to the class of organophosphate chemicals characterized by their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. The main route of human exposure is inhalation, but dermal contact and inadvertent ingestion can also be substantial. Populations that are susceptible to MP exposure primarily are applicators, manufacturers and individuals living near application and/or disposal sites. Exposure has also been reported as a result of illegal indoor application. MP related health effects include headaches, nausea, night-waking, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, excessive sweating and salivation, incoordination, and mental confusion. Other symptoms including behavior problems, motor skill problems and impairment of memory recall have also been reported. The primary targets of toxicity are the hematopoietic system (serum cholinesterase inhibition, the cardiovascular system (cardiovascular lesions, abnormalities in heart rate and increase in heart-to-body ratio, the reproductive system (placental morphology, fibrosis and hemorrhage, and inhibition of DNA synthesis in seminiferous tubules, and the nervous system (headache, muscle weakness, insomnia, dizziness, and impaired memory. MP is believed to not have any carcinogenic effects. In an attempt to update its toxicologic profile, we hereby provide a critical review of MP-related environmental and toxicologic effects, with a special emphasis on their potential implications for public health.

  2. Inter-connections between human health and ecological integrity: An organizational framework for research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pellston workshop entitled, Interconnections between Human Health and Ecological Integrity, was held in 2000. Jointly sponsored by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the Society of Toxicology (SOT), the workshop was motivated by the concern of hum...

  3. Toxicology: a discipline in need of academic anchoring--the point of view of the German Society of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, U; Barth, H; Bürkle, A; Degen, G H; Landsiedel, R

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes the importance of toxicology as a discipline, its past achievements, current scientific challenges, and future development. Toxicological expertise is instrumental in the reduction of human health risks arising from chemicals and drugs. Toxicological assessment is needed to evaluate evidence and arguments, whether or not there is a scientific base for concern. The immense success already achieved by toxicological work is exemplified by reduced pollution of air, soil, water, and safer working places. Predominantly predictive toxicological testing is derived from the findings to assess risks to humans and the environment. Assessment of the adversity of molecular effects (including epigenetic effects), the effects of mixtures, and integration of exposure and biokinetics into in vitro testing are emerging challenges for toxicology. Toxicology is a translational science with its base in fundamental science. Academic institutions play an essential part by providing scientific innovation and education of young scientists.

  4. Toxicological Characterization of the Inorganic and Organic Arsenic Metabolite Thio-DMAV in Cultured Human Lung Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bartel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesised and toxicologically characterised the arsenic metabolite thiodimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMAV. Successful synthesis of highly pure thio-DMAV was confirmed by state-of-the-art analytical techniques including H1-NMR, HPLC-FTMS, and HPLC-ICPMS. Toxicological characterization was carried out in comparison to arsenite and its well-known trivalent and pentavalent methylated metabolites. It comprised cellular bioavailability as well as different cytotoxicity and genotoxicity end points in cultured human A549 lung cells. Of all arsenicals investigated, thio-DMAV exerted the strongest cytotoxicity. Moreover, thio-DMAV did not induce DNA strand breaks and an increased induction of both micronuclei and multinucleated cells occurred only at beginning cytotoxic concentrations, indicating that thio-DMAV does not act via a genotoxic mode of action. Finally, to assess potential implications of thio-DMAV for human health, further mechanistic studies are urgently necessary to identify the toxic mode of action of this highly toxic, unusual pentavalent organic arsenical.

  5. 78 FR 54476 - Availability of Draft National Toxicology Program Technical Reports; Request for Comments; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Availability of Draft National Toxicology Program Technical Reports; Request for Comments; Notice of Meeting SUMMARY: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) announces..., 2013. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  6. A niche for infectious disease in environmental health: rethinking the toxicological paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Beth J; Vegosen, Leora; Davis, Meghan; Leibler, Jessica; Peterson, Amy; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2010-08-01

    In this review we highlight the need to expand the scope of environmental health research, which now focuses largely on the study of toxicants, to incorporate infectious agents. We provide evidence that environmental health research would be strengthened through finding common ground with the tools and approaches of infectious disease research. We conducted a literature review for examples of interactions between toxic agents and infectious diseases, as well as the role of these interactions as risk factors in classic "environmental" diseases. We investigated existing funding sources and research mandates in the United States from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, particularly the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. We adapted the toxicological paradigm to guide reintegration of infectious disease into environmental health research and to identify common ground between these two fields as well as opportunities for improving public health through interdisciplinary research. Environmental health encompasses complex disease processes, many of which involve interactions among multiple risk factors, including toxicant exposures, pathogens, and susceptibility. Funding and program mandates for environmental health studies should be expanded to include pathogens in order to capture the true scope of these overlapping risks, thus creating more effective research investments with greater relevance to the complexity of real-world exposures and multifactorial health outcomes. We propose a new model that integrates the toxicology and infectious disease paradigms to facilitate improved collaboration and communication by providing a framework for interdisciplinary research. Pathogens should be part of environmental health research planning and funding allocation, as well as applications such as surveillance and policy development.

  7. Evaluation of the health impact of nanoparticles emitted from combustion sources: Comprehensive characterization of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticle emissions from wood combustion compliances, car- and ship diesel-engines as well as investigation of their toxicological effects on human lung cells and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Mülhopt, S.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Weggler, B.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Passig, J.; Gröger, T.; BéruBé, K.; Krebs, T.

    2016-12-01

    Combustion emissions cause health effects. The HICE-Aerosol and Health project team studies the physicochemical properties as well as biological and toxicological effects on lung cells of combustion particle emissions. The chemical composition and physical parameters thoroughly characterized. Human lung cells are exposed to the diluted combustion exhaust fumes at the air-liquid interface (ALI), allowing a realistic lung-cell exposure by simulation of the lung situation. After exposure, cellular responses of the exposed lung cells are studied by multi-omics molecular biological analyses on transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic level. Emissions of wood combustion (log wood, pellet heater), ship diesel engines and car gasoline engines are addressed. Special field deployable ALI-exposition systems in a mobile S2-biological laboratory were set up and applied. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549, BEAS2B and primary cells) as well as murine macrophages were ALI-exposed to diluted emissions. The cellular effects were then comprehensively characterized (viability, cyto-toxicology, multi-omics effects monitoring) and put in context with the chemical and physical aerosol data. The following order of overall cellular response-strength was observed: A relatively mild cellular effect is observed for the diluted wood combustion emissions. Interestingly the effects-strength for log-wood and pellet burner emissions are similar, although PM-concentrations are much higher for the log-wood heater. Similar mild biological effects are observed for the gasoline car emissions. The ship diesel engine emissions induced the most intense biological responses. A surprising result in this context is, that heavy fuel oil (HFO)-emissions showed lower biological effect strengths than the supposedly cleaner diesel fuel emissions (DF). The HFO-emission contain high concentrations of known toxicants (transition metals, polycyclic aromatics). This result was recently confirmed by experiments

  8. Continuous, real-time bioimaging of chemical bioavailability and toxicology using autonomously bioluminescent human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M.; Webb, James D.; Price, Sarah L.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescent imaging is an emerging biomedical surveillance strategy that uses external cameras to detect in vivo light generated in small animal models of human physiology or in vitro light generated in tissue culture or tissue scaffold mimics of human anatomy. The most widely utilized of reporters is the firefly luciferase (luc) gene; however, it generates light only upon addition of a chemical substrate, thus only generating intermittent single time point data snapshots. To overcome this disadvantage, we have demonstrated substrate-independent bioluminescent imaging using an optimized bacterial bioluminescence (lux) system. The lux reporter produces bioluminescence autonomously using components found naturally within the cell, thereby allowing imaging to occur continuously and in real-time over the lifetime of the host. We have validated this technology in human cells with demonstrated chemical toxicological profiling against exotoxin exposures at signal strengths comparable to existing luc systems (~1.33 × 107 photons/second). As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we have engineered breast carcinoma cells to express bioluminescence for real-time screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals and validated detection of 17β-estradiol (EC50 = ~ 10 pM). These and other applications of this new reporter technology will be discussed as potential new pathways towards improved models of target chemical bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy, and human safety. PMID:26516295

  9. Continuous, real-time bioimaging of chemical bioavailability and toxicology using autonomously bioluminescent human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M.; Webb, James D.; Price, Sarah L.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2013-05-01

    Bioluminescent imaging is an emerging biomedical surveillance strategy that uses external cameras to detect in vivo light generated in small animal models of human physiology or in vitro light generated in tissue culture or tissue scaffold mimics of human anatomy. The most widely utilized of reporters is the firefly luciferase (luc) gene; however, it generates light only upon addition of a chemical substrate, thus only generating intermittent single time point data snapshots. To overcome this disadvantage, we have demonstrated substrate-independent bioluminescent imaging using an optimized bacterial bioluminescence (lux) system. The lux reporter produces bioluminescence autonomously using components found naturally within the cell, thereby allowing imaging to occur continuously and in real-time over the lifetime of the host. We have validated this technology in human cells with demonstrated chemical toxicological profiling against exotoxin exposures at signal strengths comparable to existing luc systems (~1.33 × 107 photons/second). As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we have engineered breast carcinoma cells to express bioluminescence for real-time screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals and validated detection of 17β-estradiol (EC50 = ~ 10 pM). These and other applications of this new reporter technology will be discussed as potential new pathways towards improved models of target chemical bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy, and human safety.

  10. Human health risk assessment of long chain alcohols (LCOH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veenstra, Gauke; Sanderson, Hans; Webb, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Representative chemicals from the long chain alcohols category have been extensively tested to define their toxicological hazard properties. These chemicals show low acute and repeat dose toxicity with high-dose effects (if any) related to minimal liver toxicity. These chemicals do not show evide...... of human health are documented for the uses of these chemicals. © 2008....

  11. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  12. Safety Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Human Gc Globulin (Vitamin D Binding Protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Svaerke; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day...... toxicity studies in rats and horses did not show any unwanted reactions. In a 14-day toxicology study in beagle dogs, formation of antibodies was seen and in the end of the study period, three out of four dogs showed clinical immunological reactions, which could be ascribed to the formation of antibodies...

  13. Safety pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetic assesment of human Gc globulin (vitamin d binding protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Sværke; Santoni Rugiu, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day...... toxicity studies in rats and horses did not show any unwanted reactions. In a 14-day toxicology study in beagle dogs, formation of antibodies was seen and in the end of the study period, three out of four dogs showed clinical immunological reactions, which could be ascribed to the formation of antibodies...

  14. [Yes to research, no to utilization? Medical, pharmacological and toxicological utilization of human embryonic stem cells from an ethical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H

    2008-09-01

    In exceptional cases, the German Stem Cell Act allows research on human embryonic stem cells. However, it does not allow the implementation of the research results if this in turn requires the use of further embryonic stem cell lines. It has, in the meantime, transpired that such research results could be of concrete use. Thus, in the distant future, it could be used in the clinical treatment of patients. Already in the nearer future the use of human embryonic stem cell lines can be envisaged for both the development and testing of medicines as well as in the field of toxicology. To this end, research concerning embryo toxicity and neurotoxicity is ground-breaking. The toxicological and pharmacological use of human embryonic stem cell lines should serve the protection of human health as well as the safe and reliable use of medicines. In addition, animal experiments could be reduced, which is desirable from a point of view of animal protection ethics. Since research on human embryonic stem cell lines is actually permitted in Germany, the use of the respective research results should be allowed all the more. This follows from the basic human right to health protection and health care. Legal ambiguities, which still exist in this respect, should be removed.

  15. Meteorite Dust and Health - A Novel Approach for Determining Bulk Compositions for Toxicological Assessments of Precious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    With the resurgence of human curiosity to explore planetary bodies beyond our own, comes the possibility of health risks associated with the materials covering the surface of these planetary bodies. In order to mitigate these health risks and prepare ourselves for the eventuality of sending humans to other planetary bodies, toxicological evaluations of extraterrestrial materials is imperative (Harrington et al. 2017). Given our close proximity, as well as our increased datasets from various missions (e.g., Apollo, Mars Exploration Rovers, Dawn, etc…), the three most likely candidates for initial human surface exploration are the Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4Vesta. Seven samples, including lunar mare basalt NWA 4734, lunar regolith breccia NWA 7611, martian basalt Tissint, martian regolith breccia NWA 7034, a vestian basalt Berthoud, a vestian regolith breccia NWA 2060, and a terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalt, were examined for bulk chemistry, mineralogy, geochemical reactivity, and inflammatory potential. In this study, we have taken alliquots from these samples, both the fresh samples and those that underwent iron leaching (Tissint, NWA 7034, NWA 4734, MORB), and performed low pressure, high temperature melting experiments to determine the bulk composition of the materials that were previously examined.

  16. Asian dust storm particles induce a broad toxicological transcriptional program in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Lee, Soo Hwan; Noh, Minsoo

    2011-01-15

    Exposure to airborne dust particles originated from seasonal Asian dust storms in Chinese and Mongolian deserts results in increased incidence of a range of diseases including asthma, contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis. The areas affected by Asian dust particles extend from East China to the west coast of North America. In order to study toxicological mechanisms in human skin, we evaluated the effects of dust particles collected during Asian dust storms (Asian dust particles) on gene expression in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). In HEK, exposure to Asian dust particles significantly increased gene expressions of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, which is an indication of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation. In addition, Asian dust particles increased gene transcription of the cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF, which have broad pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Asian dust particles significantly up-regulated expression of caspase 14 in HEK, suggesting that Asian dust particles directly affect keratinocyte differentiation. We also demonstrated that protein extract of pollen, a material frequently adsorbed onto Asian dust particles, potentially contributes to the increased transcription of IL-6, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Taken together, these studies suggest that Asian dust particles can exert toxicological effects on human skin through the activation of the cellular detoxification system, the production of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, and changes in the expression of proteins essential in normal epidermal differentiation.

  17. Synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic cathinones are commonly abused novel psychoactive substances (NPS). We present a comprehensive systematic review addressing in vitro and in vivo synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods for detection and quantification in biological matrices, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem toxicology cases. Few preclinical administration studies examined synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetic profiles (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and only one investigated metabolite pharmacokinetics. Synthetic cathinone metabolic profiling studies, primarily with human liver microsomes, elucidated metabolite structures and identified suitable biomarkers to extend detection windows beyond those provided by parent compounds. Generally, cathinone derivatives underwent ketone reduction, carbonylation of the pyrrolidine ring, and oxidative reactions, with phase II metabolites also detected. Reliable analytical methods are necessary for cathinone identification in biological matrices to document intake and link adverse events to specific compounds and concentrations. NPS analytical methods are constrained in their ability to detect new emerging synthetic cathinones due to limited commercially available reference standards and continuous development of new analogs. Immunoassay screening methods are especially affected, but also gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry confirmation methods. Non-targeted high-resolution-mass spectrometry screening methods are advantageous, as they allow for retrospective data analysis and easier addition of new synthetic cathinones to existing methods. Lack of controlled administration studies in humans complicate interpretation of synthetic cathinones in biological matrices, as dosing information is typically unknown. Furthermore, antemortem and postmortem concentrations often overlap and the presence of other psychoactive substances are typically found in combination

  18. Human exposure to chemical mixtures: Challenges for the integration of toxicology with epidemiology data in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines. Well designed and conducted epidemiological studies can take advantage of this new paradigm and can provide insight to support the correlation between humans low-dose exposures and diseases, thus avoiding the uncertainty associated with extrapolation across species. In this regard, human epidemiology studies may play a significant role in the new vision of toxicity testing. However, this type of information has not been fully considered in risk assessment, mainly due to the inherent limitations of epidemiologic studies. An integrated approach of in vivo, in vitro and in silico data, together with systematic reviews or meta-analysis of high quality epidemiological studies will improve the robustness of risk assessment of chemical mixtures and will provide a stronger basis for regulatory decisions. The ultimate goal is that experimental and mechanistic data can lend support and biological plausibility to the human epidemiological observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health risk of low-dose pesticides mixtures: a review of the 1985-1998 literature on combination toxicology and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpy, S A; Kobel, W; Doe, J

    2000-01-01

    A literature review covering the last 14 yr has been performed in the field of combination toxicology and human risk assessment from exposure to chemical mixtures, with special emphasis on mixtures of pesticides at low doses, that is, at levels likely to occur in human diet and environment. Despite a large body of knowledge in the field of risk assessment methodologies for exposure to chemical and pesticide mixtures, there is no single methodological approach in "combination toxicology" and health risk assessment of chemical mixtures, and therefore professional judgment is still required. Generally, the dose or response additivity approach that may be applied to evaluate potential risk for chemical mixtures in human toxicology overestimates the risk of a combination of chemicals. The recent endocrine disrupter issue demonstrated the difficulty of reproducibility of data when testing environmental toxicants at very low levels, and the need for more basic work in this field. The use of integrated methodological approaches may provide more reliable predictive data in the risk assessment of chemical mixtures in future. Yet data have demonstrated that exposure to a combination of compounds does not cause effects stronger than the ones of their most active component, provided components are present at low concentration levels, like acceptable daily intake (ADI) or reference dose (RfD) levels, well below their respective no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs). Although it has been demonstrated that a combination of compounds with the same target organ and the same or very similar mechanisms of action may cause additive or synergistic effects, the chance of such effects will most likely diminish with decreasing exposure levels to such combinations. Synergism and antagonism may both occur at the same time at different organs or targets in the same organism. However, and despite some exceptions, it has been demonstrated that interaction between components is not a common

  20. Toxicological properties of the thiolated inorganic arsenic and arsenosugar metabolite thio-dimethylarsinic acid in human bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Franziska; Leffers, Larissa; Weber, Till; Berndt, Svenia; Mangerich, Aswin; Beneke, Sascha; Bürkle, Alexander; Schwerdtle, Tanja

    2014-04-01

    Thio-dimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMA(V)) has recently been identified as human metabolite after exposure toward both the human carcinogen inorganic arsenic and arsenosugars, which are the major arsenical constituents of marine algae. This study aims to get further insight in the toxic modes of action of thio-DMA(V) in cultured human urothelial cells. Among others effects of thio-DMA(V) on eight cell death related endpoints, cell cycle distribution, genotoxicity, cellular bioavailability as well as for the first time its impact on DNA damage induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation were investigated and compared to effects induced by arsenite. The data indicate that thio-DMA(V) exerts its cellular toxicity in a similar or even lower concentration range, however most likely via different mechanisms, than arsenite. Most interestingly, thio-DMA(V) decreased damage-induced cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by 35,000-fold lower concentrations than arsenite. The inhibition of this essential DNA-damage induced and DNA-repair related signaling reaction might contribute to inorganic arsenic induced toxicity, at least in the bladder. Therefore, and also because thio-DMA(V) is to date by far the most toxic human metabolite identified after arsenosugar intake, thio-DMA(V) should contemporary be fully (also in vivo) toxicologically characterized, to assess risks to human health related to inorganic arsenic but especially arsenosugar dietary intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants: the interface between human and experimental studies in the development of new toxicological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Ricarda; Golka, Klaus; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-02-28

    The growing knowledge of the genetic polymorphisms of enzymes metabolising xenobiotics in humans and their connections with individual susceptibility towards toxicants has created new and important interfaces between human epidemiology and experimental toxicology. The results of molecular epidemiological studies may provide new hypotheses and concepts, which call for experimental verification, and experimental concepts may obtain further proof by molecular epidemiological studies. If applied diligently, these possibilities may be combined to lead to new strategies of human-oriented toxicological research. This overview will present some outstanding examples for such strategies taken from the practically very important field of occupational toxicology. The main focus is placed on the effects of enzyme polymorphisms of the xenobiotic metabolism in association with the induction of bladder cancer and renal cell cancer after exposure to occupational chemicals. Also, smoking and induction of head and neck squamous cell cancer are considered.

  2. Nano-silicon dioxide toxicological characterization on two human kidney cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, V.; Sergent, J. A.; Chevillard, S.

    2011-07-01

    Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (n-SiO2) have recently encountered a wide variety of applications in medicine or engineering but their toxicological effects are poorly understood. In this study, we have used SiO2-25 nm and SiO2-100 nm mono-dispersed nanoparticles labeled with Rhodamine B and TMPyP respectively. These two fluorophores were incorporated during synthesis in order to track nanoparticles cell incorporation. Up-to-date, no evaluation of the toxicological effects of these nanoparticles upon human kidney has been published. As kidney is one of the major traditional retention organs, the aim of our study is to evaluate the potential toxicity of these nanoparticles on two human cell lines from proximal tubule (Caki-1 and Hek293). Our results report that the two cell lines do not show similar responses after 24 hours of exposure to SiO2-nanoparticles disregarding a similar origin in the kidney. Interestingly, our results indicate that for both tested SiO2-nanoparticles, Caki-1 cells present a higher sensitivity in terms of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than Hek293 cells. Furthermore, our results show that for similar concentration of exposure, SiO2-25 nm seems to be more cytotoxic and genotoxic than SiO2-100nm for both tested cell lines.

  3. Nano-silicon dioxide toxicological characterization on two human kidney cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Chevillard, S, E-mail: sylvie.chevillard@cea.fr [Laboratory of Experimental Cancerology, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Radiobiology, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-07-06

    Silicon dioxide nanoparticles (n-SiO{sub 2}) have recently encountered a wide variety of applications in medicine or engineering but their toxicological effects are poorly understood. In this study, we have used SiO{sub 2}-25 nm and SiO{sub 2}-100 nm mono-dispersed nanoparticles labeled with Rhodamine B and TMPyP respectively. These two fluorophores were incorporated during synthesis in order to track nanoparticles cell incorporation. Up-to-date, no evaluation of the toxicological effects of these nanoparticles upon human kidney has been published. As kidney is one of the major traditional retention organs, the aim of our study is to evaluate the potential toxicity of these nanoparticles on two human cell lines from proximal tubule (Caki-1 and Hek293). Our results report that the two cell lines do not show similar responses after 24 hours of exposure to SiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles disregarding a similar origin in the kidney. Interestingly, our results indicate that for both tested SiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles, Caki-1 cells present a higher sensitivity in terms of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than Hek293 cells. Furthermore, our results show that for similar concentration of exposure, SiO{sub 2}-25 nm seems to be more cytotoxic and genotoxic than SiO{sub 2}-100nm for both tested cell lines.

  4. 77 FR 1707 - National Toxicology Program (NTP) Final Process for Preparation of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP) Final Process for Preparation of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC) AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...: December 21, 2011. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  5. 75 FR 21003 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review Meeting of the NTP Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review Meeting of the... ``Request for Comments'' below). The NTP welcomes toxicology study information from completed, ongoing, or... concept may also encompass larger public health issues or topics in toxicology that could be...

  6. Potential health effects of gasoline and its constituents: A review of current literature (1990-1997) on toxicological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, L; Togna, G I

    1998-03-01

    We reviewed toxicological studies, both experimental and epidemiological, that appeared in international literature in the period 1990-1997 and included both leaded and unleaded gasolines as well as their components and additives. The aim of this overview was to select, arrange, and present references of scientific papers published during the period under consideration and to summarize the data in order to give a comprehensive picture of the results of toxicological studies performed in laboratory animals (including carcinogenic, teratogenic, or embryotoxic activity), mutagenicity and genotoxic aspects in mammalian and bacterial systems, and epidemiological results obtained in humans in relation to gasoline exposure. This paper draws attention to the inherent difficulties in assessing with precision any potential adverse effects on health, that is, the risk of possible damage to man and his environment from gasoline. The difficulty of risk assessment still exists despite the fact that the studies examined are definitely more technically valid than those of earlier years. The uncertainty in overall risk determination from gasoline exposure also derives from the conflicting results of different studies, from the lack of a correct scientific approach in some studies, from the variable characteristics of the different gasoline mixtures, and from the difficulties of correctly handling potentially confounding variables related to lifestyle (e.g., cigarette smoking, drug use) or to preexisting pathological conditions. In this respect, this paper highlights the need for accurately assessing the conclusive explanations reported in scientific papers so as to avoid the spread of inaccurate or misleading information on gasoline toxicity in nonscientific papers and in mass-media messages.

  7. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  8. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  9. [Clinical toxicology of the Academy: yesterday, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G A; Khalimov, Iu Sh; Matveev, S Iu; Kuz'mich, V G; Fomichev, A V

    2013-12-01

    National toxicology school of the Kirov Military Medical Academy, demonstrates the unity of clinical and experimental approaches related to one purpose throughout its history--saving human life and health from exposure to toxic substances of chemical nature. For more than three centuries the russian science of toxicology has been steadily developing, often ahead of the world science. It helped to create the means of protection and develop methods of treatment for chemical lesions. Currently, toxicology departments of military field therapy and military toxicology and medical protection are actively involved in the current study of military medicine, restructuring policy to provide toxicological aid in the Armed Forces, the development and introduction of Innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment of victims of toxicological etiology.

  10. In vitro data combined with human disease data to improve toxicological hazard assessment: the ASAT Knowledge Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, J; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Caiment, Florian; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; van der Veen, J; Tsamou, Maria; Russel, Frans G. M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; Stierum, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In line with the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become feasible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., 2004). ASAT assumes that activation of human disease mechanisms in in vitro models can be used for toxicological assessment. Therefore,

  11. In vitro data combined with human disease data to improve toxicological hazard assessment: the ASAT Knowledge Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, J; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Caiment, Florian; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; van der Veen, J; Tsamou, Maria; Russel, Frans G. M.; Groothuis, Genoveva; Stierum, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In line with the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become feasible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., 2004). ASAT assumes that activation of human disease mechanisms in in vitro models can be used for toxicological assessment. Therefore,

  12. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance Sistemas de vigilancia de riesgos ambientales para la salud. Sistemas de toxicovigilancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de la Torre Reoyo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.Se presenta el estudio de la Sección de Toxicología Clínica, sobre vigilancia epidemiológica en los Servicios de Urgencias, que tienen como causa intoxicaciones por productos químicos en el periodo de 1999-2003 y dentro del convenio de Asociación Española de Toxicología (AETOX con el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo; trabajo presentado en el Congreso Nacional de Medio Ambiente (CONAMA en el Grupo de trabajo “Sistemas de Vigilancia de Riesgos Ambientales para la Salud”.

  13. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  14. 75 FR 25866 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center.... John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  15. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  16. The use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, F

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s (1936, Snow on Cholera, Commonwealth Fund, New York), and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s (1964, Goldberger on Pellagra, M. Terris, ed., Louisiana State Univ. Press, Baton Rouge). The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  17. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  18. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  19. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of co-exposure of human gingival fibroblasts to silver nanoparticles and sodium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona; Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Medina, Carlos; Radomski, Marek W

    2014-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and fluoride (F) are pharmacological agents widely used in oral medicine and dental practice due to their anti-microbial/anti-cavity properties. However, risks associated with the co-exposure of local cells and tissues to these xenobiotics are not clear. Therefore, we have evaluated the effects of AgNPs and F co-exposure on human gingival fibroblast cells. Methods Human gingival fibroblast cells (CRL-2014) were exposed to AgNPs and/or F at different concentrations for up to 24 hours. Cellular uptake of AgNPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Downstream inflammatory effects and oxidative stress were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Finally, the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) was studied using Western blot. Results We found that AgNPs penetrated the cell membrane and localized inside the mitochondria. Co-incubation experiments resulted in increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. In addition, we found that co-exposure to both xenobiotics phosphorylated MAPK, particularly p42/44 MAPK. Conclusion A combined exposure of human fibroblasts to AgNPs and F results in increased cellular damage. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate pharmacological and potentially toxicological effects of AgNPs and F on oral health. PMID:24729703

  20. Toxicological Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Related Health Effects of Concern for the Arctic Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Ayotte, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Summary:  Human exposure to environmental contaminants is ubiquitous and not only limited to individuals living close to the sources of contaminants. Everyone carries a burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their body. The burden of POPs in Arctic peoples has been monitored for some...... years, however, it is only recently that a programme for measuring the potential biological effects of these contaminants has been established: the AMAP Human Health Effects Monitoring Programme.  Body burden data alone are not enough to allow the health risks associated with exposure to environmental...... in the Arctic is needed in order to obtain information about the real health risks resulting from exposure to the accumulated mixtures of contaminants in the Arctic.  The broad category of human health effects that are suspected to result from exposure to environmental contaminants include cancer, birth defects...

  1. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  2. Toxicological and melanin synthesis effects of Polygonum multiflorum root extracts on zebrafish embryos and human melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Thi Hoai Dang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been commmonly used as folk medicine for treatment of various conditions, such as early graying of hair in humans. However, there have been limited studies which have evaluated the toxicological and biological effects of PM in vitro as well as in vivo. In this study, PM root extracts in ethyl acetate (PM-E and in distilled water (PM-W were examined for their effects on the development of teratogenic defects/deaths. Additionally, they were evaluated for their effects on melanin formation in human melanocytes and pigmentation in embryos/larvae of wild type strain AB zebrafish (Danio rerio. Our results showed that PM root extracts at concentrations of 40 mg/L and 105 mg/L induced the development of teratogenic defects, including yolk sac edema (or heart edema, hemovascular defects, necrosis and abnormal trunk in zebrafish embryos at 4 days post fertilization; teratogenic indexes (TIs were 1.43 and 0.63 for ethyl acetate extract and distilled water extract, respectively. Our results also demonstrated that PM-W significantly increased the pigmentation level of embryos/larvae and induced melanin formation in human melanocytes. The amount of melanin in PM-W-exposed embryos/larvae was 2.2-fold and 1.71-fold greater than those in the control embryos/larvae and control melanocytes, respectively. Our study also showed that the increased level of pigmentation in PM-W embryos/larvae or melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes were both regulated by activation of tyrosinase. Conclusively, our study suggests that PM root extracts could be used as potential agents for treatment of early hair graying as well as various other diseases related to loss of pigmentation. However, these PM root extracts may also have some negative effects on embryos; therefore it should be careful when using for women during pregnancy. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 808-818

  3. Activation of AIFM2 enhances apoptosis of human lung cancer cells undergoing toxicological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Jian; Xu, Nianjun; Wu, Jun; Kang, Yani; Shen, Tingting; Kong, Hualei; Ma, Chao; Cheng, Ming; Shao, Zhifeng; Xu, Ling; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Application of cisplatin (DDP) for treating lung cancer is restricted due to its toxicity and lung cancer's drug resistance. In this study, we examined the effect of Jinfukang (JFK), an effective herbal medicine against lung cancer, on DDP-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. Morphologically, we observed that JFK increases DDP-induced pro-apoptosis in A549 cells in a synergistic manner. Transcriptome profiling analysis indicated that the combination of JFK and DDP regulates genes involved in apoptosis-related signaling pathways. Moreover, we found that the combination of JFK and DDP produces synergistic pro-apoptosis effect in other lung cancer cell lines, such as NCI-H1975, NCI-H1650, and NCI-H2228. Particularly, we demonstrated that AIFM2 is activated by the combined treatment of JFK and DDP and partially mediates the synergistic pro-apoptosis effect. Collectively, this study not only offered the first evidence that JFK promotes DDP-induced cytotoxicity, and activation of AIFM2 enhances apoptosis of human lung cancer cells undergoing toxicological stress, but also provided a novel insight for improving cytotoxicity by combining JFK with DDP to treat lung cancer cells.

  4. The development of novel quantitaive methods in toxicology for human risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentry, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    The current approach to human health risk assessment is an integrated approach requiring a significant number of studies conducted in experimental animals. The results from these animal studies are usually used to determine the potential for adverse effects in humans resulting from chemical

  5. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  6. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  7. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  8. Toxicological Impacts of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on Water Quality: Environmental Fate, Transformation and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubasinghege, G. R. S.; Rijal, H.; Gurung, R.; Maldonado-Torres, S.; Rogelj, S.; Piyasena, M.

    2016-12-01

    The growing medical and personal needs of the human population have escalated release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) to the nature. The current work investigated abiotic degradation pathways of selected PPCPs in the presence of major mineral components of soil and the acute health effects of degraded PPCPs. Degradation of selected PPCPs (ibuprofen and clofibric acid) was carried out using custom-built glass reactors in batch studies. The secondary products of PPCPs were analyzed and identified using modified HPLC and LC-MS methods. Results from these studies showed that the extent of degradation depends on the type of the clay or mineral oxide, and solar radiation. In the absence of solar radiation (night time chemistry), the dominant reaction mechanism was observed to be the adsorption of PPCPs on to clay particles where surface functional groups and particle size play a key role. In contrast, under solar radiation, PPCPs break down to several fractions in the presence of clay particles. The decay rates were at least 3-fold higher for irradiated samples compared to that of dark conditions. Acute toxicity of selected PPCPs and their degradation products were tested on three microorganisms: gram-positive soil bacteria, Bacillus megaterium; gram-negative marine bacteria, Pseudoaltermonas atlantica; and algae from the Chlorella genus. Growth inhibition was measured using optical density measurements, MTT viability assay, and flow cytometer. The results suggest that the concentrations of primary compounds, Ibuprofen and Clofibric Acid, found in the environment that ranges from μg/L to ng/L are not sufficient to inhibit growth of either three microorganisms. However, selected organisms showed significant differences in sensitivity to degraded products. Results from current work advance our knowledge and understanding in the fields of environmental toxicology, chemistry in aqueous phases, and geochemistry.

  9. 78 FR 24762 - National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors; Announcement of Meeting; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors... Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC). The NTP BSC, a federally chartered, external... quality. Its members are selected from recognized authorities knowledgeable in fields such as...

  10. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  11. Food for thought ... A toxicology ontology roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    Foreign substances can have a dramatic and unpredictable adverse effect on human health. In the development of new therapeutic agents, it is essential that the potential adverse effects of all candidates be identified as early as possible. The field of predictive toxicology strives to profile the potential for adverse effects of novel chemical substances before they occur, both with traditional in vivo experimental approaches and increasingly through the development of in vitro and computational methods which can supplement and reduce the need for animal testing. To be maximally effective, the field needs access to the largest possible knowledge base of previous toxicology findings, and such results need to be made available in such a fashion so as to be interoperable, comparable, and compatible with standard toolkits. This necessitates the development of open, public, computable, and standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies so as to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. Such ontology development will support data management, model building, integrated analysis, validation and reporting, including regulatory reporting and alternative testing submission requirements as required by guidelines such as the REACH legislation, leading to new scientific advances in a mechanistically-based predictive toxicology. Numerous existing ontology and standards initiatives can contribute to the creation of a toxicology ontology supporting the needs of predictive toxicology and risk assessment. Additionally, new ontologies are needed to satisfy practical use cases and scenarios where gaps currently exist. Developing and integrating these resources will require a well-coordinated and sustained effort across numerous stakeholders engaged in a public-private partnership. In this communication, we set out a roadmap for the development of an integrated toxicology ontology

  12. Toxicology and risk assessment information resources for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians work with toxicologists and risk assessors seeking information about chemicals and hazardous substances of concern to human health and the environment. Therefore, this article reviews reliable, accurate, readily accessible, and user-friendly sources of toxicological and risk assessment information. A summary and description of pertinent toxicological data, literature, and profile sources is presented. The majority of the resources are available online; however, descriptions of several important print sources are included.

  13. In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouillac, Caroline, E-mail: c.prouillac@vetagro-sup.fr [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Koraichi, Farah; Videmann, Bernadette; Mazallon, Michelle [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Rodriguez, Frédéric; Baltas, Michel [Université Paul Sabatier, SPCMIB-UMR5068, Laboratoire de Synthèse et de Physicochimie des Molécules d' Intérêt Biologique, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 TOULOUSE cedex 9 (France); Lecoeur, Sylvaine [Université Lyon, US/C 1233 INRA VetAgroSup, Métabolisme et Toxicologie Comparée des Xénobiotiques, 1 avenue Bourgelat, BP 83, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France)

    2012-03-15

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to α- and β-zearalenol (αZEL and βZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, αZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of αZEL and βΖΕL on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPARγ). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, αZEL and βZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ► ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

  14. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that the science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Acrylamide provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to a chronic exposure to acrylamide.

  16. Emerging approaches in predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D; Rich, Ivan N; Aardema, Marilyn J; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2014-12-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described.

  17. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    science, agronomy, agricultural sustainability, toxicology, epidemiology and the medical sciences will promote greater understanding of the complex relationships between soil and human health.

  18. The EPA Comptox Chemistry Dashboard: A Web-Based Data Integration Hub for Toxicology Data (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrates advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and data drive...

  19. The EPA Comptox Chemistry Dashboard: A Web-Based Data Integration Hub for Toxicology Data (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrates advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and data drive...

  20. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  1. A self-regulating cell culture analog device to mimic animal and human toxicological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, M L; Ghanem, A; Quick, D; Wong, M C; Miller, P

    1996-10-05

    The overall goal of this project is the development of a new methodology for translating advances in molecular level understanding of toxicological responses into a predictive tool for dose response in whole animals and humans exposed to single compounds or mixtures of compounds. The methodology incorporates a mechanistic cellular level model into a PBPK (physiologically based pharmacokinetic) model which simultaneously guides the development of an in vitro cell culture analog (CCA) to the PBPK. Where the PBPK specifies an organ, (e.g., liver) the in vitro or CCA system contains a compartment with the appropriate cell or cell population (e.g., hepatocytes for the liver). The CCA has significant advantages over other in vitro systems and PBPK systems used independently for evaluating metabolic responses to drugs or potentially toxic chemicals where the exchange of metabolites between organs is likely to be important. The CCA system is superior to a PBPK because an a priori description of complete metabolism is not required and secondary, unexpected interactions can be detected. The CCA system, unlike other in vitro systems, gives a dynamic response that realistically simulates in vivo interactions between organs. Furthermore, the CCA allows dosing on the same basis as animal tests (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of body mass equivalent). Because the construction of a CCA is guided by a PBPK, this approach allows extrapolation to low doses and across species, including extrapolation to humans. We have constructed a prototype system and have conducted proof-of-concept experiments using naphthalene as a test chemical. These experiments clearly demonstrate the ability to generate a reactive metabolite in one compartment and detect its effects (on LDH release and glutathione depletion) in a second compartment. However, this prototype device would be expensive to replicate and requires nearly constant supervision from a trained investigator. For this concept to replace

  2. Toxicological evaluation of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out the importance of short term assays for the characterization of organic residues, specially some methods for toxicological, mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation (Vibrio fischeri, Salmonella typhimurium and Allium cepa, used in the characterization of environmental complex mixtures lixiviates. These methods take part together with other bioassays in the evaluation by toxicological identification (VIT, which allows the evaluation of other ecotoxicological effects: a bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri; b germination and root length of Lepidum sativum; c root length of Allium cepa and Tradescantia sp.; d inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna; and e abnormalities in the development of Oryzias latipes, or medaka fish. All these assays take part in the EU battery of bioassays, applied to discriminate and select between those environmental matrixes which must be subject to more complex and specific chemical characterizations.We make a review of the methods for toxicological evaluation, used for the characterization of chemical compounds or complex mixtures, as well as the use of its results for the human and environmental risk assessment. This evaluation consists, in short, of the identification of dangers, evaluation of dose-response ratio, evaluation of exposure and risk characterization, resulting in the analysis, use and communication of this risk. It is emphasized the high predictive value for carcinogenicity of some of these bioassays.It is shown the utility of short term assays for the evaluation of substances, products and complex mixtures, which would contribute to improve the toxicological knowledge of a greater number substances. This is a vital need in the EU, due to the lack of complete toxicological information of about the 70% of the 106.000 existing and used substances.It is emphasized the great value that mutagenicity assays represent inside the toxicological tests in the basic level, which

  3. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  4. 42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.937 Toxicology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for toxicology, the annual program...

  5. Validation of alternative tests for developmental and reproductive toxicology testing: an ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James H

    2013-01-01

    The current political and societal climate is driving the science of toxicology towards developing non-animal testing methodologies. Though alternative and in vitro tests have always been a mainstay for toxicological testing, technological advances in the last decade have allowed toxicologists to move rapidly towards a better understanding of the relevance of in vitro endpoints for traditional apical endpoints. Non-animal research using new technologies have illuminated toxicologists on the mechanisms of protection and adverse health outcomes. In this context, the "validation" of alternative and in vitro tests has taken on significant importance, particularly in regard to satisfying safety concerns of drugs and chemicals in a regulatory setting. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review the impetus for the development of alternative and in vitro tests, discuss the projects underway at the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) that are oriented towards this topic, and summarize the processes for formal validation. It should be noted that though there are validated assays and tests, these are under constant evaluation by scientific researchers as our understanding of the underlying biological processes continues to evolve.

  6. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  7. Toxicological Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Related Health Effects of Concern for the Arctic Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Ayotte, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Summary:  Human exposure to environmental contaminants is ubiquitous and not only limited to individuals living close to the sources of contaminants. Everyone carries a burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their body. The burden of POPs in Arctic peoples has been monitored for some......, effects on the reproductive and the neuro-endocrine-immune systems, altered metabolism, and specific organ dysfunction. This chapter gives an introduction to these various health effects and presents possible biomarkers that may be useful to include in epidemiological studies. It also discusses...

  8. 75 FR 66766 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the NTP Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the..., 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  9. 75 FR 69065 - Draft Toxicological Review of Urea: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY Draft Toxicological Review of Urea: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk... the draft human health assessment titled, ``Toxicological Review of Urea: In Support of Summary... workshop on the draft assessment for Urea will be held via teleconference on December 13, 2010,...

  10. Preliminary Toxicological Analysis of the Effect of Coal Slurry Impoundment Water on Human Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Coal is usually 'washed' with water and a variety of chemicals to reduce its content of sulfur and mineral matter. The 'washings' or 'coal slurry' derived from this process is a viscous black liquid containing fine particles of coal, mineral matter, and other dissolved and particulate substances. Coal slurry may be stored in impoundments or in abandoned underground mines. Human health and environmental effects potentially resulting from leakage of chemical substances from coal slurry into drinking water supplies or aquatic ecosystems have not been systematically examined. Impoundments are semipermeable, presenting the possibility that inorganic and organic substances, some of which may be toxic, may contaminate ground or surface water. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has concluded that well water in Mingo County, West Virginia, constitutes a public health hazard.

  11. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done soon after the person swallowed the medication, using stomach contents taken through gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or after vomiting.

  12. Markers of genetic susceptibility in human environmental hygiene and toxicology: the role of selected CYP, NAT and GST genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Ricarda; Brüning, Thomas; Roos, Peter H; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Golka, Klaus; Ko, Yon; Bolt, Hermann M

    2003-06-01

    Inherited genetic traits co-determine the susceptibility of an individual to a toxic chemical. Special emphasis has been put on individual responses to environmental and industrial carcinogens, but other chronic diseases are of increasing interest. Polymorphisms of relevant xenobiotic metabolising enzymes may be used as toxicological susceptibility markers. A growing number of genes encoding enzymes involved in biotransformation of toxicants and in cellular defence against toxicant-induced damage to the cells has been identified and cloned, leading to increased knowledge of allelic variants of genes and genetic defects that may result in a differential susceptibility toward environmental toxicants. "Low penetrating" polymorphisms in metabolism genes tend to be much more common in the population than allelic variants of "high penetrating" cancer genes, and are therefore of considerable importance from a public health point of view. Positive associations between cancer and CYP1A1 alleles, in particular the *2C I462V allele, were found for tissues following the aerodigestive tract. Again, in most cases, the effect of the variant CYP1A1 allele becomes apparent or clearer in connection with the GSTM1 null allele. The CYP1B1 codon 432 polymorphism (CYP1B1*3) has been identified as a susceptibility factor in smoking-related head-and-neck squameous cell cancer. The impact of this polymorphic variant of CYP1B1 on cancer risk was also reflected by an association with the frequency of somatic mutations of the p53 gene. Combined genotype analysis of CYP1B1 and the glutathione transferases GSTM1 or GSTT1 has also pointed to interactive effects. Of particular interest for the industrial and environmental field is the isozyme CYP2E1. Several genotypes of this isozyme have been characterised which seem to be associated with different levels of expression of enzyme activity. The acetylator status for NAT2 can be determined by genotyping or by phenotyping. In the pathogenesis of

  13. Investigating Impact Metrics for Performance for the US EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology (ACS Fall meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrates advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and data drive...

  14. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Ghorani-Azam; Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxic...

  15. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available employment. Current use of fossil-fuel causes substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Nevertheless, health challenges still exist (lower health scores) dealing with rural conditions such as distance from medical facilities...] ecological degradation, the pumping and treatment of extraneous water, compliance to the conditions of the environmental authorisation and the management and sustainable closure thereof, until the Minister has issued [an] a closure certificate in terms...

  16. Hepatic toxicology following single and multiple exposure of engineered nanomaterials utilising a novel primary human 3D liver microtissue model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Løhr, Mille; Roursgaard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    microtissue model to investigate the toxicological effects associated with a single or multiple exposure of a panel of engineered NMs (Ag, ZnO, MWCNT and a positively charged TiO2).ResultsHere we demonstrate that the repeated exposure of the NMs is more damaging to the liver tissue as in comparison...... with accumulative production of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to consider the possibility of detrimental health consequences of engineered NM exposure. It has been shown that exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or ingestion can result in NM translocation to the liver. Traditional in vitro......BackgroundThe liver has a crucial role in metabolic homeostasis as well as being the principal detoxification centre of the body, removing xenobiotics and waste products which could potentially include some nanomaterials (NM). With the ever increasing public and occupational exposure associated...

  17. Neural Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nontherapeutic Applications: Toxicology, Pharmacology, and In Vitro Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Shin Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs derived from either blastocyst stage embryos (hESCs or reprogrammed somatic cells (iPSCs can provide an abundant source of human neuronal lineages that were previously sourced from human cadavers, abortuses, and discarded surgical waste. In addition to the well-known potential therapeutic application of these cells in regenerative medicine, these are also various promising nontherapeutic applications in toxicological and pharmacological screening of neuroactive compounds, as well as for in vitro modeling of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Compared to alternative research models based on laboratory animals and immortalized cancer-derived human neural cell lines, neuronal cells differentiated from hPSCs possess the advantages of species specificity together with genetic and physiological normality, which could more closely recapitulate in vivo conditions within the human central nervous system. This review critically examines the various potential nontherapeutic applications of hPSC-derived neuronal lineages and gives a brief overview of differentiation protocols utilized to generate these cells from hESCs and iPSCs.

  18. From alternative methods to a new toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests. The biotechnology and informatics revolutions of the last decades have made such technologies broadly available and useful, but regulatory toxicology has been slow to embrace these new approaches. Major validation efforts, however, have delivered the evidence that new approaches do not lower safety standards and can be integrated into regulatory safety assessments. Particularly in the EU, political pressures, such as the REACH legislation and the 7th Amendment to the cosmetic legislation, have prompted the need of new approaches. In the US, the NRC vision report calling for a toxicology for the 21st century (and its most recent adaptation by EPA for their toxicity testing strategy) have initiated a debate about how to create a novel approach based on human cell cultures, lower species, high-throughput testing, and modeling. Lessons learned from the development, validation, and acceptance of alternative methods support the creation of a new approach based on identified toxicity pathways. Conceptual steering and an objective assessment of current practices by evidence-based toxicology (EBT) are required. EBT is modeled on evidence-based medicine, which has demonstrated that rigorous systematic reviews of current practices and meta-analyses of studies provide powerful tools to provide health care professionals and patients with the current best scientific evidence. Similarly, a portal for high-quality reviews of toxicological approaches and tools for the quantitative meta-analyses of data promise to serve as door opener for a new regulatory toxicology.

  19. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  20. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  1. Experimental designs and risk assessment in combination toxicology: Panel discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henschler, D.; Bolt, H.M.; Jonker, D.; Pieters, M.N.; Groten, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Advancing our knowledge on the toxicology of combined exposures to chemicals and implementation of this knowledge in guidelines for health risk assessment of such combined exposures are necessities dictated by the simple fact that humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. A prereq

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  3. Experimental designs and risk assessment in combination toxicology: Panel discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henschler, D.; Bolt, H.M.; Jonker, D.; Pieters, M.N.; Groten, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Advancing our knowledge on the toxicology of combined exposures to chemicals and implementation of this knowledge in guidelines for health risk assessment of such combined exposures are necessities dictated by the simple fact that humans are continuously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. A

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the, Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  5. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  6. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  7. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology.

  8. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, P.; Badhwar, G.; Obot, V.; Wilson, B.; Jejelewo, O.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  9. Cd, Cu, and Mn from Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil, and their toxicological potential for human leukocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Rezer Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the limnology from the Medium Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, Brazil, with a focus on the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Mn, to assess the toxicological potential (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for humans using as biological matrix of study human leukocyte cells. The conductivity, resistivity, and dissolved O2 levels exceeded the limits recommended by the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA. The percentage of non-viable human leukocyte cells exposed to water samples was approximately 20% higher than that of the negative control (<3%, but similar to the positive control. The DNA damage index was high for all heavy metal concentrations assayed when compared to the negative control 12±2.96, p < 0.0001, with a range of 155.66±23.89 to 194.33±23.23, but similar to the positive control (210.62±27.48. Moreover, the leukocyte degeneration index was higher in all samples containing heavy metals than in the negative control (4%, which demonstrates to be due the presence of Cu (11.8-12.5%, Cd (13-15.6%, and Mn (15.6-22.5%. Taken together, our results show that the quality from water samples analyzed is below than recommended by CONAMA and offers risk of contamination by heavy metals for the general population.

  10. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  11. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity....... For these reasons, this chapter highlights the fields within epidemiology that are most relevant to toxic metals and discusses where these substances serve to illustrate important epidemiological concepts. Chapter sections include subjects such as epidemiological terms, study design, study population, exposure......Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...

  12. Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; Simonich, Staci M.; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-05-03

    Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, and computational exposure assessment, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition from a field of observation to a field of prediction. Deployment of an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science analogous to the computationally enabled “systems approaches” used in the biological sciences is a necessary step in this evolution. Here we propose the aggregate exposure pathway (AEP) concept as the natural and complementary companion in the exposure sciences to the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept in the toxicological sciences. The AEP framework offers an intuitive approach to successful organization of exposure science data within individual units of prediction common to the field, setting the stage for exposure forecasting. Looking farther ahead, we envision direct linkages between aggregate exposure pathway and adverse outcome pathways, completing the source to outcome continuum and setting the stage for more efficient integration of exposure science and toxicity testing information. Together these frameworks form and inform a decision making framework with the flexibility for risk-based, hazard-based or exposure-based decisions.

  13. Forests, Trees and Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European...

  14. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  15. The Annapolis Accords on the use of toxicology in decision-making. Annapolis Center Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.M.; Baskin, S.I.; Charnley, G.; Cohen, J.T.; Gold, L.S.; Kerkvliet, N.I.; Koenig, H.M.; Lewis, S.C.; McClain, R.M.; Rhomberg, L.R.; Snyder, J.W.; Weekley, L.B.

    2000-12-01

    The science of toxicology plays an important role in identifying safe conditions of use or exposure for many different kinds of environmental agents. The use of toxicologic information in risk assessment requires careful analysis, evaluation of data, and scientific judgment. These Annapolis Accords are intended to guide appropriate use in risk assessment of the scientific information from toxicology. We believe that application of these principles will improve the scientific credibility of risk assessment and the quality of decisions aimed at reducing and eliminating risks to human health and the environment.

  16. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan; Pereg, Lily; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is important for the maintenance of soil quality. Healthy, biodiverse soils are crucial for human health and wellbeing from several reasons, for example: biodiversity has been shown to be important in controlling populations of pathogens; healthy, well-covered soils can reduce disease outbreaks; carbon-rich soils may also reduce outbreaks of human and animal parasites; exposure to soil microbes can reduce allergies; soils have provided many of our current antibiotics; soil organisms can provide biological disease and pest control agents, healthy soils mean healthier and more abundant foods; soil microbes can enhance crop plant resilience; healthy soils promote good clean air quality, less prone to wind and water erosion; and healthy soils provide clean and safe water through filtration, decontamination by microbes and removal of pollutants. Soil microbes and other biota provide many benefits to human health. Soil microbes are a source of medicines, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs and many more. Organisms that affect soil health and thus human health include those involved in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter and determining soil structure (e.g. aggregation). Again these are related to food security but also affect human health in other ways. Many beneficial organisms have been isolated from soil - plant growth promoting and disease suppressive microbes used as inoculants, foliar inoculants for improvement of ruminant digestion systems and inoculants used in bioremediation of toxic compounds in the environment. Soil biodiversity is highly recognised now as an important feature of healthy soil and imbalances have been shown to give advantage to harmful over beneficial organisms. This presentation will highlight the many connections of biodiversity to soil quality and human health.

  17. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  18. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  19. 'Death ... more desirable than life'? The human skeletal record and toxicological implications of ancient copper mining and smelting in Wadi Faynan, southwestern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, John; Huxley, Steven; Abu Karaki, Lotus; Toland, Harry; Gilbertson, David; Pyatt, Brian; al Saad, Ziad

    2002-07-01

    Skeletal material from 36 people, dating from the early Christian era, who lived by or worked in the notorious Roman copper mines of Phaeno, were analysed to determine their exposure to copper and lead. We demonstrate that many of the bones analysed had a substantially higher concentration of these cations than modern individuals exposed to metals through industrial processes. Health, toxicological and environmental implications of these data are reviewed.

  20. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghorani-Azam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  1. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  2. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    , ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...

  3. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Donaldson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic.

  4. Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, Zaher, E-mail: zaher.radi@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States); Bartholomew, Phillip, E-mail: phillip.m.bartholomew@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Elwell, Michael, E-mail: michael.elwell@covance.com [Covance Laboratories, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Vogel, W. Mark, E-mail: w.mark.vogel@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages. - Highlights: • Highly variable incidence of spontaneous hibernoma in carcinogenicity studies • Recent increase in the spontaneous incidence of hibernomas

  5. Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans--an overview focusing on developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Despite being relatively well studied from a botanical, chemical, and (acute) pharmacological perspective, little is known about the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca (an hallucinogenic brew used for magico-ritual purposes) in pregnant women and in their children, and the potential toxicity of long-term ayahuasca consumption. It is the main objective of the present text to do an overview of the risks and possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in humans, reviewing studies on the acute ayahuasca administration to humans, on the possible risks associated with long-term consumption by adults and adolescents, and on the possible toxic effects on pregnant animals and in their offspring. Acute ayahuasca administration, as well as long-term consumption of this beverage, does not seem to be seriously toxic to humans. Although some nonhuman developmental studies suggested possible toxic effects of ayahuasca or of some of its alkaloids, the limited human literature on adolescents exposed to ayahuasca as early as in the uterus reports no serious toxic effects of the ritual consumption of the brew. Researchers must take caution when extrapolating nonhuman data to humans and more data are needed in basic and human research before a definite opinion can be made regarding the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in pregnant women and in their children.

  6. Climate Change and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on human health span the trajectory of time—past, present, and future. The key finding from the Working Group II, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that health impacts due to climate change have already occurred in the past, are currently occurring and will continue to occur, at least for the foreseeable future, even with immediate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions [1]. According to the IPCC, there has been increased heat-related mortality and decreased cold-related mortality in some regions as a result of warming (Box 1. Moreover, local changes in temperature and rainfall have altered the distribution of some water-borne illnesses and disease vectors. Impacts of climate-related extremes include alteration of ecosystems, disruption of food production and water supply, damage to infrastructure and settlements, morbidity and mortality, and consequences for mental health and human well-being [1]. [...

  7. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  8. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  9. Human engineered heart tissue as a versatile tool in basic research and preclinical toxicology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schaaf

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC progenies hold great promise as surrogates for human primary cells, particularly if the latter are not available as in the case of cardiomyocytes. However, high content experimental platforms are lacking that allow the function of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to be studied under relatively physiological and standardized conditions. Here we describe a simple and robust protocol for the generation of fibrin-based human engineered heart tissue (hEHT in a 24-well format using an unselected population of differentiated human embryonic stem cells containing 30-40% α-actinin-positive cardiac myocytes. Human EHTs started to show coherent contractions 5-10 days after casting, reached regular (mean 0.5 Hz and strong (mean 100 µN contractions for up to 8 weeks. They displayed a dense network of longitudinally oriented, interconnected and cross-striated cardiomyocytes. Spontaneous hEHT contractions were analyzed by automated video-optical recording and showed chronotropic responses to calcium and the β-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. The proarrhythmic compounds E-4031, quinidine, procainamide, cisapride, and sertindole exerted robust, concentration-dependent and reversible decreases in relaxation velocity and irregular beating at concentrations that recapitulate findings in hERG channel assays. In conclusion this study establishes hEHT as a simple in vitro model for heart research.

  10. Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars AJ; Theelen RMC; Janssen PJCM; Hesse JM; Apeldoorn ME van; Meijerink MCM; Verdam L; Zeilmaker MJ; CSR

    2001-01-01

    Soil Intervention Values are generic soil quality standards based on potential risks to humans and eco-systems. These values are used to determine whether or not contaminated soils meet the criteria for "serious soil contamination" as stated in the Dutch Soil Protection Act. With reference to poten

  11. Safety pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetic assesment of human Gc globulin (vitamin d binding protein)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Jørgensen, Charlotte Sværke; Santoni Rugiu, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of the kallikrein system or the complement system and cellular studies showed no toxic effects on a variety of human cell lines. In vivo studies showed no acute toxic effects in mice, rats or guinea pigs upon intravenous infusion. A 14-day local tolerance study in rabbits showed no adverse effects, and 14-day...

  12. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology research The Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  13. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that ...

  14. The Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment for Human and Ecological Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) kir Force Materiel Command*** HEPB kir Force Research Laboratory iuman Effectiveness... cancer slope factor) as are used for individual chemicals, so the calculations are relatively simple and familiar (U.S. EPA, 2000). Of course, the same...skin painting assays served as the short term assay; human lung cancer epidemiological data were available for roofing tar and coke oven emissions

  15. Application of thermoresponsive HPLC to forensic toxicology: determination of barbiturates in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Sanae; Watanabe, Kanako; HIRANO, SEISHIRO; Yamagishi, Itaru; Gonmori, Kunio; Minakata, Kayoko; Suzuki, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the assays of five barbiturates in human urine using a new thermoresponsive polymer separation column, which is composed of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer. According to elevating the column temperature from 10 ℃ to 50 ℃, five barbiturates, such as metharbital, primidone, phenobarbital, mephobarbital and pentobarbital, became well separated by this method. Five barbiturates showed good linearity in the range of 0.2-10...

  16. 75 FR 57280 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, including... Toxicology. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T....

  17. Assessment of food toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gosslau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in food toxicology is evident by the dependency of humankind on nutrition by virtue of their heterotrophic metabolism. By means of modern biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, computer science, bioinformatics as well as high-throughput and high-content screening technologies it has been possible to identify adverse effects and characterize potential toxicants in food. The mechanisms of toxicant actions are multifactorial but many toxic effects converge on the generation of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation resulting in cell death, aging and degenerative diseases. Integration of food toxicology data obtained throughout biochemical and cell-based in vitro, animal in vivo and human clinical settings has enabled the establishment of alternative, highly predictable in silico models. These systems utilize a combination of complex in vitro cell-based models with computer-based algorithms. A decrease of rodent animal testing with its limitations of high costs, low throughput readouts, inconsistent responses, ethical issues and concerns of extrapolability to humans have led to an increased use of these but also alternative lower hierarchy surrogate animal models (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster; Caenorhabditis elegans or Danio rerio and efforts to integrate organotypic systems and stem cell-based assays. Despite those achievements, there are numerous challenges in various disciplines of food toxicology.

  18. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  19. Toxicology Study of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Human Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; Shafiee, Hadi; Velasco, Vanessa; Sah, Vasu R.; Guo, Shirui; El Assal, Rami; Inci, Fatih; Rajagopalan, Adhithi; Jahangir, Muntasir; Anchan, Raymond M.; Mutter, George L.; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-08-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide are currently being evaluated for biomedical applications including in vivo drug delivery and tumor imaging. Several reports have studied the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, but their effects on human male reproduction have not been fully examined. Additionally, it is not clear whether the nanomaterial exposure has any effect on sperm sorting procedures used in clinical settings. Here, we show that the presence of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOH) and reduced graphene oxide at concentrations of 1–25 μg/mL do not affect sperm viability. However, SWCNT-COOH generate significant reactive superoxide species at a higher concentration (25 μg/mL), while reduced graphene oxide does not initiate reactive species in human sperm. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to these nanomaterials does not hinder the sperm sorting process, and microfluidic sorting systems can select the sperm that show low oxidative stress post-exposure.

  20. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  1. Toxicology of microcystins with reference to cases of human intoxications and epidemiological investigations of exposures to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Mijović, Biljana; Codd, Geoffrey A; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2017-02-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have been documented throughout history, all over the world. Mass populations of these organisms typically present hazards to human health and are known for the production of a wide range of highly toxic metabolites-cyanotoxins, of which among the most common and most investigated are the microcystins. The toxicity of the family of microcystin congeners to animal and cell models has received much attention; however, less is known about their negative effects on human health, whether via acute or chronic exposure. Useful information may be acquired through epidemiological studies since they can contribute to knowledge of the relationships between cyanotoxins and human health in environmental settings. The aim of this review is to compile and evaluate the available published reports and epidemiological investigations of human health incidents associated with exposure to mass populations of cyanobacteria from throughout the world and to identify the occurrence and likely role of microcystins in these events. After an initial screening of 134 publications, 42 publications (25 on the chronic and 17 on the acute effects of cyanotoxins) describing 33 cases of poisonings by cyanobacterial toxins in 11 countries were reviewed. The countries were Australia, China, Sri Lanka, Namibia, Serbia, Sweden, UK, Portugal, Brazil, USA, and Canada. At least 36 publications link cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins including microcystins to adverse human health effects. The studies were published between 1960 and 2016. Although the scattered epidemiological evidence does not provide a definitive conclusion, it can serve as additional information for the medical assessment of the role of microcystins in cancer development and other human health problems. This paper discusses the major cases of cyanotoxin poisonings as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and importance of the performed epidemiological research. This study also proposes some recommendations for future

  2. Human capital, schooling and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  3. Toxicology and epidemiology: improving the science with a framework for combining toxicological and epidemiological evidence to establish causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L; Breckenridge, Charles B; Smith, Lewis L; Swenberg, James A; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S; Pastoor, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step "Epid-Tox" process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality.

  4. Three dimensional cellular microarray platform for human neural stem cell differentiation and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Meli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional (3D cellular microarray platform for the high-throughput (HT analysis of human neural stem cell (hNSC growth and differentiation. The growth of an immortalized hNSC line, ReNcell VM, was evaluated on a miniaturized cell culture chip consisting of 60 nl spots of cells encapsulated in alginate, and compared to standard 2D well plate culture conditions. Using a live/dead cell viability assay, we demonstrated that the hNSCs are able to expand on-chip, albeit with lower proliferation rates and viabilities than in conventional 2D culture platforms. Using an in-cell, on-chip immunofluorescence assay, which provides quantitative information on cellular levels of proteins involved in neural fate, we demonstrated that ReNcell VM can preserve its multipotent state during on-chip expansion. Moreover, differentiation of the hNSCs into glial progeny was achieved both off- and on-chip six days after growth factor removal, accompanied by a decrease in the neural progenitor markers. The versatility of the platform was further demonstrated by complementing the cell culture chip with a chamber system that allowed us to screen for differential toxicity of small molecules to hNSCs. Using this approach, we showed differential toxicity when evaluating three neurotoxic compounds and one antiproliferative compound, and the null effect of a non-toxic compound at relevant concentrations. Thus, our 3D high-throughput microarray platform may help predict, in vitro, which compounds pose an increased threat to neural development and should therefore be prioritized for further screening and evaluation.

  5. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  6. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  7. The Toxicology Education Summit: building the future of toxicology through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A; Carlson, Gary P; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Ford, Sue M; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R; Leavens, Teresa L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Safe, Stephen H; Sulentic, Courtney E W; Eidemiller, Betty J

    2012-06-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the "Total Toxicologist"; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives.

  8. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data.

  9. Uncertainties in human health risk assessment of environmental contaminants: A review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Bekele, Dawit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Addressing uncertainties in human health risk assessment is a critical issue when evaluating the effects of contaminants on public health. A range of uncertainties exist through the source-to-outcome continuum, including exposure assessment, hazard and risk characterisation. While various strategies have been applied to characterising uncertainty, classical approaches largely rely on how to maximise the available resources. Expert judgement, defaults and tools for characterising quantitative uncertainty attempt to fill the gap between data and regulation requirements. The experiences of researching 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) illustrated uncertainty sources and how to maximise available information to determine uncertainties, and thereby provide an 'adequate' protection to contaminant exposure. As regulatory requirements and recurring issues increase, the assessment of complex scenarios involving a large number of chemicals requires more sophisticated tools. Recent advances in exposure and toxicology science provide a large data set for environmental contaminants and public health. In particular, biomonitoring information, in vitro data streams and computational toxicology are the crucial factors in the NexGen risk assessment, as well as uncertainties minimisation. Although in this review we cannot yet predict how the exposure science and modern toxicology will develop in the long-term, current techniques from emerging science can be integrated to improve decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  11. Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Project Director Penelope Jeggo

    2003-02-15

    Genetic toxicology represents a study of the genetic damage that a cell can incur, the agents that induce such damage, the damage response mechanisms available to cells and organisms, and the potential consequences of such damage. Genotoxic agents are abundant in the environment and are also induced endogenously. The consequences of such damage can include carcinogenesis and teratogenesis. An understanding of genetic toxicology is essential to carry out risk evaluations of the impact of genotoxic agents and to assess how individual genetic differences influence the response to genotoxic damage. In recent years, the importance of maintaining genomic stability has become increasingly recognized, in part by the realization that failure of the damage response mechanisms underlies many, if not all, cancer incidence. The importance of these mechanisms is also underscored by their remarkable conservation between species, allowing the study of simple organisms to provide significant input into our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. It has also become clear that the damage response mechanisms interface closely with other aspects of cellular metabolism including replication, transcription and cell cycle regulation. Moreover, defects in many of these mechanisms, as observed for example in ataxia telangiectasia patients, confer disorders with associated developmental abnormalities demonstrating their essential roles during growth and development. In short, while a decade ago, a study of the impact of DNA damage was seen as a compartmentalized area of cellular research, it is now appreciated to lie at the centre of an array of cellular responses of crucial importance to human health. Consequently, this has become a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. The Genetic Toxicology Gordon Research Conference is biannual with an evolving change in the emphasis of the meetings. From evaluating the nature of genotoxic chemicals, which lay at the centre of the early

  12. Ion channels in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  13. Forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results.

  14. Developments in analysis and toxicology of toxaphene compounds

    OpenAIRE

    de Geus, H-J; Besselink, H.; Brouwer, A.; Klungsøyr, J; MacGovern, E.; MacHugh, B.; Nixon, E.; Rimkus, G.G.; Wester, P.G.; De Boer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 50 years toxaphene has been produced and used as a pesticide extensively. The US Environmental Protection Agency banned it in 1982. In the early 1990s the presence of toxaphene in marine fish in Europe caused concern with regard to human health in relation with consumption. This paper gives a brief overview of recent developments in the analytical and toxicological research on toxaphene.

  15. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  16. Applicability of computational systems biology in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsbak, Kristine; Hadrup, Niels; Audouze, Karine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-07-01

    Systems biology as a research field has emerged within the last few decades. Systems biology, often defined as the antithesis of the reductionist approach, integrates information about individual components of a biological system. In integrative systems biology, large data sets from various sources and databases are used to model and predict effects of chemicals on, for instance, human health. In toxicology, computational systems biology enables identification of important pathways and molecules from large data sets; tasks that can be extremely laborious when performed by a classical literature search. However, computational systems biology offers more advantages than providing a high-throughput literature search; it may form the basis for establishment of hypotheses on potential links between environmental chemicals and human diseases, which would be very difficult to establish experimentally. This is possible due to the existence of comprehensive databases containing information on networks of human protein-protein interactions and protein-disease associations. Experimentally determined targets of the specific chemical of interest can be fed into these networks to obtain additional information that can be used to establish hypotheses on links between the chemical and human diseases. Such information can also be applied for designing more intelligent animal/cell experiments that can test the established hypotheses. Here, we describe how and why to apply an integrative systems biology method in the hypothesis-generating phase of toxicological research.

  17. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  18. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  19. Reflections on the origins and evolution of genetic toxicology and the Environmental Mutagen Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassom, John S; Malling, Heinrich V; Sankaranarayanan, K; Lu, Po-Yung

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the development of the field of mutagenesis and its metamorphosis into the research area we now call genetic toxicology. In 1969, this transitional event led to the founding of the Environmental Mutagen Society (EMS). The charter of this new Society was to "encourage interest in and study of mutagens in the human environment, particularly as these may be of concern to public health." As the mutagenesis field unfolded and expanded, new wording appeared to better describe this evolving area of research. The term "genetic toxicology" was coined and became an important subspecialty of the broad area of toxicology. Genetic toxicology is now set for a thorough reappraisal of its methods, goals, and priorities to meet the challenges of the 21st Century. To better understand these challenges, we have revisited the primary goal that the EMS founders had in mind for the Society's main mission and objective, namely, the quantitative assessment of genetic (hereditary) risks to human populations exposed to environmental agents. We also have reflected upon some of the seminal events over the last 40 years that have influenced the advancement of the genetic toxicology discipline and the extent to which the Society's major goal and allied objectives have been achieved. Additionally, we have provided suggestions on how EMS can further advance the science of genetic toxicology in the postgenome era. Any oversight or failure to make proper acknowledgment of individuals, events, or the citation of relevant references in this article is unintentional.

  20. A retrospective analysis of the added value of 1-year dog studies in pesticide human health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Brenda; Mohr, Sara; Ramsingh, Deborah; Bhuller, Yadvinder

    2017-08-01

    The 1-year dog toxicity study is no longer required by certain pesticide regulatory jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union. Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) examined its current requirement for this study to determine if it could be refined or eliminated. A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the impact of the 1-year dog study on human health risk assessment. The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), a measure of the amount of a pesticide in food that can be ingested on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk, was the metric for this analysis. For 143 pesticides evaluated by the PMRA between 2008 and 2015, the supporting toxicology databases were examined to determine if other toxicology studies were protective of the findings in the 1-year dog study. When this criterion was not met, further investigation was undertaken to determine the potential impact of not having the 1-year dog study. For most of the pesticides, effect levels in the 1-year dog study were not substantially different from those in other toxicology studies, when considering factors such as dose-spacing and known experimental variability. The results of this analysis suggest that absence of the 1-year dog study would have minimal impact on the assessment of human health risk. Therefore, Health Canada's PMRA has removed the routine requirement for the 1-year dog study from its pesticide data requirements.

  1. Isocyanates and human health: Multi-stakeholder information needs and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, JE; Redlich, CA; Streicher, R; Pfahles-Hutchens, A; Hakkinen, PJ; Ellison, GL; Harber, P; Utell, M; Holland, J; Comai, A; White, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective Outline the knowledge gaps and research priorities identified by a broad-base of stakeholders involved in the planning and participation of an international conference and research agenda workshop on isocyanates and human health held in Potomac, Maryland in April 2013. Methods A multi-modal iterative approach was employed for data collection including pre-conference surveys, review of a 2001 consensus conference on isocyanates, oral and poster presentations, focused break-out sessions, panel discussions and post-conference research agenda workshop. Results Participants included representatives of consumer and worker health, health professionals, regulatory agencies, academic and industry scientists, labor, and trade associations. Conclusions Recommendations were summarized regarding knowledge gaps and research priorities in the following areas: worker and consumer exposures; toxicology, animal models, and biomarkers; human cancer risk; environmental exposure and monitoring; and respiratory epidemiology and disease, and occupational health surveillance. PMID:25563538

  2. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Main Navigation Skip to Site Sidebar National Toxicology Program http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov Home Testing ... NTP Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation Studies The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been conducting experiments in rats ...

  3. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  4. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  5. Toxicology Education Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...

  6. 75 FR 32942 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of...://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov . Dated: June 3, 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  8. 77 FR 48995 - Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on... of the draft monograph. Topic: Peer review of the draft NTP Monograph on Developmental Effects and... scheduled for oral public comment. The NTP also invites written comments on the draft monograph, submission...

  9. Docking-based classification models for exploratory toxicology studies on high-quality estrogenic experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exploratory toxicology is a new emerging research area whose ultimate mission is that of protecting human health and environment from risks posed by chemicals. In this regard, the ethical and practical limitation of animal testing has encouraged the promotion of compu...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  11. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of Change of Meeting Schedule AGENCY: Food and...

  12. Structural improvement of higher education in environmental toxicology in Latin America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, A; Cebrián, M E; Dekant, W; De Matteis, F; Diaz-Barriga, F; Barril-Antuña, J; Fowler, J; Gil, L; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; King, L J; Olarte, G; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Patño, R I; Torres-Alanís, O; Manno, M

    2000-01-05

    Industrial development has resulted in an increased release of chemicals and other agents into the environment, resulting in damage to the environment as well as increasing the risk of adverse effects on human health. Environmental toxicology (ET) is the discipline responsible for assessing the risks to human health and the environment from the effects of new chemicals and those already present in the environment. The development of human resources in toxicology is therefore a priority in both Latin America (LA) and the European Union (EU), although LA professionals are more involved in risk evaluation than in risk assessment compared to their EU colleagues. A solid background in general toxicology will enable those interested in environmental issues to tackle local problems. Moreover, the increasing globalization of markets and, therefore, of the necessary regulations, requires harmonisation of postgraduate programmes to ensure that risk assessment and management related to the environment are dealt with uniformly and by highly qualified scientists. The Inaugural Meeting of the ALFA-OMET Toxicology', a 2-year programme supported by the European Commission, offered the opportunity to discuss a number of these issues. The present status of existing ET courses in the EU and LA and the corresponding professional profiles in the two regions were examined, and a harmonized academic curriculum for a postgraduate professional profiles in the two regions were examined, and a harmonized academic curriculum for a postgraduate course in environmental toxicology was developed. Finally, a course programme for toxicology and a specialization in environmental toxicology designed by a panel of experts was discussed, and its relevance as a model for other specialisation programmes was analysed. Exercises such as those performed by ALFA-OMET may be useful not only in promoting discussion for the implementation of national and international professional registers in LA, but also in

  13. Nutritional toxicology: basic principles and actual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, J N

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake.

  14. History of wildlife toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A

    2009-10-01

    The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic

  15. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  16. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  17. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  18. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: a Risk for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Fedora; Tucci, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a natural oxide of the element titanium with low toxicity, and negligible biological effects. The classification as bio-inert material has given the possibility to normal-sized (>100 nm) titanium dioxide particles (TiO2-NPs) to be extensively used in food products and as ingredients in a wide range of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, such as sunscreens and toothpastes. Therefore, human exposure may occur through ingestion and dermal penetration, or through inhalation route, during both the manufacturing process and use. In spite of the extensively use of TiO2-NPs, the biological effects and the cellular response mechanisms are still not completely elucidated and thus a deep understanding of the toxicological profile of this compound is required. The main mechanism underlining the toxicity potentially triggered by TiO2-NPs seems to involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, metabolic change and potentially carcinogenesis. The extent and type of cell damage strongly depend on chemical and physical characteristics of TiO2-NPs, including size, crystal structure and photo-activation. In this mini-review, we would like to discuss the latest findings on the adverse effects and on potential human health risks induced by TiO2-NPs exposure.

  19. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon David Gaytán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds – information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1 novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2 pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3 candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes.

  20. Health risk assessment of environmental pollutants. Toxicological reference data and their evaluation. 8. supplement; Gefaehrdungsabschaetzung von Umweltschadstoffen. Toxikologische Basisdaten und ihre Bewertung. 8. Ergaenzungslieferung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T.; Heinrich, U.; Heinzow, B.; Konietzka, R. (eds.)

    2003-10-01

    This eighth supplement to the manual on toxicological basic data and their assessment covers the assessment results and tolerable resorbable doses (TRD values) for 1,2-dichloropropane and vanadium. It also contains an assessment by the Human Biomonitoring Commission on cadmium as well as an assessment by the Indoor Air Hygiene Commission on mercury and nitrogen dioxide. This supplement continues the updates on assessments published in this manual that was begun in the previous supplement. It also provides new assessments on the TRD values for 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene and cyanides in the form of addenda to the monographies on these substances (code numbers D 930, D948 and D224).

  1. Applicability of Computational Systems Biology in Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning; Hadrup, Niels; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2014-01-01

    be used to establish hypotheses on links between the chemical and human diseases. Such information can also be applied for designing more intelligent animal/cell experiments that can test the established hypotheses. Here, we describe how and why to apply an integrative systems biology method......Systems biology as a research field has emerged within the last few decades. Systems biology, often defined as the antithesis of the reductionist approach, integrates information about individual components of a biological system. In integrative systems biology, large data sets from various sources...... and databases are used to model and predict effects of chemicals on, for instance, human health. In toxicology, computational systems biology enables identification of important pathways and molecules from large data sets; tasks that can be extremely laborious when performed by a classical literature search...

  2. Health consequences of electric lighting practices in the modern world: A report on the National Toxicology Program's workshop on shift work at night, artificial light at night, and circadian disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Ruth M; Blask, David E; Coogan, Andrew N; Figueiro, Mariana G; Gorman, Michael R; Hall, Janet E; Hansen, Johnni; Nelson, Randy J; Panda, Satchidananda; Smolensky, Michael H; Stevens, Richard G; Turek, Fred W; Vermeulen, Roel; Carreón, Tania; Caruso, Claire C; Lawson, Christina C; Thayer, Kristina A; Twery, Michael J; Ewens, Andrew D; Garner, Sanford C; Schwingl, Pamela J; Boyd, Windy A

    2017-12-31

    The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN. Because of the complexity of this topic, the National Toxicology Program convened an expert panel at a public workshop entitled "Shift Work at Night, Artificial Light at Night, and Circadian Disruption" to obtain input on conducting literature-based health hazard assessments and to identify data gaps and research needs. The Panel suggested describing light both as a direct effector of endogenous circadian clocks and rhythms and as an enabler of additional activities or behaviors that may lead to circadian disruption, such as night-shift work and atypical and inconsistent sleep-wake patterns that can lead to social jet lag. Future studies should more comprehensively characterize and measure the relevant light-related exposures and link these exposures to both time-independent biomarkers of circadian disruption and biomarkers of adverse health outcomes. This information should lead to improvements in human epidemiological and animal or in vitro models, more rigorous health hazard assessments, and intervention strategies to minimize the occurrence of adverse health outcomes due to these exposures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Safety experimental research on toxicology of Jinchuan health beer%金川牌健生啤酒毒理学安全性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊树理; 高昇

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价金川牌健生啤酒作为保健食品的安全性,为其后续试验提供毒理学安全依据.方法 依据卫生部《保健食品检验与评价技术规范》,通过小鼠经口急性毒性试验、致突变试验、大鼠30d喂养试验对金川牌健生啤酒进行检测.结果 小鼠经口LD50 >21.5g/kg·BW,属无毒级物质;致突变试验结果为阴性;大鼠30d喂养试验表明各剂量组体重增长、食物利用率、脏体比、血液学及血清生化指标与对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).病理检查主要脏器未发现与实验有关的病理性改变.结论 从食品毒理学安全性角度评价,金川牌健生啤酒无毒、无致突变作用,因此从试验结果推断长期饮用金川牌健生啤酒是安全的.%Objective To evaluate the safety of Jinchuan health beer as a kind of health food, and provide toxi-cological safety basis for the follow - up tests. Method According to Technical Specification for Testing and Evaluation of Health Food of Ministry of Health, do testing on Jinchuan health beer by mice oral acute toxicity test, mutagenicity test, and rat feeding test for 30 days. Results The LD of mice was more than 21. 5g/kg · BW, thus it belonged to innocuous substances. The mutagenicity test results were negative. Compared with control group, the difference of feeding test indicated that the ponderal growth, food utilization, ratio of organ to body, hematology and serum biochemical parameters in all doses groups had no statistical significance ( P > 0. 05 ) . Pathological examination of main organs did not found pathological changes related to experiments. Conclusions Evaluating from the point of food toxicology, Jinchuan health beer had no toxicity and mutagenic effect, thus drinking this beer regularly was safe.

  4. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  5. Raptor toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Arent, Lori R

    2008-05-01

    Birds of prey have demonstrated the negative impact that toxic agents can cause on animal populations and ecosystem dynamics. Lead, cholinesterase inhibitors (eg, organophosphates, carbamates), and anticoagulant rodenticides (eg, brodifacoum) are the most common toxic agents that currently affect the health of wild birds of prey in the United States. For raptors held in captivity, the list of toxic agents expands and includes toxic inhalants such as carbon monoxide and polytetrafluoroethylene. This article provides diagnostic and treatment guidelines for the toxic agents discussed.

  6. Effects of exposure to oil spills on human health: Updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffon, Blanca; Pásaro, Eduardo; Valdiglesias, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills may involve health risks for people participating in the cleanup operations and coastal inhabitants, given the toxicological properties of the oil components. In spite of this, only after a few major oil spills (crude oil or fuel oil no. 6) have studies on effects of exposure to diverse aspects of human health been performed. Previously, Aguilera et al. (2010) examined all documents published to that date dealing with any type of human health outcome in populations exposed to oil spills. The aim of the present review was to compile all new information available and determine whether evidence reported supports the existence of an association between exposure and adverse human health risks. Studies were classified in three groups according to type of health outcome addressed: (i) effects on mental health, (ii) physical/physiological effects, and (iii) genotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine toxicity. New studies published on oil-spill-exposed populations-coastal residents in the vicinity of the spills or participants in cleanup operations-provide additional support to previous evidence on adverse health effects related to exposure regarding different parameters in all three categories considered. Some of the observed effects even indicated that several symptoms may persist for some years after exposure. Hence, (1) health protection in these individuals should be a matter of concern; and (2) health risk assessment needs to be carried out not only at the time of exposure but also for prolong periods following exposure, to enable early detection of any potential exposure-related harmful effects.

  7. The interaction of actinide and lanthanide ions with hemoglobin and its relevance to human and environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit, E-mail: amitk@barc.gov.in [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ali, Manjoor [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ningthoujam, Raghumani S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Gaikwad, Pallavi [Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Mukesh [Solid State, Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B. [Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, Mumbai (India); Pandey, Badri N. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The sites of Ln and An interaction in Hb depend upon their charge-to-ionic-radii ratio. • Th(IV), Ce(IV) and U(VI) altered structure and oxygen-binding of Hb. • Spectroscopic studies determined binding characteristics of actinides. • Metal–Hb interaction was tested in an environmentally-important aquatic midge, Chironomus. - Abstract: Due to increasing use of lanthanides/actinides in nuclear and civil applications, understanding the impact of these metal ions on human health and environment is a growing concern. Hemoglobin (Hb), which occurs in all the kingdom of living organism, is the most abundant protein in human blood. In present study, effect of lanthanides and actinides [thorium: Th(IV), uranium: U(VI), lanthanum: La(III), cerium: Ce(III) and (IV)] on the structure and function of Hb has been investigated. Results showed that these metal ions, except Ce(IV) interacted with carbonyl and amide groups of Hb, which resulted in the loss of its alpha-helix conformation. However, beyond 75 μM, these ions affected heme moiety. Metal–heme interaction was found to affect oxygen-binding of Hb, which seems to be governed by their closeness with the charge-to-ionic-radius ratio of iron(III). Consistently, Ce(IV) being closest to iron(III), exhibited a greater effect on heme. Binding constant and binding stoichiometry of Th(IV) were higher than that of U(VI). Experiments using aquatic midge Chironomus (possessing human homologous Hb) and human blood, further validated metal–Hb interaction and associated toxicity. Thus, present study provides a biochemical basis to understand the actinide/lanthanide-induced interference in heme, which may have significant implications for the medical and environmental management of lanthanides/actinides toxicity.

  8. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  10. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  11. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  12. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  13. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  14. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  15. Toxicology: then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Loralie J; Kapur, Bhushan M

    2006-05-01

    Toxicology is "the science of poisons"; more specifically the chemical and physical properties of poisons, their physiological or behavioral effects on living organisms, qualitative, and quantitative methods for their analysis and the development of procedures for the treatment of poisoning. Although the history of poisons dates to the earliest times, the study and the science of toxicology can be traced to Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Orfila (1757-1853). Modern toxicology is characterized by sophisticated scientific investigation and evaluation of toxic exposures. The 20th century is marked by an advanced level of understanding of toxicology. DNA and various biochemicals that maintain cellular functions were discovered. Our level of knowledge of toxic effects on organs and cells is now being revealed at the molecular level. This paper will review the historical progress of clinical and forensic toxicology by exploring analytical techniques in drug analysis, differing biological matrices, clinical toxicology, therapeutic drug management, workplace drug testing, and pharmacodynamic monitoring and pharmacogenetics.

  16. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  17. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational ...

  18. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  19. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  20. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  1. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  2. A Multilaboratory Toxicological Assessment of a Panel of 10 Engineered Nanomaterials to Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gosens, Ilse; MacCalman, Laura

    2016-01-01

    as offering some suggestions on the future of "nanotoxicology research" based on these observations, shortcomings, and lessons learned from the project. A number of issues related to the hazard assessment of NM are discussed in detail and include use of appropriate NM for nanotoxicology investigations...

  3. EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH | Waling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... add variety to household diets and nutrients, and improve household incomes for improved food security situation.

  4. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  5. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  6. International issues on human health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, Victor J; Cassee, Flemming R; Groten, John P; van Vliet, Petronella W; van Zorge, Job A

    2002-12-01

    In this article, we highlight new developments and recent studies concerning adverse human health effects related to chemical mixtures. One group of activities comprises the development of a new computer program for analyzing mixture studies and a mathematical model as a basis for combination rules that predict the toxicity of mixtures. Other new activities in the area of experimental studies are the application of gene expression technologies in mixture research, and pattern recognition as a tool in safety evaluation of complex mixtures. A "bottom-up" approach for chemosensory detection of mixtures has recently been presented. Other topics include a method for the safety evaluation of natural flavoring complexes, and an evaluation of the possible health effects of the simultaneous intake of food additives. Examples of issues related to mixtures of airborne chemicals are potential interaction of fine particles and gaseous pollutants in ambient air, nasal cancer associated with inhaled chemical mixtures, and the recommendation of a limit value for volatile organic compounds. Topics of a more strategic nature include studies concerning the public health effects of large airports, and the development of criteria for a harmonized classification of chemical mixtures. This overview illustrates that strategies to tackle the safety evaluation of combined exposures and complex mixtures as well as models facilitating the interpretation of findings in the context of risk assessment of mixtures have become increasingly important. It is true that exposure of humans to chemical mixtures is the rule rather than the exception, and therefore health risk assessments should focus on mixtures and not on single chemicals. It is also true, however, that humans have learned to cope with exposure to huge numbers of chemicals simultaneously (food, water, air, soil, and consumer products). Therefore, in view of limited resources for toxicological research, the focus in toxicology should be

  7. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  8. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  9. Nanotechnology and human health: risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Anna Giulia; Gornati, Rosalba; Sabbioni, Enrico; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Cobos, Everardo; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2010-11-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to be promising in many fields of medical applications, mainly in cancer treatment. While a large number of very attractive exploitations open up for the clinics, regulatory agencies are very careful in admitting new nanomaterials for human use because of their potential toxicity. The very active research on new nanomaterials that are potentially useful in medicine has not been counterbalanced by an adequate knowledge of their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The different nanocarriers used to transport and release the active molecules to the target tissues should be treated as additives, with potential side effects of themselves or by virtue of their dissolution or aggregation inside the body. Only recently has a systematic classification of nanomaterials been proposed, posing the basis for dedicated modeling at the nanoscale level. The use of in silico methods, such as nano-QSAR and PSAR, while highly desirable to expedite and rationalize the following stages of toxicological research, are not an alternative, but an introduction to mandatory experimental work.

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  11. Biosynthesis and toxicological effects of patulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, Olivier; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2010-04-01

    Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, neurological and gastrointestinal outcomes. Assessment of the health risks due to patulin consumption by humans has led many countries to regulate the quantity in food. A full understanding of the molecular genetics of patulin biosynthesis is incomplete, unlike other regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes and fumonisins), although the chemical structures of patulin precursors are now known. The biosynthetic pathway consists of approximately 10 steps, as suggested by biochemical studies. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthesis was reported, containing characterized enzymes, a regulation factor and transporter genes. This review includes information on the current understanding of the mechanisms of patulin toxinogenesis and summarizes its toxicological effects.

  12. An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L

    2010-02-01

    The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) strongly endorses the vision for the future of toxicity testing proposed in the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Although crafted primarily with the aim of better assessing the public health risks from chemical exposures, the vision would have a major impact on advancing both alternative testing methods and animal welfare. Consequently, The HSUS seeks to have the vision implemented expeditiously. The HSUS is pleased that the report has elicited considerable discussion and debate and garnered a certain level of approval and applaud current implementation efforts. However, these efforts do not fully capture the vision and strategy outlined by the NRC. The HSUS believes that the timely implementation of the NRC vision warrants a large-scale "Human Toxicology Project" akin to the Human Genome Project of the late 20th century. The HSUS spearheaded the formation of the Human Toxicology Project Consortium to help marshal the necessary will, funding, and research for this effort. Our sister organization, the Humane Society International, is embarking on a related effort with European partners. The HSUS cofounded a website, AltTox.org, devoted exclusively to the scientific and policy issues central to advancing nonanimal methods of toxicity testing. The NRC report has provided a unified framework by which to systematically incorporate the fruits of modern biology and technology into hazard identification and risk assessment, to the betterment not only of toxicity testing and public health, but also of animal protection.

  13. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  14. Systems toxicology from genes to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, John; Wambaugh, John; Shah, Imran

    2013-01-01

    This unique overview of systems toxicology methods and techniques begins with a brief account of systems thinking in biology over the last century. We discuss how systems biology and toxicology continue to leverage advances in computational modeling, informatics, large-scale computing, and biotechnology. Next, we chart the genesis of systems toxicology from previous work in physiologically based models, models of early development, and more recently, molecular systems biology. For readers interested in further details this background provides useful linkages to the relevant literature. It also lays the foundations for new ideas in systems toxicology that could translate laboratory measurements of molecular responses from xenobiotic perturbations to adverse organ level effects in humans. By providing innovative solutions across disciplinary boundaries and highlighting key scientific gaps, we believe this chapter provides useful information about the current state, and valuable insight about future directions in systems toxicity.

  15. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  16. Delivering The Benefits of Chemical-Biological Integration in Computational Toxicology at the EPA (ACS Fall meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Researchers at the EPA’s National Center for Computational Toxicology integrate advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to examine the toxicity of chemicals and help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. The intent...

  17. 76 FR 787 - Notice of Availability of the Recommended Toxicity Equivalence Factors (TEFs) for Human Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...-like compounds (DLCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are structurally and toxicologically related halogenated... environment, build up in the food chain, and accumulate in the tissues of animals. Human exposures to these...

  18. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  19. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  20. Preclinical Toxicology Studies of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Either Alone or in Combination with Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate and Type I Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan S. Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (hPDGF-BB is a basic polypeptide growth factor released from platelets at the injury site. It is a multifunctional molecule that regulates DNA synthesis and cell division and induces biological effects that are implicated in tissue repair, atherosclerosis, inflammatory responses, and neoplastic diseases. This paper is an overview of the toxicology data generated from a broad testing platform to determine bone, soft tissue, and systemic responses following administration of rhPDGF-BB. Moreover, the systemic and local toxicity of recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB in combination with either beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP or collagen combined with β-TCP was studied to determine dermal sensitization, irritation, intramuscular tissue responses, pyrogenicity, genotoxicity, and hemolytic properties. All data strongly suggest that rhPDGF-BB either alone or in combination with β-TCP or collagen with β-TCP is biocompatible and has neither systemic nor local toxicity, supporting its safe use in enhancing wound healing in patients.

  1. Comparative systems toxicology analysis of cigarette smoke and aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product in organotypic human gingival epithelial cultures: A 3-day repeated exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Titz, Bjoern; Sewer, Alain; Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Scotti, Elena; Schlage, Walter K; Mathis, Carole; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Torres, Laura Ortega; Keppler, Brian R; Elamin, Ashraf; Trivedi, Keyur; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Smoking is one of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for periodontal diseases. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) offer a promising alternative in the harm reduction strategy for adult smokers unable to quit. Using a systems toxicology approach, we investigated and compared the exposure effects of a reference cigarette (3R4F) and a heat-not-burn technology-based candidate MRTP, the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2. Human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures were repeatedly exposed (3 days) for 28 min at two matching concentrations of cigarette smoke (CS) or THS2.2 aerosol. Results showed only minor histopathological alterations and minimal cytotoxicity upon THS2.2 aerosol exposure compared to CS (1% for THS2.2 aerosol vs. 30% for CS, at the high concentration). Among the 14 proinflammatory mediators analyzed, only 5 exhibited significant alterations with THS2.2 exposure compared with 11 upon CS exposure. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis indicated a general reduction of the impact in THS2.2 aerosol-exposed samples with respect to CS (∼79% lower biological impact for the high THS2.2 aerosol concentration compared to CS, and 13 metabolites significantly perturbed for THS2.2 vs. 181 for CS). This study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol had a lower impact on the pathophysiology of human gingival organotypic cultures than CS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 Presentation at the Health Canada seminar in Ottawa, ON, Canada on Nov. 15. 2016 on the Evolution of Computational Toxicology-from Primitive Beginnings to Sophisticated Application

  3. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  4. Reviewing the environmental and human health knowledge base of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Aasgeir; Wick, Peter; Koehler, Andreas; Schmid, Kaspar; Som, Claudia

    2007-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered one of the most promising materials in nanotechnology, with attractive properties for many technologic applications. The different synthesis, purification, and postprocessing methods produce CNTs with different physical characteristics, which can be applied in different fields ranging from composite materials, medical applications, and electronics to energy storage. The widespread projected use of CNTs makes it important to understand their potential harmful effects. In this environmental health review we observed a remarkable range of results of some of the toxicology studies. The comparability should be improved by further standardization and introduction of reference materials. However, at present the findings of this review suggest several key points: a) there are different types of CNTs, and therefore they cannot be considered a uniform group of substances; and b) in environmental compartments, CNTs can be bioavailable to organisms. The properties of CNTs suggest a possible accumulation along the food chain and high persistence. In organisms the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of CNTs depend on the inherent physical and chemical characteristics such as CNT functionalization, coating, length, and agglomeration state that are influenced by the external environmental conditions during CNT production, use, and disposal stages. Characterized exposure scenarios could therefore be useful when conducting toxicologic studies. However, CNTs produce a toxic response upon reaching the lungs in sufficient quantity; this reaction is produced in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The identification of possible risks to human health and environment is a prerequisite for a successful introduction of CNTs in future applications.

  5. A computational approach to mechanistic and predictive toxicology of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hadrup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Emerging challenges of managing and interpreting large amounts of complex biological data have given rise to the growing field of computational biology. We investigated the applicability of an integrated systems toxicology approach on five selected pesticides to get an overview of their modes...... of action in humans, to group them according to their modes of action, and to hypothesize on their potential effects on human health. We extracted human proteins associated to prochloraz, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, procymidone, and mancozeb and enriched each protein set by using a high confidence human...... protein interactome. Then, we explored modes of action of the chemicals, by integrating protein-disease information to the resulting protein networks. The dominating human adverse effects affected were reproductive disorders followed by adrenal diseases. Our results indicated that prochloraz, tebuconazole...

  6. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought...... or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  7. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM increased cell proliferation (6% at 7 days (p 4.92 nM increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30% at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of  Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell proliferation in human cell lines at concentrations higher than 4.92 n

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  9. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  10. Human resources for health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country.

  11. The Toxicology Education Summit: Building the Future of Toxicology Through Education

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collabor...

  12. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  13. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  14. Whole grains and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  15. Factsheets for the (eco)toxicological risk assessment strategy of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Raaij MTM van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    Eight fact sheets describing risk assessment methods used at the Centre of Substances and Risk assessment (CSR) of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) are presented here with the main aim of promoting greater transparency in the risk assessment methods used at the Ins

  16. An Integrated Systems Toxicology Approach to Assess and Predict the Health Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nanotechnology on the US EPA and related research needs has been described in the Agency’s Nanotechnology White Paper1,2 and ORD’s Research Strategy3. The US EPA’s NMs environmental, health and ecological effects research is conducted in its Chemical Safety for Sus...

  17. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  18. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  19. Research Advances in Toxicology of DEHP and Its Health Effects%邻苯二甲酸二乙基己酯(DEHP)毒理与健康效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 董四君

    2012-01-01

    As an important plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride plastics, DEHP was widely used in industry, which was currently detected in the ocean, air, drinking water, animals and plants to different extent. DEHP has caused ever-increasing ecological environment pollution. In this paper, the domestic and foreign toxicological researches were reviewed, which were related to the human exposure and metabolic pathways of DEHP. The toxicity and potential danger of DEHP to animals and human health were discussed in detail from the aspect of liver, heart, reproductive/developmental system and respiratory system. On these bases, the existing problems and further research directions were pointed out.%邻苯二甲酸二乙基己酯(DEHP)作为重要的聚氯乙烯塑料增塑剂在工业上应用广泛.目前,DEHP在海洋、大气、饮用水及动植物体内均被不同程度检出,对生态环境造成日益严重的污染.结合国内外毒理学研究成果,概述DEHP的人体暴露及代谢途径;并从肝脏、心脏、生殖发育系统和呼吸系统等方面详细探讨DEHP对动物健康的危害及其可能的毒性机制,以及对人体健康潜在的影响;在此基础上,对目前存在的问题及进一步研究的方向进行了探讨和展望.

  20. Toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones--specific radiolytic products in irradiated fat-containing food--in bacteria and human cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartwig, A; Pelzer, A; Burnouf, D; Titéca, H; Delincée, H; Briviba, K; Soika, C; Hodapp, C; Raul, F; Miesch, M; Werner, D; Horvatovich, P; Marchioni, E

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation has been considered as a safe processing technology to improve food safety and preservation, eliminating efficiently bacterial pathogens, parasites and insects. This study aims to characterize the toxicological potential of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs), radiolytic derivatives of t

  1. Sequential cloud-point extraction for toxicological screening analysis of medicaments in human plasma by high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Katarzyna; Persona, Karolina; Wandas, Monika; Gomółka, Ewa

    2013-10-18

    A complex extraction system with the use of cloud-point extraction technique (CPE) was developed for sequential isolation of basic and acidic/neutral medicaments from human plasma/serum, screened by HPLC/DAD method. Eight model drugs (paracetamol, promazine, chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, salicyclic acid, opipramol, alprazolam and carbamazepine) were chosen for the study of optimal CPE conditions. The CPE technique consists in partition of an aqueous sample with addition of a surfactant into two phases: micelle-rich phase with the isolated compounds and water phase containing a surfactant below the critical micellar concentration, mainly under influence of temperature change. The proposed extraction system consists of two chief steps: isolation of basic compounds (from pH 12) and then isolation of acidic/neutral compounds (from pH 6) using surfactant Triton X-114 as the extraction medium. Extraction recovery varied from 25.2 to 107.9% with intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) ranged 0.88-1087 and 5.32-17.96, respectively. The limits of detection for the studied medicaments at λ 254nm corresponded to therapeutic or low toxic plasma concentration levels. Usefulness of the proposed CPE-HPLC/DAD method for toxicological drug screening was tested via its application to analysis of two serum samples taken from patients suspected of drug overdosing.

  2. Immunization of mice with the nef gene from Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1: Study of immunological memory and long-term toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engström Gunnel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 regulatory protein, Nef, is an attractive vaccine target because it is involved in viral pathogenesis, is expressed early in the viral life cycle and harbors many T and B cell epitopes. Several clinical trials include gene-based vaccines encoding this protein. However, Nef has been shown to transform certain cell types in vitro. Based on these findings we performed a long-term toxicity and immunogenicity study of Nef, encoded either by Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara or by plasmid DNA. BALB/c mice were primed twice with either DNA or MVA encoding Nef and received a homologous or heterologous boost ten months later. In the meantime, the Nef-specific immune responses were monitored and at the time of sacrifice an extensive toxicological evaluation was performed, where presence of tumors and other pathological changes were assessed. Results The toxicological evaluation showed that immunization with MVAnef is safe and does not cause cellular transformation or other toxicity in somatic organs. Both DNAnef and MVAnef immunized animals developed potent Nef-specific cellular responses that declined to undetectable levels over time, and could readily be boosted after almost one year. This is of particular interest since it shows that plasmid DNA vaccine can also be used as a potent late booster of primed immune responses. We observed qualitative differences between the T cell responses induced by the two different vectors: DNA-encoded nef induced long-lasting CD8+ T cell memory responses, whereas MVA-encoded nef induced CD4+ T cell memory responses. In terms of the humoral immune responses, we show that two injections of MVAnef induce significant anti-Nef titers, while repeated injections of DNAnef do not. A single boost with MVAnef could enhance the antibody response following DNAnef prime to the same level as that observed in animals immunized repeatedly with MVAnef. We also demonstrate

  3. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  4. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  5. TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for over 600 chemicals from authoritative groups worldwide Animal Testing Alternatives ALTBIB Resources on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing Archived, No Longer Updated ... cancer tests (1980-2011) GENE-TOX Genetic Toxicology ...

  6. Toxicology of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola-Lemaître, B

    1997-12-01

    Despite the fact that melatonin has been released for public use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration and is available over the counter nationwide, there currently is a total lack of information on the toxicology of melatonin. In Europe, melatonin has a completely different status in that it is considered a "neurohormone" and cannot be sold over the counter. Even though administration of melatonin in humans, as well as in animals (even at supraphysiological doses), has not shown evidence of toxicological effects (i.e., no deaths), a drug toxicological file still would need to be prepared and approved by the regulatory authorities. Several features that are specific to this neurohormone need to be taken into consideration. Whatever the species concerned, melatonin is secreted during the night; it is the "hormone of darkness." It presents a circadian rhythm and a circannual rhythm (in photoperiodic species). The duration of these secretions could have an impact on the reproductive system, for example, showing the importance of the pharmacodynamics of melatonin. An inappropriate time schedule of melatonin administration could induce supraphysiological concentrations of the neurohormone and a desensitization of melatonin receptors. A long duration of exposure to melatonin also could mimic an "artificial darkness" condition when a circadian rhythm with a basal zero level during the day needs to be conserved for a physiological function. Furthermore, administration of large doses of melatonin could induce high concentrations of melatonin and of different metabolites that could have deleterious effects per se. Numerous books, magazines, and articles have praised melatonin as a "miraculous cure-all" for ailments ranging from sleeplessness, to aging, without any clinical evidence of efficacy (with the exception of its chronobiotic and resynchronizing effect). Very little attention has been paid to the possible side effects of melatonin. Nightmares

  7. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific

  8. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  9. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific evidenc

  10. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Walter K.; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air–liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products. PMID:25046638

  12. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Walter K; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air-liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products.

  13. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, Rob; Aarts, Jac; Boorsma, Andre; Bosgra, Sieto; Caiment, Florian; Ezendam, Janine; Greupink, Rick; Hendriksen, Peter; Soeteman-Hernandez, Lya G.; Jennen, Danyel; Kleinjans, Jos; Kroese, Dinant; Kuper, Frieke; van Loveren, Henk; Monshouwer, Mario; Russel, Frans; van Someren, Eugene; Tsamou, Maria; Groothuis, Geny

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617-623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if activa

  14. Assuring safety without animal testing concept (ASAT). Integration of human disease data with in vitro data to improve toxicology testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Boorsma, J.; Bosgra, S.; Caiment, F.; Ezendam, J.; Greuping, R.; Hendriksen, P.; Soeteman-Hernandez, L.G.; Jennen, D.; Kleinjans, J.; Kroese, D.; Kuper, F.; Loveren, van H.; Monshouwer, M.; Russel, F.; Someren, van E.; Tsamou, M.; Groothuis, G.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Assuring Safety Without Animal Testing (ASAT) principle, risk assessment may ultimately become possible without the use of animals (Fentem et al., (2004). Altern. Lab. Anim. 32, 617–623). The ASAT concept takes human disease mechanisms as starting point and tries to define if activa

  15. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  16. 75 FR 37443 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of...'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Toxicology Letters 119(3): 203-208. Dated: June 16, 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  17. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Exposure science and the U.S. EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Richard, Ann M; Shah, Imran; Gallagher, Jane; Kavlock, Robert; Blancato, Jerry; Edwards, Stephen W

    2010-05-01

    The emerging field of computational toxicology applies mathematical and computer models and molecular biological and chemical approaches to explore both qualitative and quantitative relationships between sources of environmental pollutant exposure and adverse health outcomes. The integration of modern computing with molecular biology and chemistry will allow scientists to better prioritize data, inform decision makers on chemical risk assessments and understand a chemical's progression from the environment to the target tissue within an organism and ultimately to the key steps that trigger an adverse health effect. In this paper, several of the major research activities being sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Computational Toxicology are highlighted. Potential links between research in computational toxicology and human exposure science are identified. As with the traditional approaches for toxicity testing and hazard assessment, exposure science is required to inform design and interpretation of high-throughput assays. In addition, common themes inherent throughout National Center for Computational Toxicology research activities are highlighted for emphasis as exposure science advances into the 21st century.

  19. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2005-09-01

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for "statistical significance" is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena.

  20. The role of the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter and its variants in cancer therapy and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenak, Judit; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Tordai, Attila; Német, Katalin; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2006-03-08

    The human multidrug resistance ABC transporters provide a protective function in our body against a large number of toxic compounds. These proteins, residing in the plasma membrane, perform an active, ATP-dependent extrusion of such xenobiotics. However, the same proteins are also used by the tumor cells to fight various anticancer agents. ABCG2 is an important member of the multidrug resistance proteins, an 'ABC half transporter', which functions as a homodimer in the cell membrane. In this review, we provide a basic overview of ABCG2 function in physiology and drug metabolism, but concentrate on the discussion of mutations and polymorphisms discovered in this protein. Interestingly, a single nucleotide mutation, changing amino acid 482 from arginine to threonine or glycine in ABCG2, results in a major increase in the catalytic activity and a wider drug recognition by this protein. Still, this mutation proved to be an in vitro artifact, produced only in heavily drug-selected cell lines. In contrast, at least two, but possibly more polymorphic variants of ABCG2 were found to be present in large human populations with different ethnic background. However, currently available experimental data regarding the cellular expression, localization and function of these ABCG2 variants are strongly contradictory. Since, the proteins produced by these variant alleles may differently modulate cancer treatment, general drug absorption and toxicity, may represent risk factors in fetal toxicity, or alter the differentiation of stem cells, their exact characterization is a major challenge in this field.

  1. Toxicological effects of the different substances in tobacco smoke on human embryonic development by a systems chemo-biology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Feltes

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular effects of tobacco smoke in adult humans and the development of cancer have been well described. In contrast, how tobacco smoke affects embryonic development remains poorly understood. Morphological studies of the fetuses of smoking pregnant women have shown various physical deformities induced by constant fetal exposure to tobacco components, especially nicotine. In addition, nicotine exposure decreases fetal body weight and bone/cartilage growth in addition to decreasing cranial diameter and tibia length. Unfortunately, the molecular pathways leading to these morphological anomalies are not completely understood. In this study, we applied interactome data mining tools and small compound interaction networks to elucidate possible molecular pathways associated with the effects of tobacco smoke components during embryonic development in pregnant female smokers. Our analysis showed a relationship between nicotine and 50 additional harmful substances involved in a variety of biological process that can cause abnormal proliferation, impaired cell differentiation, and increased oxidative stress. We also describe how nicotine can negatively affect retinoic acid signaling and cell differentiation through inhibition of retinoic acid receptors. In addition, nicotine causes a stress reaction and/or a pro-inflammatory response that inhibits the agonistic action of retinoic acid. Moreover, we show that the effect of cigarette smoke on the developing fetus could represent systemic and aggressive impacts in the short term, causing malformations during certain stages of development. Our work provides the first approach describing how different tobacco constituents affect a broad range of biological process in human embryonic development.

  2. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Residues in field crops grown and harvested for human consumption are the main contributor to overall human exposure toward agricultural pesticides for the general population. However, exposure from crop residues is currently not considered in life cycle assessment practice. We therefore...... present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...

  3. Toxicological investigation of forensic cases related to the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV): Detection, quantification and studies on human metabolism by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapp, Marcel; Kaufmann, Christoph; Ebbecke, Martin

    2017-02-02

    3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic cathinone belonging to the class of α-pyrrolidinophenones that become increasingly popular as a designer psychostimulant. Here, we report a comprehensive collection of MDPV exposure with quantitative serum level confirmation in Germany. During the years 2014-2016, we could proof consumption of MDPV in 23 cases where urine and blood samples were submitted to our laboratory by the police of Lower Saxony. Most of the samples underwent systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where MDPV could be detected in urine and/or serum samples. The determined concentrations of MDPV in serum showed a high variability, ranging from traces (<10ng/mL) up to 576ng/mL with a mean concentration of 118ng/mL and median of 47ng/mL. The majority of MDPV users were men (87%) and the age ranged from 23 to 49 years (mean 35.9, median 37 years). For most of the analytically confirmed MDPV cases we could prove co-consumption of other psychotropic drugs with frequent occurrence of opiates and cannabinoids in 22% of the cases, followed by benzodiazepines and cocaine in 17%. Analysis of urine samples by GC-MS disclosed the presence of MDPV and its metabolites 2'-oxo-MDPV, demethylenyl-MDPV, demethylenyl-methyl-MDPV, demethylenyl-oxo-MDPV, demethylenyl-methyl-oxo-MDPV and demethylenyl-methyl-N,N-bisdealkyl-MDPV. The metabolite pattern substantiates previous suggestions for principle metabolic pathways of MDPV in humans.

  4. Toxicological screening of human plasma by on-line SPE-HPLC-DAD: identification and quantification of acidic and neutral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut, Ludmila; Grobosch, Thomas; Binscheck-Domaß, Torsten; Frenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A multi-analyte screening method for the quantification of 50 acidic/neutral drugs in human plasma based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC with photodiode array detection (DAD) was developed, validated and applied for clinical investigation. Acetone and methanol for protein precipitation, three different SPE materials (two electro-neutral, one strong anion-exchange, one weak cation-exchange) for on-line extraction, five HPLC-columns [one C18 (GeminiNX), two phenyl-hexyl (Gemini C6 -Phenyl, Kinetex Phenyl-Hexyl) and two pentafluorophenyl (LunaPFP(2), KinetexPFP)] for analytical separation were tested. For sample pre-treatment, acetone in the ratio 1:2 (plasma:acetone) showed a better baseline and fewer matrix peaks in the chromatogram than methanol. Only the strong anion-exchanger SPE cartridge (StrataX-A, pH 6) allowed the extraction of salicylic acid. Analytical separation was carried out on a Gemini C6 -Phenyl column (150 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) using gradient elution with acetonitrile-water 90:10 (v/v) and phosphate buffer (pH 2.3). Linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9950/0.9910 were obtained for 46/four analytes. Additionally, this method allows the quantification of 23 analytes for therapeutic drug monitoring. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 (amobarbital) to 23 mg/L (salicylic acid). Inter-/intra-day precisions of quality control samples (low/high) were better than 13% and accuracy (bias) ranged from -14 to 10%. A computer-assisted database was created for automated detection of 223 analytes of toxicological interests. Four cases of multi-drug intoxications are presented.

  5. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, G. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

  6. Applications of deuterium oxide in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Mariano, Reysla Maria da Silveira; Silva, Valmin Ramos; Santos, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira

    2017-02-06

    The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.

  7. Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chapters: 1) Convergence or divide in the movement for sustainable and just agriculture. 2) No-till agriculture in the USA. 3) Organic fertilizers in sub-Saharan farming systems. 4) Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. 5) Pseudomonas and microbes for disease-suppressive soils. 6) Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation, Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity. 7) Sustainable agricultural NP turnover in the 27 European countries. 8) Tomato production for human health, not...

  8. The utility of the small rodent electrocardiogram in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraj, Aimen K; Hazari, Mehdi S; Cascio, Wayne E

    2011-05-01

    Extensive research has lead to a growing appreciation that the heart is acutely sensitive to a broad array of toxicants via multiple routes of exposure. These agents are as diverse as the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin and environmental agents including ambient air pollution. Adverse effects in the heart often manifest as a change in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG has long been used in the clinic to assess human cardiovascular health. Surface electrocardiographic recordings (i.e., those made from the skin) in humans often help to detect abnormal myocardial impulse formation, conduction, cardiac rhythm disturbances, and altered autonomic regulation of the heart. In toxicology, the ECG provides a collection of end points that may be used to assess both the quality and magnitude of cardiac toxicity. Increasingly over the last two decades, the cardiotoxicity of agents have been characterized using small rodent electrocardiography. Additionally, tremendous insight into possible mechanisms of action of known human cardiotoxicants has been gained. Rat and mouse models offer a number of advantages relative to larger animals including lower cost, less variability, the availability of transgenic models, and a plethora of research tools. Modern day advances in small rodent electrocardiography have enabled assessments in conscious unrestrained animals and improved ECG interpretation. Thus, the incorporation of small rodent electrocardiographic assessments into toxicology studies may facilitate the screening of cardiotoxic potential and the elucidation of mechanisms of action. This review will discuss the utility of the small rodent ECG, various methodologies used to derive ECG data in rats and mice, and various applications in toxicology.

  9. Human toxicology of chemical mixtures toxic consequences beyond the impact of one-component product and environmental exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeliger, Harold I

    2011-01-01

    In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble)/hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author's focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body's methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discussed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and t...

  10. A dynamic human health risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

    2012-05-01

    An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors.

  11. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  13. Assessing health in agriculture--towards a common research framework for soils, plants, animals, humans and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweger, Anja; Döring, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    In agriculture and food systems, health-related research includes a vast diversity of topics. Nutritional, toxicological, pharmacological, epidemiological, behavioural, sociological, economic and political methods are used to study health in the five domains of soils, plants, livestock, humans and ecosystems. An idea developed in the early founding days of organic agriculture stated that the health of all domains is one and indivisible. Here we show that recent research reveals the existence and complex nature of such health links among domains. However, studies of health aspects in agriculture are often separated by disciplinary boundaries. This restrains the understanding of health in agricultural systems. Therefore we explore the opportunities and limitations of bringing perspectives together from the different domains. We review current approaches to define and assess health in agricultural contexts, comparing the state of the art of commonly used approaches and bringing together the presently disconnected debates in soil science, plant science, veterinary science and human medicine. Based on a qualitative literature analysis, we suggest that many health criteria fall into two paradigms: (1) the Growth Paradigm, where terms are primarily oriented towards continued growth; (2) the Boundary Paradigm, where terms focus on maintaining or coming back to a status quo, recognising system boundaries. Scientific health assessments in agricultural and food systems need to be explicit in terms of their position on the continuum between Growth Paradigm and Boundary Paradigm. Finally, we identify areas and concepts for a future direction of health assessment and research in agricultural and food systems.

  14. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  15. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Kolpin, Dana W; Mash, Heath E; Schenck, Kathleen M; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  16. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  17. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  18. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  19. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Divya [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Dhanwal, Vandna [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Nayak, Debasis [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Saneja, Ankit [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Amin, Hina [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Rasool, Reyaz ur [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Gupta, Prem Narayan [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Goswami, Anindya, E-mail: agoswami@iiim.ac.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India)

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. - Highlights: • Subtoxic levels of CuCSNPs induce apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. • CuCSNPs mediate toxicity via nuclear cleavage and ROS generation. • CuCSNPs favor caspase activation and PARP cleavage to induce cell death.

  20. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Divya; Dhanwal, Vandna; Nayak, Debasis; Saneja, Ankit; Amin, Hina; Ur Rasool, Reyaz; Gupta, Prem Narayan; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO4). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detergent decellularization of heart valves for tissue engineering: toxicological effects of residual detergents on human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Jaekel, Thomas; Hilfiker, Andres; Dorfman, Suzanne; Ternes, Waldemar; Haverich, Axel; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2010-03-01

    Detergents are powerful agents for tissue decellularization. Despite this, the high toxicity of detergent residua can be a major limitation. This study evaluated the efficacy of detergent removal from decellularized pulmonary valves (PVs) and the consequences of repopulation with human endothelial cells (HECs). Porcine PVs were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate (SDC), group A; 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), group B; and a mixture of 0.5% SDC/0.5% SDS, group C (n = 5 each). After each of 10 succeeding wash cycles (WCs), samples of the washing solution (WS) were analyzed by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography for the presence of detergents. Metabolic activity of HEC was also assessed in the WS samples (cytotoxicity and MTS assays). Decellularized and washed PVs were reseeded with HEC. Histological analysis demonstrated efficient tissue decellularization in all groups. Detergents' concentration in all WSs decreased exponentially and was below 50 mg/L after 6, 8, and 4 WCs in groups A, B, and C, respectively. This concentration resulted in no significant toxic influence on cell cultures, and scaffolds could be efficiently reseeded with HEC. In conclusion, intensive washing of detergent decellularized valvular scaffolds lowers the residual contamination below a hazardous threshold and allows their successful repopulation with HEC for tissue engineering purposes.

  2. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of sediment samples spiked with human pharmaceutical products: Energy status and neuroendocrine effects in marine polychaetes Hediste diversicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranho, L A; André, C; DelValls, T A; Gagné, F; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2015-08-01

    There is a lack of studies about the ecotoxicology of pharmaceutical products on marine environment. To predict possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical products on benthic biota, polychaetes Hediste diversicolor were exposed for 14-days to pharmaceutical-spiked sediments under laboratory conditions. Carbamazepine (CBZ), ibuprofen (IBP) and propranolol (PRO) at concentrations of 500ngg(-1), 50ngg(-1), 5ngg(-1), 0.5ngg(-1) and 0.05ngg(-1), fluoxetine (FX) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) at concentrations of 100ngg(-1), 10ngg(-1), 1ngg(-1), 0.1ngg(-1) and 0.01ngg(-1), including environmental concentrations (underlined), were spiked in marine sediment samples. After the exposure, cellular energy status (total lipids content - TLP; and mitochondrial electron transport activity - MET), metabolism of monoamines (monoamine oxidase activity - MAO) and inflammation properties (cyclooxygenase activity - COX) were observed in polychaetes. CBZ increased TLP content and MET activity, and decreased MAO activity in polychaetes. IBP did not interfere on the TLP level, but on the MET and MAO activities (environmental concentrations). FX did not cause changes in the energy status. Therefore, environmental concentration diminished MAO activity. EE2 did not affect the energy status, however, MAO activity was significantly lower in polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. PRO increased TLP level in polychaetes, but not MET activity. MAO activity was significantly lower for polychaetes exposed to environmental concentration. Except FX, all pharmaceuticals showed anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by the decrease of COX activity. Pharmaceutical products affected H. diversicolor physiology and health. As a benthic top predator, adverse effects on sea-worms can potentially culminate in ecosystem perturbations.

  4. Opportunity for selection in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection defined by differential survival and reproduction of individuals in populations is influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors operating at every age and stage in human life history: generation of gametes, conception, birth, maturation, reproduction, senescence, and death. Biological systems are built upon a hierarchical organization nesting subcellular organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within individuals, individuals within families, and families within populations, and the latter among other populations. Natural selection often acts simultaneously at more than one level of biological organization and on specific traits, which we define as multilevel selection. Under this model, the individual is a fundamental unit of biological organization and also of selection, imbedded in a larger evolutionary context, just as it is a unit of medical intervention imbedded in larger biological, cultural, and environmental contexts. Here, we view human health and life span as necessary consequences of natural selection, operating at all levels and phases of biological hierarchy in human life history as well as in sociological and environmental milieu. An understanding of the spectrum of opportunities for natural selection will help us develop novel approaches to improving healthy life span through specific and global interventions that simultaneously focus on multiple levels of biological organization. Indeed, many opportunities exist to apply multilevel selection models employed in evolutionary biology and biodemography to improving human health at all hierarchical levels. Multilevel selection perspective provides a rational theoretical foundation for a synthesis of medicine and evolution that could lead to discovering effective predictive, preventive, palliative, potentially curative, and individualized approaches in medicine and in global health programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  6. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  7. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  8. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  9. Organic trace substances as emissions from incineration plants and their humane toxicological and eco-toxicological classification. Organic emissions; Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung. T. 1. Organische Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report (`Organic Trace Compounds as Emissions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification - Part 1: Organic Emissions`) describes the reaction pathways in the flame chemistry of organic materials. Possible organic products of incomplete combustion formed at the trace level in various processes are summarized. The emissions of organic compounds from municipal waste incineration plants are named in detail and compared to those of other combustion processes, like e.g. the combustion of coal, sewage sludge or fuels. Quantitative figures are given if available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht (`Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung - Teil 1: Organische Emissionen`) werden die grundlegenden chemischen Prozesse bei der unvollstaendigen Verbrennung von organischem Material beschrieben und die dabei als Spurenstoffe entstehenden Substanzklassen benannt. Im Tabellenteil werden die Emissionen von organischen Verbindungen aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen qualitativ und quantitativ mit den Emissionen bei anderen thermischen Prozessen - z.B. Verbrennung von Kohle, Klaerschlamm oder Treibstoffen - verglichen. Dabei wurde auf groesstmoegliche stoffliche Differenzierung und vollstaendige Erfassung der Emissionen geachtet. (orig.)

  10. Drug screening in clinical or forensic toxicology: are there differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Beyer, Jochen

    2010-09-01

    Legal and medical practitioners need to remember that, with respect to drug analysis, there are two distinct disciplines in analytical toxicology concerned with human biological matrices, namely clinical and forensic toxicology. Both fields use similar analytical techniques designed to detect and quantify drugs, chemicals and poisons in fluids or tissues. In clinical toxicology, analytical results help to specify the appropriate treatment of a poisoned or intoxicated patient. In forensic toxicology, the results often play a vital role in determining the possible impairment or behavioural changes in an individual, or the contribution of drugs or poisons to death in a medico-legal investigation. This column provides an overview of the similarities and differences inherent in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  11. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  12. Vitamin D and Human Health: Celebrating Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Spedding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of Nutrients: Vitamin D and Human Health celebrates diversity in vitamin D research with articles from bench-to-bedside, examining mechanisms, epidemiology, and clinical issues in the management of non-skeletal disease following themes set by an earlier review in Nutrients [1]. Vitamin D became synonymous with calcium and bone metabolism originating from Casimir Funk’s concept of “Vitamines”. This suggests that vitamin D is an amine found in food with a single mode of action affecting calcium and bone metabolism [2], whereas vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone derived from sunshine with a plethora of physiological functions (autocrine, paracrine, endocrine [3], and epigenetic [4] associating vitamin D deficiency with many illnesses [1]. Deficiency is pandemic and most prevalent where sun exposure is limited by culture climate and skin colour [5]. Whilst reports have focused on diet and bone metabolism [6], this Special Issue of Nutrients about Vitamin D and Human Health focuses on non-skeletal disease, and research driven by industry and community health concerns.

  13. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  14. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  15. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  16. Genetic toxicology at the crossroads-from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul A; Johnson, George E

    2016-05-01

    Applied genetic toxicology is undergoing a transition from qualitative hazard identification to quantitative dose-response analysis and risk assessment. To facilitate this change, the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Genetic Toxicology Technical Committee (GTTC) sponsored a workshop held in Lancaster, UK on July 10-11, 2014. The event included invited speakers from several institutions and the contents was divided into three themes-1: Point-of-departure Metrics for Quantitative Dose-Response Analysis in Genetic Toxicology; 2: Measurement and Estimation of Exposures for Better Extrapolation to Humans and 3: The Use of Quantitative Approaches in Genetic Toxicology for human health risk assessment (HHRA). A host of pertinent issues were discussed relating to the use of in vitro and in vivo dose-response data, the development of methods for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation and approaches to use in vivo dose-response data to determine human exposure limits for regulatory evaluations and decision-making. This Special Issue, which was inspired by the workshop, contains a series of papers that collectively address topics related to the aforementioned themes. The Issue includes contributions that collectively evaluate, describe and discuss in silico, in vitro, in vivo and statistical approaches that are facilitating the shift from qualitative hazard evaluation to quantitative risk assessment. The use and application of the benchmark dose approach was a central theme in many of the workshop presentations and discussions, and the Special Issue includes several contributions that outline novel applications for the analysis and interpretation of genetic toxicity data. Although the contents of the Special Issue constitutes an important step towards the adoption of quantitative methods for regulatory assessment of genetic toxicity, formal acceptance of quantitative methods for HHRA and regulatory decision-making will require consensus regarding the

  17. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  18. Meta-analysis of ionic liquid literature and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenbach, Mary E; Romero, Felicia N; Green, Matthew D; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the total amount of ionic liquid (IL) literature (n = 39,036) to the body of publications dealing with IL toxicity (n = 213) with the goal of establishing the state of knowledge and existing information gaps. Additionally, patent literature pertaining to issued patents utilizing ILs (n = 3358) or dealing with IL toxicity (n = 112) were analyzed. Total publishing activity and patent count served to gauge research activity, industrial usage and toxicology knowledge of ILs. Five of the most commonly studied IL cations were identified and used to establish a relationship between toxicity data and potential of commercial use: imidazolium, ammonium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium. Toxicology publications for all IL cations represented 0.55% ± 0.27% of the total publishing activity; compared with other industrial chemicals, these numbers indicate that there is still a paucity of studies on the adverse effects of this class of chemical. Toxicity studies on ILs were dominated by the use of in vitro models (18%) and marine bacteria (15%) as studied biological systems. Whole animal studies (n = 87) comprised 31% of IL toxicity studies, with a subset of in vivo mammalian models consisting of 8%. Human toxicology data were found to be limited to in vitro analyses, indicating substantial knowledge gaps. Risks from long-term and chronic low-level exposure to ILs have not been established yet for any model organisms, reemphasizing the need to fill crucial knowledge gaps concerning human health effects and the environmental safety of ILs. Adding to the existing knowledge of the molecular toxicity characteristics of ILs can help inform the design of greener, less toxic and more benign IL technologies.

  19. Health and human development: nursing and the human right to health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2008-03-01

    This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health.

  20. Uncertainty quantification of adverse human health effects from continuously released contaminant sources in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    We propose a computationally efficient probabilistic modeling methodology to estimate the adverse effects on humans of exposure to contaminated groundwater. Our work is aligned with the standard suggested by the regulatory agencies and allows to propagate uncertainty from hydrogeological, toxicological and behavioral parameters to the final health risk endpoint. The problem under consideration consists of a contaminated aquifer supplying water to a population. Contamination stems from a continuous source that feeds a steady plume which constitutes the hazard source. This scenario is particularly suited for NAPL pollutants. The erratic displacement of the contaminant plume in groundwater, due to the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, is characterized within the Lagrangian stochastic framework which enables the complete probabilistic characterization of the contaminant concentration at an environmentally sensitive location. Following the probabilistic characterization of flow and transport, we quantify the adverse health effects on humans. The dose response assessment involves the estimation of the uncertain effects of the exposure to a given contaminant while accounting for the exposed individual's metabolism. The model integrates groundwater transport, exposure and human metabolism in a comprehensive probabilistic framework which allows the assessment of the risk probability through a novel simple analytical solution. Aside from its computational efficiency, the analytical features of the framework allows the assessment of uncertainty arising from the hydrogeological parameters.

  1. Challenges to environmental toxicology and epidemiology: where do we stand and which way do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, B; Brüning, T; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Johnen, G; Harth, V; Hoffmann, W; Ko, Y; Ranft, U; Traugott, U G; Thier, R; Taeger, D; Bolt, H M

    2004-06-15

    Modern toxicology investigates a wide array of both old and new health hazards. Priority setting is needed to select agents for research from the plethora of exposure circumstances. The changing societies and a growing fraction of the aged have to be taken into consideration. A precise exposure assessment is of importance for risk estimation and regulation. Toxicology contributes to the exploration of pathomechanisms to specify the exposure metrics for risk estimation. Combined effects of co-existing agents are not yet sufficiently understood. Animal experiments allow a separate administration of agents which can not be disentangled by epidemiological means, but their value is limited for low exposure levels in many of today's settings. As an experimental science, toxicology has to keep pace with the rapidly growing knowledge about the language of the genome and the changing paradigms in cancer development. During the pioneer era of assembling a working draft of the human genome, toxicogenomics has been developed. Gene and pathway complexity have to be considered when investigating gene-environment interactions. For a best conduct of studies, modern toxicology needs a close liaison with many other disciplines like epidemiology and bioinformatics.

  2. Companion animals and human health: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Edney, A T

    1995-01-01

    Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reac...

  3. Predictive Toxicology: Modeling Chemical Induced Toxicological Response Combining Circular Fingerprints with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios eKoutsoukas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern drug discovery and toxicological research are under pressure, as the cost of developing and testing new chemicals for potential toxicological risk is rising. Extensive evaluation of chemical products for potential adverse effects is a challenging task, due to the large number of chemicals and the possible hazardous effects on human health. Safety regulatory agencies around the world are dealing with two major challenges. First, the growth of chemicals introduced every year in household products and medicines that need to be tested, and second the need to protect public welfare. Hence, alternative and more efficient toxicological risk assessment methods are in high demand. The Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21 consortium a collaborative effort was formed to develop and investigate alternative assessment methods. A collection of 10,000 compounds composed of environmental chemicals and approved drugs were screened for interference in biochemical pathways and released for crowdsourcing data analysis. The physicochemical space covered by Tox21 library was explored, measured by Molecular Weight (MW and the octanol/water partition coefficient (cLogP. It was found that on average chemical structures had MW of 272.6 Daltons. In case of cLogP the average value was 2.476. Next relationships between assays were examined based on compounds activity profiles across the assays utilizing the Pearson correlation coefficient r. A cluster was observed between the Androgen and Estrogen Receptors and their ligand bind domains accordingly indicating presence of cross talks among the receptors. The highest correlations observed were between NR.AR and NR.AR_LBD, where it was r=0.66 and between NR.ER and NR.ER_LBD, where it was r=0.5.Our approach to model the Tox21 data consisted of utilizing circular molecular fingerprints combined with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine by modeling each assay independently. In all of the 12 sub-challenges our modeling

  4. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  5. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  6. Toxicological Studies of Mycotoxins Using Enzymatic and Histochemical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Mihaela, E-mail: badeamihaela@yahoo.com; Taus, Nicoleta [Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Medicine (Romania); Potrovita, Monica [Sanitary-Veterinary and Food Safety Direction of Brasov (Romania); Moarcas, Monica [Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Medicine (Romania)

    2009-08-15

    Studies concerning mycotoxins involve activities of relevant potential for furthering knowledge in the fields of toxicology and environmental analysis. Using bioanalytical methods (biosensors, histochemistry), the conducted research aims at contributing to raising the awareness of local, national, and international media in relation to the safety of obtaining and processing vegetal and animal foods, by analyzing the possible effects of aflatoxins and ochratoxins, promoting animal health, food hygiene, in view of ensuring animal and human health. The study using laboratory animals (mice) while being part of one of the current national research directions, also holds international priority, by its contribution to a better understanding of several fundamental mechanisms of life at molecular level and to the characterization of certain biological processes that appear in mycotoxicosis.

  7. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  8. Integrating zebrafish toxicology and nanoscience for safer product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L

    2013-04-01

    The design, manufacture and application of safer products and manufacturing processes have been important goals over the last decade and will advance in the future under the umbrella of "Green Chemistry". In this review, we focus on the burgeoning diversity of new engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the prescient need for a nanotoxicology paradigm that quickly identifies potentially hazardous nanochemistries. Advances in predictive toxicological modeling in the developing zebrafish offer the most immediate translation to human hazard that is practically achievable with high throughput approaches. Translation in a vertebrate model that is also a low cost alternative to rodents for hazard prediction has been a desirable but elusive testing paradigm. The utility of zebrafish, if applied early in the ENM discovery pipeline, could greatly enhance efforts toward greener and more efficient nanoscience. Early pipeline detection of human and environmental health impacts will quickly inform decisions in the design and production of safer commercial ENMs.

  9. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Adriana E S; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C L

    2015-12-01

    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.

  10. Abuse of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.): studies on the metabolism and the toxicologic detection of its ingredients elemicin, myristicin, and safrole in rat and human urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jochen; Ehlers, Dorothea; Maurer, Hans H

    2006-08-01

    Seeds of nutmeg are used as spice, but they are also abused because of psychotropic effects described after ingestion of large doses. It was postulated that these effects could be attributable to metabolic formation of amphetamine derivatives from the main nutmeg ingredients elemicin (EL), myristicin (MY), and safrole (SA). In a case of a suspected nutmeg abuse, neither such amphetamine derivatives nor the main nutmeg ingredients could be detected in urine. The metabolites of EL, MY, and SA were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in rat urine and their presence in human urine of the nutmeg abuser was confirmed. The identified metabolites indicated that EL, MY, and SA were once and twice hydroxylated at the side chain. In addition, EL was O-demethylated at 2 positions followed by side chain hydroxylation. MY and SA were demethylenated and subsequently methylated. In the human urine sample, the following metabolites could be identified: O-demethyl elemicin, O-demethyl dihydroxy elemicin, demethylenyl myristicin, dihydroxy myristicin, and demethylenyl safrole. As in the human urine sample, neither amphetamine derivatives nor the main nutmeg ingredients could be detected in the rat urine samples. Finally, toxicologic detection of nutmeg abuse was possible by identification of the described metabolites of the EL, MY, and SA in urine applying the authors' systematic toxicologic analysis procedure using full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction of analytes, and microwave-assisted acetylation of extracted analytes.

  11. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  12. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  13. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Arthur, J R

    2001-04-01

    Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications, particularly in relation to the chronic disease prevalence of the Western world such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ten years have elapsed since recommended dietary intakes of selenium were introduced on the basis of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. Since then 30 new selenoproteins have been identified, of which 15 have been purified to allow characterisation of their biological function. The long term health implications in relation to declining selenium intakes have not yet been thoroughly examined, yet the implicit importance of selenium to human health is recognised universally. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine at the active site of a wide range of selenoproteins. The four glutathione peroxidase enzymes (classical GPx1, gastrointestinal GPx2, plasma GPx3, phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx4)) which represent a major class of functionally important selenoproteins, were the first to be characterised. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a recently identified seleno-cysteine containing enzyme which catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of thioredoxin and therefore plays a regulatory role in its metabolic activity. Approximately 60% of Se in plasma is incorporated in selenoprotein P which contains 10 Se atoms per molecule as selenocysteine, and may serve as a transport protein for Se. However, selenoprotein-P is also expressed in many tissues which suggests that although it may facilitate whole body Se distribution, this may not be its sole function. A second major class of selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes which catalyse the 5'5-mono-deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4

  14. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  15. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  16. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  17. Developmental toxicology: new directions workshop: refining testing strategies and study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Kimberly C; Fenton, Suzanne E; Hansen, Deborah K; Harrouk, Wafa; Kim, James H; Shuey, Dana

    2011-10-01

    In April 2009, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a two-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions." The third session of the workshop focused on ways to refine animal studies to improve relevance and predictivity for human risk. The session included five presentations on: (1) considerations for refining developmental toxicology testing and data interpretation; (2) comparative embryology and considerations in study design and interpretation; (3) pharmacokinetic considerations in study design; (4) utility of genetically modified models for understanding mode-of-action; and (5) special considerations in reproductive testing for biologics. The presentations were followed by discussion by the presenters and attendees. Much of the discussion focused on aspects of refining current animal testing strategies, including use of toxicokinetic data, dose selection, tiered/triggered testing strategies, species selection, and use of alternative animal models. Another major area of discussion was use of non-animal-based testing paradigms, including how to define a "signal" or adverse effect, translating in vitro exposures to whole animal and human exposures, validation strategies, the need to bridge the existing gap between classical toxicology testing and risk assessment, and development of new technologies. Although there was general agreement among participants that the current testing strategy is effective, there was also consensus that traditional methods are resource-intensive and improved effectiveness of developmental toxicity testing to assess risks to human health is possible. This article provides a summary of the session's presentations and discussion and describes some key areas that warrant further consideration. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ..., NICEATM, and the Director of the NIEHS and NTP regarding statutorily mandated duties of ICCVAM and... Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), and the Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and NTP regarding statutorily mandated duties of ICCVAM and activities of NICEATM....

  19. Reflections on the Origins and Evolution of Genetic Toxicology and the Environmental Mutagen Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, John S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Malling, Heinrich V. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Sankaranarayanan, K. [Leiden University; Lu, Po-Yung [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the development of the field of mutagenesis and its metamorphosis into the research area we now call genetic toxicology. In 1969 this transitional event led to the founding of the Environmental Mutagen Society (EMS). The charter of this new Society was to encourage interest in and study of mutagens in the human environment, particularly as these may be of concern to public health. As the mutagenesis field unfolded and expanded, the lexicon changed and new wording appeared to better describe this evolving area of research. The term genetic toxicology was coined and became an important subspecialty of the broad area of toxicology. Genetic toxicology is now set for a thorough reappraisal of its methods, goals, and priorities to meet the challenges of the 21st Century. To better understand these challenges, we have revisited the primary goal that the EMS founders had in mind for the Society s main mission and objective, namely, the quantitative assessment of genetic (hereditary) risks to human populations exposed to environmental agents. We also have reflected upon some of the seminal events over the last 40 years that have influenced the advancement of the genetic toxicology discipline and the extent to which the Society s major goal and allied objectives have been achieved. Additionally, we have provided suggestions on how EMS can further advance the science of genetic toxicology in the postgenome era. Chronicling all events and publications that influenced the development of the mutagenesis and genetic toxicology research area for this article was not possible, but some key happenings that contributed to the field s development have been reviewed. Events that led to the origin of EMS are also presented in celebration of the Society s 40th anniversary. Any historical accounting will have perceived deficiencies. Key people, publications, or events that some readers may feel have had significant impact on development of the subject under review may

  20. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Toxicologic evaluation of ofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G J; McKenzie, B E

    1989-12-29

    Results of studies conducted to characterize local, systemic, reproductive, and mutagenic effects indicate that ofloxacin is well tolerated within reasonable multiples of the intended clinical dose. Quinolone-associated arthropathic effects characterized by blister, erosion, and increased synovial fluid occurred in rats and dogs and appeared to be both age- and dose-related. Maternal toxicity and embryotoxicity were noted, but there was no teratogenicity in rats or rabbits. There was no impairment of fertility, and no adverse effects on late fetal development, labor, delivery, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of offspring occurred. Target-organ studies revealed no evidence of ocular toxicity in rats, nephrotoxicity in rabbits, or antigenicity or ototoxicity in guinea pigs. Overall, the toxicologic evaluation of ofloxacin has shown this compound to be a drug with a low toxicologic potential.

  2. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  3. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  4. Assessment of food toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The interest in food toxicology is evident by the dependency of humankind on nutrition by virtue of their heterotrophic metabolism. By means of modern biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, computer science, bioinformatics as well as high-throughput and high-content screening technologies it has been possible to identify adverse effects and characterize potential toxicants in food. The mechanisms of toxicant actions are multifactorial but many toxic effects converge on the generation of ox...

  5. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  6. Systems Toxicology: From Basic Research to Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Systems Toxicology is the integration of classical toxicology with quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Society demands increasingly close scrutiny of the potential health risks associated with exposure to chemicals present in our everyday life, leading to an increasing need for more predictive and accurate risk-assessment approaches. Developing such approaches requires a detailed mechanistic u...

  7. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming.

  8. Unraveling Anthocyanin Bioavailability for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Grace, Mary; Kalt, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of health-protective anthocyanin pigments from foods, in light of the multiple molecular structures and complicated traffic patterns taken by anthocyanins both as flavonoid metabolites and as phenolic acid metabolites within the body. Anthocyanins have generally been considered to have notoriously poor bioavailability, based on the very low levels typically detected in routine human blood draws after ingestion. Although some investigations have assessed anthocyanin bioavailability solely based on the measurement of parent anthocyanins or phenolic acid breakdown products, more recent research has increasingly revealed the presence, qualitative diversity, relatively high concentrations, and tenacity of molecular intermediates of anthocyanins that retain the unique flavonoid C6-C3-C6 backbone structure. We argue that the persistence of anthocyanin metabolites suggests enterohepatic recycling, leading to prolonged residence time, and supports the notion that anthocyanins are far more bioavailable than previously suggested.

  9. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  10. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3 on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health.

  11. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  12. Oxidative stress in toxicology: established mammalian and emerging piscine model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K A; Havrilla, C M; Brady, T C; Abramo, K H; Levin, E D

    1998-07-01

    Interest in the toxicological aspects of oxidative stress has grown in recent years, and research has become increasingly focused on the mechanistic aspects of oxidative damage and cellular responses in biological systems. Toxic consequences of oxidative stress at the subcellular level include lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA and proteins. These effects are often used as end points in the study of oxidative stress. Typically, mammalian species have been used as models to study oxidative stress and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying cellular damage and response, largely because of the interest in human health issues surrounding oxidative stress. However, it is becoming apparent that oxidative stress also affects aquatic organisms exposed to environmental pollutants. Research in fish has demonstrated that mammalian and piscine systems exhibit similar toxicological and adaptive responses to oxidative stress. This suggests that piscine models, in addition to traditional mammalian models, may be useful for further understanding the mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress response.

  13. Applications of radiotracer techniques for the pharmacology and toxicology studies of nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZhiYong; ZHAO YuLiang; CHAI ZhiFang

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanosciences and nanotechnology, a wide variety of manufactured nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and in-dustries. While nanomaterials possess more novel and unique physicochemical properties than bulk materials, they also have an unpredictable impact on human health. In the pharmacology and toxicol-ogy studies of nanomaterials, it is essential to know the basic behavior in vivo, i.e. absorption, distri-bution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these newly designed materials. Radiotracer techniques are especially well suited to such studies and have got the chance to demonstrate their enchantment.In this paper, radiolabeling methods for carbon nanomaterials, metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles,etc. are summarized and the applications of the radiolabeled nanomaterials in pharmacology and toxicology studies are outlined.

  14. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Continuation of residue reviews. Vol. 115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, G.W. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Coll. of Agriculture) (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    This volume is part of a triumvirate of specialized publications in the field of tracing toxic chemicals in foodstuffs and in both abiotic and biotic environment (Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Bulletin of ..., Archives of ...) reviewing many important aspects of analytical chemistry, bioaccumulation, biochemistry, human and animal medicine, legislation, pharmacology, physiology, regulation and toxicology. The present volume contents the following residue reviews: 1. Ethylenethiourea (ETU) in relation to use of Ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides; 2. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs; 3. Lead exposure in early life: Health consequences; 4. Effects of oral and parenteral selenium supplements on residues in meat, milk and eggs. Separate abstracts were prepared for two papers in this book. (VHE).

  15. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Overlooking relevant confounders in the assessment of pesticides and human health: a reply to Mostafalou and Abdollahi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluegge, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Mostafalou and Abdollahi (Arch Toxicol, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1849-x ) have recently conducted a review exploring human exposure to pesticides and systematically highlighting known toxic mechanisms from these exposures. Their review is extensive and appraises the literature on pesticide toxicity in a number of domains, including neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity. However, as important as it may be to understand the toxicological potential of these chemicals in humans and other species, the role of these chemicals as proxies for other environmental exposures should not be excluded. Recently, we published evidence suggesting use of the herbicide, glyphosate, may predict health care utilization for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by cognitive impairments leading to attention deficits, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Given that the finding appeared to be land-dependent, we concluded that glyphosate may be an instrumental variable that predicts severe ADHD mostly through its inseparableness from nitrogen fertilizers at a county level and increasing agricultural air emissions of the compound, nitrous oxide (N2O). Since the WHO designates N2O as an important modern health medicine, its environmental imprint is largely thought to be inconsequential in a human health context and, unfortunately, not worthy of further consideration. Our findings and subsequent review on the topic are not amenable to this complacency. We argue that future pesticide risk assessments be made more comprehensive insofar as identifying not only critical, direct routes of toxicity, as extensively reviewed by Mostafalou and Abdollahi (2016), but also indirect toxicological mechanisms such as the one presented in this correspondence.

  18. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed.

  19. Preclinical Toxicology of New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-04

    8217 . -. . . . . . 3. . ANNUAL REPORT Contract No. DAMD17-84-C-4088 on PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF NEW DRUGS Report 8740-86-2 to UNITED STATES ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH...N RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUMBER 8740-86-2 /1 4. TITLE (mid Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED , ; Annual Report PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF NEW DRUGS March...9 It P V .---, - 77 T ANNUAL REPORT Contract No. DAMD17-84-C-4088 on PRECLINICAL TOXICOLOGY OF NEW DRUGS Report

  20. Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, F N

    1991-01-01

    Only in recent times, systematic attention has been paid to the occupational health of forest firefighters and workers who manage prescribed fire. Two parts of the effort to learn the impact on worker health are medical observation of those workers, and study of occupational hygiene. It is also necessary to learn what components of smoke are most likely to affect firefighters, and to learn something of the manner in which those substances might compromise health; this review is a step toward that end. The number of possible products of vegetation combustion is almost limitless, and every fuel and condition of burning produces a unique pattern. Nonetheless, it is possible and practical to select a limited number of products that are most likely to be involved in the acute toxicity of smoke. Two products that are almost certainly important are formaldehyde and acrolein. Both appear to occur in all smoke. The toxicology of both is well studied; in particular both are powerful mucosal irritants. Estimates of exposure suggest strongly that concentrations are high enough in smoke to contribute some or all of the irritant activity. There seems to be a reasonable prospect that free radical precursors with half-lives in the tens of minutes are produced when cellulosic materials burn. If so, they will reach the respiratory tract, and liberate free radicals that react immediately on or in pulmonary cells. Ozone is not produced in the fire, but the various hydrocarbons of smoke are substrates for reactions that eventually produce ozone, and that production may continue for miles down-plume. Some measured plume concentrations approach the threshold for human health effects. The effects of the best known component, the particulate material, are unknown in isolation from all of the other substances in smoke. In spite of that ignorance, particulate loading is the principal index of smoke pollution for regulatory purposes, and sometimes is incorrectly used to represent smoke

  1. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  2. MutAIT: an online genetic toxicology data portal and analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancini, Daniele; Menzies, Georgina E; Morgan, Claire; Wills, John; Johnson, George E; White, Paul A; Lewis, Paul D

    2016-05-01

    Assessment of genetic toxicity and/or carcinogenic activity is an essential element of chemical screening programs employed to protect human health. Dose-response and gene mutation data are frequently analysed by industry, academia and governmental agencies for regulatory evaluations and decision making. Over the years, a number of efforts at different institutions have led to the creation and curation of databases to house genetic toxicology data, largely, with the aim of providing public access to facilitate research and regulatory assessments. This article provides a brief introduction to a new genetic toxicology portal called Mutation Analysis Informatics Tools (MutAIT) (www.mutait.org) that provides easy access to two of the largest genetic toxicology databases, the Mammalian Gene Mutation Database (MGMD) and TransgenicDB. TransgenicDB is a comprehensive collection of transgenic rodent mutation data initially compiled and collated by Health Canada. The updated MGMD contains approximately 50 000 individual mutation spectral records from the published literature. The portal not only gives access to an enormous quantity of genetic toxicology data, but also provides statistical tools for dose-response analysis and calculation of benchmark dose. Two important R packages for dose-response analysis are provided as web-distributed applications with user-friendly graphical interfaces. The 'drsmooth' package performs dose-response shape analysis and determines various points of departure (PoD) metrics and the 'PROAST' package provides algorithms for dose-response modelling. The MutAIT statistical tools, which are currently being enhanced, provide users with an efficient and comprehensive platform to conduct quantitative dose-response analyses and determine PoD values that can then be used to calculate human exposure limits or margins of exposure.

  3. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  4. Wind of Change Challenges Toxicological Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Tralau, Tewes; Riebeling, Christian; Pirow, Ralph; OELGESCHLÄGER, MICHAEL; Seiler, Andrea; Liebsch, Manfred; Luch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background: In biomedical research, the past two decades have seen the advent of in vitro model systems based on stem cells, humanized cell lines, and engineered organotypic tissues, as well as numerous cellular assays based on primarily established tumor-derived cell lines and their genetically modified derivatives. Objective: There are high hopes that these systems might replace the need for animal testing in regulatory toxicology. However, despite increasing pressure in recent years to red...

  5. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  6. Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of climate change on human health and some adaptive strategies – a review. ... The impact of human-induced climate change and ozone depletion are now ... and death that is more premature and disease related to air pollution.

  7. Synthetic toxicology: where engineering meets biology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; Pei, Lei

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the implications of synthetic biology (SB) for toxicological sciences. Starting with a working definition of SB, we describe its current subfields, namely, DNA synthesis, the engineering of DNA-based biological circuits, minimal genome research, attempts to construct protocells and synthetic cells, and efforts to diversify the biochemistry of life through xenobiology. Based on the most important techniques, tools, and expected applications in SB, we describe the ramifications of SB for toxicology under the label of synthetic toxicology. We differentiate between cases where SB offers opportunities for toxicology and where SB poses challenges for toxicology. Among the opportunities, we identified the assistance of SB to construct novel toxicity testing platforms, define new toxicity-pathway assays, explore the potential of SB to improve in vivo biotransformation of toxins, present novel biosensors developed by SB for environmental toxicology, discuss cell-free protein synthesis of toxins, reflect on the contribution to toxic use reduction, and the democratization of toxicology through do-it-yourself biology. Among the identified challenges for toxicology, we identify synthetic toxins and novel xenobiotics, biosecurity and dual-use considerations, the potential bridging of toxic substances and infectious agents, and do-it-yourself toxin production.

  8. Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Flanagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.

  9. 77 FR 6800 - Notice of Development of Set 25 Toxicological Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Notice of Development of Set 25... and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the development of Set 25....cdc.gov/toxprofiles/index.asp . Set 25 Toxicological Profiles The following toxicological profiles...

  10. 78 FR 4147 - Notice of Development of Set 26 Toxicological Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Notice of Development of Set 26... and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the development of Set 26.../toxprofiles/index.asp . Set 26 Toxicological Profiles The following toxicological profiles are now...

  11. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute Site Environmental report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) was constructed in 1960 with the initial purpose of studying human health hazards of inhaling airborne radioactive fission products; its scope was broadened to cover other airborne materials. ITRI has in place an extensive radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring program which monitors air emissions, groundwater, soil and ambient air around the facility. ITRI is in compliance with air quality and hazardous waste regulations; however, sewage lagoons remain from previous operations. Remediation activities have been begun or are scheduled to begin on these lagoons and on low-level radioactive liquid waste evaporation ponds. Except for the issues mentioned, ITRI is in compliance with all other federal, state, and local regulations.

  12. Meeting report: threats to human health and environmental sustainability in the pacific basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Carpenter, David O; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-12-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world's population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sea level rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste-each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management.

  13. [Antidotes in clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, K

    2013-09-01

    This overview describes antidotes, and their clinical pharmacology, that have an established significance in the currently practiced clinical toxicology because of their proven effectiveness in the treatment of serious poisonings. For the proper, efficient, and targeted use of an antidote, pharmacological knowledge is required, which is a central subject of this article. Current data from the literature are used as reference along with the accumulated experiences about possible adverse effects in order to include them in therapeutic considerations. The dosage of antidotes is the subject of several other review articles and is therefore not included in this synopsis.

  14. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  15. Toxicology of upper aerodigestive tract pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, G.R. (Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The field of environmental toxicology has become quite important to the study of environmental health in human beings. The stability of the ecosystem in which we live is threatened by the nearly 5 million chemical compounds that have been synthesized worldwide, many of which have real or potentially toxic effects on the environment and on life forms. Four major groups of chemicals--metallic elements, nonmetallic elements, organic compounds and inorganic compounds--have certain agents within them that are known toxins to human beings. Some of these agents have an as yet unknown effect, whereas others have been well characterized. They can be found in the workplace, home, and outdoors, and many are unseen and odorless. In the past, most agents have been described in terms of their carcinogenic potential or major toxic effects on organ systems. It is now likely that the important characterization of some of these agents referrable to the upper aerodigestive tract should be at their receptor sites and identify the very discrete and small effects on these sites and their cumulative effects. The concept of threshold is probably an arbitrary one because to date these discrete effects have not been studied. Susceptibility on an individual basis probably varies from low to high, depending on the patient's immunologic and defense mechanisms and the existence of congenital or acquired risk factors. New attention must be given to more subtle effects on the upper aerodigestive tract (i.e., sinusitis and laryngitis) in view of the potential effects of certain toxic agents on these tissues.

  16. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, Roy; Ancian, Philippe; Fredholm, Merete;

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed. Commercial interests in the pig as an agricultural production species have driven scientific progress...... pigs and humans suggest that minipigs will be useful for the testing of biotechnology products (and possibly for in silico toxicology) and (iii) the minipig is the only non-rodent toxicology model where transgenic animals can be readily generated, and reproductive technologies are well developed...... in the pig. These properties should also make the minipig an interesting model for the testing of biotechnology products. These factors all support the idea that the minipig is well placed to meet the challenges of the emerging technologies and the toxicology of the future; it also seems likely...

  17. Diversification in toxicology: man and environment. EUROTOX proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P. [Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines (IOCM), Bern (Switzerland); Autrup, J.L.; Autrup, H. [eds.] [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Steno Inst. of Public Health

    1998-12-31

    This volume contains the main papers presented at the 1997 EUROTOX Congress, Aaarhus, Denmark, 24-28 June 1997. Diversification in toxicology is not seen as splitting into subfields, but as the application of basic science to such diverse areas as man and his environment. The pressing issues which have been dealt with not only include reproductive effects of environmental chemicals (`xenoestrogens`), but also receptor-mediated toxic responses, new frontiers in human and ecological toxicology, chemoprevention of cancer and molecular approaches in toxicological research. The practical and ethical facets of toxicology, e.g. ecotoxicological risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, complex chemical mixtures as well as animal welfare and the ethics of animal experimentation, are also treated. (orig.)

  18. Applying evolutionary genetics to developmental toxicology and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Procter, Andrew C; Goldstone, Jared V; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Siddall, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R

    2017-03-04

    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease.

  19. Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic mefenorex in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, T; Vernaleken, I; Maurer, H H

    1997-11-21

    Studies on the metabolism and on the toxicological analysis of mefenorex [R,S-N-(3-chloropropyl)-alpha-methylphenethylamine, MF] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) are described. The metabolites were identified in urine samples of volunteers by GC-MS. Besides MF, thirteen metabolites including amphetamine (AM) could be identified and three partially overlapping metabolic pathways could be postulated. For GC-MS detection, the systematic toxicological analysis procedure including acid hydrolysis, extraction at pH 8-9 and acetylation was suitable (detection limits 50 ng/ml for MF and 100 ng/ml for AM). Excretion studies showed, that only AM but neither MF nor its specific metabolites were detectable between 32 and 68 h after ingestion of 80 mg of MF. Therefore, misinterpretation can occur. The Abbott TDx FPIA amphetamine/methamphetamine II gave positive results up to 68 h. All the positive immunoassay results could be confirmed by the described GC-MS procedure.

  20. Studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic fenproporex in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, T; Theis, G A; Weber, A A; Maurer, H H

    2000-01-28

    Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of fenproporex (R,S-3-[(1-phenyl-2-propyl)-amino]-propionitrile, FP) using GC-MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay are described. The metabolites were identified in urine samples of volunteers by GC-MS after cleavage of conjugates, extraction and acetylation. Besides unchanged FP, fourteen metabolites, including amphetamine, could be identified. Two partially overlapping metabolic pathways could be postulated: ring degradation by one- and two-fold aromatic hydroxylation followed by methylation and side chain degradation by N-dealkylation to amphetamine (AM). A minor pathway leads via beta-hydroxylation of AM to norephedrine. For GC-MS detection, the systematic toxicological analysis procedure including acid hydrolysis, extraction at pH 8-9 and acetylation was suitable (detection limits 50 ng/ml for FP and 100 ng/ml for AM). Excretion studies showed, that only AM but neither FP nor its specific metabolites were detectable 30-60 h after ingestion of 20 mg of FP. Therefore, misinterpretation can occur. The Abbott TDx FPIA amphetamine/methamphetamine II gave positive results up to 58 h. All the positive immunoassay results could be confirmed by the described GC-MS procedure.

  1. Toxicology: Old Art, New Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrell, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the need for a science of toxicology and training at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in response to legislation controlling drugs, food additives and toxic substances in the work environment, and concern about effects on man. Stresses need for putting toxicology on a scientific base with adequate funding. (JM)

  2. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  3. Governance and human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-11-24

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  4. Fipronil: environmental fate, ecotoxicology, and human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, Colin C D; Rother, Joachim A; Dewhurst, Charles F; Lauer, Sasha; King, William J

    2003-01-01

    Madagascar, where two endemic species of lizard and an endemic mammal decline in abundance because of their food chain link to termites. Fipronil is highly toxic to bees (LD50 = 0.004 microgram/bee), lizards [LD50 for Acanthodactylus dumerili (Lacertidae) is 30 micrograms a.i./g bw], and gallinaceous birds (LD50 = 11.3 mg/kg for Northern bobwhite quail), but shows low toxicity to waterfowl (LD50 > 2150 mg/kg for mallard duck). It is moderately toxic to laboratory mammals by oral exposure (LD50 = 97 mg/kg for rats; LD50 = 91 mg/kg for mice). Technical fipronil is in toxicity categories II and III, depending on route of administration, and is classed as a nonsensitizer. There are indications of carcinogenic action in rats at 300 ppm, but it is not carcinogenic to female mice at doses of 30 ppm. The acute toxicity of fipronil varies widely even in animals within the same taxonomic groups. Thus, toxicological findings from results on standard test animals are not necessarily applicable to animals in the wild. Testing on local species seems particularly important in determining the suitability of fipronil-based products for registration in different countries or habitats and the potential associated risk to nontarget wildlife. Risk assessment predictions have shown that some fipronil formulations present a risk to endangered bird, fish, and aquatic and marine invertebrates. Great care should thus be taken in using these formulations where they may impact any of these endangered wildlife groups. Work in Madagascar has highlighted field evidence of this risk. The dose levels at which fipronil produces thyroid cancer in rats are very high and are unlikely to occur under normal conditions of use. There is also dispute as to whether this is relevant to human health risk. However, as fipronil is a relatively new insecticide that has not been in use for long enough to evaluate the risk it may pose to human health, from data on human exposure to the product, a precautionary approach may

  5. Aldehyde sources, metabolism, molecular toxicity mechanisms, and possible effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter J; Siraki, Arno G; Shangari, Nandita

    2005-08-01

    Aldehydes are organic compounds that are widespread in nature. They can be formed endogenously by lipid peroxidation (LPO), carbohydrate or metabolism ascorbate autoxidation, amine oxidases, cytochrome P-450s, or myeloperoxidase-catalyzed metabolic activation. This review compares the reactivity of many aldehydes towards biomolecules particularly macromolecules. Furthermore, it includes not only aldehydes of environmental or occupational concerns but also dietary aldehydes and aldehydes formed endogenously by intermediary metabolism. Drugs that are aldehydes or form reactive aldehyde metabolites that cause side-effect toxicity are also included. The effects of these aldehydes on biological function, their contribution to human diseases, and the role of nucleic acid and protein carbonylation/oxidation in mutagenicity and cytotoxicity mechanisms, respectively, as well as carbonyl signal transduction and gene expression, are reviewed. Aldehyde metabolic activation and detoxication by metabolizing enzymes are also reviewed, as well as the toxicological and anticancer therapeutic effects of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors. The human health risks from clinical and animal research studies are reviewed, including aldehydes as haptens in allergenic hypersensitivity diseases, respiratory allergies, and idiosyncratic drug toxicity; the potential carcinogenic risks of the carbonyl body burden; and the toxic effects of aldehydes in liver disease, embryo toxicity/teratogenicity, diabetes/hypertension, sclerosing peritonitis, cerebral ischemia/neurodegenerative diseases, and other aging-associated diseases.

  6. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  7. Human health risk assessment of nitrosamines and nitramines for potential application in CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnum, S; Rundén-Pran, E; Fjellsbø, L M; Dusinska, M

    2014-07-01

    Emission and accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere exert an environmental and climate change challenge. An attempt to deal with this challenge is made at Mongstad by application of amines for CO2 capture and storage (CO2 capture Mongstad (CCM) project). As part of the CO2 capture process, nitrosamines and nitramines may be emitted. Toxicological testing of nitrosamines and nitramines indicate a genotoxic potential of these substances. Here we present a risk characterization and assessment for five nitrosamines (N-Nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) N-Nitrosodi-ethylamine (NDEA), N-Nitroso-morpholine (NNM), N-Nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), and Dinitroso-piperazine (DNP)) and two nitramines (N-Methyl-nitramine (NTMA), Dimethyl-nitramine (NDTMA)), which are potentially emitted from the CO2 capture plant (CCP). Human health risk assessment of genotoxic non-threshold substances is a heavily debated topic, and no consensus methodology exists internationally. Extrapolation modeling from high-dose animal exposures to low-dose human exposures can be crucial for the final risk calculation. In the work presented here, different extrapolation models are discussed, and suggestions on applications are given. Then, preferred methods for calculating derived minimal effect level (DMEL) are presented with the selected nitrosamines and nitramines.

  8. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  9. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  10. Ethical Considerations for Perinatal Toxicology Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsman, Mindy G

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development. Concerns for unethical practices in the toxicology screening of pregnant women and their babies by risk factors that are unproven or disproven are discussed, and three goals of toxicology screening based on the ethical principles of justice and beneficence are proposed. This article will help equip neonatal nurses to fulfill their professional responsibility to advocate for just screening and referral practices in their institutions and communities.

  11. Pesticide Chemical Research in Toxicology: Lessons from Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2017-01-17

    Pesticide researchers are students of nature, and each new compound and mechanism turns a page in the ever-expanding encyclopedia of life. Pesticides are both probes to learn about life processes and tools for pest management to facilitate food production and enhance health. In contrast to some household and industrial chemicals, pesticides are assumed to be hazardous to health and the environment until proven otherwise. About a thousand current pesticides working by more than 100 different mechanisms have helped understand many processes and coupled events. Pesticide chemical research is a major source of toxicology information on new natural products, novel targets or modes of action, resistance mechanisms, xenobiotic metabolism, selective toxicity, safety evaluations, and recommendations for safe and effective pest management. Target binding site models help define the effect of substituent changes and predict modifications for enhanced potency and safety and circumvention of resistance. The contribution of pesticide chemical research in toxicology is illustrated here with two each of the newer or most important insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. The insecticides are imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) channel, respectively. The herbicides are glyphosate that inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and mesotrione that prevents plastoquinone and carotenoid formation. The fungicides are azoxystrobin inhibiting the Qo site of the cytochrome bc1 complex and prothioconazole inhibiting the 14α-demethylase in ergosterol biosynthesis. The two target sites involved for each type of pesticide account for 27-40% of worldwide sales for all insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. In each case, selection for resistance involving a single amino acid change in the binding site or detoxifying enzyme circumvents the pesticide chemists's structure optimization and guarantees survival of

  12. 75 FR 21508 - Health and Human Services Acquisition Regulation; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... maintenance, and other activities involving live vertebrate animals conducted under contract (see Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy), Rev. 1986, Repr. 1996... Compliance with the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,...

  13. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  14. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-06-11

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health.

  15. [Human rights, an opportunity for public policies in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Human rights outlined a better scenario for public policies in health. For it requires intersectoral and interdisciplinary approach. This article emphasizes the perspective of public health policies based on human rights, clarifies the relationship of public policies with the exercise of human rights, beyond the right to health. It recognizes the need to implement genuinely democratic and participatory mechanisms. It considers the universal declaration of human rights and other institutional expressions about the same as the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, discusses the ranking of the same and defend its entirety on the determinants of health through its cohesion and political factor. It defines a framework for public health and human rights that trend by strengthening social rights, as a new area of operation, based on public policies to address the determinants of health, upholding social justice, beyond the health field and the biological and behavioural risk factors to decisions arising from political power, exceeds medical solutions and access to health services. In conclusion, it promoting respect for human rights by greater understanding of them and strengthens the importance of indirect health policies (such as food, environment and health, violence gender) and the role of international policies in the global world.

  16. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  17. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  18. Humanization policy in primary health care: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Junges, José Roque

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze humanization practices in primary health care in the Brazilian Unified Health System according to the principles of the National Humanization Policy. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was carried out, followed by a meta-synthesis, using the following databases: BDENF (nursing database), BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to nursing and allied health literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean health care sciences literature), MedLine (International health care sciences literature), PAHO (Pan-American Health Care Organization Library) and SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online). The following descriptors were used: Humanization; Humanizing Health Care; Reception: Humanized care: Humanization in health care; Bonding; Family Health Care Program; Primary Care; Public Health and Sistema Único de Saúde (the Brazilian public health care system). Research articles, case studies, reports of experiences, dissertations, theses and chapters of books written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2003 and 2011, were included in the analysis. RESULTS Among the 4,127 publications found on the topic, 40 studies were evaluated and included in the analysis, producing three main categories: the first referring to the infrastructure and organization of the primary care service, made clear the dissatisfaction with the physical structure and equipment of the services and with the flow of attendance, which can facilitate or make difficult the access. The second, referring to the health work process, showed issues about the insufficient number of professionals, fragmentation of the work processes, the professional profile and responsibility. The third category, referring to the relational technologies, indicated the reception, bonding, listening, respect and dialog with the service users. CONCLUSIONS Although many practices were cited as humanizing they do not produce changes

  19. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, S. T. [ORNL; Holsapple, M. P. [Battelle Memorial Institute

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  20. Occupational health nursing practice through the Human Caring lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Many health care and academic centers have adopted Watson's Theory of Human Caring as their guiding principle; the theory is also used in other disciplines, such as library science. Human caring theory offers occupational health nurses as structure that not only defines a focus for practice, but also provides a basis for moral and philosophical practice analyses. In particular, nurses may find this theory useful in confirming the definition of "caring" and reconsidering what nursing is all about. More importantly, consideration and application of this theory may lead to research on its applicability to the field of occupational health nursing. This article presents the science and philosophy of human caring, specifically Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how the theory could be used to evaluate occupational health nursing practice. To demonstrate its possible relevance as an occupational health nursing framework, an analysis of and comparison to existing occupational health nursing guidelines are detailed and discussed.

  1. [Medical assistance for health and human reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesqui, A M

    1987-12-01

    Brazil's federal health policy is examined, with separate focus on the periods before and after 1964. Special attention is given to sanitation and to maternal and child health care. The impact of government involvement on health policy development and the policy's subsequent effects on demographic processes, especially fertility, are also discussed. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, D.W.; Aarde, S.M.; Baig, K.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetry is an important concept in biology, being related to mate selection strategies, health, and survival of species. In human faces, the relevance of left-right symmetry to attractiveness and health is not well understood. We compared the appearance of facial attractiveness, health, and symmetry in three separate experiments. Participants…

  3. Global health rights: Employing human rights to develop and implement the Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Lance; Meier, Benjamin Mason

    2013-06-14

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) represents an important idea for addressing the expanding array of governance challenges in global health. Proponents of the FCGH suggest that it could further the right to health through its incorporation of rights into national laws and policies, using litigation and community empowerment to advance rights claims and prominently establish the right to health as central to global health governance. Building on efforts to expand development and influence of the right to health through the implementation of the FCGH, in this article we find that human rights correspondingly holds promise in justifying the FCGH. By employing human rights as a means to develop and implement the FCGH, the existing and evolving frameworks of human rights can complement efforts to reform global health governance, with the FCGH and human rights serving as mutually reinforcing bases of norms and accountability in global health.

  4. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Gill; Austin, Christopher P; Balapure, Anil K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bucher, John R; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Fowle, John R; Kavlock, Robert J; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A; Muotri, Alysson R; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved.

  5. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  6. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals.

  7. One Health in NSW: coordination of human and animal health sector management of zoonoses of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian

    2011-07-01

    Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed.

  8. The application of humanization theory to health-promoting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    It has been identified that if public health interventions do not account for what it means to be human, they are likely to fail. The aim of this article is to introduce humanization theory and to show how it can be applied to health-promoting practice. Health promotion can feature humanizing and dehumanizing elements, and these appear to impact on how people may (or may not) engage with interventions. The primary prevention of skin cancer in young people is an illustration of this. The practice implications of applying humanization theory to health promotion are potentially vast and complex; however, it is proposed that considering the dimensions of humanization may be a useful activity to inform the early stages of health-promotion intervention designs. Furthermore, developing the qualitative research evidence base about peoples' experiences of humanizing dimensions of health promotion would also be a valuable step towards ensuring that interventions account for the 'human dimension'. Applying humanization theory to the specific example of skin cancer prevention in young people has been a new venture but based on work so far, suggestions for humanizing principles for skin cancer prevention would need to be inclusive of the needs of young people, to support them and to involve them in research and intervention development.

  9. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  10. [The toxicology and prevention of the risks of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. III. The effects: epidemiological evidence, early effects. Individual hypersusceptibility. Health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, S; Assennato, G; Bergamaschi, E; Carta, P; Foà, V; Forni, A; Gabbani, G; Mastrangelo, G; Sartorelli, P

    1997-01-01

    Adverse effects following occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mainly carcinogenic. The available epidemiological data suggest that some substances and industrial processes, in which PAH exposure is frequent, are classified as carcinogenic to humans: primary aluminium industry, cola gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundry, coal tar, pitch, creosote, untreated mineral oils, asphalt, soot. The target organs are mainly lung, bladder, skin. Other relevant effects are skin lesions such as folliculitis. The studies on early biological effects (chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei) have shown contradictory results, mainly because of differences in exposure intensity. The metabolic polymorphism may account for a higher susceptibility to lung and bladder cancer following exposure to risk factors; the role of PAH occupational exposure is however to be examined, and the use of indicators of genetic susceptibility is currently limited to research programs. Health surveillance for PAH exposed workers is funded on the Italian laws (DPR 303/56 and D.Lgs. 626/94) and it is mainly dedicated to prevention of carcinogenic effects. Preventive examinations should consider PAH target organs (skin, lung, bladder, larynx) and look for early signs and symptoms. Particular attention will be paid to life habits such as tobacco smoking or diseases which could represent condition of susceptibility. Periodical examinations (every six months) will similarly evaluate PAH target organs. Health surveillance is also programmed for formerly exposed workers and the institution of exposure and cancer registries is mandatory. On the basis of the current scientific data, it is not advisable the use of tumor markers or cytogenetic tests at the individual level as well as the screening of asymptomatic PAH exposed workers for early diagnosis of lung or bladder cancer. Information and formation activities will be part of medical

  11. Mineralogical, chemical and toxicological characterization of urban air particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čupr, Pavel; Flegrová, Zuzana; Franců, Juraj; Landlová, Linda; Klánová, Jana

    2013-04-01

    Systematic characterization of morphological, mineralogical, chemical and toxicological properties of various size fractions of the atmospheric particulate matter was a main focus of this study together with an assessment of the human health risks they pose. Even though near-ground atmospheric aerosols have been a subject of intensive research in recent years, data integrating chemical composition of particles and health risks are still scarce and the particle size aspect has not been properly addressed yet. Filling this gap, however, is necessary for reliable risk assessment. A high volume ambient air sampler equipped with a multi-stage cascade impactor was used for size specific particle collection, and all 6 fractions were a subject of detailed characterization of chemical (PAHs) and mineralogical composition of the particles, their mass size distribution and genotoxic potential of organic extracts. Finally, the risk level for inhalation exposure associated to the carcinogenic character of the studied PAHs has been assessed. The finest fraction (<0.45 μm) exhibited the highest mass, highest active surface, highest amount of associated PAHs and also highest direct and indirect genotoxic potentials in our model air sample. Risk assessment of inhalation scenario indicates the significant cancer risk values in PM 1.5 size fraction. This presented new approach proved to be a useful tool for human health risk assessment in the areas with significant levels of air dust concentration.

  12. Toxicology as a nanoscience? – Disciplinary identities reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasen Sabine

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxicology is about to establish itself as a leading scientific discipline in addressing potential health effects of materials on the nanosize level. Entering into a cutting-edge field, has an impact on identity-building processes within the involved academic fields. In our study, we analyzed the ways in which the entry into the field of nanosciences impacts on the formation of disciplinary identities. Using the methods of qualitative interviews with particle toxicologists in Germany, Holland, Switzerland and the USA, we could demonstrate that currently, toxicology finds itself in a transitional phase. The development of its disciplinary identity is not yet clear. Nearly all of our interview partners stressed the necessity of repositioning toxicology. However, they each suggested different approaches. While one part is already propagandizing the establishment of a new discipline – 'nanotoxicology'- others are more reserved and are demanding a clear separation of traditional and new research areas. In phases of disciplinary new-orientation, research communities do not act consistently. Rather, they establish diverse options. By expanding its disciplinary boundaries, participating in new research fields, while continuing its previous research, and only vaguely defining its topics, toxicology is feeling its way into the new fields without giving up its present self-conception. However, the toxicological research community is also discussing a new disciplinary identity. Within this, toxicology could develop from an auxiliary into a constitutive position, and take over a basic role in the cognitive, institutional and social framing of the nanosciences.

  13. Systems toxicology: from basic research to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Shana J; Boobis, Alan R; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hoeng, Julia; Kavlock, Robert J; Schirmer, Kristin; Whelan, Maurice; Wilks, Martin F; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-03-17

    Systems Toxicology is the integration of classical toxicology with quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Society demands increasingly close scrutiny of the potential health risks associated with exposure to chemicals present in our everyday life, leading to an increasing need for more predictive and accurate risk-assessment approaches. Developing such approaches requires a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ways in which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, Systems Toxicology approaches offer modern strategies for gaining such mechanistic knowledge by combining advanced analytical and computational tools. Furthermore, Systems Toxicology is a means for the identification and application of biomarkers for improved safety assessments. In Systems Toxicology, quantitative systems-wide molecular changes in the context of an exposure are measured, and a causal chain of molecular events linking exposures with adverse outcomes (i.e., functional and apical end points) is deciphered. Mathematical models are then built to describe these processes in a quantitative manner. The integrated data analysis leads to the identification of how biological networks are perturbed by the exposure and enables the development of predictive mathematical models of toxicological processes. This perspective integrates current knowledge regarding bioanalytical approaches, computational analysis, and the potential for improved risk assessment.

  14. Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jihye; Yang, Hyeri; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2014-09-01

    Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred thirteen endpoints were observed in those 30 papers, and most studies had sample size less than 10, with the median and the mode being 6 and 3 & 6, respectively. Mean (105/113, 93%) was dominantly used to measure central tendency, and standard error of the mean (64/113, 57%) and standard deviation (39/113, 34%) were used to measure dispersion, while few studies provide justifications regarding why the methods being selected. Inferential statistics were frequently conducted (93/113, 82%), with one-way ANOVA being most popular (52/93, 56%), yet few studies conducted either normality or equal variance test. These results suggest that more consistent and appropriate use of statistical method is necessary which may enhance the role of toxicology in public health.

  15. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  16. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(n)) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  17. Experimental water toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrushaytis, G.P. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The problem of water toxicology and marine ectoxicology, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the problem of creating artificial controlled marine ecosystems for the purpose of utilizing them in ecotoxicological studies and for solving problems in the intensification of bioproduction processes and predicting the functional state of water ecosystems under conditions of water pollution by toxic substances. Investigations were conducted on the effects of pesticides, phenols, and heavy metal ions on planktonic crustacea and fish. Studies were also concerned with the effect of gonadotoxic substances, including detergents, on the gametogenesis process in fish. Morphological changes in the ovicells of fish can lead to a reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor zones of the follicular casings to hormonal substances, as well as infertility.

  18. [New antidotes in toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, Régis

    2008-04-30

    New antidotes appeared in the French pharmacopoeia (fomepizole, Viperfav), and old drugs, usually unused in toxicology, saw their indications enlarged in an antidotic activity (glucose and insulin, L-carnitine, octreotide). Fomepizole is an antidote for toxic alcohol and glycol intoxications, which is much easier to handle than ethylic alcohol and as efficient as the classical antidote of this kind of intoxication. Octreotide improves the result of hypertonic glucose infusion in sulfonylurea derivatives intoxications, by blocking insulin release. The glucose-insulin association allows the myocardium to use the main energy substrate necessary for its action in the setting of beta-blocking and calcium channel blocking agents intoxications when they are associated to a cardiogenic shock. Viperfav is a polyvalent antivenom used in European adders envenomations, which showed its effectiveness and safety. Levocarnitine allows to correct the wrong metabolic pathway induced by a deficit in carnitine in valproïc acid intoxications.

  19. Diagnostic and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F D

    1995-12-01

    In most competent veterinary diagnostic laboratories, analytical findings are interpreted by the veterinary toxicologist to determine the significance of the finding in view of historic, clinical, and pathologic findings. A veterinary toxicologist also will provide consultation about possible toxic rule-outs for a case, treatment of affected animals, and prevention of additional cases. Once all of the information is available, a complete summary of the findings can be provided to the client. When the procedures outlined are followed, including a systematic approach to collecting all the evidence (historic, clinical, pathologic, and analytic), proper sampling techniques, and good communication between the clinician and the client and laboratory, the usefulness of the toxicology investigation will be maximized.

  20. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  1. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  2. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  3. Comparative Human Health and Environmental Toxicology Review of Seven Candidate Obscurant Smokes for Replacement of M83 Grenade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    in etching solutions during the manufacture of printed circuit boards, in dry and Leclanche batteries, as a nitrogen source for fertilization of rice...The testing was completed 5 weeks after production resumed at a smoke munitions plant after a prior 5week break. Plasma HCE levels averaged 0.08...3000 mg/L in drinking water for 90 days. Methemoglobin was significantly increased and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased in both sexes

  4. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam; Serghini, Mansour

    2006-12-28

    The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators) are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High). Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal mortality and infant mortality which are really challenging health

  5. Health indicators and human development in the Arab region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghini Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper deals with the relationship between health indicators and human development in the Arab region. Beyond descriptive analysis showing geographic similarities and disparities inter countries, the main purpose is to point out health deficiencies and to propose pragmatic strategies susceptible to improve health conditions and consequently enhance human development in the Arab world. Methods Data analysis using Principal Components Analysis is used to compare the achievements of the Arab countries in terms of direct and indirect health indicators. The variables (indicators are seen to be well represented on the circle of correlation, allowing for interesting interpretation and analysis. The 19 countries are projected on the first and second plane respectively. Results The results given by the present analysis give a good panorama of the Arab countries with their geographic similarities and disparities. The high correlation between health indicators and human development is well illustrated and consequently, countries are classified by groups having similar human development. The analysis shows clearly how health deficits are impeding human development in the majority of Arab countries and allows us to formulate suggestions to improve health conditions and enhance human development in the Arab World. Discussion The discussion is based on the link between different direct and indirect health indicators and the relationship between these indicators and human development index. Without including the GDP indicator, our analysis has shown that the 19 Arab countries may be classified, independently of their geographic proximity, in three different groups according to their global human development level (Low, Medium and High. Consequently, while identifying health deficiencies in each group, the focus was made on the countries presenting a high potential of improvement in health indicators. In particular, maternal

  6. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  7. A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Giesy, John P.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Bowerman, William; Aulerich, Richard J.; Bursian, Steven J.; Auman, Heidi J.; Jones, Paul D.; Williams, Lisa L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gilbertson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) can be derived in several ways. The usual techniques involve hazard and risk assessment procedures. For non-persistent, non-biomagnified compounds and elements, WQC are experimentally derived from their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. For those persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) that are bioaccumulated and biomagnified, these traditional techniques have not been effective, partly because effects higher in the food web were not considered. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the bioaccumulative synthetic chemicals of primary toxicological significance to the Great Lakes biota which have caused widespread injury to wildlife. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the primary emphasis of hazard assessments has been on the potential for adverse effects in humans who eat fish. The primary regulatory endpoint of traditional hazard and risk assessments underlying current WQC are the probabilities of additional cancers occurring in the human population. The analysis presented here indicates that this is not adequate to restore sensitive wildlife species that are highly exposed to PCBs, especially those that have suffered serious population declines. Because WQC are legal instruments, the methods of deriving WQC have large implications for remediation, litigation, and damage assessments. Here WQC are derived for six species based on the responses of wildlife in the field or produced by feeding fish to surrogate species, rather than projecting a potential of increased cancer rates in humans. If the most sensitive wildlife species are restored and protected for very sensitive reproductive endpoints, then all components of the ecosystem, including human health, should be more adequately protected. The management of Great Lakes wildlife requires an understanding of the injury and causal relationships to persistent toxic substances.

  8. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  9. The relationship between health and mating success in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian 

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans. PMID:28280558

  10. The relationship between health and mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Simmons, Leigh W; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans.

  11. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  12. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  13. Development of methodology for alternative testing strategies for the assessment of the toxicological profile of nanoparticles used in medical diagnostics. NanoTEST - EC FP7 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusinska, Maria; Fjellsbo, Lise Maria; Heimstad, Eldbjorg; Harju, Mikael; Bartonova, Alena [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (Norway)], E-mail: dusinska@szu.sk; Tran, Lang [Institute of Occupational Medicine (United Kingdom); Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne; Halamoda, Blanka [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland); Marano, Francelyne; Boland, Sonja [University Paris Diderot Paris7 (France); Saunders, Margaret; Cartwright, Laura; Carreira, Sara; Thawley, Susan [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Whelan, Maurice; Klein, Christoph [EC - Directorate General Joint Research Centre (Italy); Housiadas, Christos [National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos (Greece); Volkovova, Katarina; Tulinska, Jana; Beno, Milan [Slovak Medical University (Slovakia)] (and others)

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have unique, potentially beneficial properties, but their possible impact on human health is still not known. The area of nanomedicine brings humans into direct contact with NPs and it is essential for both public confidence and the nanotech companies that appropriate risk assessments are undertaken in relation to health and safety. There is a pressing need to understand how engineered NPs can interact with the human body following exposure. The FP7 project NanoTEST (www.nanotest-fp7.eu) addresses these requirements in relation to the toxicological profile of NPs used in medical diagnostics.

  14. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  15. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W Davis

    Full Text Available Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations.We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale was moderate/high in 91 (13.2% households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%, and 210 households (30.6% reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes.Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  16. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W.; Mullany, Luke C.; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K.; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. Methods and Findings We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Conclusion Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations. PMID:26308850

  17. [Modern toxicology of magnetic nanomaterials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywińska, Monika A; Grudziński, Ireneusz P

    2012-01-01

    Current advances in nanobiotechnology have led to the development of new field of nanomedicine, which includes many applications of nano(bio)materials for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes (theranostics). Major expectations and challenges are on bioengineered magnetic nanoparticles when their come to delivering drug compounds, especially to targeting anticancer drugs to specific molecular endpoints in cancer therapy. The unique physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles offer great promise in modern cancer nanomedicine to provide new technological breakthroughs, such as guided drug and gene delivery, magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, tissue engineering, cancer cell tracking and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. Along with the expanding interest in bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts their potential toxicity has become one of the major concerns. To date, a number of recent scientific evidences suggest that certain properties of magnetic nanoparticles (e.g., enhanced reactive area, ability to cross cell membranes, resistance to biodegradation) may amplify their cytotoxic potential relative to bulk non-nanoscale counterparts. In other words, safety assessment developed for ordinary magnetic materials may be of limited use in determining the health and environmental risks of the novel bio-engineered magnetic nanoproducts. In the present paper we discuss the main directions of research conducted to assess the toxicity of magnetic nanocompounds in experimental in vitro and in vivo models, pointing to the key issues concerning the toxicological analysis of magnetic nanomaterials. In addition new research directions of nanotoxicological studies elucidating the importance of developing alternative methods for testing magnetic nano(bio)products are also presented.

  18. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  19. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  20. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Bärbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk.

  1. Chemical mixture toxicology: from descriptive to mechanistic, and going on to in silico toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Raymond S H; El-Masri, Hisham A; Thomas, Russell S; Dobrev, Ivan D; Dennison, James E; Bae, Dong-Soon; Campain, Julie A; Liao, Kai H; Reisfeld, Brad; Andersen, Melvin E; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2004-11-01

    Because of the pioneering vision of certain leaders in the biomedical field, the last two decades witnessed rapid advances in the area of chemical mixture toxicology. Earlier studies utilized conventional toxicology protocol and methods, and they were mainly descriptive in nature. Two good examples might be the parallel series of studies conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program and TNO in The Netherlands, respectively. As a natural course of progression, more and more sophistication was incorporated into the toxicology studies of chemical mixtures. Thus, at least the following seven areas of scientific achievements in chemical mixture toxicology are evident in the literature: (a) the application of better and more robust statistical methods; (b) the exploration and incorporation of mechanistic bases for toxicological interactions; (c) the application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) modeling; (d) the studies on more complex chemical mixtures; (e) the use of science-based risk assessment approaches; (f) the utilization of functional genomics; and (g) the application of technology. Examples are given for the discussion of each of these areas. Two important concepts emerged from these studies and they are: (1) dose-dependent toxicologic interactions; and (2) "interaction thresholds". Looking into the future, one of the most challenging areas in chemical mixture research is finding the answer to the question "when one tries to characterize the health effects of chemical mixtures, how does one deal with the infinite number of combination of chemicals, and other possible stressors?" Undoubtedly, there will be many answers from different groups of researchers. Our answer, however, is first to focus on the finite (biological processes) rather than the infinite (combinations of chemical mixtures and multiple stressors). The idea is that once we know a normal biological process(es), all stimuli and insults from external stressors

  2. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  3. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G

    2009-12-15

    prediction of human drug metabolism, mechanisms of action for pharmaceuticals, and newer models for predicting human adverse effects. How accurate are these approaches is both a statistical issue and challenge in toxicology. In this review, fundamental concepts and the current capabilities and limitations of this technology will be critically addressed.

  4. Children as a sensitive subgroup and their role in regulatory toxicology: DGPT workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, M. [Federal Health Department Baden-Wuerttemberg, Department of Toxicology, Wiederholdstrasse 15, 70174 Stuttgart (Germany); Gundert-Remy, U.; Heinemeyer, G. [Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV), Thielallee 88-92, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Olejniczak, K. [Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), Kurt-Georg-Kiesinger-Allee 3, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Stahlmann, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, W.; Gelbke, H.P. [BASF AG, Department of Product Safety, Regulations, Toxicology and Ecology, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Bolt, H.M. [Institute of Occupational Physiology (IfADo), Ardeystrasse, 44139 Dortmund (Germany); Greim, H. [TU Muenchen, Institute of Toxicology, Hohenbachernstrasse 15, 85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Keutz, E. von [Bayer-AG, PH-PD P, Health Care Toxicology, Postfach 10 17 09, 42096 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing discussion that children might be considered as a specific subgroup in public health regulations which could be more sensitive than the average ''adult'' human being. Differences between children and adults, with regard to susceptibility towards toxicants, may result from a combination of toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic and exposure factors. Kinetic factors are of importance mainly in the early postnatal period, largely as the result of immature elimination systems, i.e. metabolising enzymes and/or renal function. Specific vulnerability may prevail during several time periods, related to the development and maturation of organs (for example, brain, bone, endocrine system). For some substances, it has been shown that children at a specific age are less sensitive than adults. Specific exposures of toddlers to environmental chemicals may be high due to their moving behaviour and hand-to-mouth activities. Existing scenarios and models for exposure of children should be improved, in particular with respect to different ages. The outcome of model calculations must be verified by human biomonitoring analysis. At present, there is ongoing discussion of toxicological test models suitable to delineate human postnatal development. Experience with infant-orientated test systems is scarce (for example in developmental neurotoxicity). In general, tools for predicting toxicological sensitivity of children must be further improved. Regulators should also be aware that reduction of lifestyle-related toxic exposures such as smoking and drug abuse in children and adolescents is now an increasing public health problem in many countries. (orig.)

  5. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  6. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  7. Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. ... keep animals with low genetic merit, employ crude implements and primitive ... involved in procurement and distribution of improved agricultural inputs.

  8. An urgent issue of public health and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carballo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sexual violence permeates most societies, especially in situations of social disruption, it is an area of public health and human rights where we can collectively already do a great deal and show results quickly.

  9. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  10. Ecosystem Services Connect Environmental Change to Human Health Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayles, Brett R.; Brauman, Kate A.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Allan, Brian F.; Ellis, Alicia M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Golden, Christopher D.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ofosky, Steven A.; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Ristaino, Jean B.

    2016-06-29

    Global environmental change, driven in large part by human activities, profoundly impacts the structure and functioning of Earth’s ecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). We are beginning to push beyond planetary boundaries (Steffan et al. 2015), and the consequences for human health remain largely unknown (Myers et al. 2013). Growing evidence suggests that ecological transformations can dramatically affect human health in ways that are both obvious and obscure (Myers and Patz 2009; Myers et al. 2013). The framework of ecosystem services, designed to evaluate the benefits that people derive from ecosystem products and processes, provides a compelling framework for integrating the many factors that influence the human health response to global change, as well as for integrating health impacts into broader analyses of the impacts of this change

  11. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  12. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  13. Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis and Evolution ... a program to dramatically improve nursing and midwifery education and practice. ... academic institutions requires flexibility, respect, and thoughtful planning.

  14. Human rights and public health working together: an approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home ... and violence against women, will be considered. In conclusion ... Keywords: human rights, public health, child injuries, violence prevention. African Safety ...

  15. Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Corvalan, C

    2006-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change may affect health through a range of pathways, for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, reduction in cold related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. The overall balance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations in low-income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Europe shows that high-income countries may also be adversely affected. Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution.

  16. [Effects of lead exposure on the human body and health implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fátima Ramos; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2004-02-01

    To review the literature concerning the risks associated with exposure to lead and lead compounds, especially in children and in populations that are occupationally exposed. Using "chumbo" [lead] and "efeitos" [effects] as search terms, two large databases, namely PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) and LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [Latin American and Caribbean Literature in the Health Sciences]), were searched for studies on lead toxicity from 1988 to 2002. Other sources used to conduct the search include the web page of the United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, in Atlanta, Georgia, and the library of the Toxicology Laboratory of the Center for Workers' Health and Human Ecology at the National School of Public Health [Centro de Estudos da Saúde de Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública], Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The toxic effects of lead and lead compounds have been extensively studied for over a century. In recent years, epidemiologic studies have focused primarily on the neurotoxic effects of lead on children, particularly in terms of impaired intellectual ability and behavioral problems. However, there is still insufficient information on the mechanisms of action that account for such toxicity. More in-depth studies are also needed on the effects of lead exposure on bone, the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, the liver, the male and female reproductive systems, and the endocrine system. The potential teratogenicity and carcinogenicity of lead, as well as its effect on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal growth and development, also require further study.

  17. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  18. Ethnogenetic layering (EL): an alternative to the traditional race model in human variation and health disparity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F L C

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, studies in human biodiversity, disease risk, and health disparities have defined populations in the context of typological racial models. However, such racial models are often imprecise generalizations that fail to capture important local patterns of human biodiversity. More explicit, detailed, and integrated information on relevant geographic, environmental, cultural, genetic, historical, and demographic variables are needed to understand local group expressions of disease inequities. This paper details the methods used in ethnogenetic layering (EL), a non-typological alternative to the current reliance of the biological racial paradigm in public health, epidemiology, and biomedicine. EL is focused on geographically identified microethnic groups or MEGs, a more nuanced and sensitive level of analysis than race. Using the MEG level of analysis, EL reveals clinical variations, details the causes of health disparities, and provides a foundation for bioculturally effective intervention strategies. EL relies on computational approaches by using GIS-facilitated maps to produce horizontally stratified geographical regional profiles which are then stacked and evaluated vertically. Each horizontal digital map details local geographic variation in the attributes of a particular database; usually this includes data on local historical demography, genetic diversity, cultural patterns, and specific chronic disease risks (e.g. dietary and toxicological exposures). Horizontal visual display of these layered maps permits vertical analysis at various geographic hot spots. From these analyses, geographical areas and their associated MEGs with highly correlated chronic disease risk factors can be identified and targeted for further study.

  19. Simultaneous and cost-effective determination of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid in human serum and urine for emergency toxicology by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložek, Tomáš; Bursová, Miroslava; Čabala, Radomír

    2015-02-01

    A simple, cost-effective, and fast gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) for simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol and glycolic acid was developed and validated for clinical toxicology purposes. Successful derivatization of glycolic acid with isobutyl chloroformate was achieved directly in serum/urine while glycols are simultaneously derivatized by phenylboronic acid. The entire sample preparation procedure is completed within 10 min. The assay was proved to be quadratic in the range of 50 to 5000 mgL(-1) with adequate accuracy (96.3-105.8%) and precision (CV ≤ 8.9%). The method was successfully applied to quantify the selected compounds in serum of patients from emergency units and the results correlated well with parallel GC-FID measurements (R(2) 0.9933 for ethylene glycol and 0.9943 for glycolic acid). Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of clozapine, and five antidepressants in human plasma, serum and whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A simple tool for clinical and postmortem toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Rallis, George; Petrikis, Petros; Vougiouklakis, Theodore; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we describe a simple and rapid method for the determination of the antipsychotic drug clozapine and five commonly co-administered antidepressants - bupropion, mirtazapine, sertraline, clomipramine and citalopram - in serum, plasma and whole blood. Sample preparation includes solid phase extraction of analytes and determination of drug concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without any derivatization steps. The method was fully validated according to international criteria and can be successfully applied for routine analyses. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves for the tested drugs in the three specimens were in the range 0.9977-0.9999. Intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 0.81-7.85% and 3.60-12.91% respectively for the studied analytes and matrices. Recoveries were satisfactory for different concentrations of each drug in each specimen allowing accurate determinations in the range from sub-therapeutic to toxic levels. The presented method shows acceptable sensitivity, linearity in wide concentration ranges (sub-therapeutic, therapeutic, supra-therapeutic/toxic levels), it is simple and rapid and it is applicable for qualitative and quantitative routine toxicological analyses of clinical and postmortem cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Health care, human worth and the limits of the particular.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    An ethics concerned with health care developments and systems must be historically continuous, especially as it concerns the application to managed structures of key moral-epistemic concepts such as care, love and empathy. These concepts are traditionally most at home in the personal, individual domain. Human beings have non-instrumental worth just because they are human beings and not by virtue of their capacities. Managed health care systems tend to abstract from this worth in respect of bo...

  2. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  3. Bioethics and health and human rights: a critical view

    OpenAIRE

    Benatar, D

    2006-01-01

    Recent decades have seen the emergence of two new fields of inquiry into ethical issues in medicine. These are the fields of bioethics and of health and human rights. In this critical review of these fields, the author argues that bioethics, partly because it has been construed so broadly, suffers from quality control problems. The author also argues that the field of health and human rights is superfluous because it does nothing that cannot be done by either bioethics of the law.

  4. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions.

  5. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  6. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  7. 76 FR 39399 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability... availability of EPA's preliminary human health risk assessment for the registration review of chlorpyrifos and... comprehensive preliminary human health risk assessment for all chlorpyrifos uses. After reviewing comments...

  8. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document... for the chlorpyrifos reregistration review, preliminary human health risk assessment, established in...

  9. Genetic toxicology in industrial practice: general introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassignon, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    During the past decade, important position statements on mutagenicity testing have been issued by industrial organizations such as CEFIC (the European Council of Chemical Industry Federations) and ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre). Mutagenicity testing is of potential value as a research tool for screening new compounds, as a probe for the identification of harmful substances and as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of individuals exposed to certain chemicals. The problems inherent in mutagenicity testing include specificity and sensitivity, and meaningful interpretation of test data will depend on the strict maintenance of accepted quality standards.

  10. Genetic toxicology in industrial practice: general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassignon, J P

    1985-01-01

    During the past decade, important position statements on mutagenicity testing have been issued by industrial organizations such as CEFIC (the European Council of Chemical Industry Federations) and ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre). Mutagenicity testing is of potential value as a research tool for screening new compounds, as a probe for the identification of harmful substances and as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of individuals exposed to certain chemicals. The problems inherent in mutagenicity testing include specificity and sensitivity, and meaningful interpretation of test data will depend on the strict maintenance of accepted quality standards.

  11. Role of chronic toxicology studies in revealing new toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galijatovic-Idrizbegovic, Alema; Miller, Judith E; Cornell, Wendy D; Butler, James A; Wollenberg, Gordon K; Sistare, Frank D; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Chronic (>3 months) preclinical toxicology studies are conducted to support the safe conduct of clinical trials exceeding 3 months in duration. We have conducted a review of 32 chronic toxicology studies in non-rodents (22 studies in dogs and 10 in non-human primates) and 27 chronic toxicology studies in rats dosed with Merck compounds to determine the frequency at which additional target organ toxicities are observed in chronic toxicology studies as compared to subchronic studies of 3 months in duration. Our review shows that majority of the findings are observed in the subchronic studies since additional target organs were not observed in 24 chronic non rodent studies and in 21 chronic rodent studies. However, 6 studies in non rodents and 6 studies in rodents yielded new findings that were not seen in studies of 3-month or shorter duration. For 3 compounds the new safety findings did contribute to termination of clinical development plans. Although the incidence of compound termination associated with chronic toxicology study observations is low (∼10%), the observations made in these studies can be important for evaluating human safety risk.

  12. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  13. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The quest for One Health: Human Resource training aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angwara Kiwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH are key inputs into One Health. ‘… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin’ (Rweyemamu et al. 2006. A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools’ curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates’ understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools’ curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  15. Overview of human health and chemical mixtures: problems facing developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In developing countries, chemical mixtures within the vicinity of small-scale enterprises, smelters, mines, agricultural areas, toxic waste disposal sites, etc., often present a health hazard to the populations within those vicinities. Therefore, in these countries, there is a need to study the toxicological effects of mixtures of metals, pesticides, and organic compounds. However, the study of mixtures containing substances such as DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, an insecticide banned ...

  16. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  17. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H

    2001-04-01

    Research and teaching in environmental health have centered on the hazardous effects of various environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, radiation, and biological and physical agents. However, some kinds of environmental exposures may have positive health effects. According to E.O. Wilson's "biophilia" hypothesis, humans are innately attracted to other living organisms. Later authors have expanded this concept to suggest that humans have an innate bond with nature more generally. This implies that certain kinds of contact with the natural world may benefit health. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented from four aspects of the natural world: animals, plants, landscapes, and wilderness. Finally, the implications of this hypothesis for a broader agenda for environmental health, encompassing not only toxic outcomes but also salutary ones, are discussed. This agenda implies research on a range of potentially healthful environmental exposures, collaboration among professionals in a range of disciplines from public health to landscape architecture to city planning, and interventions based on research outcomes.

  18. The impact of blue space on human health and well-being - Salutogenetic health effects of inland surface waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Water is one of the most important physical, aesthetic landscape elements and possesses importance e.g. in environmental psychology, landscape design, and tourism research, but the relationship between water and health in current literature is only investigated in the field of environmental toxicology and microbiology, not explicitly in the research field of blue space and human well-being. Due to the lack of a systematic review of blue space and well-being in the various fields of research, the aim of this review is to provide a systematic, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies that are relevant to this issue. Benefits for health and well-being clearly related to blue space can be identified with regard to perception and preference, landscape design, emotions, and restoration and recreation. Additionally, direct health benefits have already been stated. The studies included in the review are mostly experimental studies or cross-sectional surveys, focusing on students as the subject group. There is a need for more qualitative and multi-faceted, interdisciplinary studies, using triangulation as a method to achieve a resilient image of reality. A broader study design considering all age groups would contribute to identifying benefits for the whole of society. The inattentiveness to blue space makes it difficult to measure long-term effects of blue space on well-being. There is still little respect for water and health in planning issues, although salutogenetic health benefits can be identified. To close the gap regarding missing systematic concepts, a concept for assessing salutogenetic health effects in blue space is provided. Blue space is considered therein as a multi-dimensional term including four dimensions of appropriation, as well as at least five ontological dimensions of substantiality. The aim of the concept is to support researchers and practitioners analysing health effects in blue space. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Peanut fatty acids and their impact on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts contain a large amount of fat. Much of it is unsaturated, giving peanuts a positive effect on human health. A number of positive health effects from consuming peanuts have been reported in the scientific literature. These include lowering blood pressure, decreasing the risk of heart disea...

  20. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the l