WorldWideScience

Sample records for human health monitoring

  1. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  2. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  3. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  4. Toward flexible and wearable human-interactive health-monitoring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kuniharu; Honda, Wataru; Harada, Shingo; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji

    2015-03-11

    This Progress Report introduces flexible wearable health-monitoring devices that interact with a person by detecting from and stimulating the body. Interactive health-monitoring devices should be highly flexible and attach to the body without awareness like a bandage. This type of wearable health-monitoring device will realize a new class of electronics, which will be applicable not only to health monitoring, but also to other electrical devices. However, to realize wearable health-monitoring devices, many obstacles must be overcome to economically form the active electrical components on a flexible substrate using macroscale fabrication processes. In particular, health-monitoring sensors and curing functions need to be integrated. Here recent developments and advancements toward flexible health-monitoring devices are presented, including conceptual designs of human-interactive devices.

  5. Manufacturing of Wearable Sensors for Human Health and Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Azar

    2015-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of physiological and biological parameters is expected to improve performance and medical outcomes by assessing overall health status and alerting for life-saving interventions. Continuous monitoring of these parameters requires wearable devices with an appropriate form factor (lightweight, comfortable, low energy consuming and even single-use) to avoid disrupting daily activities thus ensuring operation relevance and user acceptance. Many previous efforts to implement remote and wearable sensors have suffered from high cost and poor performance, as well as low clinical and end-use acceptance. New manufacturing and system level design approaches are needed to make the performance and clinical benefits of these sensors possible while satisfying challenging economic, regulatory, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. In this talk we will review several recent design and manufacturing efforts aimed at designing and building prototype wearable sensors. We will discuss unique opportunities and challenges provided by additive manufacturing, including 3D printing, to drive innovation through new designs, faster prototyping and manufacturing, distributed networks, and new ecosystems. We will also show alternative hybrid self-assembly based integration techniques for low cost large scale manufacturing of single use wearable devices. Coauthors: Prabhjot Singh and Jeffrey Ashe.

  6. A correlation between pulse diagnosis of human body and health monitoring of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C.Chang; Henry T. Y. Yang

    2004-01-01

    The concept of health monitoring is a key aspect of the field of medicine that has been practiced for a long time. A commonly used diagnostic and health monitoring practice is pulse diagnosis, which can be traced back approximately five thousand years in the recorded history of China. With advances in the development of modem technology, the concept of health monitoring of a variety of engineering structures in several applications has begun to attract widespread attention.Of particular interest in this study is the health monitoring of civil structures. It seems natural, and even beneficial, that these two health-monitoring methods, one as applies to the human body and the other to civil structures, should be analyzed and compared. In this paper, the basic concepts and theories of the two monitoring methods are first discussed. Similarities are then summarized and commented upon. It is hoped that this correlation analysis may help provide structural engineers with some insights into the intrinsic concept of using pulse diagnosis in human health monitoring, which may be of some benefit in the development of modern structural health monitoring methods.

  7. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  8. Monitoring human health behaviour in one's living environment: a technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Shane A; Ólaighin, Gearóid

    2014-02-01

    The electronic monitoring of human health behaviour using computer techniques has been an active research area for the past few decades. A wide array of different approaches have been investigated using various technologies including inertial sensors, Global Positioning System, smart homes, Radio Frequency IDentification and others. It is only in recent years that research has turned towards a sensor fusion approach using several different technologies in single systems or devices. These systems allow for an increased volume of data to be collected and for activity data to be better used as measures of behaviour. This change may be due to decreasing hardware costs, smaller sensors, increased power efficiency or increases in portability. This paper is intended to act as a reference for the design of multi-sensor behaviour monitoring systems. The range of technologies that have been used in isolation for behaviour monitoring both in research and commercial devices are reviewed and discussed. Filtering, range, sensitivity, usability and other considerations of different technologies are discussed. A brief overview of commercially available activity monitors and their technology is also included.

  9. Development of the ITHACA Toolkit for monitoring human rights and general health care in psychiatric and social care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, J; Thornicroft, G; Burti, L; Katschnig, H; Lewis, O; Russo, J; Shaw, T; Wahlbeck, K; Rose, D

    2013-09-01

    Background. Human rights violations are commonly experienced by people in psychiatric and social care institutions. States and private organizations providing such health and social services must comply with international human rights law. Monitoring of such compliance is increasingly recognized as a vital component in ensuring that rights are respected and violations are brought out in the open, remedied and prevented. Aims. The Institutional Treatment, Human Rights and Care Assessment (ITHACA) project produced a method to document violations and good practice with the aim of preventing human rights violations and improving general health care practice in psychiatric and social care institutions (www.ithacastudy.eu). Methods. A methodological and implementation study conducted across 15 European countries developed and assessed the ITHACA Toolkit in monitoring visits to 87 mental health organizations. Results. The toolkit is available in 13 European languages and has demonstrated applicability in a range of contexts and conditions. The information gathered through monitoring visits can document both good practice and areas for improvement. Conclusions. The ITHACA Toolkit is an acceptable and feasible method for the systematic monitoring of human rights and general health care in psychiatric and social care institutions that explicitly calls for the participation of service users in the monitoring of human rights violations and general health care practice.

  10. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a wearable health monitoring system for the human body that is functional, comfortable,...

  11. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a wearable health monitoring system for the human body that is functional, comfortable,...

  12. Tracking and monitoring the health workforce: a new human resources information system (HRIS in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuide Pamela A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workforce planning is important in ensuring that the recruitment, training and deployment of health workers are conducted in the most efficient way possible. However, in many developing countries, human resources for health data are limited, inconsistent, out-dated, or unavailable. Consequently, policy-makers are unable to use reliable data to make informed decisions about the health workforce. Computerized human resources information systems (HRIS enable countries to collect, maintain, and analyze health workforce data. Methods The purpose of this article is twofold. First, we describe Uganda's transition from a paper filing system to an electronic HRIS capable of providing information about country-specific health workforce questions. We examine the ongoing five-step HRIS strengthening process used to implement an HRIS that tracks health worker data at the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Council (UNMC. Secondly, we describe how HRIS data can be used to address workforce planning questions via an initial analysis of the UNMC training, licensure and registration records from 1970 through May 2009. Results The data indicate that, for the 25 482 nurses and midwives who entered training before 2006, 72% graduated, 66% obtained a council registration, and 28% obtained a license to practice. Of the 17 405 nurses and midwives who obtained a council registration as of May 2009, 96% are of Ugandan nationality and just 3% received their training outside of the country. Thirteen per cent obtained a registration for more than one type of training. Most (34% trainings with a council registration are for the enrolled nurse training, followed by enrolled midwife (25%, registered (more advanced nurse (21%, registered midwife (11%, and more specialized trainings (9%. Conclusion The UNMC database is valuable in monitoring and reviewing information about nurses and midwives. However, information obtained from this system is also important in

  13. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments.

  14. Air quality monitoring and evaluation tools for human health risk reduction in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a serious environmental health threat to humans. Adverse effects range from nausea, difficulty in breathing and skin irritations, to birth defects, immuno-suppression and cancer. Moreover, the severity of health outcomes associated...

  15. Tracking and monitoring the health workforce: a new human resources information system (HRIS) in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    McQuide Pamela A; Spero Julie C; Matte Rita

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Health workforce planning is important in ensuring that the recruitment, training and deployment of health workers are conducted in the most efficient way possible. However, in many developing countries, human resources for health data are limited, inconsistent, out-dated, or unavailable. Consequently, policy-makers are unable to use reliable data to make informed decisions about the health workforce. Computerized human resources information systems (HRIS) enable countries...

  16. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  17. Rancang Bangun Sistem Transmisi Data Tekanan Darah untuk Mendukung Human Health Monitoring Berbasis Pada Mobile Platform Android

    OpenAIRE

    Damar Triananda Dirta; Suyanto Suyanto

    2013-01-01

    Tensimeter adalah alat kesehatan yang digunakan untuk mengukur tekanan darah. Disisi lain, perkembangan teknologi telah mendukung adanya komunikasi jarak jauh yang lebih dikenal dengan telemetri. Hal ini sangat menunjang dalam keperluan ambulatori di mana pasien tetap bisa dipantau oleh pihak rumah sakit meskipun pasien tidak berada di rumah sakit. Penelitian ini telah menghasillkan sebuah Human Health Monitoring, yaitu tensimeter digital yang dapat memonitoring pasien berbasis pada mobile pl...

  18. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  19. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  20. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  1. A REMOTE HEALTH MONITORING MESSENGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmili Minu.DH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health is an important factor of every human being. Remote health monitoring messenger is needed for the people to reduce their inconvenience in travel to hospitals due to ailing health. Ill-patientrequires accurate decision to be taken immediately in critical situations, so that life-protecting and lifesaving therapy can be properly applied. In recent years, sensors are used in each and every fast developing application for designing the miniaturized system which is much easier for people use. A remote health monitoring messenger informs the doctor about the patient condition through wireless media such as Global System for Mobile communication. The system specifically deals with the signal conditioning and data acquisition of heart beat, temperature, and blood pressure of human body. The Heart beat sensor is used to read the patient’s beats per minute (bpm and temperature sensor to measure the body temperature of patient externally and pressure sensor to measure the level of pressure in blood. Signals obtained from sensors are fed into the microcontroller for processing and medicine is prescribed as first aid for patient to control the parameters through visual basic. A message is then sent to the doctor for further actions to be taken for treatment of patient after first aid. The system has a very good response time and it is cost effective.

  2. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  3. 76 FR 6475 - Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emergency Responder Health Monitoring and... responder safety and health by monitoring and conducting surveillance of their health and safety during the... of a response. The proposed system is referred to as the ``Emergency Responder Health Monitoring...

  4. Fabrication of Wearable Sensors for Human Health Monitoring through Magnetically Directed Assembly Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Azar; Ashe, Jeffrey; Misner, Matthew; Yang, Yanzhe; Zhong, Sheng; Yin, Ming; Brewer, Joleyn; Karp, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Many previous efforts to modify patient monitors for remote or wearable use have suffered from high cost, poor performance, and low medical acceptance. A new technology approach is needed to enable these clinical benefits and to satisfy challenging economic, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. Here, we present results on our initial efforts aimed at designing and building a prototype multi-wavelength arrayed photoplethysmograph (PPG) by using magnetically directed self-assembly (MDSA). We will discuss novel approaches in magnetic nanomaterial design, synthesis and deposition to enable MDSA based manufacturing. We will also demonstrate that multiple devices can be deposited through heterogeneous MDSA. The novel MDSA technology could make such PPG sensors a reality. This effort is sponsored by the Department of the Army under award W81XWH1110833

  5. Ultrasonic wireless health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Lionel; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel; Richard, Claude; Guy, Philippe; Yuse, Kaori; Monnier, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    The integration of autonomous wireless elements in health monitoring network increases the reliability by suppressing power supplies and data transmission wiring. Micro-power piezoelectric generators are an attractive alternative to primary batteries which are limited by a finite amount of energy, a limited capacity retention and a short shelf life (few years). Our goal is to implement such an energy harvesting system for powering a single AWT (Autonomous Wireless Transmitter) using our SSH (Synchronized Switch Harvesting) method. Based on a non linear process of the piezoelement voltage, this SSH method optimizes the energy extraction from the mechanical vibrations. This AWT has two main functions : The generation of an identifier code by RF transmission to the central receiver and the Lamb wave generation for the health monitoring of the host structure. A damage index is derived from the variation between the transmitted wave spectrum and a reference spectrum. The same piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting function and the Lamb wave generation, thus reducing mass and cost. A micro-controller drives the energy balance and synchronizes the functions. Such an autonomous transmitter has been evaluated on a 300x50x2 mm 3 composite cantilever beam. Four 33x11x0.3 mm 3 piezoelements are used for the energy harvesting and for the wave lamb generation. A piezoelectric sensor is placed at the free end of the beam to track the transmitted Lamb wave. In this configuration, the needed energy for the RF emission is 0.1 mJ for a 1 byte-information and the Lamb wave emission requires less than 0.1mJ. The AWT can harvested an energy quantity of approximately 20 mJ (for a 1.5 Mpa lateral stress) with a 470 μF storage capacitor. This corresponds to a power density near to 6mW/cm 3. The experimental AWT energy abilities are presented and the damage detection process is discussed. Finally, some envisaged solutions are introduced for the implementation of the required data

  6. A WSN based Environment and Parameter Monitoring System for Human Health Comfort: A Cloud Enabled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohara Pai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number and type of sensors measuring physical and physiological parameters have seen dramatic increase due to progress in the MEMS and Nano Technology. The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in turn is bringing new applications in environment monitoring and healthcare in order to improve the quality of service especially in hospitals. The adequacy of WSNs to gather critical information has provided solution but with limited storage, computation and scalability. This limitation is addressed by integrating WSN with cloud services. But, once the data enters the cloud the owner has no control over it. Hence confidentiality and integrity of the data being stored in the cloud are compromised. In this proposed work, secure sensor-cloud architecture for the applications in healthcare is implemented by integrating two different clouds. The sink node of WSN outsources data into the cloud after performing operations to secure the data. Since the SaaS and IaaS environments of Cloud Computing are provided by two different cloud service providers (CSPs, both the CSPs will not have complete information of the architecture. This provides inherent security as data storage and data processing are done on different clouds.

  7. Rancang Bangun Sistem Transmisi Data Tekanan Darah untuk Mendukung Human Health Monitoring Berbasis Pada Mobile Platform Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Triananda Dirta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tensimeter adalah alat kesehatan yang digunakan untuk mengukur tekanan darah. Disisi lain, perkembangan teknologi telah mendukung adanya komunikasi jarak jauh yang lebih dikenal dengan telemetri. Hal ini sangat menunjang dalam keperluan ambulatori di mana pasien tetap bisa dipantau oleh pihak rumah sakit meskipun pasien tidak berada di rumah sakit. Penelitian ini telah menghasillkan sebuah Human Health Monitoring, yaitu tensimeter digital yang dapat memonitoring pasien berbasis pada mobile platform Android. Data yang dikirim adalah tekanan yang kemudian dikonversi menjadi tegangan oleh mikrokontroler ATMega 8535. Melalui modul bluetooth SPC Bluelink, dapat dilakukan pengiriman paket data (transmisi paket data menuju ponsel android. Bluetooth ini melakukan telemetri mobile platform Android dalam jangkauan 10 meter sekalipun dibatasi oleh dinding. Data yang diterima oleh mobile platform android pada resolusi sebesar 1200 x 600 pixels mencakup fungsi grafik, dan perhitungan tekanan sistolik dan diastolik. Dan Pengiriman data dengan time delay minimum adalah dilakukan pada jarak 1 meter dan tanpa penghalang. Berdasar Analisis Statistical Process Controll yang telah dilakukan, maka penelitian ini telah terkontrol dengan prosentase kegagalan transmisi data antara 0,1% hingga 0,3%.

  8. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Research has successfully demonstrated a dry electrode (no electrolyte or gel required) for heart rate and ECG monitoring. Preliminary data has indicated...

  9. Remote personal health monitoring with radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    We present several techniques utilizing radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health monitoring. One technique involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another technique uses both internal and external RFID sensors. Simultaneous monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting can also be done using networks of RFID sensors. All the monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly and timely to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously monitored information provides medical professionals more complete and long-term studies of patients. All of these result in not only enhancement of the health treatment quality but also significant reduction of medical expenditure. These techniques demonstrate that health monitoring of patients can be done wirelessly at any time and any place without interfering with the patients' normal activities. Implementing the RFID technology would not only help reduce the enormous and significantly growing medical costs in the U.S.A., but also help improve the health treatment capability as well as enhance the understanding of long-term personal health and illness.

  10. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-02-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders.

  11. Diver Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Software - Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program clause contained in the above identified contract. No restrictions apply after the...safety and effectiveness—their body. The goal of this Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase II project is the development of a Diver Health...Between DHMS and Biopac -0.47 ± 0.86 -0.57 ± 1.39 -0.52 i 1.16 Across all tests, however, a standard deviation of 1.16 bpm is small and validates the

  12. Astronaut health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Extended weightlessness causes numerous deleterious changes in human physiology, including space motion sickness, cephalad fluid shifts, reduced immune response, and breakdown of muscle tissue with subsequent loss of bone mass and formation of renal stones. Furthermore, these physiological changes also influence the metabolism of drugs used by astronauts to minimize these deleterious effects. Unfortunately, the changes in human physiology in space are also reflected in drug metabolism, and current pre-flight analyses designed to set dosage are inadequate. Furthermore, current earth-based analytical laboratory methods that employ liquid or gas chromatography for separation and fluorescence or mass spectrometry for trace detection are labor intensive, slow, massive, and not cost-effective for operation in space. In an effort to overcome these instrument limitations we have been developing a sampling device to both separate these drugs and metabolites from urine, and generate surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra. The detailed molecular vibrational information afforded by Raman scattering allows chemical identification, while the surface-enhancement increases sensitivity by six or more orders of magnitude and allows detection of nanogram per milliliter concentrations. Generally no more than 1 milliliter of sample is required and complete analysis can be performed in 5 minutes using a portable, light-weight Raman spectrometer. Here we present the SER analysis of several drugs used by astronauts measured in synthetic urine and reconstituted urine.

  13. [The research and expectation on wearable health monitoring system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feiba; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hehua; Yan, Lexian; Li, Shuying; Zhou, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Wearable health monitoring systems that use wearable biosensors capturing human motion and physiological parameters, to achieve the wearer's movement and health management needs. Wearable health monitoring system is a noninvasive continuous detection of human physiological information, data wireless transmission and real-time processing capabilities of integrated system, can satisfy physiological condition monitoring under the condition of low physiological and psychological load. This paper first describes the wearable health monitoring system structure and the relevant technology applied to wearable health monitoring system, and focuses on the current research work what we have done associated with wearable monitoring that wearable respiration and ECG acquisition and construction of electric multi-parameter body area network. Finally, the wearable monitoring system for the future development direction is put forward a simple expectation.

  14. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral health risks during long-duration space exploration missions are among the most difficult to predict, detect, and mitigate. Given the anticipated extended duration of future missions and their isolated, extreme, and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavior conditions and mental disorders will develop among astronaut crew. Pulsar Informatics, Inc., has developed a health monitoring tool that provides a means to detect and address behavioral disorders and mental conditions at an early stage. The tool integrates all available behavioral measures collected during a mission to identify possible health indicator warning signs within the context of quantitatively tracked mission stressors. It is unobtrusive and requires minimal crew time and effort to train and utilize. The monitoring tool can be deployed in space analog environments for validation testing and ultimate deployment in long-duration space exploration missions.

  15. Human health risk assessment of the mixture of pharmaceuticals in Dutch drinking water and its sources based on frequent monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Kroesbergen, Jan; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2014-10-15

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is a topic of concern. Previous risk assessments indicate that their low concentrations are very unlikely to pose risks to human health, however often conclusions had to be based on small datasets and mixture effects were not included. The objectives of this study were to a) investigate if pharmaceuticals in surface and polder water penetrate in drinking water, b) assess the lifelong exposure of consumers to pharmaceuticals via drinking water and c) assess the possible individual and mixture health risks associated with this exposure. To fulfill these aims, a 2-year set of 4-weekly monitoring data of pharmaceuticals was used from three drinking water production plants. The 42 pharmaceuticals that were monitored were selected according to their consumption volume, earlier detection, toxicity and representation of the most relevant therapeutic classes. Lifelong exposures were calculated from concentrations and compared with therapeutic doses. Health risks were assessed by benchmarking concentrations with provisional guideline values. Combined risks of mixtures of pharmaceuticals were estimated using the concept of Concentration Addition. The lifelong exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water was calculated to be extremely low, i.e. a few mg, in total corresponding to monitoring dataset enabled the performance of a realistic risk assessment. It showed that working with maximum instead of average concentrations may overestimate the risk considerably. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  17. Wearable sensors for health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, George; Butca, Cristina; Ochian, Adelina; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe several wearable sensors, designed for monitoring the health condition of the patients, based on an experimental model. Wearable sensors enable long-term continuous physiological monitoring, which is important for the treatment and management of many chronic illnesses, neurological disorders, and mental health issues. The system is based on a wearable sensors network, which is connected to a computer or smartphone. The wearable sensor network integrates several wearable sensors that can measure different parameters such as body temperature, heart rate and carbon monoxide quantity from the air. After the portable sensors measuring parameter values, they are transmitted by microprocessor through the Bluetooth to the application developed on computer or smartphone, to be interpreted.

  18. Wireless Neurochemical Monitoring in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kasasbeh, Aimen; Lee, Kendall; Bieber, Allan; Bennet, Kevin; Chang, Su-Youne

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have long been utilized to investigate chemical changes in the neuronal microenvironment. Preclinical models have demonstrated the successful monitoring of changes in various neurotransmitter systems in vivo with high temporal and spatial resolution. The expansion of electrochemical recording to humans is a critical yet challenging goal to elucidate various aspects of human neurophysiology and to create future therapies. We have designed a novel device named WINCS (...

  19. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-07-01

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solder Joint Health Monitoring Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael M.; Flynn, James G.; Browder, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    A method of monitoring the health of selected solder joints, called SJ-BIST, has been developed by Ridgetop Group Inc. under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. The primary goal of this research program is to test and validate this method in a flight environment using realistically seeded faults in selected solder joints. An additional objective is to gather environmental data for future development of physics-based and data-driven prognostics algorithms. A test board is being designed using a Xilinx FPGA. These boards will be tested both in flight and on the ground using a shaker table and an altitude chamber.

  1. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  2. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  3. The use of muscle burden in rabbitfish Siganus oramin for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Wu, Rudolf S S; Zheng, Gene J; Au, Doris W T; Lam, Paul K S; Shin, Paul K S

    2009-07-01

    Muscle concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in rabbitfish Siganus oramin collected from Victoria Harbour and its vicinity, Hong Kong from 2004 to 2007. Spatially, relatively higher levels of [summation operator]PAH (1.05-4.26 microg g(-1)) and [summation operator]PCB (45.1-76.9 ng g(-1)) were determined in the central and western sites inside the harbour. Temporally, upward trend of [summation operator]PAH, accompanied with a proportion shift from high molecular weight to low molecular weight PAHs, was detected during the three-year study period, suggesting a heavier marine traffic in Victoria Harbour and its western region. However, human health risk assessment based on five individual PAHs indicated that PAHs in fish muscles posed minimal health risk through consumption. In contrast, a downward trend of [summation operator]PCB was registered as the open use of PCBs has been banned. Despite this, the level of [summation operator]PCB in fish muscles still posed a health risk on the local people who have a high fish consumption rate. While seasonal influences on [summation operator]PAH/[summation operator]PCB accumulation in S. oramin seemed to be negligible, our findings in S. oramin were in line with the established PAH and PCB levels in sediments and/or mussels from the harbour, suggesting S. oramin can be used as a model fish species for monitoring PAHs and PCBs in the region.

  4. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  5. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  6. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical reportpresents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective usingdata from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the

  7. Structural health monitoring meets data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Shengfa

    2014-01-01

    With the development of sensing and data processing techniques, monitoring physical systems in the field with a sensor network is becoming a feasible option for many domains. Such monitoring systems are referred to as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems. By definition, SHM is the process of i

  8. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  9. Local measurement for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Z.Qi; Guo Xun; Qi Xiaozhai; W. Dong; P.Chang

    2005-01-01

    Localized nature of damage in structures requires local measurements for structural health monitoring. The local measurement means to measure the local, usually higher modes of the vibration in a structure. Three fundamental issues about the local measurement for structural health monitoring including (1) the necessity of making local measurement, (2) the difficulty of making local measurement and (3) how to make local measurement are addressed in this paper. The results from both the analysis and the tests show that the local measurement can successfully monitor the structural health status as long as the local modes are excited. Unfortunately, the results also illustrate that it is difficult to excite local modes in a structure.Therefore, in order to carry structural health monitoring into effect, we must (1) ensure that the local modes are excited, and (2) deploy enough sensors in a structure so that the local modes can be monitored.

  10. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  11. Forest health monitoring: 2001 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling; John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national report uses FHM data, as well as data from a variety of other programs, to provide an overview of forest health based on the criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry framework of the Santiago Declaration. It presents information about the status of and trends in various forest health indicators...

  12. The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop report on electronic fetal monitoring: update on definitions, interpretation, and research guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macones, George A; Hankins, Gary D V; Spong, Catherine Y; Hauth, John; Moore, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In April 2008, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine...

  13. Health Monitoring and Life on the Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Wilcox

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing health monitoring systems is a complex task. This issue of Preventing Chronic Disease includes a report and commentary on measuring the burden of diabetes at the individual level in minority populations (1,2 and a report on measuring heart disease and stroke indicators at the policy level (3. To inspire stalwart professionals to design such systems, I turn to an individual recognized for his insightful commentary — Mark Twain, also known as Samuel Clemens. Twain had a keen eye for the idiosyncrasies of human behavior, and his nonfiction works suggest he was adept at amateur qualitative research. Though he was a man of letters rather than a scientist, he clearly appreciated the issues involved in gathering quality information: There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesome returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact (4. The balance of conjecture and fact is a source of ongoing tension in public health: collecting data is time-consuming and costly, but operating health programs based on conjecture is risky.

  14. An Integrated Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, H. M.; Shumaker, B. D.; McCulley, J. R.; Morton, G. W.

    Based on such criteria as safety and mission success, programmatic risk, affordability, and extensibility/flexibility, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has chosen fission surface power (FSP) as the primary energy source for building a sustained human presence on the Moon, exploring Mars, and extremely long-duration space missions. The current benchmark FSP system has a mission life of at least 8 years during which time there is no opportunity for repair, sensor calibrations, or periodic maintenance tasks that are normally performed on terrestrial-based nuclear power plants during scheduled outages. Current technology relies heavily on real-time human interaction, monitoring and control. However; due to the long communication times between the Earth and Moon, or Mars, real-time human control is not possible, resulting in a critical need to develop autonomous health monitoring technology for FSP systems.This paper describes the design and development of an autonomous health monitoring system that will (1) provide on-line calibration monitoring, (2) reduce uncertainties in sensor measurements, and (3) provide sensor validation and fault detection capabilities for the control systems of various FSP subsystems. The health monitoring system design integrates a number of signal processing algorithms and techniques such as cross-calibration, empirical modeling using neural networks, and physical modeling under a modular signal processing platform that will enable robust sensor and system monitoring without the need for human interaction. Prototypes of the health monitoring system have been tested and validated on data acquired from preliminary subsystem testing of NASA's FSP Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) as well as simulated laboratory data. Results from this testing have demonstrated the utility and benefits that such autonomous health monitoring systems can provide to FSP subsystems and other potential applications within NASA such as launch

  15. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  16. Structural health monitoring using genetic fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pawar, Prashant M

    2014-01-01

    The high profile of structural health monitoring (SHM) will add urgency to this detailed treatment of intelligent SHM development and implementation via the evolutionary system, which uses a genetic algorithm to automate the development of the fuzzy system.

  17. Integrating structural health and condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; Thöns, Sebastian; McMillan, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a large financial incentive to minimise operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for offshore wind power by optimising the maintenance plan. The integration of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM) may help realise this. There is limited work on the integration...

  18. UWB Radar for health monitoring applications

    OpenAIRE

    Trullenque Ortiz, Martín

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for non-invasive monitoring system of key cardio-pulmonary functions and other internal structures. UWB radar offers advantages for health monitoring applications: - Skin contact not required - Works through clothing and skin - Extremely high-resolution UWB able to detect sub-mm movement of internal structures - Insensitive to environmental conditions - Low-power transceivers are relatively inexpensive and easily miniaturized - Enables a new class of wearable/wireless health m...

  19. Mobile health monitoring system for community health workers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available . Functional description The application provides technology for real time, dependable and intelligent health monitoring by health workers in the field. It integrates a set of wearable wireless sensors with a mobile computing device, such as a 3... communities remain a challenge for many governments, technological innovations that can increase prevention and control of NCDs are needed. Wearable health devices such as ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitors are a step in the right direction. ABP...

  20. On the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Thöns, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Health monitoring has, over the last 2-3 decades, become a topic of significant interest within the structural engineering research community, but also in the broader areas of civil and mechanical engineering. Whereas the merits of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) are generally appreciated in q...... of SHM an example is provided. The example addresses the life-cycle benefit maximization for offshore jacket structures subject to fatigue crack growth utilizing monitoring of near field fatigue stresses as a means of optimizing risk based inspection and maintenance strategies....

  1. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    ) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...... for and the biomonitoring results should preferentially be linked with accurate ambient air monitoring. In persons occupationally exposed to styrene the endpoints of DNA-damage and DNA-repair in genetic monitoring are methods of choice in exposure situations above the current Danish (25 ppm) or Finnish (20 ppm...

  2. Enhancing Human Resilience : monitoring, sensing, and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wabeke, T.R.; Koot, G.; Venrooij, W.; Valk, P.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of miniaturized monitoring technology represents the greatest opportunity for advancing Resilience and Mental Health in over a century. All experts of the Resilience- and Mental Health domain are contending with a significant mental health burden, e.g. almost half of all work

  3. Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%, bedrooms (77% and living rooms (74% were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS. On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion

  4. Forest health monitoring: 2003 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling; William D. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national reports present results from forest health data analyses focusing on a national perspective. The Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests are used as a reporting framework. This report has five main sections. The first contains introductory material....

  5. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  6. Optical Structural Health Monitoring Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Markov, Vladimir; Earthman, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This non-destructive, optical fatigue detection and monitoring system relies on a small and unobtrusive light-scattering sensor that is installed on a component at the beginning of its life in order to periodically scan the component in situ. The method involves using a laser beam to scan the surface of the monitored component. The device scans a laser spot over a metal surface to which it is attached. As the laser beam scans the surface, disruptions in the surface cause increases in scattered light intensity. As the disruptions in the surface grow, they will cause the light to scatter more. Over time, the scattering intensities over the scanned line can be compared to detect changes in the metal surface to find cracks, crack precursors, or corrosion. This periodic monitoring of the surface can be used to indicate the degree of fatigue damage on a component and allow one to predict the remaining life and/or incipient mechanical failure of the monitored component. This wireless, compact device can operate for long periods under its own battery power and could one day use harvested power. The prototype device uses the popular open-source TinyOS operating system on an off-the-shelf Mica2 sensor mote, which allows wireless command and control through dynamically reconfigurable multi-node sensor networks. The small size and long life of this device could make it possible for the nodes to be installed and left in place over the course of years, and with wireless communication, data can be extracted from the nodes by operators without physical access to the devices. While a prototype has been demonstrated at the time of this reporting, further work is required in the system s development to take this technology into the field, especially to improve its power management and ruggedness. It should be possible to reduce the size and sensitivity as well. Establishment of better prognostic methods based on these data is also needed. The increase of surface roughness with

  7. In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

  8. Forest health monitoring: 2004 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. Results presented in the report pertain to the Santiago Declaration’s Criterion 1— Conservation of Biological Diversity and Criterion 3—Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and...

  9. Forest health monitoring: 2002 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt H. Riitters; Barbara L. Conkling

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. This annual report focuses on “Criterion 3—Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and Vitality” from the “Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forestry of the Santiago Declaration”...

  10. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  11. Maintaining the Health of Software Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Software health management (SWHM) techniques complement the rigorous verification and validation processes that are applied to safety-critical systems prior to their deployment. These techniques are used to monitor deployed software in its execution environment, serving as the last line of defense against the effects of a critical fault. SWHM monitors use information from the specification and implementation of the monitored software to detect violations, predict possible failures, and help the system recover from faults. Changes to the monitored software, such as adding new functionality or fixing defects, therefore, have the potential to impact the correctness of both the monitored software and the SWHM monitor. In this work, we describe how the results of a software change impact analysis technique, Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), can be applied to monitored software to identify the potential impact of the changes on the SWHM monitor software. The results of DiSE can then be used by other analysis techniques, e.g., testing, debugging, to help preserve and improve the integrity of the SWHM monitor as the monitored software evolves.

  12. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  13. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  14. We should monitor human fercundity, but how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    1999-01-01

    Human fecundity may be declining, and we may need ways to monitor it. The most simple monitoring is based on measuring waiting time to pregnancy retrospectively among pregnant women. Unfortunately, this design does not provide an estimate of fecundity, because infertile couples are excluded. We...

  15. Structural health monitoring with fiber optic sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.ANSARI

    2009-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors have been successfully implemented in aeronautics, mechanical systems, and medical applications. Civil structures pose further challenges in monitoring mainly due to their large dimensions, diversity and heterogeneity of materials involved, and hostile construction environment. This article provides a summary of basic principles pertaining to practical health monitoring of civil engineering structures with optical fiber sensors. The issues discussed include basic sensor principles, strain transfer mechanism, sensor packaging, sensor placement in construction environment, and reliability and survivability of the sensors.

  16. Acoustic Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, B.; Augustin, J.; Hentschel, D.; Schubert, F.; Köhler, B.; Meyendorf, N.

    2008-02-01

    Future safety and maintenance strategies for industrial components and vehicles are based on combinations of monitoring systems that are permanently attached to or embedded in the structure, and periodic inspections. The latter belongs to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and can be enhanced or partially replaced by structural health monitoring systems. However, the main benefit of this technology for the future will consist of systems that can be differently designed based on improved safety philosophies, including continuous monitoring. This approach will increase the efficiency of inspection procedures at reduced inspection times. The Fraunhofer IZFP Dresden Branch has developed network nodes, miniaturized transmitter and receiver systems for active and passive acoustical techniques and sensor systems that can be attached to or embedded into components or structures. These systems have been used to demonstrate intelligent sensor networks for the monitoring of aerospace structures, railway systems, wind energy generators, piping system and other components. Material discontinuities and flaws have been detected and monitored during full scale fatigue testing. This paper will discuss opportunities and future trends in nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring based on new sensor principles and advanced microelectronics. It will outline various application examples of monitoring systems based on acoustic techniques and will indicate further needs for research and development.

  17. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  18. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  19. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  20. On-farm udder health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T J G M; van Veersen, J C L; Sampimon, O C; Olde Riekerink, R G M

    2011-01-01

    In this article an on-farm monitoring approach on udder health is presented. Monitoring of udder health consists of regular collection and analysis of data and of the regular evaluation of management practices. The ultimate goal is to manage critical control points in udder health management, such as hygiene, body condition, teat ends and treatments, in such a way that results (udder health parameters) are always optimal. Mastitis, however, is a multifactorial disease, and in real life it is not possible to fully prevent all mastitis problems. Therefore udder health data are also monitored with the goal to pick up deviations before they lead to (clinical) problems. By quantifying udder health data and management, a farm is approached as a business, with much attention for efficiency, thought over processes, clear agreements and goals, and including evaluation of processes and results. The whole approach starts with setting SMART (Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time-bound) goals, followed by an action plan to realize these goals.

  1. [Health economical aspects of telemedical glaucoma monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierk, T; Jürgens, C; Grossjohann, R; Flessa, S; Tost, F

    2011-04-01

    Telemedical home monitoring of glaucoma patients is not covered by health insurance in Germany. Various clinical studies have indicated that 24 h monitoring of intraocular and blood pressure of glaucoma patients allows a better evaluation of the individual disease condition. If the necessary parameters can be collected with telemedical home monitoring it will be possible to reduce the number of 24 h intraocular pressure profiles which necessitate hospital admission. Therefore inpatient 24 h profiles have been chosen as a health economical allocation base with a presentable economical value for the comparative examination. Assuming an at least identical or even higher clinical outcome of the telemedical glaucoma home monitoring inpatient 24 h profiles were chosen as a health economical allocation base to compare and contrast these methods. All procedures of the inpatient 24 h profiles at the ophthalmic clinic of Greifswald were measured using the stopwatch method. In a 1 day test run all activities of the medical staff were identified and documented in a list and afterwards measurements were carried out over 7 days with several stopwatches to allow the documentation of parallel activities. To determine the consumption of resources in telemedical home monitoring the self-documentation of all employees involved in the research project TT-MV were evaluated. Expert interviews helped to determine the economically relevant data about the applied medical technology, e.g. measuring devices, server and electronic health records. The number and complexity of the subprocesses of the inpatient 24 h intraocular pressure profiles were significantly higher compared to telemedical home monitoring. The total costs of the inpatient 24 h profiles were 571.21 € per patient including 291.21 € for medical care and 280 € for accommodation. In contrast the total costs of telemedical home monitoring were 288.72 € per patient. A direct cost comparison shows that telemedical home

  2. Physicians' appraisal of mobile health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Castaneda, J. Alberto; Sanz, Silvia; Henseler, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses what factors influence and moderate Japanese physicians' mobile health monitoring (MHM) adoption for diabetic patients. In light of the multilevel sequential check theory, the study tests whether novelty seeking, self-efficacy, and compatibility moderate the effects of overall q

  3. Wearable Sensors for Remote Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sumit; Mondal, Tapas; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-01-12

    Life expectancy in most countries has been increasing continually over the several few decades thanks to significant improvements in medicine, public health, as well as personal and environmental hygiene. However, increased life expectancy combined with falling birth rates are expected to engender a large aging demographic in the near future that would impose significant  burdens on the socio-economic structure of these countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use systems for the sake of elderly healthcare and well-being. Remote health monitoring, based on non-invasive and wearable sensors, actuators and modern communication and information technologies offers an efficient and cost-effective solution that allows the elderly to continue to live in their comfortable home environment instead of expensive healthcare facilities. These systems will also allow healthcare personnel to monitor important physiological signs of their patients in real time, assess health conditions and provide feedback from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years. A survey on textile-based sensors that can potentially be used in wearable systems is also presented. Finally, compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed.

  4. Wearable Sensors for Remote Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Majumder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy in most countries has been increasing continually over the several few decades thanks to significant improvements in medicine, public health, as well as personal and environmental hygiene. However, increased life expectancy combined with falling birth rates are expected to engender a large aging demographic in the near future that would impose significant  burdens on the socio-economic structure of these countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use systems for the sake of elderly healthcare and well-being. Remote health monitoring, based on non-invasive and wearable sensors, actuators and modern communication and information technologies offers an efficient and cost-effective solution that allows the elderly to continue to live in their comfortable home environment instead of expensive healthcare facilities. These systems will also allow healthcare personnel to monitor important physiological signs of their patients in real time, assess health conditions and provide feedback from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years. A survey on textile-based sensors that can potentially be used in wearable systems is also presented. Finally, compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed.

  5. Design Optimization of Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Sensor networks drive decisions. Approach: Design networks to minimize the expected total cost (in a statistical sense, i.e. Bayes Risk) associated with making wrong decisions and with installing maintaining and running the sensor network itself. Search for optimal solutions using Monte-Carlo-Sampling-Adapted Genetic Algorithm. Applications include structural health monitoring and surveillance.

  6. Wearable Sensors for Remote Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sumit; Mondal, Tapas; Deen, M. Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy in most countries has been increasing continually over the several few decades thanks to significant improvements in medicine, public health, as well as personal and environmental hygiene. However, increased life expectancy combined with falling birth rates are expected to engender a large aging demographic in the near future that would impose significant  burdens on the socio-economic structure of these countries. Therefore, it is essential to develop cost-effective, easy-to-use systems for the sake of elderly healthcare and well-being. Remote health monitoring, based on non-invasive and wearable sensors, actuators and modern communication and information technologies offers an efficient and cost-effective solution that allows the elderly to continue to live in their comfortable home environment instead of expensive healthcare facilities. These systems will also allow healthcare personnel to monitor important physiological signs of their patients in real time, assess health conditions and provide feedback from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented and compared several low-cost and non-invasive health and activity monitoring systems that were reported in recent years. A survey on textile-based sensors that can potentially be used in wearable systems is also presented. Finally, compatibility of several communication technologies as well as future perspectives and research challenges in remote monitoring systems will be discussed. PMID:28085085

  7. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  8. Principles in wireless building health monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, F. P.; Makris, J. P.; Stonham, J.; Vallianatos, F.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the structural state of a building is essential for the safety of the people who work, live, visit or just use it as well as for the civil protection of urban areas. Many factors can affect the state of the health of a structure, namely man made, like mistakes in the construction, traffic, heavy loads on the structures, explosions, environmental impacts like wind loads, humidity, chemical reactions, temperature changes and saltiness, and natural hazards like earthquakes and landslides. Monitoring the health of a structure provides the ability to anticipate structural failures and secure the safe use of buildings especially those of public services. This work reviews the state of the art and the challenges of a wireless Structural Health Monitoring (WiSHM). Literature review reveals that although there is significant evolution in wireless structural health monitoring, in many cases, monitoring by itself is not enough to predict when a structure becomes inappropriate and/or unsafe for use, and the damage or low durability of a structure cannot be revealed (Chintalapudi, et al., 2006; Ramos, Aguilar, & Lourenço, 2011). Several features and specifications of WiSHM like wireless sensor networking, reliability and autonomy of sensors, algorithms of data transmission and analysis should still be evolved and improved in order to increase the predictive effectiveness of the SHM (Jinping Ou & Hui Li, 2010; Lu & Loh, 2010) . Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the ARCHEMEDES III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled «Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC) ».

  9. Vibration health monitoring for tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwear, Nasseradeen; Eriksson, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Tensegrities are assembly structures, getting their equilibrium from the interaction between tension in cables and compression in bars. During their service life, slacking in their cables and nearness to buckling in their bars need to be monitored to avoid a sudden collapse. This paper discusses how to design the tensegrities to make them feasible for vibrational health monitoring methods. Four topics are discussed; suitable finite elements formulation, pre-measurements analysis to find the locations of excitation and sensors for the interesting modes, the effects from some environmental conditions, and the pre-understanding of the effects from different slacking scenarios.

  10. Assessing the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2013-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are designed for assisting owners and operators with information and forecasts concerning the fitness for purpose of structures and building systems. The benefit associated with the implementation of SHM may in some cases be intuitively anticipated......-posterior decision analysis. The quantification of the value of SHM builds upon the quantification of the value of information (VoI) or rather the benefit of monitoring. The suggested approach involves a probabilistic representation of the loads and environmental conditions acting on structures as well...

  11. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  12. Validation of a Method for the Assessment of Urinary Neopterin Levels to Monitor Health Status in Non-human-primate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Hohmann, Gottfried; Deschner, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Determining individual health status is of great importance for a better understanding of life history trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, existing immunological methods are invasive and therefore not suitable for investigating health status in wild populations. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-invasive methods to assess the immune status of animals. Neopterin is involved in the cell-mediated pathway of the immune response (Th1–type), secreted during the activation of monocytes and macrophages. We investigated if urinary neopterin could serve as a biomarker of health status in bonobos and chimpanzees. First, we performed a chemical validation of a commercial neopterin enzyme immune assay (EIA) for bonobo and chimpanzee urine. We then examined if urinary neopterin levels in bonobos increase during the acute period of respiratory infections. We found that neopterin levels can be reliably measured in urine of the two species with a commercial EIA. Stability experiments revealed considerable changes in urinary neopterin levels in relation to multiple freeze–thaw cycles and extended exposure to room temperature. Exposure to sunlight led to a degradation of urinary neopterin, whereas sample storage up to 2 years did not affect urinary neopterin levels. There was no detectable diurnal variation in neopterin levels, and levels remained very stable across several days in healthy individuals. While urinary neopterin levels were independent of sex, non-adult individuals had higher urinary neopterin levels than adults. Most importantly, there was a significant increase in urinary neopterin levels during a period of respiratory infection. Our results demonstrate that regular urine sample collection would allow for the monitoring of individual health status and disease progression with minimal disturbance of the subjects. In combination with behavioral, life history, and endocrinological parameters, the method can be used to investigate

  13. Identification methods for structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Costas

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume provide an introduction to well known and established system identification methods for structural health monitoring and to more advanced, state-of-the-art tools, able to tackle the challenges associated with actual implementation. Starting with an overview on fundamental methods, introductory concepts are provided on the general framework of time and frequency domain, parametric and non-parametric methods, input-output or output only techniques. Cutting edge tools are introduced including, nonlinear system identification methods; Bayesian tools; and advanced modal identification techniques (such as the Kalman and particle filters, the fast Bayesian FFT method). Advanced computational tools for uncertainty quantification are discussed to provide a link between monitoring and structural integrity assessment. In addition, full scale applications and field deployments that illustrate the workings and effectiveness of the introduced monitoring schemes are demonstrated.

  14. Optical metabolic imaging for monitoring tracheal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Gil, Daniel A.; Choma, Michael A.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-04-01

    The health of the tracheal mucosa and submucosa is a vital yet poorly understood component of critical care medicine, and a minimally-invasive method is needed to monitor tracheal health in patients. Of particular interest are the ciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium that move mucus away from the lungs and prevent respiratory infection. Optical metabolic imaging (OMI) allows cellular-level measurement of metabolism, and is a compelling method for assessing tracheal health because ciliary motor proteins require ATP to function. In this pilot study, we apply multiphoton imaging of the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and FAD to the mucosa and submucosa of ex vivo mouse trachea. We demonstrate the feasibility and potential diagnostic utility of these measurements for assessing tracheal health and pathophysiology at the single-cell level.

  15. [Biological monitoring: concepts and applications in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, F; Machado, J M; Araújo, U C; Moreira, M F; Apostoli, P

    2001-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the theoretical discussion on potential uses for biological monitoring of exposure to chemical substances as related to human health, considering different concepts: definitions, uses, and limitations of internal dose and biological effect indicators and their availability for the substances to be quantified; knowledge of reference values, action levels, and limits based on health and negotiated patterns in biological monitoring interpretation and perspectives; and ethical and social problems in practice and within different preventive practices and their use in public health. Biological monitoring is the result of an exposure situation with conclusions based on scientific and consensus values, rules, and legislation. Biological monitoring as a continuous process and related to actually observed cases has helped establish technological exposure reference values and consensus levels as indicators for improving the environment and the workplace. As a step in the decision-making process in risk analysis, biological monitoring needs to be critically assessed as to its ethical aspects in light of the end use of results and values, which are references for application of this methodology.

  16. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  17. New trends in structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Güemes, J

    2013-01-01

    Experts actively working in structural health monitoring and control techniques present the current research, areas of application and tendencies for the future of this technology, including various design issues involved. Examples using some of the latest hardware and software tools, experimental data from small scale laboratory demonstrators and measurements made on real structures illustrate the book. It will be a reference for professionals and students in the areas of engineering, applied natural sciences and engineering management.

  18. Flexible Structural-Health-Monitoring Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xinlin; Kuo, Fuo

    2008-01-01

    A generic design for a type of flexible structural-health-monitoring sheet with multiple sensor/actuator types and a method of manufacturing such sheets has been developed. A sheet of this type contains an array of sensing and/or actuation elements, associated wires, and any other associated circuit elements incorporated into various flexible layers on a thin, flexible substrate. The sheet can be affixed to a structure so that the array of sensing and/or actuation elements can be used to analyze the structure in accordance with structural-health-monitoring techniques. Alternatively, the sheet can be designed to be incorporated into the body of the structure, especially if the structure is made of a composite material. Customarily, structural-health monitoring is accomplished by use of sensors and actuators arrayed at various locations on a structure. In contrast, a sheet of the present type can contain an entire sensor/actuator array, making it unnecessary to install each sensor and actuator individually on or in a structure. Sensors of different types such as piezoelectric and fiber-optic can be embedded in the sheet to form a hybrid sensor network. Similarly, the traces for electric communication can be deposited on one or two layers as required, and an entirely separate layer can be employed to shield the sensor elements and traces.

  19. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available employment. Current use of fossil-fuel causes substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Nevertheless, health challenges still exist (lower health scores) dealing with rural conditions such as distance from medical facilities...] ecological degradation, the pumping and treatment of extraneous water, compliance to the conditions of the environmental authorisation and the management and sustainable closure thereof, until the Minister has issued [an] a closure certificate in terms...

  20. An autonomous structural health monitoring solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherston, Carol A.; Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys; Lees, Jonathan; Eaton, Mark; Pearson, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Combining advanced sensor technologies, with optimised data acquisition and diagnostic and prognostic capability, structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time assessment of the integrity of bridges, buildings, aircraft, wind turbines, oil pipelines and ships, leading to improved safety and reliability and reduced inspection and maintenance costs. The implementation of power harvesting, using energy scavenged from ambient sources such as thermal gradients and sources of vibration in conjunction with wireless transmission enables truly autonomous systems, reducing the need for batteries and associated maintenance in often inaccessible locations, alongside bulky and expensive wiring looms. The design and implementation of such a system however presents numerous challenges. A suitable energy source or multiple sources capable of meeting the power requirements of the system, over the entire monitoring period, in a location close to the sensor must be identified. Efficient power management techniques must be used to condition the power and deliver it, as required, to enable appropriate measurements to be taken. Energy storage may be necessary, to match a continuously changing supply and demand for a range of different monitoring states including sleep, record and transmit. An appropriate monitoring technique, capable of detecting, locating and characterising damage and delivering reliable information, whilst minimising power consumption, must be selected. Finally a wireless protocol capable of transmitting the levels of information generated at the rate needed in the required operating environment must be chosen. This paper considers solutions to some of these challenges, and in particular examines SHM in the context of the aircraft environment.

  1. Challenges in Data Quality Assurance in Pervasive Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Janani; Shin, Minho; Kotz, David; Rajan, Anand; Sastry, Manoj; Yarvis, Mark

    Wearable, portable, and implantable medical sensors have ushered in a new paradigm for healthcare in which patients can take greater responsibility and caregivers can make well-informed, timely decisions. Health-monitoring systems built on such sensors have huge potential benefit to the quality of healthcare and quality of life for many people, such as patients with chronic medical conditions (such as blood-sugar sensors for diabetics), people seeking to change unhealthy behavior (such as losing weight or quitting smoking), or athletes wishing to monitor their condition and performance. To be effective, however, these systems must provide assurances about the quality of the sensor data. The sensors must be applied to the patient by a human, and the sensor data may be transported across multiple networks and devices before it is presented to the medical team. While no system can guarantee data quality, we anticipate that it will help for the system to annotate data with some measure of confidence. In this paper, we take a deeper look at potential health-monitoring usage scenarios and highlight research challenges required to ensure and assess quality of sensor data in health-monitoring systems.

  2. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1989-04-01

    Washington Department of Fisheries has divided the sampling and data collection into three major groups: adult analysis, juvenile analysis and database development. The adult analysis done at spawning includes screening for viral pathogens and Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD). Pre-spawning mortalities are sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens and parasites to determine causes of pre-spawning loss. Juvenile analysis involves monthly monitoring; pre-release examinations for viral pathogens, BKD and, where appropriate, whirling disease (M. cerebralis); completion of the Organosomatic analysis on four index stocks, and midterm exams on yearling groups for BKD and M. cerebralis. Database development required constructing fish health monitoring forms and a computer based data entry and retrieval system. We have completed a full year of sampling and data collection, January, 1987 to January, 1988. This report will present and analyze this information.

  3. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  5. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Chomicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98–100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases.

  6. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz, Lidia; Conn, David Bruce; Padzik, Marcin; Szaflik, Jacek P; Walochnik, Julia; Zawadzki, Paweł J; Pawłowski, Witold; Dybicz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98-100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases.

  7. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  8. Health monitoring method for composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S.; Morris, Shelby J [Hampton, VA

    2011-04-12

    An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

  9. NASA Applications of Structural Health Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W Lance; Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Studor, George

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides examples of research and development that has recently or is currently being conducted at NASA, with a special emphasis on the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace vehicles. SHM applications on several vehicle programs are highlighted, including Space Shuttle Orbiter, International Space Station, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles, and Expandable Launch Vehicles. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: acoustic emission impact detection, multi-parameter fiber optic strain-based sensing, wireless sensor system development, and distributed leak detection.

  10. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  11. Careful monitoring of human rights needed -- Dr. Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    In his talk, Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS team leader Dr. Wiwat Rojanapithayakorn made a plea for the careful monitoring of human rights with respect to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Since the start of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, a total of 47 million people have been infected with HIV, 14 million have died of AIDS, with 33 million afflicted with the virus by the end of 1998. In the wake of this global crisis comes the widespread abuse of human rights and fundamental freedoms worldwide. Many HIV/AIDS patients suffer from discrimination, intolerance, and prejudice. Hence, protection of human rights is crucial to safeguard human dignity in the context of HIV/AIDS, and to warrant an effective public health and social responses to this epidemic. All states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, have the obligation to promote and protect universal human rights standards and fundamental freedoms of all peoples.

  12. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  13. Valve Health Monitoring System Utilizing Smart Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-01-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, body temperature torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commission's requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 enclosures are used to house the base-station

  14. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Mark A.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2008-03-01

    As electric utility wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly, increase in initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of the structure. Acquiring an early indication of structural or mechanical problems allows operators to better plan for maintenance, possibly operate the machine in a de-rated condition rather than taking the unit off-line, or in the case of an emergency, shut the machine down to avoid further damage. This paper describes several promising structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques that were recently exercised during a fatigue test of a 9 meter glass-epoxy and carbon-epoxy wind turbine blade. The SHM systems were implemented by teams from NASA Kennedy Space Center, Purdue University and Virginia Tech. A commercial off-the-shelf acoustic emission (AE) NDT system gathered blade AE data throughout the test. At a fatigue load cycle rate around 1.2 Hertz, and after more than 4,000,000 fatigue cycles, the blade was diagnostically and visibly failing at the out-board blade spar-cap termination point at 4.5 meters. For safety reasons, the test was stopped just before the blade completely failed. This paper provides an overview of the SHM and NDT system setups and some current test results.

  16. Aircraft fiber optic structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Nezih

    2012-06-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a sought after concept that is expected to advance military maintenance programs, increase platform operational safety and reduce its life cycle cost. Such concept is further considered to constitute a major building block of any Integrated Health Management (IHM) capability. Since 65% to 80% of military assets' Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is devoted to operations and support (O&S), the aerospace industry and military sectors continue to look for opportunities to exploit SHM systems, capability and tools. Over the past several years, countless SHM concepts and technologies have emerged. Among those, fiber optic based systems were identified of significant potential. This paper introduces the elements of an SHM system and investigates key issues impeding the commercial implementation of fiber optic based SHM capability. In particular, this paper presents an experimental study of short gauge, intrinsic, spectrometric-based in-fiber Bragg grating sensors, for potential use as a component of an SHM system. Fiber optic Bragg grating sensors are evaluated against resistance strain gauges for strain monitoring, sensitivity, accuracy, reliability, and fatigue durability. Strain field disturbance is also investigated by "embedding" the sensors under a photoelastic coating in order to illustrate sensor intrusiveness in an embedded configuration.

  17. Data driven innovations in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, M. J.; Liyanapathirana, R.

    2017-05-01

    At present, substantial investments are being allocated to civil infrastructures also considered as valuable assets at a national or global scale. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an indispensable tool required to ensure the performance and safety of these structures based on measured response parameters. The research to date on damage assessment has tended to focus on the utilization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) as it proves to be the best alternative over the traditional visual inspections and tethered or wired counterparts. Over the last decade, the structural health and behaviour of innumerable infrastructure has been measured and evaluated owing to several successful ventures of implementing these sensor networks. Various monitoring systems have the capability to rapidly transmit, measure, and store large capacities of data. The amount of data collected from these networks have eventually been unmanageable which paved the way to other relevant issues such as data quality, relevance, re-use, and decision support. There is an increasing need to integrate new technologies in order to automate the evaluation processes as well as to enhance the objectivity of data assessment routines. This paper aims to identify feasible methodologies towards the application of time-series analysis techniques to judiciously exploit the vast amount of readily available as well as the upcoming data resources. It continues the momentum of a greater effort to collect and archive SHM approaches that will serve as data-driven innovations for the assessment of damage through efficient algorithms and data analytics.

  18. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  19. Monitoring 'monitoring' and evaluating 'evaluation': an ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Indira Krishna, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees.

  20. Health Monitoring of TPS Structures by Measuring Their Electrical Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preci, Arianit; Herdrich, Georg; Steinbeck, Andreas; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    Health Monitoring in aerospace applications becomes an emerging technology leading to the development of systems capable of continuously monitoring structures for damage with minimal human intervention. A promising sensing method to be applied on hot structures and thermal protection systems is the electrical resistance measurement technique, which is barely investigated up to now. This method benefits from the advantageous characteristics of self-monitoring materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced materials. By measuring the variation of the electrical resistance of these materials information on possibly present mechanical damage can be derived. In order to set up a database on electric properties of relevant materials under relevant conditions and to perform a proof-of-concept for this health monitoring method a facility has been laid out, which allows for the measurement of the electrical resistance of thermal protection system relevant materials at temperatures up to 2000°C. First preliminary measurements of the surface resistance of a graphite sample have been performed and are presented. It has been proven necessary to make some modifications to the setup. Therefore, the remaining measurements with graphite and C/C-SiC samples are subject of further investigation which will be performed in the future.

  1. Human rights monitoring in virtual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Morr, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities.

  2. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Structural health monitoring of grandstands: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Casero Fuentes Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a state of the art about Grandstands. The Grandstands are slender structures designed to accommodate a large number of people, which are specially under the actions of wind and the human-structure interaction. Over the years, it has been discuss of this topic, although still the number of publications still remain low. The human-structure interaction is a complex issue, where the loads may have different behaviours, depending many factors, including: type of audience (active or passive, public behaviour (jumping, walking, running, clapping, vandal loads, type of event (sports, concerts, meeting, position and posture of the individual, even influences the type of seat (with or without back, stiffness. However, the structure will behave differently when empty or fully occupied. Another load to consider is the wind, especially when the structure has a roof, screens, large-scale advertising, etc. These two types of loads can interact together, which implies an increase in the normal number of load combinations to consider. There are biomechanical models of human behaviour, used for design these types of structures. In addition, there are mathematical models to simulate the behaviour of the Grandstands by numerical methods. In recent years, all these models are throwing good results, against laboratory tests performed. It has also been monitored real Grandstands. This paper compiles all existing information on this topic.

  4. Forests, Trees and Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European...

  5. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  6. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Moore, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in composite materials by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of composites with subsurface defects. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Methods and limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  7. Structural health monitoring apparatus and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor (Inventor); Yu, Lingyu (Inventor); Bottai, Giola Santoni (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and methodology for structural health monitoring (SHM) in which smart devices interrogate structural components to predict failure, expedite needed repairs, and thus increase the useful life of those components. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are applied to or integrated with structural components and various data collected there from provide the ability to detect and locate cracking, corrosion, and disbanding through use of pitch-catch, pulse-echo, electro/mechanical impedance, and phased array technology. Stand alone hardware and an associated software program are provided that allow selection of multiple types of SHM investigations as well as multiple types of data analysis to perform a wholesome investigation of a structure.

  8. Towards spacecraft applications of structural health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper presents recent developments in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM with special attention on the piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS technologies utilizing guided waves (GW as propagating waves (pitch-catch, pulse-echo, standing wave (electromechanical impedance, and phased arrays. The second part of the paper describes the challenges of extending the PWAS GW SHM approach to in-space applications. Three major issues are identified, (a cryogenic temperatures; (b high temperatures; and (c space radiation exposure. Preliminary results in which these three issues were address in a series of carefully conducted experiments are presented and discussed. The third part of the paper discusses a new project that is about to start in collaboration between three Romanian institutes to address the issues and challenging of developing space SHM technologies based on PWAS concepts. The paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  9. Ultrasonic vibration for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Yan, F.; Borigo, C.; Rose, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Guided waves and vibration analysis are two useful techniques in Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring. Bridging the gap between guided waves and vibration, a novel testing method ultrasonic vibration is demonstrated here. Ultrasonic vibration is capable to achieve defect detection sensitivity as ultrasonic guided waves, while maintaining the efficiency of traditional vibration in the way of adopting several sensors to cover the whole structure. In this new method, continuous guided wave energy will impinge into the structure to make the structure vibrate steadily. The steady state vibration is achieved after multiple boundary reflections of the continuous guided wave. In ultrasonic vibration experiments, annual array transducer is used as the actuator. The loading functions are tuned by the frequencies and phase delays among each transducer element. Experiments demonstrate good defect detection ability of by optimally selecting guided wave loadings.

  10. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan; Pereg, Lily; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is important for the maintenance of soil quality. Healthy, biodiverse soils are crucial for human health and wellbeing from several reasons, for example: biodiversity has been shown to be important in controlling populations of pathogens; healthy, well-covered soils can reduce disease outbreaks; carbon-rich soils may also reduce outbreaks of human and animal parasites; exposure to soil microbes can reduce allergies; soils have provided many of our current antibiotics; soil organisms can provide biological disease and pest control agents, healthy soils mean healthier and more abundant foods; soil microbes can enhance crop plant resilience; healthy soils promote good clean air quality, less prone to wind and water erosion; and healthy soils provide clean and safe water through filtration, decontamination by microbes and removal of pollutants. Soil microbes and other biota provide many benefits to human health. Soil microbes are a source of medicines, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs and many more. Organisms that affect soil health and thus human health include those involved in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter and determining soil structure (e.g. aggregation). Again these are related to food security but also affect human health in other ways. Many beneficial organisms have been isolated from soil - plant growth promoting and disease suppressive microbes used as inoculants, foliar inoculants for improvement of ruminant digestion systems and inoculants used in bioremediation of toxic compounds in the environment. Soil biodiversity is highly recognised now as an important feature of healthy soil and imbalances have been shown to give advantage to harmful over beneficial organisms. This presentation will highlight the many connections of biodiversity to soil quality and human health.

  11. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  12. Three-Dimensional Health Monitoring of Sandwich Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers a single-chip structural health-monitoring (SHM) system that uses the impedance method to monitor bulk interiors and wave propagation...

  13. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  14. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  15. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    , ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...

  16. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  17. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    diverse environmental barriers, whether they are physical, geographic, technological, legal, among others(5. Such health problems that generated those impairments are harmful not only to the citizens but also to the State, since they burden the social security system (health, welfare and social security, leading to decreased quality of life, especially of those affected by such problems. Despite the finding of facts as the major expenses with medium and high complexity services in health, sickness benefit and early retirements that could have been avoided, one can perceive the lack of specific and properly planned actions, the implementation of which depends on political and administrative will and on a paradigm shift regarding the expanded focus on the etiology of all these health problems. And yet, no public policies are known in Brazil, to follow up, in a transversal and integral way, all the stages of the life cycle or to delineate the profile of functionality and the monitoring of the incidence of disabilities, but also, in particular, actions focused on future generations, based on the expanded concept of health proposed by WHO and defended in the principles and guidelines of SUS. Far more required than simply creating reintegration services is to avoid / prevent social restriction. Therefore, policies must be drawned with a new perspective on the human being, that respects the constitutional principles and guidelines of the NHS and meet the consequences of demographic and epidemiological transitions in order to promote health so that people live without major disabilities an increased life expectancy that has already been settled in Brazil. At the 13th National Conference on Health, the unprecedented proposal n.144 has been approved on Axis II - Public Policies for Health and Quality of Life: SUS in Social Security and the Pact for Health, along with the motion n. 84, aiming to develop and implement a national health functional policy crossing all health policies

  18. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    environmental barriers, whether they are physical, geographic, technological, legal, among others(5.Such health problems that generated those impairments are harmful not only to the citizens but also to the State, since they burden the social security system (health, welfare and social security, leading to decreased quality of life, especially of those affected by such problems.Despite the finding of facts as the major expenses with medium and high complexity services in health, sickness benefit and early retirements that could have been avoided, one can perceive the lack of specific and properly planned actions, the implementation of which depends on political and administrative will and on a paradigm shift regarding the expanded focus on the etiology of all these health problems.And yet, no public policies are known in Brazil, to follow up, in a transversal and integral way, all the stages of the life cycle or to delineate the profile of functionality and the monitoring of the incidence of disabilities, but also, in particular, actions focused on future generations, based on the expanded concept of health proposed by WHO and defended in the principles and guidelines of SUS.Far more required than simply creating reintegration services is to avoid / prevent social restriction. Therefore, policies must be drawned with a new perspective on the human being, that respects the constitutional principles and guidelines of the NHS and meet the consequences of demographic and epidemiological transitions in order to promote health so that people live without major disabilities an increased life expectancy that has already been settled in Brazil.At the 13th National Conference on Health, the unprecedented proposal n.144 has been approved on Axis II - Public Policies for Health and Quality of Life: SUS in Social Security and the Pact for Health, along with the motion n. 84, aiming to develop and implement a national health functional policy crossing all health policies at their different

  19. Climate Change and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on human health span the trajectory of time—past, present, and future. The key finding from the Working Group II, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that health impacts due to climate change have already occurred in the past, are currently occurring and will continue to occur, at least for the foreseeable future, even with immediate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions [1]. According to the IPCC, there has been increased heat-related mortality and decreased cold-related mortality in some regions as a result of warming (Box 1. Moreover, local changes in temperature and rainfall have altered the distribution of some water-borne illnesses and disease vectors. Impacts of climate-related extremes include alteration of ecosystems, disruption of food production and water supply, damage to infrastructure and settlements, morbidity and mortality, and consequences for mental health and human well-being [1]. [...

  20. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  1. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  2. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  3. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Faniband; Lindh, Christian H; Bo AG Jönsson

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and o...

  4. Framework for monitoring equity in access and health systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper, proposes a framework for monitoring equity in access and health .... get additional data through in—depth and qualitative studies. Equity and health .... characteristics of HIV infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug ...

  5. Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Health monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to change the way health care is currently delivered. Although smart health monitoring systems automate patient monitoring tasks and, thereby improve the patient workflow management, their efficiency in clinical settings is still debatable. This paper presents a review of smart health monitoring systems and an overview of their design and modeling. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the efficiency, clinical acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current health monitoring systems will be presented. The main aim is to review current state of the art monitoring systems and to perform extensive and an in-depth analysis of the findings in the area of smart health monitoring systems. In order to achieve this, over fifty different monitoring systems have been selected, categorized, classified and compared. Finally, major advances in the system design level have been discussed, current issues facing health care providers, as well as the potential challenges to health monitoring field will be identified and compared to other similar systems.

  6. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  7. Smart sensors for health and environment monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers two most important applications of smart sensors, namely bio-health sensing and environmental monitoring.   The approach taken is holistic and covers the complete scope of the subject matter from the principles of the sensing mechanism, through device physics, circuit and system implementation techniques, and energy issues  to wireless connectivity solutions. It is written at a level suitable mainly for post-graduate level researchers interested in practical applications. The chapters are independent but complementary to each other, and the book works within the wider perspective of essential smart sensors for the Internet of Things (IoT).   This is the second of three books based on the Integrated Smart Sensors research project, which describe the development of innovative devices, circuits, and system-level enabling technologies.  The aim of the project was to develop common platforms on which various devices and sensors can be loaded, and to create systems offering significant improve...

  8. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  9. Wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    This brief covers the emerging area of wireless sensor network (WSN)-based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, and introduces the authors’ WSN-based platform called SenetSHM. It helps the reader differentiate specific requirements of SHM applications from other traditional WSN applications, and demonstrates how these requirements are addressed by using a series of systematic approaches. The brief serves as a practical guide, explaining both the state-of-the-art technologies in domain-specific applications of WSNs, as well as the methodologies used to address the specific requirements for a WSN application. In particular, the brief offers instruction for problem formulation and problem solving based on the authors’ own experiences implementing SenetSHM. Seven concise chapters cover the development of hardware and software design of SenetSHM, as well as in-field experiments conducted while testing the platform. The brief’s exploration of the SenetSHM platform is a valuable feature for civil engine...

  10. FOREWORD: Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhishen; Fujino, Yozo

    2005-06-01

    This special issue collects together 19 papers that were originally presented at the First International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-1'2003), held in Tokyo, Japan, on 13-15 November 2003. This conference was organized by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) with partial financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology, Japan. Many related organizations supported the conference. A total of 16 keynote papers including six state-of-the-art reports from different counties, six invited papers and 154 contributed papers were presented at the conference. The conference was attended by a diverse group of about 300 people from a variety of disciplines in academia, industry and government from all over the world. Structural health monitoring (SHM) and intelligent materials, structures and systems have been the subject of intense research and development in the last two decades and, in recent years, an increasing range of applications in infrastructure have been discovered both for existing structures and for new constructions. SHMII-1'2003 addressed progress in the development of building, transportation, marine, underground and energy-generating structures, and other civilian infrastructures that are periodically, continuously and/or actively monitored where there is a need to optimize their performance. In order to focus the current needs on SHM and intelligent technologies, the conference theme was set as 'Structures/Infrastructures Sustainability'. We are pleased to have the privilege to edit this special issue on SHM and intelligent infrastructure based on SHMII-1'2003. We invited some of the presenters to submit a revised/extended version of their paper that was included in the SHMII-1'2003 proceedings for possible publication in the special issue. Each paper included in this special issue was edited with the same

  11. Impact of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral drugs in routine clinical management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and related health care costs: a real-life study in a large cohort of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Valentina Perrone,1 Dario Cattaneo,1 Sonia Radice,1 Diego Sangiorgi,2 Augusto B Federici,3 Maria Rita Gismondo,4 Massimo Medaglia,5 Valeria Micheli,4 Stefania Vimercati,5 Enza Pallone,6 Luca Degli Esposti,2 Emilio Clementi1,71Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, L Sacco University Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, 2CliCon Srl, Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, 3Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, 4Clinical Microbiology Virology and Diagnosis of Bioemergency, 5Pharmaceutical Department, 6Quality Clinical Risk and Accreditation Unit, L Sacco University Hospital, Milan, 7Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, ItalyBackground: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has reduced morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Studies have documented high interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs, which may impair the success of HAART if not managed properly. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM is a useful diagnostic tool that helps clinicians to optimize drug doses so that drug concentrations associated with the highest therapeutic efficacy are obtained with a reduced risk of concentration-dependent adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess whether use of TDM improves clinical outcomes and cost of illness.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at L Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, in HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years with at least one prescription of antiretroviral drugs for which TDM was applied. The inclusion period was from January 2010 to December 2011, with a follow-up period of up to 12 months. Laboratory and administrative databases were analyzed and matched with each other.Results: The cohort consisted of 5,347 patients (3,861 males and 1,486 females of mean age 43.9±12.5 years. We found

  12. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service. PMID:27559474

  13. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  14. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Sas, P; Schiphorst, F.B.A.; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring appl

  15. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Sas, P; Schiphorst, F.B.A.; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring

  16. Structural health monitoring with a wireless vibration sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Schiphorst, F.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maintenance strategies for infrastructure assets such as bridges or off shore wind turbines require actual and reliable information of the maintenance status. Structural health monitoring based on vibration sensing can help in supplying the input needed for structural health monitoring appl

  17. Structural health monitoring system/method using electroactive polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for monitoring the structural health of a structure of interest by coupling one or more electroactive polymer fibers to the structure and monitoring the electroactive responses of the polymer fiber(s). Load changes that are experienced by the structure cause changes in the baseline responses of the polymer fiber(s). A system for monitoring the structural health of the structure is also provided.

  18. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  19. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  20. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  1. Electronic Health Monitoring for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostic monitoring capabilities for space exploration aircrafts are crucial to enable safety and reliability in these platforms. Nokomis proposes to develop and...

  2. 76 FR 13969 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs Assessments AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... National Animal Health Monitoring System needs assessments. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Needs...

  3. Recommendations for Health Monitoring and Reporting for Zebrafish Research Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Crim, Marcus J; Lieggi, Christine

    2016-07-01

    The presence of subclinical infection or clinical disease in laboratory zebrafish may have a significant impact on research results, animal health and welfare, and transfer of animals between institutions. As use of zebrafish as a model of disease increases, a harmonized method for monitoring and reporting the health status of animals will facilitate the transfer of animals, allow institutions to exclude diseases that may negatively impact their research programs, and improve animal health and welfare. All zebrafish facilities should implement a health monitoring program. In this study, we review important aspects of a health monitoring program, including choice of agents, samples for testing, available testing methodologies, housing and husbandry, cost, test subjects, and a harmonized method for reporting results. Facilities may use these recommendations to implement their own health monitoring program.

  4. A New Architecture of a Ubiquitous Health Monitoring System: A Prototype Of Cloud Mobile Health Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Bourouis, Abderrahim; Bouchachia, Abdelhamid

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASN) is an emerging technology which uses wireless sensors to implement real-time wearable health monitoring of patients to enhance independent living. In this paper we propose a prototype of cloud mobile health monitoring system. The system uses WBASN and Smartphone application that uses cloud computing, location data and a neural network to determine the state of patients.

  5. Human capital, schooling and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  6. A Taxonomy of Injuries for Public Health Monitoring and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-25

    of Injuries for Public Health Monitoring and Reporting 15 codes are required to make this distinction. Because surveillance data and field...overall burden of care required for these injuries. PHIP No. 12-01-0717, A Taxonomy of Injuries for Public Health Monitoring and Reporting...is no mandatory reporting requirement in the military health system or the civilian sector for providers and coders to use cause codes. Many medical

  7. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective: This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design: We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions: The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  8. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  9. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  10. WBAN-based real-time monitoring system of human health indexes%无线体域网(WBAN)的人体健康指标实时监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲彤晖; 赵潇腾; 李博文

    2013-01-01

    在此介绍一种便携式的人体健康指标实时监测系统,该系统以无线体域网(WBAN)构建网络,以MSP430单片机为核心,采用NELLCOR公司的指夹式血氧探头改造后采集血氧及脉搏信号,采集的信号经单片机处理后通过cc2530Zig-Bee模块定时发送到液晶屏上进行显示。当人体数据超标时可通过GPRS模块以发短信方式发到指定手机上。此系统所采用设备可便携在人体,体积小,测量精度较高。此系统可对人体数据实时监控与远程监控。%A portable real-time monitoring system of human health indexes is introduced in this paper,in which the wire-less body area network(WBAN)is taken as the network and MSP430 microcontroller as the core. The modified finger-clipped oxygen probe developed by Nellcor Company is used to collect oxygen and pulse signals. After being processed by a microcon-troller,the accumulated signals would be transmitted onto a LCD screen through CC2530ZigBee module to display. Once the ab-normal data from a person under test is detected,a built-in GPRS module will send a prompting message to a cell phone as a re-minder. The system takes a proper use of portable equipment so that it can be conveniently carried by human body,due to its small size. Of course this equipment is of high measuring precision. The main purpose of this system lies in its real-time remote monitoring of the data from human bodies.

  11. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  12. Inflatable Habitat Health Monitoring: Implementation, Lessons Learned, and Application to Lunar or Martian Habitat Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Hong, Todd; Hafermalz, Scott; Hunkins, Robert; Valle, Gerald; Toups, Larry

    2009-01-01

    NASA's exploration mission is to send humans to the Moon and Mars, in which the purpose is to learn how to live and work safely in those harsh environments. A critical aspect of living in an extreme environment is habitation, and within that habitation element there are key systems which monitor the habitation environment to provide a safe and comfortable living and working space for humans. Expandable habitats are one of the options currently being considered due to their potential mass and volume efficiencies. This paper discusses a joint project between the National Science Foundation (NSF), ILC Dover, and NASA in which an expandable habitat was deployed in the extreme environment of Antarctica to better understand the performance and operations over a one-year period. This project was conducted through the Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) where the NSF provided the location at McMurdo Station in Antarctica and support at the location, ILC Dover provided the inflatable habitat, and NASA provided the instrumentation and data system for monitoring the habitat. The outcome of this project provided lessons learned in the implementation of an inflatable habitat and the systems that support that habitat. These lessons learned will be used to improve current habitation capabilities and systems to meet the objectives of exploration missions to the moon and Mars.

  13. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought...... or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  14. The Combat-Wireless Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    not monitor concussions sustained by casualties. This article proposes the develop- ment of a new C-WHMS as an alterna- tive to the WPSM. The C-WHMS...monitoring system embedded within the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH), which measures concussions sustained during the execution of combat operations. The...component of the C-WHMS, as embedded in the ACH. Concussions sus- tained by soldiers are a major concern of military leadership. The goal is to quickly

  15. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  16. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  17. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  18. Health Monitoring System Based on Intra-Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Ibrahim, I. W.; Ayub, A. H.; Amri, M. F.; Hamzi, M. H.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a Body Area Network (BAN) health monitoring system based on Intra-Body Communication. Intra-body Communication (IBC) is a communication technique that uses the human body as a medium for electrical signal communication. One of the visions in the health care industry is to provide autonomous and continuous self and the remote health monitoring system. This can be achieved via BAN, LAN and WAN integration. The BAN technology itself consists of short range data communication modules, sensors, controller and actuators. The information can be transmitted to the LAN and WAN via the RF technology such as Bluetooth, ZigBee and ANT. Although the implementations of RF communication have been successful, there are still limitations in term of power consumption, battery lifetime, interferences and signal attenuations. One of the solutions for Medical Body Area Network (MBANs) to overcome these issues is by using an IBC technique because it can operate at lower frequencies and power consumption compared to the existing techniques. The first objective is to design the IBC's transmitter and receiver modules using the off the shelf components. The specifications of the modules such as frequency, data rate, modulation and demodulation coding system were defined. The individual module were designed and tested separately. The modules was integrated as an IBC system and tested for functionality then was implemented on PCB. Next objective is to model and implement the digital parts of the transmitter and receiver modules on the Altera's FPGA board. The digital blocks were interfaced with the FPGA's on board modules and the discrete components. The signals that have been received from the transmitter were converted into a proper waveform and it can be viewed via external devices such as oscilloscope and Labview. The signals such as heartbeats or pulses can also be displayed on LCD. In conclusion, the IBC project presents medical health monitoring model

  19. Aircraft Control Augmentation and Health Monitoring Using FADS Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an innovative architecture comprising control augmentation and on-line health monitoring...

  20. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging the Phase I achievements of the Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) including its software toolsets and system building...

  1. Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The on-ground and Distributed Rocket Engine Testing Health Monitoring System (DiRETHMS) provides a system architecture and software tools for performing diagnostics...

  2. Multinational surveys for monitoring eHealth policy implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele;

    2014-01-01

    Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary workshop identified useful data and pitfalls for comparative variable development...

  3. Monitoring and evaluation of health sector reforms in the WHO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data synthesis: In terms of context and design of the cost recovery reform, there ... of appropriate policies and information to monitor and/or influence the process. ... of health services; equitable service utilisation; social sustainability through ...

  4. Passive Wireless Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Albido proposes to develop a Passive Wireless Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring capable of measuring high-bandwidth temperature and strain of space and...

  5. Patient monitoring in mobile health: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In most countries chronic diseases lead to high health care costs and reduced productivity of people in society. The best way to reduce costs of health sector and increase the empowerment of people is prevention of chronic diseases and appropriate health activities management through monitoring of patients. To enjoy the full benefits of E-health, making use of methods and modern technologies is very important. This literature review articles were searched with keywords like Patient monitoring, Mobile Health, and Chronic Disease in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases without regard to the year of publications. Applying remote medical diagnosis and monitoring system based on mobile health systems can help significantly to reduce health care costs, correct performance management particularly in chronic disease management. Also some challenges are in patient monitoring in general and specific aspects like threats to confidentiality and privacy, technology acceptance in general and lack of system interoperability with electronic health records and other IT tools, decrease in face to face communication between doctor and patient, sudden interruptions of telecommunication networks, and device and sensor type in specific aspect. It is obvious identifying the opportunities and challenges of mobile technology and reducing barriers, strengthening the positive points will have a significant role in the appropriate planning and promoting the achievements of the health care systems based on mobile and helps to design a roadmap for improvement of mobile health.

  6. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  7. Design of smart neonatal health monitoring system using SMCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Debashis; Mukherjee, Anwesha; Sau, Arkaprabha; Bhakta, Ishita

    2017-02-01

    Automated health monitoring and alert system development is a demanding research area today. Most of the currently available monitoring and controlling medical devices are wired which limits freeness of working environment. Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a better alternative in such an environment. Neonatal intensive care unit is used to take care of sick and premature neonates. Hypothermia is an independent risk factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity. To prevent it an automated monitoring system is required. In this Letter, an automated neonatal health monitoring system is designed using sensor mobile cloud computing (SMCC). SMCC is based on WSN and MCC. In the authors' system temperature sensor, acceleration sensor and heart rate measurement sensor are used to monitor body temperature, acceleration due to body movement and heart rate of neonates. The sensor data are stored inside the cloud. The health person continuously monitors and accesses these data through the mobile device using an Android Application for neonatal monitoring. When an abnormal situation arises, an alert is generated in the mobile device of the health person. By alerting health professional using such an automated system, early care is provided to the affected babies and the probability of recovery is increased.

  8. Special Tests for Monitoring Fetal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth problems, Rh sensitization , or high blood pressure • Decreased movement of the fetus • Pregnancy that goes past ... on how far along you are in your pregnancy, you may have another BPP within the next ... BPP performed? The fetal heart rate is monitored in the same way it is ...

  9. Micro-Accelerometers Monitor Equipment Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Evigia Systems to develop a miniaturized accelerometer to account for gravitational effects in space experiments. The company has gone on to implement the technology in its suite of prognostic sensors, which are used to monitor the integrity of industrial machinery. As a result, five employees have been hired.

  10. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  11. Assessing the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2013-01-01

    or proven by past experiences but in general there appears to be no rational or systematic approach for assessing the value of SHM systems a-priory to their implementation. The present paper addresses the assessment of the value of SHM with basis in structural risk assessments and the Bayesian pre......-posterior decision analysis. The quantification of the value of SHM builds upon the quantification of the value of information (VoI) or rather the benefit of monitoring. The suggested approach involves a probabilistic representation of the loads and environmental conditions acting on structures as well...... of the uncertainty associated with the performance of SHM on the value of SHM. Moreover, in order to illustrate the potential of the application of approach for monitoring of structural systems an optimal strategy for SHM is determined for a system comprised of three welded details. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group...

  12. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has...

  13. Prognostics and Health Monitoring of High Power LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bailey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is seen as a key component of health usage monitoring systems, where prognostics algorithms can both detect anomalies in the behavior/performance of a micro-device/system, and predict its remaining useful life when subjected to monitored operational and environmental conditions. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs are optoelectronic micro-devices that are now replacing traditional incandescent and fluorescent lighting, as they have many advantages including higher reliability, greater energy efficiency, long life time and faster switching speed. For some LED applications there is a requirement to monitor the health of LED lighting systems and predict when failure is likely to occur. This is very important in the case of safety critical and emergency applications. This paper provides both experimental and theoretical results that demonstrate the use of prognostics and health monitoring techniques for high power LEDs subjected to harsh operating conditions.

  14. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  15. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  16. National Forest Health Monitoring Program, Monitoring Urban Forests in Indiana: Pilot Study 2002, Part 2: Statewide Estimates Using the UFORE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Daniel Twardus; Robert Hoehn; Manfred Mielke

    2007-01-01

    Trees in cities can improve environmental quality and human health. Unfortunately, little is known about the urban forest resource and what and how it contributes to local, regional, and national societies and economies. To better understand the urban forest resource and its value, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Health Monitoring Program...

  17. Sentinel areas: a monitoring strategy in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Available techniques for monitoring the health situation have proven insufficient, thus leading to a discussion of the need for their improvement based on new data collection strategies allowing for data use by local health systems. This article presents the methodological basis for a strategy to monitor health problems utilizing demarcated intra-urban spaces called "sentinel areas" to collect fundamental social, economic, behavioral, and biological data for public health that allow for a closer approach to the reality of complex social spaces. The authors present an experience that is being developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the epidemiological impact of an environmental sanitation program. They discuss selection criteria for the areas and the potential uses of this strategy allowing for the rapid utilization of epidemiological resources by health services and the timely application of the results to reorient and enhance health intervention practices.

  18. Watershed health assessment to monitor land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a worldwide issue that affects the Planet and the fate of the humankind (Cerdà et al., 2009; Choudhury et al., 2016; Fernández et al., 2016; Ferreira et al., 2016). Several processes affect the sustainability of the ecosystems, from soil erosion to soil compation, deforestation, Climate Change or water, soil and air pollution (Sadeghi et al., 2015a; 2015b; Gómez-Acanta et al., 2016; Mengistu et al., 2016; Mukai, 2016). Several ecosystem theories have been presented in the scientific literatures to monitor land degradation (Cerdà et al., 2016; Davudirad et al., 2016; Fava et al., 2016; Mahyou et al., 2016; Soulard et al., 2016). Besides the scientific tasks of improving the indication, the conviction of the potential users to change their concepts toward a higher consideration of ecosystem attributes, and toward a fruitful application of the health or integrity concepts, will be a main task of future activities. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability (R-R-V) indicators are often used in combination for quantifying risk and decision making in many systems. However, the use of hydrological series data for R-R-V computations has been rather limited. Toward this, the overall objective of this paper is to conduct a risk assessment analysis on stream flow discharge from Shazand Watershed located in the south western of Markazi Province in Iran for the period of 1972-2014 using R-R-V indicators. Based on the R-R-V analysis conducted in this study, the stream flow discharge of the study region followed a cyclic pattern with a decreasing trend. The results further showed a decreasing trend in reliability and resilience and an increasing trend in vulnerability in the Shazand Watershed. It may be concluded that the Shazand Watershed was in overall in unhealthy condition from view of stream flow discharge. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project

  19. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  20. Self-report in Youth Health Monitoring: evidence from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnder Dutch law, preventive youth healthcare organisations have a duty to ensure the early identification of children with health or developmental problems. Similarly, municipalities have a duty to monitor young people’s health at least every four years. For problem identification and mo

  1. Self-report in Youth Health Monitoring: evidence from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnder Dutch law, preventive youth healthcare organisations have a duty to ensure the early identification of children with health or developmental problems. Similarly, municipalities have a duty to monitor young people’s health at least every four years. For problem identification and

  2. Vulnerability analysis for design of bridge health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. M.; Yu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The recent engineering implementation of health monitoring system for long span bridges show difficulties for precisely assessing structural physical condition as well as for accurately alarming on structural damages, although hundreds of sensors were installed on a structure and a great amount of data were collected from the monitoring system. The allocation of sensors and the alarming algorithm are still two of the most important tasks to be considered when designing the structural health monitoring system. Vulnerability, in its original meaning, is the system susceptibility to local damage. For a structural system, the vulnerability can thus be regarded as structural performance susceptibility to local damage of structure. The purpose of this study is to propose concepts and methods of structural vulnerability for determining monitoring components which are more vulnerable than others and the corresponding warning threshold once the damages occur. The structural vulnerability performances to various damage scenarios depend upon structural geometrical topology, loading pattern on the structure and the degradation of component performance. A two-parameters structural vulnerability evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The parameters are the damage consequence and the relative magnitude of the damage scenarios to the structural system, respectively. Structural vulnerability to various damage scenarios can be regarded as the tradeoff between the two parameters. Based on the results of structural vulnerability analysis, the limited structural information from health monitoring can be utilized efficiently. The approach of the design of bridge health monitoring system is illustrated for a cable-stayed bridge.

  3. Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO) : monitoring patient characteristics and outcome in Dutch mental health services for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Marjolein; Voshaar, Richard Oude; Depla, Marja; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Information on which older adults attend mental health care and whether they profit from the care they receive is important for policy-makers. To assess this information in daily practice, the Mental health care Monitor Older adults (MEMO) was developed in the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is t

  4. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  5. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  6. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  7. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  8. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Joscelyne; Sarah Knuckey; Satterthwaite, Margaret L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Meng Li; Meng Qian; Brown, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioni...

  9. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  10. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brederode, N.E. van; Bos, P.M.J.; Nijhuis, N.J.; Weerdt, R.H. van de; Woude, I. van der; Eggens, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency

  11. Integrated electronic system for ultrasonic structural health monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz González, Mariano; Monje, Pedro María; Casado, Luciano; Aranguren, Gerardo; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera Lopez de Turiso, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated on-board electronic system that can perform in-situ structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft?s structures using specifically designed equipment for SHM based on guided wave ultrasonic method or Lamb waves? method is introduced. This equipment is called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment (PAMELA III) and is an essential part of overall PAMELA SHM? system. PAMELA III can generate any kind of excitation signals, acquire the response signals that propaga...

  12. Distributed Data Storage Model for Cattle Health Monitoring Using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit R. Bhavsar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, wireless sensor networks (WSN are being deployed in various applications like industrial, environmental, health care, societal monitoring. The sensor networks have tendency to generate huge amount of data. Hence data storage techniques become a critical issue for the success of these applications. In this paper, we have proposed a distributed data storage model used for WSN based cattle health monitoring. We have also defined the structure for the same. We have divided this model into two levels namely a local level and a central level. The main aim of storing data locally is to get quick response for any query raised by the user. The second level where the data is centralized is used to make long term decision, planning and policy for the cattle health monitoring.

  13. Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Soh, Chee-Kiong; Bhalla, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    "Smart Materials in Structural Health Monitoring, Control and Biomechanics" presents the latest developments in structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomechanics using smart materials. The book mainly focuses on piezoelectric, fibre optic and ionic polymer metal composite materials. It introduces concepts from the very basics and leads to advanced modelling (analytical/ numerical), practical aspects (including software/ hardware issues) and case studies spanning civil, mechanical and aerospace structures, including bridges, rocks and underground structures. This book is intended for practicing engineers, researchers from academic and R&D institutions and postgraduate students in the fields of smart materials and structures, structural health monitoring, vibration control and biomedical engineering. Professor Chee-Kiong Soh and Associate Professor Yaowen Yang both work at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Dr. Suresh Bhalla is an A...

  14. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  15. Structural Health Monitoring of AN Aircraft Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, T.; Schulz, M.; Sundaresan, M.; Ghoshal, A.; Naser, A. S.; Reichmeider, R.

    2003-03-01

    A major concern with ageing aircraft is the deterioration of structural components in the form of fatigue cracks at fastener holes, loose rivets and debonding of joints. These faults in conjunction with corrosion can lead to multiple-site damage and pose a hazard to flight. Developing a simple vibration-based method of damage detection for monitoring ageing structures is considered in this paper. The method is intended to detect damage during operation of the vehicle before the damage can propagate and cause catastrophic failure of aircraft components. It is typical that only a limited number of sensors could be used on the structure and damage can occur anywhere on the surface or inside the structure. The research performed was to investigate use of the chirp vibration responses of an aircraft wing tip to detect, locate and approximately quantify damage. The technique uses four piezoelectric patches alternatively as actuators and sensors to send and receive vibration diagnostic signals.Loosening of selected screws simulated damage to the wing tip. The results obtained from the testing led to the concept of a sensor tape to detect damage at joints in an aircraft structure.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keng C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

  17. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  18. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  19. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. mHealthMon: toward energy-efficient and distributed mobile health monitoring using parallel offloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnn, Jong Hoon; Potkonjak, Miodrag

    2013-10-01

    Although mobile health monitoring where mobile sensors continuously gather, process, and update sensor readings (e.g. vital signals) from patient's sensors is emerging, little effort has been investigated in an energy-efficient management of sensor information gathering and processing. Mobile health monitoring with the focus of energy consumption may instead be holistically analyzed and systematically designed as a global solution to optimization subproblems. This paper presents an attempt to decompose the very complex mobile health monitoring system whose layer in the system corresponds to decomposed subproblems, and interfaces between them are quantified as functions of the optimization variables in order to orchestrate the subproblems. We propose a distributed and energy-saving mobile health platform, called mHealthMon where mobile users publish/access sensor data via a cloud computing-based distributed P2P overlay network. The key objective is to satisfy the mobile health monitoring application's quality of service requirements by modeling each subsystem: mobile clients with medical sensors, wireless network medium, and distributed cloud services. By simulations based on experimental data, we present the proposed system can achieve up to 10.1 times more energy-efficient and 20.2 times faster compared to a standalone mobile health monitoring application, in various mobile health monitoring scenarios applying a realistic mobility model.

  1. Monitoring Rangeland Health With MODIS Vegetation Index Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Rangelands cover approximately one third of the land area of the conterminous U.S. These lands supply much of the forage for the U.S. cattle industry. Large area monitoring of these vast expanses of range has proved challenging since most of these lands are in the western U.S., are relatively sparsely populated, and are not well covered by meteorological weather stations. Improvements in the spatial and temporal precision of rangeland health information would be useful both for the cattle industry and for scientific studies of soil erosion, water runoff, ecosystem health, and carbon cycling. Optical multispectral remote sensing data from satellites are an objective source of synoptic, timely information for monitoring rangeland health. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a method for measuring and monitoring rangeland health over large areas. In the past, data collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer has proved useful for this purpose, however the basic 1 km spatial resolution is not ideal when scaling up from ground observations. This study assesses MODIS 250 meter resolution vegetation index data for this purpose. MODIS data not only have finer spatial resolution and improved geolocation, but they also exhibit enhanced vegetation sensitivity and minimized variations associated with external atmospheric and non-atmospheric effects. Ground data collected over 51 sites in western South Dakota over four years are used as training for regression tree models of range health. Range health maps for the growing season derived from the models are presented and evaluated.

  2. Course Modules on Structural Health Monitoring with Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hui-Ru; Walters, Wilbur L.; Zheng, Wei; Everett, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an emerging technology that has multiple applications. SHM emerged from the wide field of smart structures, and it also encompasses disciplines such as structural dynamics, materials and structures, nondestructive testing, sensors and actuators, data acquisition, signal processing, and possibly much more. To…

  3. Time-frequency Methods for Structural Health Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Kozionov, A.P.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and

  4. Time-frequency methods for structural health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Kozionov, A.P.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Meijer, R.J.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and

  5. Multidisciplinary health monitoring of a steel bridge deck structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlavan, P.L.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Paulissen, J.H.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jansen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue cracks in orthotropic bridge decks are an important cause for the necessary renovation of existing bridges. Parallel utilization of various technologies based on different physical sensing principles can potentially maximize the efficiency of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for th

  6. Nonlinear feature identification of impedance-based structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, A. C. (Amanda C.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    The impedance-based structural health monitoring technique, which utilizes electromechanical coupling properties of piezoelectric materials, has shown feasibility for use in a variety of structural health monitoring applications. Relying on high frequency local excitations (typically > 30 kHz), this technique is very sensitive to minor changes in structural integrity in the near field of piezoelectric sensors. Several damage sensitive features have been identified and used coupled with the impedance methods. Most of these methods are, however, limited to linearity assumptions of a structure. This paper presents the use of experimentally identified nonlinear features, combined with impedance methods, for structural health monitoring. Their applicability to damage detection in various frequency ranges is demonstrated using actual impedance signals measured from a portal frame structure. The performance of the nonlinear feature is compared with those of conventional impedance methods. This paper reinforces the utility of nonlinear features in structural health monitoring and suggests that their varying sensitivity in different frequency ranges may be leveraged for certain applications.

  7. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  8. Monitoring health related quality of life in adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Pouwer, F

    2007-01-01

    Particularly in chronic conditions, monitoring health related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents in clinical practice is increasingly advocated. We set out to identify and review the clinical utility of available generic and diabetes specific HRQoL questionnaires suitable for use in adolescents...

  9. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  10. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  11. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  12. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  13. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  14. The Health Status Assessment of Public Officials by Using Human Energy Monitor%应用人体能量监测仪评估公职人员健康状态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵润栓; 平昭; 郭晔炳; 欧映伟; 冯林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the common characters of sub-health and health risk factors among the public officials. Methods A total of 2776 public officials were tested using human energy monitor.The score differences of health risk factors and the differences of risk detection rates (moderate and above)between males and females were compared.Results The scores of 1 2 kinds of health risk factors by descending order were lack of energy(1.1 1 ±1.01 ),susceptible to fatigue (1.09 ±1.26),stuffy nose(0.95 ±1.59),chest tightness and shortness of breath (0.94 ±0.91 ),difficulty in falling asleep (0.89 ±1.59 ),lack of appetite (0.76 ±0.76 ),anxiety (0.75 ±1.1 6 ),oral inflammation (0.75 ±1.21 ), respiratory disorders (0.69 ±0.83),eye fatigue (0.61 ±0.72),backache and leg swelling (0.60 ±0.72),and stomach upset (0.48 ±0.65 ),respectively. The scores of women were significantly higher than those of men in 1 1 kinds of health risk factors(P0.05 ).The risk detection rates (moderate and above)of women were significantly higher than that of men (P<0.01 )in the following 5 aspects:lack of energy,susceptible to fatigue, stuffy nose,mouth inflammation,and backache and leg swelling.Conclusion Chronic fatigue syndrome is the most common character of the sub-healthy public officials,and women are more prone to sub-health state.%目的:探讨公职人员亚健康常见表现及健康危险因素。方法使用人体能量监测仪对2776名公职人员进行检测,比较男、女健康危险因素分值和中度以上(含中度)风险检出率的差异。结果12种健康危险因素分值由高到低依次为精力不足(1.11±1.01)、易感疲劳(1.09±1.26)、鼻塞不通(0.95±1.59)、胸闷气短(0.94±0.91)、睡眠障碍(0.89±1.59)、饮食不振(0.76±0.76)、焦虑不安(0.75±1.16)、口腔炎症(0.75±1.21)、呼吸障碍(0.69±0.83)、眼部疲劳(0.61±0.72)、腰酸腿胀(0.60±0.72)和肠胃不适(0.48±0.65

  15. Can clinical tests help monitor human papillomavirus vaccine impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, Elissa; Lin, Carol; Unger, Elizabeth R; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan

    2013-09-01

    As immunization programs for human papillomavirus (HPV) are implemented more widely around the world, interest is increasing in measuring their impact. One early measurable impact of HPV vaccine is on the prevalence of specific HPV types in a population. In low-resource settings, a potentially attractive strategy would be to monitor HPV prevalence using clinical cervical cancer screening test results to triage specimens for HPV typing. We assessed this approach in a nationally representative population of U.S. females aged 14-59 years. Using self-collected cervico-vaginal swab specimens from 4,150 women participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2003-2006, we evaluated type-specific HPV prevalence detected by the Roche linear array (LA) research test on all specimens, compared with type-specific HPV prevalence detected by LA conducted only on specimens positive by the digene hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) clinical test. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and examined relative type-specific HPV prevalence according to the two testing approaches. The population prevalence of oncogenic HPV vaccine types 16/18 was 6.2% (CI:5.4-7.1) by LA if all specimens were tested, and 2.4% (CI:1.9-3.0) if restricted to positive HC-2. Relative prevalence of individual HPV types was similar for both approaches. Compared with typing all specimens, a triage approach would require testing fewer specimens, but a greater reduction in HPV prevalence or a larger group of specimens would be needed to detect vaccine impact. Further investigation is warranted to inform type-specific HPV monitoring approaches around the world.

  16. Piezoelectric Driven Antenna System for Health Monitoring Gadgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Saraereh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in medical science is emerging day by day, and application of engineering technology in the field of medical science plays a very important role. In this paper, a novel method to monitor the health condition of an individual is developed. The proposed system uses piezoelectric devices to operate a health monitoring gadget with antenna that is suitable to operate for the piezoelectric based power source. The present day health monitoring gadgets require battery replacement or need to be charged. These would be a problem for the user when the device runs out of the charge. In order to overcome these challenges, the concept of piezoelectricity is applied to charge the gadget. The gadget consists of a transmitter, which is a wearable device, which will be worn by the patient, whose health condition has to be monitored. The receiver unit is placed in the nearest hospital, which will receive the physical conditions of the patient and, monitoring of the health condition is done. Piezoelectric based charging system is used to drive the proposed gadget. The transmission and reception is accomplished by GSM. In order to achieve better performance, microstrip antenna is used for transmission and reception. The simulation of the proposed system is done using Multisim, and simulation results are presented. The piezoelectric simulation is done using MATLAB and also the simulation of micro strip antenna is presented. Here the microstrip antennas will be stimulated for frequency range of 2-3 GHz and 5-6 GHz (preferably 2.2 and 2.5 GHz, using HFSS and MATLAB. The piezoelectric beam is simulated and the voltage produced for the deflection is noted. It was found that for deflection of 33um, a voltage of 100V is produced.The various performance parameters of the antenna, such as impedance, VSWR, reflection coefficient, return loss are obtained and presented.

  17. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  18. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  19. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1988-08-01

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract DE-AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. First year highlights included remodeling of the Olympia (WA) Fish Health Center to provide laboratory space for histopathological support services to participating state agencies, acquisition of gas monitoring equipment for hatchery water systems, expanded disease detection work for bacterial kidney disease and erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome in fish stocks at 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries and advancements in computerized case history data storage and analysis. This report summarizes the health status of fish reared at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin, briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar years 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987. 1 ref.

  20. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987-1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1988-08-01

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract DE-AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. First year highlights included remodeling of the Olympia (WA) Fish Health Center to provide laboratory space for histopathological support services to participating state agencies, acquisition of gas monitoring equipment for hatchery water systems, expanded disease detection work for bacterial kidney disease and erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome in fish stocks at 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries and advancements in computerized case history data storage and analysis. This report summarizes the health status of fish reared at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin, briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar years 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987. 1 ref.

  1. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  2. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas.

  3. Governance and human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-11-24

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  4. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  5. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  6. A motivational health companion in the home as part of an intelligent health monitoring sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; Wildvuur, S.; Kröse, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes our work in progress to develop a personal monitoring system that can monitor the physical and emotional condition of a patient by using contextual information from a sensor network, provide the patient with feedback concerning their health status and motivate the patient to ado

  7. GIS Mapping and Monitoring of Health Problems Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatis, Zacharias; Tsaloukidis, Nikolaos; Zacharopoulou, Georgia; Lazakidou, Athina

    2017-01-01

    The electronic survey in conjunction with GIS in the current study aims at presenting the needs and health problems of the elderly in individual Open Elderly Care Centres in Greece. The online GIS survey enables the continuous monitoring and developing of the health problems of the elderly and helps them in their early care by the healthcare units. GIS survey123 is a customizable tool, which can be used to conduct research that is then published on an Android, iOS, and web platform. The ArcGIS software was used for the geographic mapping of data collected from a wide range of sources, so that health care professionals can investigate the factors associated with the onset of the diseases. Also, direct geographic mapping aims at identifying health problems of the elderly in Greece and transferring information to health care professionals in order to impose proper control measures in a very small period of time.

  8. EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH | Waling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... add variety to household diets and nutrients, and improve household incomes for improved food security situation.

  9. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  10. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  11. Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.

  12. FBG sensor for physiologic monitoring in M-health application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hung, Kevin; Chan, Wai-Man; Wu, Y. K.; Choy, Sheung-On; Kwok, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a wearable physiologic monitoring system using FBG sensors is investigated. The FBG sensors with the capability of sensing temperature, movement, and respiration are connected to the wireless transceiver, microcontroller and server for wireless and long distance physiologic monitoring and analysis. Biosignals recorded experimentally are analyzed and compared with the data obtained in the traditional medical data acquisition system. The system investigated in this paper can be used in an m-health shirt, which has the capability to measure and wirelessly transmit electrocardiogram, respiration, movement, and body temperature signal to a remote station, with other plug-in modules.

  13. Printed strain sensor array for application to structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Togashi, Kazuyoshi; Ohigashi, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the development and practical use of low-cost printed strain sensor arrays built for applications in structural health monitoring. Sensors embedded in the array were designed to provide compensation for temperature variations and to enable their use in different seasons. The evaluation was carried out in laboratory tests and with practical application on a highway bridge. Measurements on the bridge were performed 7 months and 1 year after their installation. The developed devices were fully operational and could detect and localize cracks accurately in the monitored bridge structure.

  14. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  15. Advanced Machine learning Algorithm Application for Rotating Machine Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masaya [The University of Aizu, Aizuwakamatsu (Japan); Yusa, Noritaka [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The present paper tries to evaluate the applicability of conventional sound analysis techniques and modern machine learning algorithms to rotating machine health monitoring. These techniques include support vector machine, deep leaning neural network, etc. The inner ring defect and misalignment anomaly sound data measured by a rotating machine mockup test facility are used to verify the above various kinds of algorithms. Although we cannot find remarkable difference of anomaly discrimination performance, some methods give us the very interesting eigen patterns corresponding to normal and abnormal states. These results will be useful for future more sensitive and robust anomaly monitoring technology.

  16. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  17. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  18. Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2005-08-27

    Some phthalates, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic and endocrino-disrupting effects. In this study, urinary levels of phthalates (DEHP, DBP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate BBP), and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, a major metabolite of DEHP) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human populations (women [hospital visitors], n = 150, and children, n = 150). Daily exposure level of DEHP in children was estimated to be 12.4 microg/kg body weight/d (male 9.9 microg/kg body weight/d, female 17.8 microg/kg body weight/d), but, in women was estimated to be 41.7 microg/kg body weight/d, which exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI, 37 microg/kg body weight/day) level established by the European Union (EU) Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (SCTEE) based on reproductive toxicity. Based on these data, hazard indices (HIs) were calculated to be 1.12 (41.7/37 TDI) for women and 0.33 (12.4/37 TDI) for children, respectively. These data suggest that Koreans (women and children) were exposed to significant levels of phthalates, which should be reduced to as low a level as technologically feasible to protect Koreans from the exposure to toxic phthalates.

  19. PRISM: A DATA-DRIVEN PLATFORM FOR MONITORING MENTAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Wu, Michelle J

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide and there is no gold standard currently available for the measurement of mental health. This issue is exacerbated by the fact that the information physicians use to diagnose these disorders is episodic and often subjective. Current methods to monitor mental health involve the use of subjective DSM-5 guidelines, and advances in EEG and video monitoring technologies have not been widely adopted due to invasiveness and inconvenience. Wearable technologies have surfaced as a ubiquitous and unobtrusive method for providing continuous, quantitative data about a patient. Here, we introduce PRISM-Passive, Real-time Information for Sensing Mental Health. This platform integrates motion, light and heart rate data from a smart watch application with user interactions and text entries from a web application. We have demonstrated a proof of concept by collecting preliminary data through a pilot study of 13 subjects. We have engineered appropriate features and applied both unsupervised and supervised learning to develop models that are predictive of user-reported ratings of their emotional state, demonstrating that the data has the potential to be useful for evaluating mental health. This platform could allow patients and clinicians to leverage continuous streams of passive data for early and accurate diagnosis as well as constant monitoring of patients suffering from mental disorders.

  20. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  1. Mobile health-monitoring system through visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee-Yong; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Promising development in the light emitting diode (LED) technology has spurred the interest to adapt LED for both illumination and data transmission. This has fostered the growth of interest in visible light communication (VLC), with on-going research to utilize VLC in various applications. This paper presents a mobile-health monitoring system, where healthcare information such as biomedical signals and patient information are transmitted via the LED lighting. A small and portable receiver module is designed and developed to be attached to the mobile device, providing a seamless monitoring environment. Three different healthcare information including ECG, PPG signals and HL7 text information is transmitted simultaneously, using a single channel VLC. This allows for a more precise and accurate monitoring and diagnosis. The data packet size is carefully designed, to transmit information in a minimal packet error rate. A comprehensive monitoring application is designed and developed through the use of a tablet computer in our study. Monitoring and evaluation such as heart rate and arterial blood pressure measurement can be performed concurrently. Real-time monitoring is demonstrated through experiment, where non-hazardous transmission method can be implemented alongside a portable device for better and safer healthcare service.

  2. 78 FR 58268 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Cervid 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of...

  3. 78 FR 58269 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... intention to request approval of a new information collection for the National Animal Health Monitoring...: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Bison 2014 Study. OMB Number: 0579-XXXX. Type of...

  4. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  5. Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of phenol compounds into environment results from human activities.. Moreover plants produce polyphenols as by products of metabolism Their influence on human health is very important. It is observed, that polyphenols found in groceries are the most abundant dietary antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti allergic, antiarteriosclerotic and antitumour factors. Alkylphenols, chlorophenols, nitrophenols or biphenyls can be toxic for body systems and because of their similarity to ligands of steroid receptors they can influence the activity of endocrine system. Their appearance in organisms enhances the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, problems with fertility. Moreover strong genotoxic activities of these compounds is observed. Because they influence human health in many different ways continuous monitoring of phenols content in environment seems to be very important.

  6. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  7. Ubiquitous Mobile Health Monitoring System for Elderly (UMHMSE)

    CERN Document Server

    Bourouis, Abderrahim; Bouchachia, Abdelhamid

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in ubiquitous computing uses technologies of Body Area Networks (BANs) to monitor the person's kinematics and physiological parameters. In this paper we propose a real time mobile health system for monitoring elderly patients from indoor or outdoor environments. The system uses a bio- signal sensor worn by the patient and a Smartphone as a central node. The sensor data is collected and transmitted to the intelligent server through GPRS/UMTS to be analyzed. The prototype (UMHMSE) monitors the elderly mobility, location and vital signs such as Sp02 and Heart Rate. Remote users (family and medical personnel) might have a real time access to the collected information through a web application.

  8. UBIQUITOUS MOBILE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ELDERLY (UMHMSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim BOUROUIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in ubiquitous computing uses technologies of Body Area Networks (BANs to monitor the person's kinematics and physiological parameters. In this paper we propose a real time mobile health system for monitoring elderly patients from indoor or outdoor environments. The system uses a biosignal sensor worn by the patient and a Smartphone as a central node. The sensor data is collected and transmitted to the intelligent server through GPRS/UMTS to be analyzed. The prototype (UMHMSE monitors the elderly mobility, location and vital signs such as Sp02 and Heart Rate. Remote users (family and medical personnel might have a real time access to the collected information through a web application.

  9. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  10. Fracture of Human Femur Tissue Monitored by Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios. G. Aggelis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the acoustic emission (AE activity during human femur tissue fracture. The specimens were fractured in a bending-torsion loading pattern with concurrent monitoring by two AE sensors. The number of recorded signals correlates well with the applied load providing the onset of micro-fracture at approximately one sixth of the maximum load. Furthermore, waveform frequency content and rise time are related to the different modes of fracture (bending of femur neck or torsion of diaphysis. The importance of the study lies mainly in two disciplines. One is that, although femurs are typically subjects of surgical repair in humans, detailed monitoring of the fracture with AE will enrich the understanding of the process in ways that cannot be achieved using only the mechanical data. Additionally, from the point of view of monitoring techniques, applying sensors used for engineering materials and interpreting the obtained data pose additional difficulties due to the uniqueness of the bone structure.

  11. Investigation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are one of the most able technologies in the structural health monitoring (SHM field. Through intelligent, self-organising means, the contents of this paper will test a variety of different objects and different working principles of sensor nodes connected into a network and integrated with data processing functions. In this paper the key issues of WSN applied in SHM are discussed, including the integration of different types of sensors with different operational modalities, sampling frequencies, issues of transmission bandwidth, real-time ability, and wireless transmitter frequency. Furthermore, the topology, data fusion, integration, energy saving, and self-powering nature of different systems will be investigated. In the FP7 project “Health Monitoring of Offshore Wind Farms,” the above issues are explored.

  12. TPS In-Flight Health Monitoring Project Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyk, Chris; Richards, Lance; Hudston, Larry; Prosser, William

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the development of new thermal protection systems (TPS) is reported. New approaches use embedded lightweight, sensitive, fiber optic strain and temperature sensors within the TPS. Goals of the program are to develop and demonstrate a prototype TPS health monitoring system, develop a thermal-based damage detection algorithm, characterize limits of sensor/system performance, and develop ea methodology transferable to new designs of TPS health monitoring systems. Tasks completed during the project helped establish confidence in understanding of both test setup and the model and validated system/sensor performance in a simple TPS structure. Other progress included complete initial system testing, commencement of the algorithm development effort, generation of a damaged thermal response characteristics database, initial development of a test plan for integration testing of proven FBG sensors in simple TPS structure, and development of partnerships to apply the technology.

  13. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Salmanpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions.

  14. Thermal sensitivity of Lamb waves for structural health monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J C; Inman, D J

    2013-03-01

    One of the drawbacks of the current Lamb wave structural health monitoring methods are the false positives due to changing environmental conditions such as temperature. To create an environmental insensitive damage detection scheme, the physics of thermal effects on Lamb waves must be understood. Dispersion and thermal sensitivity curves for an isotropic plate with thermal stress and thermally varying elastic modulus are presented. The thermal sensitivity of dispersion curves is analytically developed and validated by experimental measurements. The group velocity thermal sensitivity highlights temperature insensitive features at two critical frequencies. The thermal sensitivity gives us insight to how temperature affects Lamb wave speeds in different frequency ranges and will help those developing structural health monitoring algorithms.

  15. Real time monitoring to the odour of excrement for health of infants and elderly completely bedridden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiancheng; Huang, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    In the domain of biomedical signals measurements, monitoring human physiological parameters is an important issue. With the rapid development of wireless body area network, it makes monitor, transmit and record physiological parameters faster and more convenient. Infants and the elderly completely bedridden are two special groups of the society who need more medical care. According to researches investigating current frontier domains and the market products, the detection of physiological parameters from the excrement is rare. However, urine and faeces contain a large number of physiological information, which are high relative to health. The mainly distributed odour from urine is NH4 and the distributed odour from feces is mainly H2S, which are both could be detected by the sensors. In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a portable wireless device based on body area network for real time monitoring to the odour of excrement for health of infants and the elderly completely bedridden. The device not only could monitor in real time the emitted odour of faeces and urine for health analysis, but also measures the body temperature and environment humidity, and send data to the mobile phone of paramedics to alarm or the server for storage and process, which has prospect to monitoring infants and the paralysis elderly.

  16. Monitoring human babesiosis emergence through vector surveillance New England, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Liu, Yuchen; Steeves, Tanner K; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine; Dardick, Kenneth R; Lepore, Timothy; Bent, Stephen J; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Telford, Sam R; Fish, Durland; Krause, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan Babesia microti. Its geographic distribution is more limited than that of Lyme disease, despite sharing the same tick vector and reservoir hosts. The geographic range of babesiosis is expanding, but knowledge of its range is incomplete and relies exclusively on reports of human cases. We evaluated the utility of tick-based surveillance for monitoring disease expansion by comparing the ratios of the 2 infections in humans and ticks in areas with varying B. microti endemicity. We found a close association between human disease and tick infection ratios in long-established babesiosis-endemic areas but a lower than expected incidence of human babesiosis on the basis of tick infection rates in new disease-endemic areas. This finding suggests that babesiosis at emerging sites is underreported. Vector-based surveillance can provide an early warning system for the emergence of human babesiosis.

  17. Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Asundi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for noninvasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control.

  18. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  19. Health monitoring of composite structures throughout the life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilles, James; Croxford, Anthony; Bond, Ian

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates the capability of inductively coupled piezoelectric sensors to monitor the state of health throughout the lifetime of composite structures. A single sensor which generated guided elastic waves was embedded into the stacking sequence of a large glass fiber reinforced plastic plate. The progress of cure was monitored by measuring variations in the amplitude and velocity of the waveforms reflected from the plate's edges. Baseline subtraction techniques were then implemented to detect barely visible impact damage (BVID) created by a 10 Joule impact, at a distance of 350 mm from the sensor embedded in the cured plate. To investigate the influence of mechanical loading on sensor performance, a single sensor was embedded within a glass fiber panel and subjected to tensile load. The panel was loaded up to a maximum strain of 1%, in increments of 0.1% strain. Guided wave measurements were recorded by the embedded sensor before testing, when the panel was under load, and after testing. The ultrasonic measurements showed a strong dependence on the applied load. Upon removal of the mechanical load the guided wave measurements returned to their original values recorded before testing. The results in this work show that embedded piezoelectric sensors can be used to monitor the state of health throughout the life-cycle of composite parts, even when subjected to relatively large strains. However the influence of load on guided wave measurements has implications for online monitoring using embedded piezoelectric transducers.

  20. Structural health monitoring of bridges in the State of Connecticut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyin Liu; Joshua Olund; Alan Cardini; Paul D'Attilio; Erie Feldblum; John DeWolf

    2008-01-01

    A joint effort between the Connecticut Department of Transportation and the University of Connecticut has been underway for more than 20 years to utilize various structural monitoring approaches to assess different bridges in Connecticut.This has been done to determine the performance of existing bridges,refine techniques needed to evaluate different bridge components,and develop approaches that can be used to provide a continuous status of a bridge's structural integrity,This paper briefly introduces the background of these studies,with emphasis on recent research and the development of structural health monitoring concepts.This paper presents the results from three different bridge types:a post-tensioned curved concrete box girder bridge,a curved steel box-girder bridge,and a steel multi-girder bridge.The structural health monitoring approaches to be discussed have been successfully tested using field data collected during multi-year monitoring periods,and are based on vibrations,rotations and strains.The goal has been to develop cost-effective strategies to provide critical information needed to manage the State of Connecticut's bridge infrastructure.

  1. CFRP Structural Health Monitoring by Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Boychuk, A.S.; Generalov, A.S.; A.V. Stepanov

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The report deals with ultrasonic phased array (PA) application for high-loaded CFRP structural health monitoring in aviation. Principles of phased array technique and most dangerous types of damages are briefly described. High-performance inspection technology suitable for periodic plane structure check is suggested. The results of numerical estimation of detection probability for impact damages and delaminations by PA technique are presented. The experience of PA impl...

  2. Statistical Process Control Charts for Public Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Poisson counts) [21-23].  Cumulative sum ( CUSUM ) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts are often used with Phase II data. These...charts have been shown to more quickly detect small changes than traditional Shewhart charts. There have been several applications of CUSUM charts in...distribution, a CUSUM or EWMA chart would be required.  Risk adjustment for health data has been applied when monitoring variables that can be

  3. Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    emissions as well as delamination-dominated and fiber-dominated damage. The three frequency regions identified were 10 - 100 kHz, 100 - 250 kHz, and 250...the RD patterns can be used for Bayesian model accuracy assessment of the difference between a uniform grid layout of the nodes versus an irregular... grid due to error in node placement. SLAMBOT: Structural Health Monitoring Robot using Lamb Waves We developed the combination of a mobile robot and

  4. On Structural Health Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jonas falk; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a state-of-the-art outline of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, utilizing temperature, noise and vibration, for wind turbine blades, and subsequently perform a typology on the basis of the typical four damage identification levels in SHM....... Before presenting the state-of-the-art outline, descriptions of structural damages typically occurring in wind turbine blades are provided along with a brief description of the four damage identification levels....

  5. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  6. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  7. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.

  8. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM – AN EMBEDDED SENSOR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya. A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural Health monitoring system is the implementation of improving the maintenance of any structures like buildings and bridges. It encompasses damage detection, identification and prevention of structures from natural disasters like earth quake and rain. This paper is mainly proposed for three modules. First module constitutes recognizing and alerting of abnormal vibration of the building due to an earth quake. This consists of two types of sensor to predict the abnormal vibration induced by an earth quake. Second module portrays the prediction of damage in the buildings after an earth quake or heavy rain. Damage detection includes identification of crack and the moisture content in wall bricks in real time buildings. Third module presents the smart auditorium which is used to reduce the power consumption. Depending on the number of audience inside the auditorium it can control the electric appliances like fans, lights and speakers. In any real time structural health monitoring system the main issue is the time synchronization. This paper also proposes to overcome the general issue arises in structural health monitoring system. ZigBee based reliable communication is used among the client node and server node. For the secured wireless communication between the nodes ZigBee is used.

  9. Design and Analysis of Architectures for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Sixto, S. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of Health Usage and Monitoring Systems for structural health monitoring. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1. Reference HUMS architecture: We developed a high-level architecture for health monitoring and usage systems (HUMS). The proposed reference architecture is shown. It is compatible with the Generic Open Architecture (GOA) proposed as a standard for avionics systems. 2. HUMS kernel: One of the critical layers of HUMS reference architecture is the HUMS kernel. We developed a detailed design of a kernel to implement the high level architecture.3. Prototype implementation of HUMS kernel: We have implemented a preliminary version of the HUMS kernel on a Unix platform.We have implemented both a centralized system version and a distributed version. 4. SCRAMNet and HUMS: SCRAMNet (Shared Common Random Access Memory Network) is a system that is found to be suitable to implement HUMS. For this reason, we have conducted a simulation study to determine its stability in handling the input data rates in HUMS. 5. Architectural specification.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring for a Z-Type Special Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolin Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there exist various kinds of special vehicles designed for some purposes, which are different from regular vehicles in overall dimension and design. In that case, accidents such as overturning will lead to large economical loss and casualties. There are still no technical specifications to follow to ensure the safe operation and driving of these special vehicles. Owing to the poor efficiency of regular maintenance, it is more feasible and effective to apply real-time monitoring during the operation and driving process. In this paper, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors are used to monitor the safety of a z-type special vehicle. Based on the structural features and force distribution, a reasonable structural health monitoring (SHM scheme is presented. Comparing the monitoring results with the finite element simulation results guarantees the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring results. Large amounts of data are collected during the operation and driving progress to evaluate the structural safety condition and provide reference for SHM systems developed for other special vehicles.

  11. Analysis and assessment of bridge health monitoring mass data—progress in research/development of "Structural Health Monitoring"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI AiQun; DING YouLiang; WANG Hao; GUO Tong

    2012-01-01

    The "Structural Health Monitoring" is a project supported by National Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No.50725828).To meet the urgent requirements of analysis and assessment of mass monitoring data of bridge environmental actions and structural responses,the monitoring of environmental actions and action effect modeling methods,dynamic performance monitoring and early warning methods,condition assessment and operation maintenance methods of key members are systematically studied in close combination with structural characteristics of long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges.The paper reports the progress of the project as follows.(1) The environmental action modeling methods of long-span bridges are established based on monitoring data of temperature,sustained wind and typhoon.The action effect modeling methods are further developed in combination with the multi-scale baseline finite element modeling method for long-span bridges.(2) The identification methods of global dynamic characteristics and internal forces of cables and hangers for long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are proposed using the vibration monitoring data,on the basis of which the condition monitoring and early warning methods of bridges are developed using the environmental-condition-normalization technique.(3) The analysis methods for fatigue loading effect of welded details of steel box girder,temperature and traffic loading effect of expansion joint are presented based on long-term monitoring data of strain and beam-end displacement,on the basis of which the service performance assessment and remaining life prediction methods are developed.

  12. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring System and Advanced Characterization Technique for Civil Infrastructure Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bennett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of civil infrastructure provides valuable information to assess the health and condition of the associated systems. This paper presents the recently developed shape acceleration array (SAA and local system identification (SI technique, which constitute a major step toward long-term effective health monitoring and analysis of soil and soil-structure systems. The SAA is based on triaxial micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure in situ deformation (angles relative to gravity and dynamic accelerations up to a depth of one hundred meters. This paper provides an assessment of this array's performance for geotechnical instrumentation applications by reviewing the recorded field data from a bridge replacement site and a full-scale levee test facility. The SI technique capitalizes on the abundance of static and dynamic measurements from the SAA. The geotechnical properties and constitutive response of soil contained within a locally instrumented zone are analyzed and identified independently of adjacent soil strata.

  14. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  15. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  16. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  17. Wireless Zigbee strain gage sensor system for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Abdi, Frank; Miraj, Rashid; Dang, Chau; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Sauer, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    A compact cell phone size radio frequency (ZigBee) wireless strain measurement sensor system to measure the structural strain deformation was developed. The developed system provides an accurate strain measurement data stream to the Internet for further Diagnostic and Prognostic (DPS) correlation. Existing methods of structural measurement by strain sensors (gauges) do not completely satisfy problems posed by continuous structural health monitoring. The need for efficient health monitoring methods with real-time requirements to bidirectional data flow from sensors and to a commanding device is becoming critical for keeping our daily life safety. The use of full-field strain measurement techniques could reduce costly experimental programs through better understanding of material behavior. Wireless sensor-network technology is a monitoring method that is estimated to grow rapidly providing potential for cost savings over traditional wired sensors. The many of currently available wireless monitoring methods have: the proactive and constant data rate character of the data streams rather than traditional reactive, event-driven data delivery; mostly static node placement on structures with limited number of nodes. Alpha STAR Electronics' wireless sensor network system, ASWN, addresses some of these deficiencies, making the system easier to operate. The ASWN strain measurement system utilizes off-the-shelf sensors, namely strain gauges, with an analog-to-digital converter/amplifier and ZigBee radio chips to keep cost lower. Strain data is captured by the sensor, converted to digital form and delivered to the ZigBee radio chip, which in turn broadcasts the information using wireless protocols to a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) or Laptop/Desktop computers. From here, data is forwarded to remote computers for higher-level analysis and feedback using traditional cellular and satellite communication or the Ethernet infrastructure. This system offers a compact size, lower cost

  18. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  19. EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION MONITORING, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES TO MINIMIZE RISKS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE MAGADAN REGION POPULATION RELATED TO THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN MAGADAN REGION AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION "CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MAGADAN REGION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rubtsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of activities of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Magadan region and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Magadan region" in the context of monitoring of the radiation situation in the Magadan region from 12.03.2011 in connection with the Fukushima accident in Japan. The authors present the data on radiological laboratory studies, the analysis of performed organizational activities, the results of co-operation with the state and other regulatory authorities.

  20. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  1. Prognosis-a wearable health-monitoring system for people at risk: methodology and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelopoulos, Alexandros; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G

    2010-05-01

    Wearable health-monitoring systems (WHMSs) represent the new generation of healthcare by providing real-time unobtrusive monitoring of patients' physiological parameters through the deployment of several on-body and even intrabody biosensors. Although several technological issues regarding WHMS still need to be resolved in order to become more applicable in real-life scenarios, it is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signs will enable proactive personal health management and better treatment of patients suffering from chronic diseases, of the elderly population, and of emergency situations. In this paper, we present a physiological data fusion model for multisensor WHMS called Prognosis. The proposed methodology is based on a fuzzy regular language for the generation of the prognoses of the health conditions of the patient, whereby the current state of the corresponding fuzzy finite-state machine signifies the current estimated health state and context of the patient. The operation of the proposed scheme is explained via detailed examples in hypothetical scenarios. Finally, a stochastic Petri net model of the human-device interaction is presented, which illustrates how additional health status feedback can be obtained from the WHMS' user.

  2. The potential implementation of radio-frequency identification technology for personal health examination and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    2009-11-16

    This paper presents several possible applications of the radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health examination and monitoring. One application involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another one uses both internal and external RFID sensors. Another application involves simultaneous assessment and monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting using networks of RFID sensors. All the assessment and monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly and in a timely fashion to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously assessed and monitored information provides medical professionals with more complete and long-term studies of patients. The proposed ideas promise to result in not only enhancement of the health treatment quality but also in significant reduction of medical expenditure.

  3. Implementation of foetal e-health monitoring system through biotelemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Vijay S; Tiwari, Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Continuous foetal monitoring of physiological signals is of particular importance for early detection of complexities related to the foetus or the mother's health. The available conventional methods of monitoring mostly perform off-line analysis and restrict the mobility of subjects within a hospital or a room. Hence, the aim of this paper is to develop a foetal e-health monitoring system using mobile phones and wireless sensors for providing advanced healthcare services in the home environment. The system is tested by recording the real-time Foetal Phonocardiography (fPCG) signals from 15 subjects with different gestational periods. The performance of the developed system is compared with the existing ultrasound based Doppler shift technique, ensuring an overall accuracy of 98% of the developed system. The developed framework is non-invasive, cost-effective and simple enough to be used in home care application. It offers advanced healthcare facilities even to the pregnant women living in rural areas and avoids their unnecessary visits at the healthcare centres.

  4. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M., E-mail: pedromaria.monje@ehu.es [Electronic Design Group, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Cokonaj, Valerijan [AERnnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica S.A., Madrid (Spain); Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group of the Technical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  5. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  6. A Microwave Blade Tip Clearance Sensor for Propulsion Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave sensor technology is being investigated by the NASA Glenn Research Center as a means of making non-contact structural health measurements in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. This type of sensor technology is beneficial in that it is accurate, it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures, and is unaffected by contaminants that are present in turbine engines. It is specifically being targeted for use in the High Pressure Turbine (HPT) and High Pressure Compressor (HPC) sections to monitor the structural health of the rotating components. It is intended to use blade tip clearance to monitor blade growth and wear and blade tip timing to monitor blade vibration and deflection. The use of microwave sensors for this application is an emerging concept. Techniques on their use and calibration needed to be developed. As a means of better understanding the issues associated with the microwave sensors, a series of experiments have been conducted to evaluate their performance for aero engine applications. This paper presents the results of these experiments.

  7. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  8. 75 FR 57736 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study... National Animal Health Monitoring System Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study. DATES: We will... INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring System; Small-Scale Livestock Operations 2011 Study....

  9. 76 FR 28414 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Emergency Epidemiologic Investigations AGENCY: Animal and Plant... to support the National Animal Health Monitoring System. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Animal Health Monitoring...

  10. Human resources for health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country.

  11. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  12. Health monitoring of bonded composite repair in bridge rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Qing, Xinlin P.; Ghosh, Kumar; Karbhar, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2008-08-01

    Structural rehabilitation with carbon fiber reinforced composite materials has proven to be an excellent way to enhance/repair steel reinforced concrete structures and prolong their service lives. However, disbonds between composite repair patches and host structures continue to be a great concern of this technology. In this paper, a built-in piezoelectric sensor network based structural health monitoring system is introduced for monitoring the disbonds between composite repair patches and the host structures. This diagnostic system combines the sensor network, diagnostic hardware and data analysis software allowing for real-time monitoring of the integrity of the bonded repair. The effectiveness of detecting disbonds using the system has been demonstrated on a full scale bridge model in a laboratory setting. The bridge model was loaded incrementally to failure, and disbond monitoring was carried out during the loading intervals. Test results showed that the system could detect the disbonds before they have a noticeable effect on the global stiffness of the bridge model.

  13. Whole grains and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  14. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  15. Printing of microstructure strain sensor for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh Quyen; Ganet, Florent; Audigier, David; Capsal, Jean-Fabien; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and materials should allow the development of integrated sensors with transduction properties compatible with being printed directly onto a 3D substrate, especially metallic and polymer substrates. Inorganic and organic electronic materials in microstructured and nanostructured forms, intimately integrated in ink, offer particularly attractive characteristics, with realistic pathways to sophisticated embodiments. Here, we report on these strategies and demonstrate the potential of 3D-printed microelectronics based on a structural health monitoring (SHM) application for the precision weapon systems. We show that our printed sensors can be employed in non-invasive, high-fidelity and continuous strain monitoring of handguns, making it possible to implement printed sensors on a 3D substrate in either SHM or remote diagnostics. We propose routes to commercialization and novel device opportunities and highlight the remaining challenges for research.

  16. A nonlinear cointegration approach with applications to structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Worden, K.; Cross, E. J.

    2016-09-01

    One major obstacle to the implementation of structural health monitoring (SHM) is the effect of operational and environmental variabilities, which may corrupt the signal of structural degradation. Recently, an approach inspired from the community of econometrics, called cointegration, has been employed to eliminate the adverse influence from operational and environmental changes and still maintain sensitivity to structural damage. However, the linear nature of cointegration may limit its application when confronting nonlinear relations between system responses. This paper proposes a nonlinear cointegration method based on Gaussian process regression (GPR); the method is constructed under the Engle-Granger framework, and tests for unit root processes are conducted both before and after the GPR is applied. The proposed approach is examined with real engineering data from the monitoring of the Z24 Bridge.

  17. Optical Fiber Sensors for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft structures require periodic and scheduled inspection and maintenance operations due to their special operating conditions and the principles of design employed to develop them. Therefore, structural health monitoring has a great potential to reduce the costs related to these operations. Optical fiber sensors applied to the monitoring of aircraft structures provide some advantages over traditional sensors. Several practical applications for structures and engines we have been working on are reported in this article. Fiber Bragg gratings have been analyzed in detail, because they have proved to constitute the most promising technology in this field, and two different alternatives for strain measurements are also described. With regard to engine condition evaluation, we present some results obtained with a reflected intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor for tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a turbine assembled in a wind tunnel.

  18. Optical Fiber Sensors for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Iker; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Illarramendi, María Asunción; Villatoro, Joel

    2015-06-30

    Aircraft structures require periodic and scheduled inspection and maintenance operations due to their special operating conditions and the principles of design employed to develop them. Therefore, structural health monitoring has a great potential to reduce the costs related to these operations. Optical fiber sensors applied to the monitoring of aircraft structures provide some advantages over traditional sensors. Several practical applications for structures and engines we have been working on are reported in this article. Fiber Bragg gratings have been analyzed in detail, because they have proved to constitute the most promising technology in this field, and two different alternatives for strain measurements are also described. With regard to engine condition evaluation, we present some results obtained with a reflected intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor for tip clearance and tip timing measurements in a turbine assembled in a wind tunnel.

  19. Probabilistic Structural Health Monitoring of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keng C.; Macias, Jesus; Kaouk, Mohamed; Gafka, Tammy L.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2011-01-01

    A structural health monitoring (SHM) system can contribute to the risk management of a structure operating under hazardous conditions. An example is the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) that monitors the debris hazards to the Space Shuttle Orbiter s Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. Since Return-to-Flight (RTF) after the Columbia accident, WLEIDS was developed and subsequently deployed on board the Orbiter to detect ascent and on-orbit debris impacts, so as to support the assessment of wing leading edge structural integrity prior to Orbiter re-entry. As SHM is inherently an inverse problem, the analyses involved, including those performed for WLEIDS, tend to be associated with significant uncertainty. The use of probabilistic approaches to handle the uncertainty has resulted in the successful implementation of many development and application milestones.

  20. Structural Health Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Grating and Piezo Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Ferey; Moslehi, Behzad; Sotoudeh, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is one of the most important tools available for the maintenance, safety, and integrity of aerospace structural systems. Lightweight, electromagnetic-interference- immune, fiber-optic sensor-based SHM will play an increasing role in more secure air transportation systems. Manufacturers and maintenance personnel have pressing needs for significantly improving safety and reliability while providing for lower inspection and maintenance costs. Undetected or untreated damage may grow and lead to catastrophic structural failure. Damage can originate from the strain/stress history of the material, imperfections of domain boundaries in metals, delamination in multi-layer materials, or the impact of machine tools in the manufacturing process. Damage can likewise develop during service life from wear and tear, or under extraordinary circumstances such as with unusual forces, temperature cycling, or impact of flying objects. Monitoring and early detection are key to preventing a catastrophic failure of structures, especially when these are expected to perform near their limit conditions.

  1. Wake-up transceivers for structural health monitoring of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumberg, T.; Kokert, J.; Younesi, V.; Koenig, S.; Reindl, L. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we present a wireless sensor network to monitor the structural health of a large-scale highway bridge in Germany. The wireless sensor network consists of several sensor nodes that use wake-up receivers to realize latency free and low-power communication. The sensor nodes are either equipped with very accurate tilt sensor developed by Northrop Grumman LITEF GmbH or with a Novatel OEM615 GNSS receiver. Relay nodes are required to forward measurement data to a base station located on the bridge. The base station is a gateway that transmits the local measurement data to a remote server where it can be further analyzed and processed. Further on, we present an energy harvesting system to supply the energy demanding GNSS sensor nodes to realize long term monitoring.

  2. Fiber Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Air Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft operators are faced with increasing requirements to extend the service life of air platforms beyond their designed life cycles, resulting in heavy maintenance and inspection burdens as well as economic pressure. Structural health monitoring (SHM based on advanced sensor technology is potentially a cost-effective approach to meet operational requirements, and to reduce maintenance costs. Fiber optic sensor technology is being developed to provide existing and future aircrafts with SHM capability due to its unique superior characteristics. This review paper covers the aerospace SHM requirements and an overview of the fiber optic sensor technologies. In particular, fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor technology is evaluated as the most promising tool for load monitoring and damage detection, the two critical SHM aspects of air platforms. At last, recommendations on the implementation and integration of FBG sensors into an SHM system are provided.

  3. Pipelining in structural health monitoring wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Dorvash, Siavash; Cheng, Liang; Pakzad, Shamim

    2010-04-01

    Application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for structural health monitoring (SHM), is becoming widespread due to its implementation ease and economic advantage over traditional sensor networks. Beside advantages that have made wireless network preferable, there are some concerns regarding their performance in some applications. In long-span Bridge monitoring the need to transfer data over long distance causes some challenges in design of WSN platforms. Due to the geometry of bridge structures, using multi-hop data transfer between remote nodes and base station is essential. This paper focuses on the performances of pipelining algorithms. We summarize several prevent pipelining approaches, discuss their performances, and propose a new pipelining algorithm, which gives consideration to both boosting of channel usage and the simplicity in deployment.

  4. Skin-mountable stretch sensor for wearable health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegan, Jonathan D; Zhang, Jasmine; Chu, Michael; Nguyen, Thao; Park, Sun-Jun; Paul, Akshay; Kim, Joshua; Bachman, Mark; Khine, Michelle

    2016-10-06

    This work presents a wrinkled Platinum (wPt) strain sensor with tunable strain sensitivity for applications in wearable health monitoring. These stretchable sensors show a dynamic range of up to 185% strain and gauge factor (GF) of 42. This is believed to be the highest reported GF of any metal thin film strain sensor over a physiologically relevant dynamic range to date. Importantly, sensitivity and dynamic range are tunable to the application by adjusting wPt film thickness. Performance is reliable over 1000 cycles with low hysteresis after sensor conditioning. The possibility of using such a sensor for real-time respiratory monitoring by measuring chest wall displacement and correlating with lung volume is demonstrated.

  5. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamony, Ram [IBM Research, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  6. Progress Monitoring in an Integrated Health Care System: Tracking Behavioral Health Vital Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Bradley; Franklin, Allie; Mercer, Brian; Fraynt, Rebecca; Simon, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Progress monitoring implementation in an integrated health care system is a complex process that must address factors such as measurement, technology, delivery system care processes, patient needs and provider requirements. This article will describe how one organization faced these challenges by identifying the key decision points (choice of measure, process for completing rating scale, interface with electronic medical record and clinician engagement) critical to implementation. Qualitative and quantitative data will be presented describing customer and stakeholder satisfaction with the mental health progress monitoring tool (MHPMT) as well as organizational performance with key measurement targets.

  7. A Simple Demonstration of Concrete Structural Health Monitoring Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nath, Paromita [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bao, Yanqing [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bru Brea, Jose Maria [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Koester, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adams, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kosson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This ongoing research project is seeking to develop a probabilistic framework for health diagnosis and prognosis of aging concrete structures in a nuclear power plant subjected to physical, chemical, environment, and mechanical degradation. The proposed framework consists of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report describes a proof-of-concept example on a small concrete slab subjected to a freeze-thaw experiment that explores techniques in each of the four elements of the framework and their integration. An experimental set-up at Vanderbilt University’s Laboratory for Systems Integrity and Reliability is used to research effective combination of full-field techniques that include infrared thermography, digital image correlation, and ultrasonic measurement. The measured data are linked to the probabilistic framework: the thermography, digital image correlation data, and ultrasonic measurement data are used for Bayesian calibration of model parameters, for diagnosis of damage, and for prognosis of future damage. The proof-of-concept demonstration presented in this report highlights the significance of each element of the framework and their integration.

  8. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  9. Wireless body sensor networks for health-monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yang; Foster, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Current wireless technologies, such as wireless body area networks and wireless personal area networks, provide promising applications in medical monitoring systems to measure specified physiological data and also provide location-based information, if required. With the increasing sophistication of wearable and implantable medical devices and their integration with wireless sensors, an ever-expanding range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications is being pursued by research and commercial organizations. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent developments in wireless sensor technology for monitoring behaviour related to human physiological responses. It presents background information on the use of wireless technology and sensors to develop a wireless physiological measurement system. A generic miniature platform and other available technologies for wireless sensors have been studied in terms of hardware and software structural requirements for a low-cost, low-power, non-invasive and unobtrusive system.

  10. On the system of monitoring ambient air quality in relation to the health of the population of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmarova, H. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    In 1991 the Government of the Czech republic in Ruling No 369 approved a draft of a system for monitoring the health of the population in relation to the environment on the basis of a need to obtain purposefully targeted information for an appropriate policy for the protection of health and the environment. The aim of monitoring does not and cannot consist of determining the cause and effect relationship between the health status and pollutants. The system of monitoring is an open and comprehensive system of the continual collection, processing and evaluation of data concerned with the load on the organism and damage to human health in relation to environmental pollution. Air pollution and health are one of the six subsystems realised in the whole system (beside drinking water, noise, food, biomarkers, and demographic and health statistics). The aim of the monitoring is to obtain a data base that shall serve three main purposes: (1) Description of the status of health of the population and characteristics of the ambient air, (2) Evaluation of the trend of each index, (3) Assessment and evaluation of the risk to health of the parameters under study. Thirty cities and towns were selected in the Czech Republic for the realisation of the monitoring system. (author)

  11. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  12. ChemAND - a system health monitor for plant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Mitchel, G.R.; Tosello, G.; Balakrishnan, P.V.; McKay, G.; Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Dundar, Y.; Bergeron, M.; Laporte, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Groupe Chimie, Centrale Nucleaire Gentilly-2, Gentilly, Quebec (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that the plant's system health be continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a System Health Monitor called ChemAND for CANDU plant chemistry. ChemAND, a Chemistry ANalysis and Diagnostic system, monitors key chemistry parameters in the heat transport system, moderator-cover gas, annulus gas, and the steam cycle during full-power operation. These parameters can be used as inputs to models that calculate the effect of current plant operating conditions on the present and future health of the system. Chemistry data from each of the systems are extracted on a regular basis from the plant's Historical Data Server and are sorted according to function, e.g., indicators for condenser in-leakage, air in-leakage, heavy water leakage into the annulus gas, fuel failure, etc. Each parameter is conveniently displayed and is trended along with its alarm limits. ChemAND currently includes two analytical models developed for the balance-of-plant. The first model, ChemSolv, calculates crevice chemistry conditions in the steam generator (SG) from either the SG blowdown chemistry conditions or from a simulated condenser leak. This information can be used by plant staff to evaluate the susceptibility of the SG tubes to crevice corrosion. ChemSolv also calculates chemistry conditions throughout the steam-cycle system as determined by the transport of volatile species such as ammonia, hydrazine, morpholine, and oxygen. The second model, SLUDGE, calculates the deposit loading and distribution in the SG as a function of time, based on concentrations of corrosion product in the final feedwater for both normal and start-up conditions. Operations personnel can use this information to predict where to inspect and when to clean. (author)

  13. Monitoring health interventions – who's afraid of LQAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pezzoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS is used to evaluate health services. Subunits of a population (lots are accepted or rejected according to the number of failures in a random sample (N of a given lot. If failures are greater than decision value (d, we reject the lot and recommend corrective actions in the lot (i.e. intervention area; if they are equal to or less than d, we accept it. We used LQAS to monitor coverage during the last 3 days of a meningitis vaccination campaign in Niger. We selected one health area (lot per day reporting the lowest administrative coverage in the previous 2 days. In the sampling plan we considered: N to be small enough to allow us to evaluate one lot per day, deciding to sample 16 individuals from the selected villages of each health area, using probability proportionate to population size; thresholds and d to vary according to administrative coverage reported; α≤5% (meaning that, if we would have conducted the survey 100 times, we would have accepted the lot up to five times when real coverage was at an unacceptable level and β≤20% (meaning that we would have rejected the lot up to 20 times, when real coverage was equal or above the satisfactory level. We classified all three lots as with the acceptable coverage. LQAS appeared to be a rapid, simple, and statistically sound method for in-process coverage assessment. We encourage colleagues in the field to consider using LQAS in complement with other monitoring techniques such as house-to-house monitoring.

  14. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario, Michael B; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2015-07-31

    Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the "smartphone", a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS) receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and more recently magnetometer and barometer) which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs). As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that "count" steps (i.e., pedometers); gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to "close the loop" by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions.

  15. Tracking the Evolution of Smartphone Sensing for Monitoring Human Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the “smartphone”, a new class of device with more advanced connectivity features that have quickly made it a constant presence in our lives. Smartphones are equipped with comparatively advanced computing capabilities, a global positioning system (GPS receivers, and sensing capabilities (i.e., an inertial measurement unit (IMU and more recently magnetometer and barometer which can be found in wearable ambulatory monitors (WAMs. As a result, algorithms initially developed for WAMs that “count” steps (i.e., pedometers; gauge physical activity levels; indirectly estimate energy expenditure and monitor human movement can be utilised on the smartphone. These algorithms may enable clinicians to “close the loop” by prescribing timely interventions to improve or maintain wellbeing in populations who are at risk of falling or suffer from a chronic disease whose progression is linked to a reduction in movement and mobility. The ubiquitous nature of smartphone technology makes it the ideal platform from which human movement can be remotely monitored without the expense of purchasing, and inconvenience of using, a dedicated WAM. In this paper, an overview of the sensors that can be found in the smartphone are presented, followed by a summary of the developments in this field with an emphasis on the evolution of algorithms used to classify human movement. The limitations identified in the literature will be discussed, as well as suggestions about future research directions.

  16. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  17. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  18. Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro-Henríquez

    2014-11-01

    Systems with fiber optic sensors FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating are consolidated in the Structural Health Monitoring (SMH of bridges, Nondestructive Testing (NDT static and dynamic measurements of deformation, displacement, deflection, temperature and vibration. This article provides a brief introduction to the technology and the fundamentals of fiber optic sensors, also present comparative advantages over its traditional counterpart is presented. Their characteristics are described and measurement graphics are presented as an application example of the FBG sensors. Finally, some key aspects to consider for proper use in the field are mentioned.

  19. Risk-Adjusted Control Charts for Health Care Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Albers

    2011-01-01

    the distribution involved is negative binomial. However, in health care monitoring, (groups of patients will often belong to different risk categories. In the present paper, we will show how information about category membership can be used to adjust the basic negative binomial charts to the actual risk incurred. Attention is also devoted to comparing such conditional charts to their unconditional counterparts. The latter do take possible heterogeneity into account but refrain from risk-adjustment. Note that in the risk adjusted case several parameters are involved, which will all be typically unknown. Hence, the potentially considerable estimation effects of the new charts will be investigated as well.

  20. Uniform circular array for structural health monitoring of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Engholm, Marcus

    2008-03-01

    Phased array with all-azimuth angle coverage would be extremely useful in structural health monitoring (SHM) of planar structures. One method to achieve the 360° coverage is to use uniform circular arrays (UCAs). In this paper we present the concept of UCA adapted for SHM applications. We start from a brief presentation of UCA beamformers based on the principle of phase mode excitation. UCA performance is illustrated by the results of beamformer simulations performed for the narrowband and wideband ultrasonic signals. Preliminary experimental results obtained with UCA used for the reception of ultrasonic signals propagating in an aluminum plate are also presented.

  1. Feature Comparison in Structural Health Monitoring of a Vehicle Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kullaa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring of a vehicle crane was studied. The performance of different features to detect damage was investigated after eliminating the normal operational variations using factor analysis. Using eight accelerometers, ten AR parameters from each record were identified for damage detection. Also transmissibilities between sensors were estimated. Damage was introduced with additional masses at different locations of the structure. All damage cases could be detected from either features using control charts, but transmissibilities proved to be more sensitive to damage than the AR coefficients.

  2. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  3. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific

  4. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  5. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific evidenc

  6. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yusa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases. A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  8. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  9. Smart coatings for health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2005-05-01

    Luminescent coatings applications have been increased dramatically over the last decade as imaging capacities have advanced. These coatings have been used to monitor surface temperature and air pressure (oxygen sensing) in testing facilities around the world. Through the commercial suppliers of these coatings, custom assembled hardware systems and especially data reduction and analysis software, the use of smart luminescent coatings are starting to find their way in to inspection monitoring and nondestructive evaluation testing. The use of a temperature sensitive paint for example, can be a potential replacement for infrared imaging where IR techniques are limited due to access, reflections and complex geometries. Detection of the luminescent signal can use simple intensity ratio methods with synchronized pulsing systems to capture frequency responses in imaging applications. Time or frequency methods allow signals to be detected in the presence of high background noise that allow measurements that were previously unobtainable. This paper describes general luminescent sensors, detection methods and examples of coatings that are applied over test examples or embedded in materials to measure or monitor the health of a specimen.

  10. HISTORIC BIM: A NEW REPOSITORY FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Banfi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in Building Information Modelling (BIM technologies are facilitating the management of historic complex structures using new applications. This paper proposes a generative method combining the morphological and typological aspects of the historic buildings (H-BIM, with a set of monitoring information. This combination of 3D digital survey, parametric modelling and monitoring datasets allows for the development of a system for archiving and visualizing structural health monitoring (SHM data (Fig. 1. The availability of a BIM database allows one to integrate a different kind of data stored in different ways (e.g. reports, tables, graphs, etc. with a representation directly connected to the 3D model of the structure with appropriate levels of detail (LoD. Data can be interactively accessed by selecting specific objects of the BIM, i.e. connecting the 3D position of the sensors installed with additional digital documentation. Such innovative BIM objects, which form a new BIM family for SHM, can be then reused in other projects, facilitating data archiving and exploitation of data acquired and processed. The application of advanced modeling techniques allows for the reduction of time and costs of the generation process, and support cooperation between different disciplines using a central workspace. However, it also reveals new challenges for parametric software and exchange formats. The case study presented is the medieval bridge Azzone Visconti in Lecco (Italy, in which multi-temporal vertical movements during load testing were integrated into H-BIM.

  11. Historic Bim: a New Repository for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.; Roncoroni, F.

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments in Building Information Modelling (BIM) technologies are facilitating the management of historic complex structures using new applications. This paper proposes a generative method combining the morphological and typological aspects of the historic buildings (H-BIM), with a set of monitoring information. This combination of 3D digital survey, parametric modelling and monitoring datasets allows for the development of a system for archiving and visualizing structural health monitoring (SHM) data (Fig. 1). The availability of a BIM database allows one to integrate a different kind of data stored in different ways (e.g. reports, tables, graphs, etc.) with a representation directly connected to the 3D model of the structure with appropriate levels of detail (LoD). Data can be interactively accessed by selecting specific objects of the BIM, i.e. connecting the 3D position of the sensors installed with additional digital documentation. Such innovative BIM objects, which form a new BIM family for SHM, can be then reused in other projects, facilitating data archiving and exploitation of data acquired and processed. The application of advanced modeling techniques allows for the reduction of time and costs of the generation process, and support cooperation between different disciplines using a central workspace. However, it also reveals new challenges for parametric software and exchange formats. The case study presented is the medieval bridge Azzone Visconti in Lecco (Italy), in which multi-temporal vertical movements during load testing were integrated into H-BIM.

  12. Logic-centered architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jacek; Arochena, Hisbel E; Naguib, Raouf N G; Chao, Kuo-Ming; Garcia-Perez, Alexeis

    2014-09-01

    One of the key points to maintain and boost research and development in the area of smart wearable systems (SWS) is the development of integrated architectures for intelligent services, as well as wearable systems and devices for health and wellness management. This paper presents such a generic architecture for multiparametric, intelligent and ubiquitous wireless sensing platforms. It is a transparent, smartphone-based sensing framework with customizable wireless interfaces and plug'n'play capability to easily interconnect third party sensor devices. It caters to wireless body, personal, and near-me area networks. A pivotal part of the platform is the integrated inference engine/runtime environment that allows the mobile device to serve as a user-adaptable personal health assistant. The novelty of this system lays in a rapid visual development and remote deployment model. The complementary visual Inference Engine Editor that comes with the package enables artificial intelligence specialists, alongside with medical experts, to build data processing models by assembling different components and instantly deploying them (remotely) on patient mobile devices. In this paper, the new logic-centered software architecture for ubiquitous health monitoring applications is described, followed by a discussion as to how it helps to shift focus from software and hardware development, to medical and health process-centered design of new SWS applications.

  13. Autonomous health monitoring of a stiffened composite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Ajit K.; Banerjee, Sauvik; Ricci, Fabrizio; Monaco, Ernesto; Lecce, L.

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents a unified computer assisted automatic damage identification technique based on a damage index, associated with changes in the vibrational and wave propagation characteristics in damaged structures. An improved ultrasonic and vibration test setup consisting of distributed, high fidelity, intelligent, surface mounted sensor arrays is used to examine the change in the dynamical properties of realistic composite structural components with the appearance of damage. The sensors are assumed to provide both the low frequency global response (i.e., modal frequencies, mode shapes) of the structure to external loads and the (local) high frequency signals due to wave propagation effects in either passive or active mode of the ultrasonic array. Using the initial measurements performed on an undamaged structure as baseline, the damage indices are evaluated from the comparison of the frequency response of the monitored structure with an unknown damage. The technique is applied to identify impact damage in a woven stiffened composite plate that presents practical difficulties in transmitting waves across it due to scattering and other energy dissipation effects present in the material and the geometry of the structure. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out in order to estimate a threshold value of the index below which no reliable information about the state of health of the structure can be achieved. The feasibility of developing a practical Intelligent Structural Health Monitoring (ISHM) System, based on the concept of "a structure requesting service when needed," is discussed.

  14. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  15. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  16. Carbon Nanotube-Based Structural Health Monitoring Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell; Jordan, Jeffrey; Oglesby, Donald; Watkins, Anthony; Patry, JoAnne; Smits, Jan; Williams, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensors for structural health monitoring (SHM) can be embedded in structures of all geometries to monitor conditions both inside and at the surface of the structure to continuously sense changes. These CNTs can be manipulated into specific orientations to create small, powerful, and flexible sensors. One of the sensors is a highly flexible sensor for crack growth detection and strain field mapping that features a very dense and highly ordered array of single-walled CNTs. CNT structural health sensors can be mass-produced, are inexpensive, can be packaged in small sizes (0.5 micron(sup 2)), require less power than electronic or piezoelectric transducers, and produce less waste heat per square centimeter than electronic or piezoelectric transducers. Chemically functionalized lithographic patterns are used to deposit and align the CNTs onto metallic electrodes. This method consistently produces aligned CNTs in the defined locations. Using photo- and electron-beam lithography, simple Cr/Au thin-film circuits are patterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The samples are then re-patterned with a CNT-attracting, self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to delineate the desired CNT locations between electrodes. During the deposition of the solution-suspended single- wall CNTs, the application of an electric field to the metallic contacts causes alignment of the CNTs along the field direction. This innovation is a prime candidate for smart skin technologies with applications ranging from military, to aerospace, to private industry.

  17. Passive and Active Sensing Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Richard

    A combination of passive and active sensing technologies is proposed as a structural health monitoring solution for several applications. Passive sensing is differentiated from active sensing in that with the former, no energy is intentionally imparted into the structure under test; sensors are deployed in a pure detection mode for collecting data mined for structural health monitoring purposes. In this thesis, passive sensing using embedded fiber Bragg grating optical strain gages was used to detect varying degrees of impact damage using two different classes of features drawn from traditional spectral analysis and auto-regressive time series modeling. The two feature classes were compared in detail through receiver operating curve performance analysis. The passive detection problem was then augmented with an active sensing system using ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs). This thesis considered two main challenges associated with UGW SHM including in-situ wave propagation property determination and thermal corruption of data. Regarding determination of wave propagation properties, of which dispersion characteristics are the most important, a new dispersion curve extraction method called sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA) was experimentally validated. Also, because UGWs are extremely sensitive to ambient temperature changes on the structure, it significantly affects the wave propagation properties by causing large errors in the residual error in the processing of the UGWs from an array. This thesis presented a novel method that compensates for uniform temperature change by considering the magnitude and phase of the signal separately and applying a scalable transformation.

  18. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dustin Y.; Todd, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems.

  19. Wireless Health Data Exchange for Home Healthcare Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malrey Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous home healthcare systems have been playing an increasingly significant role in the treatment and management of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension, but progress has been hampered by the lack of standardization in the exchange of medical health care information. In an effort to establish standardization, this paper proposes a home healthcare monitoring system data exchange scheme between the HL7 standard and the IEEE1451 standard. IEEE1451 is a standard for special sensor networks, such as industrial control and smart homes, and defines a suite of interfaces that communicate among heterogeneous networks. HL7 is the standard for medical information exchange among medical organizations and medical personnel. While it provides a flexible data exchange in health care domains, it does not provide for data exchange with sensors. Thus, it is necessary to develop a data exchange schema to convert data between the HL7 and the IEEE1451 standard. This paper proposes a schema that can exchange data between HL7 devices and the monitoring device, and conforms to the IEEE 1451 standard. The experimental results and conclusions of this approach are presented and show the feasibility of the proposed exchange schema.

  20. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  1. Integrating social determinants of health in the universal health coverage monitoring framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jeanette; Frenz, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Underpinning the global commitment to universal health coverage (UHC) is the fundamental role of health for well-being and sustainable development. UHC is proposed as an umbrella health goal in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda because it implies universal and equitable effective delivery of comprehensive health services by a strong health system, aligned with multiple sectors around the shared goal of better health. In this paper, we argue that social determinants of health (SDH) are central to both the equitable pursuit of healthy lives and the provision of health services for all and, therefore, should be expressly incorporated into the framework for monitoring UHC. This can be done by: (a) disaggregating UHC indicators by different measures of socioeconomic position to reflect the social gradient and the complexity of social stratification; and (b) connecting health indicators, both outcomes and coverage, with SDH and policies within and outside of the health sector. Not locating UHC in the context of action on SDH increases the risk of going down a narrow route that limits the right to health to coverage of services and financial protection.

  2. Health monitoring of pipeline girth weld using empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Davood; Taheri, Farid

    2010-05-01

    In the present paper the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), as a time-series analysis technique, has been combined with a local diagnostic approach in an effort to identify flaws in pipeline girth welds. This method is based on monitoring the free vibration signals of the pipe at its healthy and flawed states, and processing the signals through the HHT and its associated signal decomposition technique, known as empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The EMD method decomposes the vibration signals into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The deviations in structural integrity, measured from a healthy-state baseline, are subsequently evaluated by two damage sensitive parameters. The first is a damage index, referred to as the EM-EDI, which is established based on an energy comparison of the first or second IMF of the vibration signals, before and after occurrence of damage. The second parameter is the evaluation of the lag in instantaneous phase, a quantity derived from the HHT. In the developed methodologies, the pipe's free vibration is monitored by piezoceramic sensors and a laser Doppler vibrometer. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques is demonstrated through a set of numerical and experimental studies on a steel pipe with a mid-span girth weld, for both pressurized and nonpressurized conditions. To simulate a crack, a narrow notch is cut on one side of the girth weld. Several damage scenarios, including notches of different depths and at various locations on the pipe, are investigated. Results from both numerical and experimental studies reveal that in all damage cases the sensor located at the notch vicinity could successfully detect the notch and qualitatively predict its severity. The effect of internal pressure on the damage identification method is also monitored. Overall, the results are encouraging and promise the effectiveness of the proposed approaches as inexpensive systems for structural health monitoring purposes.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Plain Weave and Honeycomb Weave Electrodes for Human ECG Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-time monitoring of physiological parameters can scrutinize human health conditions so as to use electrocardiogram (ECG for diagnosis of some human’s chronic cardiovascular diseases. The continuous monitoring requires the wearable electrodes to be breathable, flexible, biocompatible, and skin-affinity friendly. Weave electrodes are innovative materials to supply these potential performances. In this paper, four conductive weave electrodes in plain and honeycomb weave patterns were developed to monitor human ECG signals. A wearable belt platform was developed to mount such electrodes for acquisition of ECG signals using a back-end electronic circuit and a signal transfer unit. The performance of weave ECG electrodes was evaluated in terms of skin-electrode contacting impedance, comfortability, ECG electrical characteristics, and signal fidelity. Such performances were then compared with the values from Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The test results showed that lower skin-electrode impedance, higher R-peak amplitude, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR value were obtained with the increased density of conductive filaments in weave and honeycomb weave electrode presented higher comfort but poorer signal quality of ECG. This study inspires an acceptable way of weave electrodes in long- and real-time of human biosignal monitoring.

  4. Wireless Structural Sensing for Health Monitoring and Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    health monitoring) have been included in the unit's computational core. Additionally, an actuation interface has recently been added to the sensing unit design to allow for direct operation of structural actuators. With a computational core capable of real-time data processing, the data acquisition and actuation interfaces can be coupled through discrete-time feedback control loops implemented in software. Looking to the future, this intelligent monitoring infrastructure can possibly tune a structural control system in real-time after early warning of a pending seismic disturbance has been communicated to the wireless sensor network.

  5. Flexible and wearable electronic silk fabrics for human physiological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cuiping; Zhang, Huihui; Lu, Zhisong

    2017-09-01

    The development of textile-based devices for human physiological monitoring has attracted tremendous interest in recent years. However, flexible physiological sensing elements based on silk fabrics have not been realized. In this paper, ZnO nanorod arrays are grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide-coated silk fabrics via a facile electro-deposition method for the fabrication of silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing devices. The data show that well-aligned ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structures are synthesized on the conductive silk fabric surface. After magnetron sputtering of gold electrodes, silk-fabric-based devices are produced and applied to detect periodic bending and twisting. Based on the electric signals, the deformation and release processes can be easily differentiated. Human arterial pulse and respiration can also be real-time monitored to calculate the pulse rate and respiration frequency, respectively. Throat vibrations during coughing and singing are detected to demonstrate the voice recognition capability. This work may not only help develop silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing elements for potential applications in clinical diagnosis, daily healthcare monitoring and voice recognition, but also provide a versatile method for fabricating textile-based flexible electronic devices.

  6. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Obeid, Andy; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D

    2013-09-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min(-1). A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min(-1), and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn.

  7. SHARD - a SeisComP3 module for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Ellguth, E.; Henneberger, R.; Herrnkind, S.; Roessler, D.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring building and structure response to strong earthquake ground shaking or human-induced vibrations in real-time forms the backbone of modern structural health monitoring (SHM). The continuous data transmission, processing and analysis reduces drastically the time decision makers need to plan for appropriate response to possible damages of high-priority buildings and structures. SHARD is a web browser based module using the SeisComp3 framework to monitor the structural health of buildings and other structures by calculating standard engineering seismology parameters and checking their exceedance in real-time. Thresholds can be defined, e.g. compliant with national building codes (IBC2000, DIN4149 or EC8), for PGA/PGV/PGD, response spectra and drift ratios. In case thresholds are exceeded automatic or operator driven reports are generated and send to the decision makers. SHARD also determines waveform quality in terms of data delay and variance to report sensor status. SHARD is the perfect tool for civil protection to monitor simultaneously multiple city-wide critical infrastructure as hospitals, schools, governmental buildings and structures as bridges, dams and power substations.

  8. Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Structures Using Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Anthony

    Structural health monitoring is the process of detecting damage to a structure, where damage can be characterized as changes to material/mechanical properties including but not limited to plastically deforming the material or the modification of connections. Fiber optic cables with fiber Bragg gratings have emerged as a reliable method of locally measuring strains within a structure. During the manufacturing of composite structures, the fiber optic cables can be embedded between lamina plies, allowing the ability to measure strain at discrete locations within the structure as opposed to electrical strain gauges, which must typically be applied to the surface only. The fiber optic sensors may be used to see if the local strain at the sensor location is beyond desired limits, or the array response may be mined to determine additional information about the loading applied to the structure. The work presented in this thesis is to present novel and potential applications of FBG sensors being used to assess the health of the structure. The first application is the dual application of the FBG sensor as a method to determine the strain around a bolt connection as well as the preload of the fastener using a single fiber optic sensor. The composite material around the bolted connections experience stress concentrations and are often the location of damage to the structure from operational cyclic loading over the lifetime of the structure. The degradation can occur more quickly if the fastener is insufficiently tight to transfer load properly. The second application is the ability to locate the impact location of a projectile with damaging and non-damaging energy. By locating and quantifying the damage, the sensor array provides the basis for a structural health monitoring system that has the potential to determine if the damage is extensive enough to replace, or if the part can be salvaged and retrofitted.

  9. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  10. Developing a structural health monitoring system for nuclear dry cask storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Knight, Travis; Lam, Poh-Sang; Yu, Lingyu

    2015-03-01

    Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. In total, there are over 1482 dry cask storage system (DCSS) in use at US plants, storing 57,807 fuel assemblies. Nondestructive material condition monitoring is in urgent need and must be integrated into the fuel cycle to quantify the "state of health", and more importantly, to guarantee the safe operation of radioactive waste storage systems (RWSS) during their extended usage period. A state-of-the-art nuclear structural health monitoring (N-SHM) system based on in-situ sensing technologies that monitor material degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures is being developed. The N-SHM technology uses permanently installed low-profile piezoelectric wafer sensors to perform long-term health monitoring by strategically using a combined impedance (EMIS), acoustic emission (AE), and guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) approach, called "multimode sensing", which is conducted by the same network of installed sensors activated in a variety of ways. The system will detect AE events resulting from crack (case for study in this project) and evaluate the damage evolution; when significant AE is detected, the sensor network will switch to the GUW mode to perform damage localization, and quantification as well as probe "hot spots" that are prone to damage for material degradation evaluation using EMIS approach. The N-SHM is expected to eventually provide a systematic methodology for assessing and monitoring nuclear waste storage systems without incurring human radiation exposure.

  11. A wireless sensor network for urban environmental health monitoring: UrbanSense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainham, D.

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas are generators of environmental emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), harmful air pollutants and noise, all with the potential to negatively impact the health and wellbeing of its human and non-human inhabitants. There is an urgent need to understand the characteristics of urban areas associated with variability in emissions and the potential for exposure to potential harmful environmental conditions. UrbanSense is a wireless sensor network (WSN) infrastructure designed to monitor environmental conditions at different temporal and spatial scales. The scalable infrastructure includes an extended range outdoor wireless sensing and data aggregation system, a web-based data management and visualization platform, and real-time event-based data stream integration. Sensors monitor changes in carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), noise (LAeq), as well as several meteorological conditions including wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation. The implementation will provide opportunities for real-time data integration and an analysis system for environmental quality assessment, and may be realized on top of products arising from spatio-temporal (statistical) analyses and remotely-acquired data products such as satellite data. Sensor swapping and co-location with sensors from projects with different aims (traffic volume modelling and human tracking research) will add value for research in transportation planning, environmental regulation and policy and epidemiological studies focused on associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes.

  12. Human psychophysiological activity monitoring methods using fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Uzieblo-Zyczkowska, B.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of fiber optic sensor system for human psycho-physical activity detection. A fiber optic sensor that utilizes optical phase interferometry or intensity in modalmetric to monitor a patient's vital signs such as respiration cardiac activity, blood pressure and body's physical movements. The sensor, which is non-invasive, comprises an optical fiber interferometer that includes an optical fiber proximately situated to the patient so that time varying acusto-mechanical signals from the patient are coupled into the optical fiber. The system can be implemented in embodiments ranging form a low cost in-home to a high end product for in hospital use.

  13. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  14. Wearable sensor network for health monitoring: the case of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, M.; Arredondo, M. T.; Cancela, J.; Guillen, S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how wearable sensors can be useful in health solutions, improving the continuous monitoring and management of patients. This paper is focused on the available solution for motion analysis, providing a description of human motion features which can be measured through the use of wearable sensors. Moreover, this paper presents an example of wearable solution used for the objective assessment of Parkinson's disease symptoms. Results indicate that wearable sensors are useful for the objective evaluation of motor fluctuation and clinicians can benefit from these tools in order to adjust and personalise the treatment.

  15. Applications of deuterium oxide in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Mariano, Reysla Maria da Silveira; Silva, Valmin Ramos; Santos, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira

    2017-02-06

    The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.

  16. Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chapters: 1) Convergence or divide in the movement for sustainable and just agriculture. 2) No-till agriculture in the USA. 3) Organic fertilizers in sub-Saharan farming systems. 4) Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. 5) Pseudomonas and microbes for disease-suppressive soils. 6) Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation, Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity. 7) Sustainable agricultural NP turnover in the 27 European countries. 8) Tomato production for human health, not...

  17. A dynamic human health risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

    2012-05-01

    An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors.

  18. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-Frequency Methods for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pyayt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of early warning signals for the imminent failure of large and complex engineered structures is a daunting challenge with many open research questions. In this paper we report on novel ways to perform Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of flood protection systems (levees, earthen dikes and concrete dams using sensor data. We present a robust data-driven anomaly detection method that combines time-frequency feature extraction, using wavelet analysis and phase shift, with one-sided classification techniques to identify the onset of failure anomalies in real-time sensor measurements. The methodology has been successfully tested at three operational levees. We detected a dam leakage in the retaining dam (Germany and “strange” behaviour of sensors installed in a Boston levee (UK and a Rhine levee (Germany.

  20. Air quality monitoring in NIS (SERBIA) and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikic, Dragana; Bogdanovic, Dragan; Nikolic, Maja; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Zivkovic, Nenad; Djordjevic, Amelija

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the significance of air quality monitoring and to determine the air quality fields for the assessment of air pollution health effects, with special attention to risk population. Radial basis function network was used for air quality index mapping. Between 1991 and 2005, on the territory of Nis, several epidemiological studies were performed on risk groups (pre-school children, school children, pregnant women and persons older than 65). The total number of subjects was 5837. The exposed group comprised individuals living in the areas with unhealthy AQI, while the control group comprised individuals living in city areas with good or moderate AQI. It was determined that even relatively low levels of air pollution had impact on respiratory system and the occurrence of anaemia, allergy and skin symptoms.

  1. Lamb wave propagation modeling for structure health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyue ZHANG; Shenfang YUAN; Tong HAO

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to model the propagation of Lamb waves used in structure health monitoring. A number of different numerical computational techniques have been developed for wave propagation studies. The local interaction simulation approach, used for modeling sharp interfaces and discontinuities in complex media (LISA/SIM theory), has been effectively applied to numerical simulations of elastic wave interaction. This modeling is based on the local interaction simulation approach theory and is finally accomplished through the finite elements software Ansys11. In this paper, the Lamb waves propagating characteristics and the LISA/SIM theory are introduced. The finite difference equations describing wave propagation used in the LISA/SIM theory are obtained. Then, an anisotropic metallic plate model is modeled and a simulating Lamb waves signal is loaded on. Finally, the Lamb waves propagation modeling is implemented.

  2. Converting signals to knowledge in structural health monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownjohn, James M. W.; Moyo, Pilate; Omenzetter, Piotr; Chakraboorty, Sushanta

    2005-04-01

    Academic approaches in structural health monitoring (SHM) usually focus on fine detail or on aspects of the technology such as sensors and data collection, and areas that may be less useful to operators than information about the level of performance of their structures. The steps in the process of SHM such as data management, data mining, conversion to knowledge of structural behaviour and integrity are frequently absent, and even the most operationally successful SHM systems may lack the component where deep understanding on the nature of the structure performance is obtained. This paper presents experience gained in a number of SHM exercises where static and dynamic response data have been interpreted, with or without the aid of calibrated structural models, in order to characterise the mechanisms at work and the experiences of the structure.

  3. Networked Computing in Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Apoorva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed computation over a network of wireless sensors. While this problem applies to many emerging applications, to keep our discussion concrete we will focus on sensor networks used for structural health monitoring. Within this context, the heaviest computation is to determine the singular value decomposition (SVD) to extract mode shapes (eigenvectors) of a structure. Compared to collecting raw vibration data and performing SVD at a central location, computing SVD within the network can result in significantly lower energy consumption and delay. Using recent results on decomposing SVD, a well-known centralized operation, into components, we seek to determine a near-optimal communication structure that enables the distribution of this computation and the reassembly of the final results, with the objective of minimizing energy consumption subject to a computational delay constraint. We show that this reduces to a generalized clustering problem; a cluster forms a unit on w...

  4. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  5. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  6. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.

  7. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Aerospace Structures and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Allison, Sidney G.

    2009-01-01

    A new technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in materials and structures by performing temperature measurements with fiber Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of structures with subsurface defects or thickness variations. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. The data obtained from grating sensors were further analyzed with thermal modeling to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. These results were found to be consistent with those from conventional thermography techniques. Limitations of the technique were investigated using both experimental and numerical simulation techniques. Methods for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  8. Redirection of Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Ong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, structures are designed without structural health monitoring (SHM in mind. It is proposed that SHM should be addressed at the design stage of new structures. This paper explores the benefit which can be gained from such considerations. The scope encompasses Lamb-wave-based SHM and a given fatigue critical location (FCL. Optimization is performed using specialised ray tracing. A case study is carried out using a specimen that simulates a hard-to-inspect region in a fuel vent hole in wings structures of aircraft. This work will report on the potential use of the focussing of stress wave to improve detectability of defect in this hard-to-inspect location. Following optimization, results are produced numerically and experimentally. The results revealed sensitivity to damage is nearly doubled while minimum detectable damage size is significantly decreased. As a result, this study brings together an assortment of specialised tools to form a workflow ready for implementation.

  9. Predictive simulation of guide-wave structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent developments on predictive simulation of guided wave structural health monitoring (SHM) with piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) transducers. The predictive simulation methodology is based on the hybrid global local (HGL) concept which allows fast analytical simulation in the undamaged global field and finite element method (FEM) simulation in the local field around and including the damage. The paper reviews the main results obtained in this area by researchers of the Laboratory for Active Materials and Smart Structures (LAMSS) at the University of South Carolina, USA. After thematic introduction and research motivation, the paper covers four main topics: (i) presentation of the HGL analysis; (ii) analytical simulation in 1D and 2D; (iii) scatter field generation; (iv) HGL examples. The paper ends with summary, discussion, and suggestions for future work.

  10. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, R; Heeb, M; Berry, W; Hoshizaki, T; Wood, M

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Lactuca [correction of Latuca] Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  11. Review on pressure sensors for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Samiksha; Satyendra; Singh, Shakti; Yadav, B. C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the state of art in a variety of pressure and the detailed study of various matrix based pressure sensors. The performances of the bridges, buildings, etc. are threatened by earthquakes, material degradations, and other environmental effects. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is crucial to protect the people and also for assets planning. This study is a contribution in developing the knowledge about self-sensing smart materials and structures for the construction industry. It deals with the study of self-sensing as well as mechanical and electrical properties of different matrices based on pressure sensors. The relationships among the compression, tensile strain, and crack length with electrical resistance change are also reviewed.

  12. Assessment of an Anomaly Detector for Jet Engine Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Borguet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of module performance analysis is to reliably assess the health of the main components of an aircraft engine. A predictive maintenance strategy can leverage this information to increase operability and safety as well as to reduce costs. Degradation undergone by an engine can be divided into gradual deterioration and accidental events. Kalman filters have proven very efficient at tracking progressive deterioration but are poor performers in the face of abrupt events. Adaptive estimation is considered as an appropriate solution to this deficiency. This paper reports the evaluation of the detection capability of an adaptive diagnosis tool on the basis of simulated scenarios that may be encountered during the operation of a commercial turbofan engine. The diagnosis tool combines a Kalman filter and a secondary system that monitors the residuals. This auxiliary component implements a generalised likelihood ratio test in order to detect abrupt events.

  13. Inspection of Piezoceramic Transducers Used for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Mueller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS for structural health monitoring (SHM purposes is state of the art for acousto-ultrasonic-based methods. For system reliability, detailed information about the PWAS itself is necessary. This paper gives an overview on frequent PWAS faults and presents the effects of these faults on the wave propagation, used for active acousto-ultrasonics-based SHM. The analysis of the wave field is based on velocity measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. New and established methods of PWAS inspection are explained in detail, listing advantages and disadvantages. The electro-mechanical impedance spectrum as basis for these methods is discussed for different sensor faults. This way this contribution focuses on a detailed analysis of PWAS and the need of their inspection for an increased reliability of SHM systems.

  14. Analysis of remote reflectin spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  15. Analysis of remote reflection spectroscopy to monitor plant health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, R.; Heeb, M.; Berry, W.; Hoshizaki, T.; Wood, M.

    1994-11-01

    Remote non-contact reflection spectroscopy is examined as a method for detecting stress in Controlled Ecological Life Support System CELSS type crops. Lettuce (Latuca Sativa L. cv. Waldmans Green) and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. cv. Yecora Rojo) were grown hydroponically. Copper and zinc treatments provided toxic conditions. Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium treatments were used for deficiency conditions. Water stress was also induced in test plants. Reflectance spectra were obtained in the visible and near infrared (400nm to 2600nm) wavebands. Numerous effects of stress conditions can be observed in the collected spectra and this technique appears to have promise as a remote monitor of plant health, but significant research remains to be conducted to realize the promise.

  16. On structural health monitoring of aircraft adhesively bonded repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulou, Sofia

    The recent interest in life extension of ageing aircraft and the need to address the repair challenges in the new age composite ones, led to the investigation of new repair methodologies such as adhesively bonded repair patches. The present thesis focuses on structural health monitoring aspects of the repairs, evaluating their performance with guided ultrasonic waves aiming to develop a monitoring strategy which would eliminate unscheduled maintenance and unnecessary inspection costs. To address the complex nature of the wave propagation phenomena, a finite element based model identified the existing challenges by exploring the interaction of the excitation waves with different levels of damage. The damage sensitivity of the first anti-symmetric mode was numerically investigated. An external bonded patch and a scarf repair, were further tested in static and dynamic loadings, and their performance was monitored with Lamb waves, excited by surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers.. The response was processed by means of advanced pattern recognition and data dimension reduction techniques such as novelty detection and principal component analysis. An optimisation of these tools enabled an accurate damage detection under complex conditions. The phenomena of mode isolation and precise arrival time determination under a noisy environment and the problem of inadequate training data were investigated and solved through appropriate transducer arrangements and advanced signal processing respectively. The applicability of the established techniques was demonstrated on an aluminium repaired helicopter tail stabilizer. Each case study utilised alternative non-destructive techniques for validation such as 3D digital image correlation, X-ray radiography and thermography. Finally a feature selection strategy was developed through the analysis of the instantaneous properties of guided waves for damage detection purposes..

  17. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  18. Smart Structures and Intelligent Systems for Health Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sherif

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available “Smart and intelligent” structures are defined as structures capable of monitoring their own “health” condition and structural behavior, such structures are capable of sensing external environmental conditions, making decisions, and sending the information to other locations. Available conventional devices and systems are not technologically mature for such applications. New classes of miniature devices and networking systems are urgently needed for such applications. In this paper, two examples of the successful work achieved so far, in biomedical application of smart structures, are presented. The first one is based on the development of a smart bone fixation device for rehabilitation and treatment. This device includes a smart composite bar that can sense physical stress applied to the fractured bones, and send the information to the patient's physician remotely. The second is on the development of smart fabrics for many applications including health monitoring and diagnostics. Successful development of such smart fabrics with embedded fiber optic sensors and networks is mainly dependent on the development of the proper miniature sensor technology, and on the integration of these sensors into textile structures. The developed smart structures will be discussed and samples of the results will be presented.

  19. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR, improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability.

  20. Development of smart sensing system for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kung-Chun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Weng, Jian Huang

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to upgrade a wireless sensing unit which can meet the following requirements: 1) Improvement of system powering and analog signal processing 2) Enhancement of signal resolution and provide reliable wireless communication data, 3) Enhance capability for continuous long-term monitoring. Based on the prototype of the wireless sensing unit developed by Prof. Lynch at the Stanford University, the following upgrading steps are summarized: 1. Reduce system noise by using SMD passive elements and preventing the coupling digital and analog circuits, and increasing the capacity of power. 2. Improve the ADC sampling resolution and accuracy with a higher resolution Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC): a 24bits ADC with programmable gain amplifier. 3. Improve wireless communication by using the wireless radio 9XTend which supported by the router (Digi MESH) communication function using 900MHz frequency band. Based on the upgrade wireless sensing unit, verification of the new wireless sensing unit was conducted from the ambient vibration survey of a base-isolated building. This new upgrade wireless sensing unit can provide more reliable data for continuous structural health monitoring. Incorporated with the identification software (modified stochastic subspace identification method) the smart sensing system for SHM is developed.

  1. Automated structural health monitoring based on adaptive kernel spectral clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Rocco; Reynders, Edwin; Mehrkanoon, Siamak; Suykens, Johan A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Structural health monitoring refers to the process of measuring damage-sensitive variables to assess the functionality of a structure. In principle, vibration data can capture the dynamics of the structure and reveal possible failures, but environmental and operational variability can mask this information. Thus, an effective outlier detection algorithm can be applied only after having performed data normalization (i.e. filtering) to eliminate external influences. Instead, in this article we propose a technique which unifies the data normalization and damage detection steps. The proposed algorithm, called adaptive kernel spectral clustering (AKSC), is initialized and calibrated in a phase when the structure is undamaged. The calibration process is crucial to ensure detection of early damage and minimize the number of false alarms. After the calibration, the method can automatically identify new regimes which may be associated with possible faults. These regimes are discovered by means of two complementary damage (i.e. outlier) indicators. The proposed strategy is validated with a simulated example and with real-life natural frequency data from the Z24 pre-stressed concrete bridge, which was progressively damaged at the end of a one-year monitoring period.

  2. Application of Machine Learning to Rotorcraft Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Tyler; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a powerful tool for data exploration and model building with large data sets. This project aimed to use machine learning techniques to explore the inherent structure of data from rotorcraft gear tests, relationships between features and damage states, and to build a system for predicting gear health for future rotorcraft transmission applications. Classical machine learning techniques are difficult, if not irresponsible to apply to time series data because many make the assumption of independence between samples. To overcome this, Hidden Markov Models were used to create a binary classifier for identifying scuffing transitions and Recurrent Neural Networks were used to leverage long distance relationships in predicting discrete damage states. When combined in a workflow, where the binary classifier acted as a filter for the fatigue monitor, the system was able to demonstrate accuracy in damage state prediction and scuffing identification. The time dependent nature of the data restricted data exploration to collecting and analyzing data from the model selection process. The limited amount of available data was unable to give useful information, and the division of training and testing sets tended to heavily influence the scores of the models across combinations of features and hyper-parameters. This work built a framework for tracking scuffing and fatigue on streaming data and demonstrates that machine learning has much to offer rotorcraft health monitoring by using Bayesian learning and deep learning methods to capture the time dependent nature of the data. Suggested future work is to implement the framework developed in this project using a larger variety of data sets to test the generalization capabilities of the models and allow for data exploration.

  3. Ferroelectric thin-film active sensors for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Yuan, Zheng; Liu, Jian; Chen, Chonglin; Jiang, Jiechao; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan

    2007-04-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) have been proven a valuable tool in structural health monitoring. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors are able to send and receive guided Lamb/Rayleigh waves that scan the structure and detect the presence of incipient cracks and structural damage. In-situ thin-film active sensor deposition can eliminate the bonding layer to improve the durability issue and reduce the acoustic impedance mismatch. Ferroelectric thin films have been shown to have piezoelectric properties that are close to those of single-crystal ferroelectrics but the fabrication of ferroelectric thin films on structural materials (steel, aluminum, titanium, etc.) has not been yet attempted. In this work, in-situ fabrication method of piezoelectric thin-film active sensors arrays was developed using the nano technology approach. Specification for the piezoelectric thin-film active sensors arrays was based on electro-mechanical-acoustical model. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films were successfully deposited on Ni tapes by pulsed laser deposition under the optimal synthesis conditions. Microstructural studies by X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the as-grown BTO thin films have the nanopillar structures with an average size of approximately 80 nm in diameter and the good interface structures with no inter-diffusion or reaction. The dielectric and ferroelectric property measurements exhibit that the BTO films have a relatively large dielectric constant, a small dielectric loss, and an extremely large piezoelectric response with a symmetric hysteresis loop. The research objective is to develop the fabrication and optimum design of thin-film active sensor arrays for structural health monitoring applications. The short wavelengths of the micro phased arrays will permit the phased-array imaging of smaller parts and smaller damage than is currently not possible with existing technology.

  4. Challenges and Promise for the Development of Human Immune Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai S. Shen-Off

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is critical for protection and health maintenance and is likely required for a long lifespan. Yet, despite its importance for health, the ability to assess its quality of function has been poor, nor is much known on its variation between individuals. Hence direct assessment of immune health has largely been missing from medicine, and metrics of immune health are not well defined, especially in non-extreme states. This is chiefly due to the high complexity of the immune system. Recently emerging technologies now enable broad surveying of many immune system components at high resolution, setting forth a transformation of immunology and, through it, medicine. Such technologies enable, for the first time, high-resolution monitoring of an individual’s immune system. The resulting information can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as to provide a quantitative, global view of the immune system, i.e. “systems immunology.” This is especially relevant in the context of aging, in which the immune system exhibits profound alterations in state and function.

  5. Autonomus I&C Maintenance and Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There currently exists no end-to-end reactor/power conversion monitoring system that can provide both autonomous health monitoring, but also in-situ sensor...

  6. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  7. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  8. Physiological Health Challenges for Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the next decades, manned space missions are expected to be aiming at the Lagrange points, near Earth asteroids, and Mars flyby and/or landing. The question is therefore: Are we ready to go? To answer this with a yes, we are currently using the International Space Station to develop an integrated human physiological countermeasure suite. The integrated countermeasure suite will most likely encounter: 1) Exercise devices for aerobic, dynamic and resistive exercise training; 2) sensory-motor computer training programs and anti-motion sickness medication for preparing EVAs and G-transitions; 3) lower limb bracelets for preventing and/or treating the VIIP (vision impairment and intracranial pressure) syndrome; 4) nutritional components for maintenance of bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system and preventing oxidative stress and damage and immune deficiencies (e. g. omega-3 fatty acids, PRO/K, anti-oxidants and less salt and iron); 5) bisphosphonates for preventing bone degradation.; 6) lower body compression garment and oral salt and fluid loading for landing on a planetary surface to combat orthostatic intolerance; 7) laboratory analysis equipment for individualized monitoring of biomarkers in blood, urine and saliva for estimation of health status in; 8) advanced ultrasound techniques for monitoring bone and cardiovascular health; and 9) computer modeling programs for individual health status assessments of efficiency and subsequent adjustments of countermeasures. In particular for future missions into deep space, we are concerned with the synergistic effects of weightlessness, radiation, operational constraints and other spaceflight environmental factors. Therefore, increased collaboration between physiological, behavioral, radiation and space vehicle design disciplines are strongly warranted. Another venue we are exploring in NASA's Human Research Program is the usefulness of artificial gravity for mitigating the health risks of long duration weightlessness.

  9. Development of a Mobile Phone Based e-Health Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duck Hee Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Electrocardiogram (ECG system is important in primary diagnosis and survival analysis of the heart diseases. Growing portable mobile technologies have provided possibilities for medical monitoring for human vital signs and allow patient move around freely. In this paper, a mobile health monitoring application program is described. This system consists of the following sub-systems: real-time signal receiver, ECG signal processing, signal display in mobile phone, and data management as well five user interface screens. We verified the signal feature detection using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The detection algorithms were implemented in the mobile phone application program. This paper describes the application system that was developed and tested successfully

  10. Real-time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-05

    time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good , The Bad , and The Ugly 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Status Physiological Monitor Concept 98 The GOOD Technologies & a solution framework have been greatly advanced. Health state monitoring is no...Medical Monitoring Telemetry System – In Action Results – Physiology, Real Time Display Th e GO OD The BAD Unique challenges make the creation and

  11. A Flexible and Wearable Human Stress Monitoring Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Sim, Jai Kyoung; Cho, Young-Ho

    2016-03-01

    A human stress monitoring patch integrates three sensors of skin temperature, skin conductance, and pulsewave in the size of stamp (25 mm × 15 mm × 72 μm) in order to enhance wearing comfort with small skin contact area and high flexibility. The skin contact area is minimized through the invention of an integrated multi-layer structure and the associated microfabrication process; thus being reduced to 1/125 of that of the conventional single-layer multiple sensors. The patch flexibility is increased mainly by the development of flexible pulsewave sensor, made of a flexible piezoelectric membrane supported by a perforated polyimide membrane. In the human physiological range, the fabricated stress patch measures skin temperature with the sensitivity of 0.31 Ω/°C, skin conductance with the sensitivity of 0.28 μV/0.02 μS, and pulse wave with the response time of 70 msec. The skin-attachable stress patch, capable to detect multimodal bio-signals, shows potential for application to wearable emotion monitoring.

  12. Home health monitoring – EyKos HealthHub (product design concept)

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Mark; Dulake, Nick; Willox, Matt; Gwilt, Ian; Craig, Claire; Auton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on creating a product design concept for a home health monitoring system, known as EyKos HealthHub, which is intended to be a ‘crossover product’ in the emerging medical/consumer product space. Working collaboratively with Aseptika Ltd, the team carried out product concept design and interaction design for the EyKos system, and undertook further design and prototyping work to create an object for use in research. Aseptika is carrying out technical development of this project...

  13. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  14. Health Monitoring Survey of Bell 412EP Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Brian E.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) use vibration-based Condition Indicators (CI) to assess the health of helicopter powertrain components. A fault is detected when a CI exceeds its threshold value. The effectiveness of fault detection can be judged on the basis of assessing the condition of actual components from fleet aircraft. The Bell 412 HUMS-equipped helicopter is chosen for such an evaluation. A sample of 20 aircraft included 12 aircraft with confirmed transmission and gearbox faults (detected by CIs) and eight aircraft with no known faults. The associated CI data is classified into "healthy" and "faulted" populations based on actual condition and these populations are compared against their CI thresholds to quantify the probability of false alarm and the probability of missed detection. Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis is used to optimize thresholds. Based on the results of the analysis, shortcomings in the classification method are identified for slow-moving CI trends. Recommendations for improving classification using time-dependent receiver-operator characteristic methods are put forth. Finally, lessons learned regarding OEM-operator communication are presented.

  15. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  16. Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qin-Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR – attenuated total reflection (ATR detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively.

  17. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  18. Opportunity for selection in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection defined by differential survival and reproduction of individuals in populations is influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors operating at every age and stage in human life history: generation of gametes, conception, birth, maturation, reproduction, senescence, and death. Biological systems are built upon a hierarchical organization nesting subcellular organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within individuals, individuals within families, and families within populations, and the latter among other populations. Natural selection often acts simultaneously at more than one level of biological organization and on specific traits, which we define as multilevel selection. Under this model, the individual is a fundamental unit of biological organization and also of selection, imbedded in a larger evolutionary context, just as it is a unit of medical intervention imbedded in larger biological, cultural, and environmental contexts. Here, we view human health and life span as necessary consequences of natural selection, operating at all levels and phases of biological hierarchy in human life history as well as in sociological and environmental milieu. An understanding of the spectrum of opportunities for natural selection will help us develop novel approaches to improving healthy life span through specific and global interventions that simultaneously focus on multiple levels of biological organization. Indeed, many opportunities exist to apply multilevel selection models employed in evolutionary biology and biodemography to improving human health at all hierarchical levels. Multilevel selection perspective provides a rational theoretical foundation for a synthesis of medicine and evolution that could lead to discovering effective predictive, preventive, palliative, potentially curative, and individualized approaches in medicine and in global health programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  20. Hybrid Nanostructured Textile Bioelectrode for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush

    Coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and strokes are the leading causes of mortality in United States of America. Timely point-of-care health diagnostics and therapeutics for person suffering from these diseases can save thousands of lives. However, lack of accessible minimally intrusive health monitoring systems makes timely diagnosis difficult and sometimes impossible. To remedy this problem, a textile based nano-bio-sensor was developed and evaluated in this research. The sensor was made of novel array of vertically standing nanostructures that are conductive nano-fibers projecting from a conductive fabric. These sensor electrodes were tested for the quality of electrical contact that they made with the skin based on the fundamental skin impedance model and electromagnetic theory. The hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes provided large surface area and better contact with skin that improved electrode sensitivity and reduced the effect of changing skin properties, which are the problems usually faced by conventional dry textile electrodes. The dry electrodes can only register strong physiological signals because of high background noise levels, thus limiting the use of existing dry electrodes to heart rate measurement and respiration. Therefore, dry electrode systems cannot be used for recording complete ECG waveform, EEG or measurement of bioimpedance. Because of their improved sensitivity these hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes can be applied to measurement of ECG and bioimpedance with very low baseline noise. These textile based electrodes can be seamlessly integrated into garments of daily use such as vests and bra. In combination with embedded wireless network device that can communicate with smart phone, laptop or GPRS, they can function as wearable wireless health diagnostic systems.

  1. Flexible High Energy-Conversion Sensing Materials for Structural Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The applicant is developing flexible highly-efficient piezoelectric materials for use in structural health monitoring (SHM) as contemplated in the solicitation...

  2. Highly Reliable Structural Health Monitoring of Smart Composite Vanes for Jet Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems and Auburn University propose a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) sensor system capable of...

  3. Highly Reliable Structural Health Monitoring of Smart Composite Vanes for Jet Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems (IFOS) successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) based integrated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) sensor...

  4. Structural Health Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Grating and Piezo Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IFOS and its research institute collaborator, Washington State University (WSU), have demonstrated feasibility of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for...

  5. A methodological review of piezoelectric based acoustic wave generation and detection techniques for structural health monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Z; Rocha, B; Wu, K.-T; Mrad, N

    2013-01-01

    .... As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM...

  6. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  7. Vitamin D and Human Health: Celebrating Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Spedding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of Nutrients: Vitamin D and Human Health celebrates diversity in vitamin D research with articles from bench-to-bedside, examining mechanisms, epidemiology, and clinical issues in the management of non-skeletal disease following themes set by an earlier review in Nutrients [1]. Vitamin D became synonymous with calcium and bone metabolism originating from Casimir Funk’s concept of “Vitamines”. This suggests that vitamin D is an amine found in food with a single mode of action affecting calcium and bone metabolism [2], whereas vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone derived from sunshine with a plethora of physiological functions (autocrine, paracrine, endocrine [3], and epigenetic [4] associating vitamin D deficiency with many illnesses [1]. Deficiency is pandemic and most prevalent where sun exposure is limited by culture climate and skin colour [5]. Whilst reports have focused on diet and bone metabolism [6], this Special Issue of Nutrients about Vitamin D and Human Health focuses on non-skeletal disease, and research driven by industry and community health concerns.

  8. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  9. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  10. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  11. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  12. The use of buccal cells in human biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błaszczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic methods for determining the degree of environmental risk posed to humans is identification of harmful substances in various environmental elements (air, water, soil, food. In contrast to environmental monitoring human biological monitoring (HBM enables the estimation of an absorbed dose, general or localized in a specific organ. HBM enables the assessment of exposure to substances which are absorbed by the body via different exposure pathways and with different contaminant carriers. It is based on the measurement of indicators, the so-called biomarkers, in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva, etc. or in tissues and organs. Biomarkers can be divided into markers of exposure, effects and susceptibility. A particularly useful method is determination of adducts, i.e. carcinogenic compounds (or their metabolites with proteins or DNA, which are markers of exposure. Biomarkers of biological effects are different cytogenetic changes, including micronuclei. These are extranuclear structures containing fragments of chromatin (arising as a result of DNA breaks or whole chromosomes (damage to the spindle apparatus during mitosis. Up to now most studies on the DNA adduct levels and micronuclei have been conducted in peripheral lymphocytes. At present, studies using blood, especially in children to restricted to ethical aspects, and therefore tests using epithelial cells from the oral cavity have become more popular. Epithelial cells are the main building material of an epithelial tissue which makes up about 60% of all cells of the human body. The main function of the epithelial tissue is covering and lining of the outer and inner surfaces of the body. Epithelium underwent high specialisation in various parts of the human body, which is associated with its structure and function. Human oral cavity is covered by stratified squamous epithelium, which is comprised of cells called keratinocytes. Oral epithelial cells may differentiate in two

  13. Human Factors Evaluation of the Hidalgo Equivital EQ-02 Physiological Status Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system. The usability and acceptability of this system has been tested previously and generally...under CBRNE- PPE provided utility and was comfortable to wear. Thermal strain; CBRNE; PPE; physiological status monitoring; PSM ; human factors; chem...real-time physiological monitoring. The Hidalgo, Ltd. (Cambridge, UK) Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system is a typical

  14. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  15. Health and human development: nursing and the human right to health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2008-03-01

    This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health.

  16. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  17. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  18. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  19. Companion animals and human health: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Edney, A T

    1995-01-01

    Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reac...

  20. Combined volatolomics for monitoring of human body chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broza, Yoav Y; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-09

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  1. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-04-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over electrical conducting aluminum strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125°C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements, but these methods do not provide information about the structural integrity of connectors. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to induce structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  2. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  3. Decision support system for monitoring environmental-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari-Edalat, Farideh; Abdi, M Reza

    2009-06-01

    The specific aim of this study is to investigate popular attitudes toward trees. The paper is involved the understanding of biophilia tendencies with respect to people's views in an urban area. Biophilia is considered as the idea insisting on the dependency of human identity on his relationship with nature. The biophilia fundamental tendencies were explored to establish a biological framework for valuing and affiliating the natural world. Accordingly, the nine tendencies i.e. utilitarian, naturalistic, ecologistic-scientific, aesthetic, symbolic, humanistic, moralistic, dominionistic, and negativistic were investigate to find out how people relate to the nature especially trees. The investigation was based on a quantitative interview which was applied to the public population in the Liverpool urban parks. Data collected from the designed questionnaire was followed by analysis of the data to identify people's attitudes towards trees. The results indicated how important the physical appeal and beauty of trees was for the people and also showed the people's emotional attachments to trees. Furthermore, a decision support model was proposed to evaluate human instincts and preferences in relation to their surrounding areas using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The proposed model composed the environmental factors and the biophilia tendencies as the criteria of evaluating environmental-human interactions. A case study was then conducted in Liverpool parks to examine theses interactions. The data gathered was used as the input to the AHP model for the attribute analysis. The AHP model would enable environment managers to compose the relevant information via a link between human feelings about urban trees, and environmental factors for monitoring purposes and performance analysis.

  4. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A PERSONAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM ON ANDROID MOBILE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT SOWAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ignorance and lack of easy access to basic health information such as Body Mass Index (BMI, standard amounts of food calorie intake and nutritional semantics on a daily basis is a problem that has been prevalent in developing countries such as Ghana for the past decade. Adverse detrimental health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, etc. have been statistically recorded and it has been proven that these result out of poor diet and sedentariness.A solution to this problem can be attained with the application of the principles of mobile web application development, coupled with an adequate comprehension of human biology, physiology and dietetics. Individuals are privileged to have a personal way of addressing health issues and habits, based on daily interactivity with thesystem. Currently, mobile phones equipped with Android Operating System (OS and Java are widespread thus utilising existing infrastructure and resources to meet health needs. This paper implements strategic algorithms that enable mobile devices, running on the Android (OS to be utilized maximally for data collection and analysis via user-system interactivity. Positive results were obtainedafter system tests were carried out. Its impact on the healthy development of society and individuals was coherently established, buttressing how indisputable its relevance is to personal health monitoring.

  5. Integrating Human and Ecosystem Health Through Ecosystem Services Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Adriana E S; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C L

    2015-12-01

    The pace and scale of environmental change is undermining the conditions for human health. Yet the environment and human health remain poorly integrated within research, policy and practice. The ecosystem services (ES) approach provides a way of promoting integration via the frameworks used to represent relationships between environment and society in simple visual forms. To assess this potential, we undertook a scoping review of ES frameworks and assessed how each represented seven key dimensions, including ecosystem and human health. Of the 84 ES frameworks identified, the majority did not include human health (62%) or include feedback mechanisms between ecosystems and human health (75%). While ecosystem drivers of human health are included in some ES frameworks, more comprehensive frameworks are required to drive forward research and policy on environmental change and human health.

  6. Improved Stochastic Subspace System Identification for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    Structural health monitoring acquires structural information through numerous sensor measurements. Vibrational measurement data render the dynamic characteristics of structures to be extracted, in particular of the modal properties such as natural frequencies, damping, and mode shapes. The stochastic subspace system identification has been recognized as a power tool which can present a structure in the modal coordinates. To obtain qualitative identified data, this tool needs to spend computational expense on a large set of measurements. In study, a stochastic system identification framework is proposed to improve the efficiency and quality of the conventional stochastic subspace system identification. This framework includes 1) measured signal processing, 2) efficient space projection, 3) system order selection, and 4) modal property derivation. The measured signal processing employs the singular spectrum analysis algorithm to lower the noise components as well as to present a data set in a reduced dimension. The subspace is subsequently derived from the data set presented in a delayed coordinate. With the proposed order selection criteria, the number of structural modes is determined, resulting in the modal properties. This system identification framework is applied to a real-world bridge for exploring the feasibility in real-time applications. The results show that this improved system identification method significantly decreases computational time, while qualitative modal parameters are still attained.

  7. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Farrar, C. R.; Todd, M. D.; Hodgkiss, T.; Rosing, T.

    2007-02-26

    This report has been developed based on information exchanges at a 2.5-day workshop on energy harvesting for embedded structural health monitoring (SHM) sensing systems that was held June 28-30, 2005, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The workshop was hosted by the LANL/UCSD Engineering Institute (EI). This Institute is an education- and research-focused collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Jacobs School of Engineering. A Statistical Pattern Recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing systems is addressed with respect to the data acquisition portion of this paradigm. Next, various existing and emerging sensing modalities used for SHM and their respective power requirements are summarized, followed by a discussion of SHM sensor network paradigms, power requirements for these networks and power optimization strategies. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations associated with the current technology are addressed. This discussion also addresses current energy harvesting applications and system integration issues. The report concludes by defining some future research directions and possible technology demonstrations that are aimed at transitioning the concept of energy harvesting for embedded SHM sensing systems from laboratory research to field-deployed engineering prototypes.

  8. Bridges analysis, design, structural health monitoring, and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakht, Baidar

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a valuable guide for practicing bridge engineers and graduate students in structural engineering; its main purpose is to present the latest concepts in bridge engineering in fairly easy-to-follow terms. The book provides details of easy-to-use computer programs for: ·      Analysing slab-on-girder bridges for live load distribution. ·      Analysing slab and other solid bridge components for live load distribution. ·      Analysing and designing concrete deck slab overhangs of girder bridges under vehicular loads. ·      Determining the failure loads of concrete deck slabs of girder bridges under concentrated wheel loads. In addition, the book includes extensive chapters dealing with the design of wood bridges and soil-steel bridges. Further, a unique chapter on structural health monitoring (SHM) will help bridge engineers determine the actual load carrying capacities of bridges, as opposed to their perceived analytical capacities. The chapter addressing structures...

  9. Defect classification in sparsity-based structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golato, Andrew; Ahmad, Fauzia; Santhanam, Sridhar; Amin, Moeness G.

    2017-05-01

    Guided waves have gained popularity in structural health monitoring (SHM) due to their ability to inspect large areas with little attenuation, while providing rich interactions with defects. For thin-walled structures, the propagating waves are Lamb waves, which are a complex but well understood type of guided waves. Recent works have cast the defect localization problem of Lamb wave based SHM within the sparse reconstruction framework. These methods make use of a linear model relating the measurements with the scene reflectivity under the assumption of point-like defects. However, most structural defects are not perfect points but tend to assume specific forms, such as surface cracks or internal cracks. Knowledge of the "type" of defects is useful in the assessment phase of SHM. In this paper, we present a dual purpose sparsity-based imaging scheme which, in addition to accurately localizing defects, properly classifies the defects present simultaneously. The proposed approach takes advantage of the bias exhibited by certain types of defects toward a specific Lamb wave mode. For example, some defects strongly interact with the anti-symmetric modes, while others strongly interact with the symmetric modes. We build model based dictionaries for the fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric wave modes, which are then utilized in unison to properly localize and classify the defects present. Simulated data of surface and internal defects in a thin Aluminum plate are used to validate the proposed scheme.

  10. Simultaneous excitation system for efficient guided wave structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jiadong; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Chen, Xin; Lin, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Many structural health monitoring systems utilize guided wave transducer arrays for defect detection and localization. Signals are usually acquired using the ;pitch-catch; method whereby each transducer is excited in turn and the response is received by the remaining transducers. When extensive signal averaging is performed, the data acquisition process can be quite time-consuming, especially for metallic components that require a low repetition rate to allow signals to die out. Such a long data acquisition time is particularly problematic if environmental and operational conditions are changing while data are being acquired. To reduce the total data acquisition time, proposed here is a methodology whereby multiple transmitters are simultaneously triggered, and each transmitter is driven with a unique excitation. The simultaneously transmitted waves are captured by one or more receivers, and their responses are processed by dispersion-compensated filtering to extract the response from each individual transmitter. The excitation sequences are constructed by concatenating a series of chirps whose start and stop frequencies are randomly selected from a specified range. The process is optimized using a Monte-Carlo approach to select sequences with impulse-like autocorrelations and relatively flat cross-correlations. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is evaluated by several metrics and is experimentally demonstrated with sparse array imaging of simulated damage.

  11. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  12. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  13. Applications of nonlinear system identification to structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Robertson, A. N. (Amy N.)

    2004-01-01

    The process of implementing a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). In many cases damage causes a structure that initially behaves in a predominantly linear manner to exhibit nonlinear response when subject to its operating environment. The formation of cracks that subsequently open and close under operating loads is an example of such damage. The damage detection process can be significantly enhanced if one takes advantage of these nonlinear effects when extracting damage-sensitive features from measured data. This paper will provide an overview of nonlinear system identification techniques that are used for the feature extraction process. Specifically, three general approaches that apply nonlinear system identification techniques to the damage detection process are discussed. The first two approaches attempt to quantify the deviation of the system from its initial linear characteristics that is a direct result of damage. The third approach is to extract features from the data that are directly related to the specific nonlinearity associated with the damaged condition. To conclude this discussion, a summary of outstanding issues associated with the application of nonlinear system identification techniques to the SHM problem is presented.

  14. A Model-Driven Framework to Develop Personalized Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Both distributed healthcare systems and the Internet of Things (IoT are currently hot topics. The latter is a new computing paradigm to enable advanced capabilities in engineering various applications, including those for healthcare. For such systems, the core social requirement is the privacy/security of the patient information along with the technical requirements (e.g., energy consumption and capabilities for adaptability and personalization. Typically, the functionality of the systems is predefined by the patient’s data collected using sensor networks along with medical instrumentation; then, the data is transferred through the Internet for treatment and decision-making. Therefore, systems creation is indeed challenging. In this paper, we propose a model-driven framework to develop the IoT-based prototype and its reference architecture for personalized health monitoring (PHM applications. The framework contains a multi-layered structure with feature-based modeling and feature model transformations at the top and the application software generation at the bottom. We have validated the framework using available tools and developed an experimental PHM to test some aspects of the functionality of the reference architecture in real time. The main contribution of the paper is the development of the model-driven computational framework with emphasis on the synergistic effect of security and energy issues.

  15. PVDF Multielement Lamb Wave Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of Lamb waves, which are multimodal and dispersive, provide both challenges and opportunities for structural health monitoring (SHM). Methods for nondestructive testing with Lamb waves are well established. For example, mode content can be determined by moving a sensor to different positions and then transforming the spatial-temporal data into the wavenumber-frequency domain. This mode content information is very useful because at every frequency each mode has a unique wavestructure, which is largely responsible for its sensitivity to material damage. Furthermore, mode conversion occurs when the waves interact with damage, making mode content an excellent damage detection feature. However, in SHM, the transducers are typically at fixed locations and are immovable. Here, an affixed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) multielement sensor is shown to provide these same capabilities. The PVDF sensor is bonded directly to the waveguide surface, conforms to curved surfaces, has low mass, low profile, low cost, and minimal influence on passing Lamb waves. While the mode receivability is dictated by the sensor being located on the surface of the waveguide, both symmetric and antisymmetric modes can be detected and group velocities measured.

  16. Temperature effects in ultrasonic Lamb wave structural health monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Salamone, Salvatore

    2008-07-01

    There is a need to better understand the effect of temperature changes on the response of ultrasonic guided-wave pitch-catch systems used for structural health monitoring. A model is proposed to account for all relevant temperature-dependent parameters of a pitch-catch system on an isotropic plate, including the actuator-plate and plate-sensor interactions through shear-lag behavior, the piezoelectric and dielectric permittivity properties of the transducers, and the Lamb wave dispersion properties of the substrate plate. The model is used to predict the S(0) and A(0) response spectra in aluminum plates for the temperature range of -40-+60 degrees C, which accounts for normal aircraft operations. The transducers examined are monolithic PZT-5A [PZT denotes Pb(Zr-Ti)O3] patches and flexible macrofiber composite type P1 patches. The study shows substantial changes in Lamb wave amplitude response caused solely by temperature excursions. It is also shown that, for the transducers considered, the response amplitude changes follow two opposite trends below and above ambient temperature (20 degrees C), respectively. These results can provide a basis for the compensation of temperature effects in guided-wave damage detection systems.

  17. Fundamental modeling issues on benchmark structure for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Sau-Lon; James

    2009-01-01

    The IASC-ASCE Structural Health Monitoring Task Group developed a series of benchmark problems, and participants of the benchmark study were charged with using a 12-degree-of-freedom (DOF) shear building as their identification model. The present article addresses improperness, including the parameter and modeling errors, of using this particular model for the intended purpose of damage detec- tion, while the measurements of damaged structures are synthesized from a full-order finite-element model. In addressing parameter errors, a model calibration procedure is utilized to tune the mass and stiffness matrices of the baseline identification model, and a 12-DOF shear building model that preserves the first three modes of the full-order model is obtained. Sequentially, this calibrated model is employed as the baseline model while performing the damage detection under various damage scenarios. Numerical results indicate that the 12-DOF shear building model is an over-simplified identification model, through which only idealized damage situations for the benchmark structure can be detected. It is suggested that a more sophisticated 3-dimensional frame structure model should be adopted as the identification model, if one intends to detect local member damages correctly.

  18. Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kullaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.

  19. Statistical Pattern-Based Assessment of Structural Health Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In structural health monitoring (SHM, various sensors are installed at critical locations of a structure. The signals from sensors are either continuously or periodically analyzed to determine the state and performance of the structure. An objective comparison of the sensor data at different time ranges is essential for assessing the structural condition or excessive load experienced by the structure which leads to potential damage in the structure. The objectives of the current study are to establish a relationship between the data from various sensors to estimate the reliability of the data and potential damage using the statistical pattern matching techniques. In order to achieve these goals, new methodologies based on statistical pattern recognition techniques have been developed. The proposed methodologies have been developed and validated using sensor data obtained from an instrumented bridge and road test data from heavy vehicles. The application of statistical pattern matching techniques are relatively new in SHM data interpretation and current research demonstrates that it has high potential in assessing structural conditions, especially when the data are noisy and susceptible to environmental disturbances.

  20. On Assessing the Robustness of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    As Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continues to gain popularity, both as an area of research and as a tool for use in industrial applications, the number of technologies associated with SHM will also continue to grow. As a result, the engineer tasked with developing a SHM system is faced with myriad hardware and software technologies from which to choose, often adopting an ad hoc qualitative approach based on physical intuition or past experience to making such decisions. This paper offers a framework that aims to provide the engineer with a quantitative approach for choosing from among a suite of candidate SHM technologies. The framework is outlined for the general case, where a supervised learning approach to SHM is adopted, and the presentation will focus on applying the framework to two commonly encountered problems: (1) selection of damage-sensitive features and (2) selection of a damage classifier. The data employed for these problems will be drawn from a study that examined the feasibility of applying SHM to the RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response observatory network.

  1. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  2. Fundamental modeling issues on benchmark structure for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HuaJun; ZHANG Min; WANG JunRong; HU Sau-Lon James

    2009-01-01

    The IASC-ASCE Structural Health Monitoring Task Group developed a series of benchmark problems,and participants of the benchmark study were charged with using a 12-degree-of-freedom (DOF) shear building as their identification model. The present article addresses improperness, including the parameter and modeling errors, of using this particular model for the intended purpose of damage detection, while the measurements of damaged structures are synthesized from a full-order finite-element model. In addressing parameter errors, a model calibration procedure is utilized to tune the mass and stiffness matrices of the baseline identification model, and a 12-DOF shear building model that preserves the first three modes of the full-order model is obtained. Sequentially, this calibrated model is employed as the baseline model while performing the damage detection under various damage scenarios. Numerical results indicate that the 12-DOF shear building model is an over-simplified identification model, through which only idealized damage situations for the benchmark structure can be detected. It is suggested that a more sophisticated 3-dimensional frame structure model should be adopted as the identification model, if one intends to detect local member damages correctly.

  3. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubacz, Jacob A [ORNL; Chmielewski, Hana T [ORNL; Pape, Alexander E [ORNL; Depersio, Andrew J [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  4. [Regionalization and human development: a typology of health regions in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes; Bellido, Jaime Gregório; Moreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Viacava, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This article aimed to present a proposal for characterizing health regions in Brazil based on human development, contributing to the identification of comparable geographic areas for observation, analysis, and monitoring of performance in regionalized health systems. The dimensions of the Municipal Human Development Index were calculated for the health regions by aggregating data from municipalities, weighted by population size. The grouping of health regions in 5 groups, based on combinations of life expectancy, income, and schooling, was determined by the K-Means method. Approximately half of Brazil's health regions were classified as type 1 and the other half as types 3 to 5. The typology provides a clustering model for homogeneous health regions, consistent with the theoretical assumptions of PROADESS. The choice of well-established indicators and aggregation methods tends to facilitate their comprehension and use by the actors involved in the administration of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).

  5. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  6. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being.

  7. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  8. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategy Developed for Selecting Optimal Sensors for Monitoring Engine Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sensor indications during rocket engine operation are the primary means of assessing engine performance and health. Effective selection and location of sensors in the operating engine environment enables accurate real-time condition monitoring and rapid engine controller response to mitigate critical fault conditions. These capabilities are crucial to ensure crew safety and mission success. Effective sensor selection also facilitates postflight condition assessment, which contributes to efficient engine maintenance and reduced operating costs. Under the Next Generation Launch Technology program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, has developed a model-based procedure for systematically selecting an optimal sensor suite for assessing rocket engine system health. This optimization process is termed the systematic sensor selection strategy. Engine health management (EHM) systems generally employ multiple diagnostic procedures including data validation, anomaly detection, fault-isolation, and information fusion. The effectiveness of each diagnostic component is affected by the quality, availability, and compatibility of sensor data. Therefore systematic sensor selection is an enabling technology for EHM. Information in three categories is required by the systematic sensor selection strategy. The first category consists of targeted engine fault information; including the description and estimated risk-reduction factor for each identified fault. Risk-reduction factors are used to define and rank the potential merit of timely fault diagnoses. The second category is composed of candidate sensor information; including type, location, and estimated variance in normal operation. The final category includes the definition of fault scenarios characteristic of each targeted engine fault. These scenarios are defined in terms of engine model hardware parameters. Values of these parameters define engine simulations that generate

  10. Ultrasensitive, passive and wearable sensors for monitoring human muscle motion and physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Yi, Changrui; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Lacheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xuming; Wang, Li

    2016-03-15

    Flexible sensors have attracted more and more attention as a fundamental part of anthropomorphic robot research, medical diagnosis and physical health monitoring. Here, we constructed an ultrasensitive and passive flexible sensor with the advantages of low cost, lightness and wearability, electric safety and reliability. The fundamental mechanism of the sensor is based on triboelectric effect inducing electrostatic charges on the surfaces between two different materials. Just like a plate capacitor, current will be generated while the distance or size of the parallel capacitors changes caused by the small mechanical disturbance upon it and therefore the output current/voltage will be produced. Typically, the passive sensor unambiguously monitors muscle motions including hand motion from stretch-clench-stretch, mouth motion from open-bite-open, blink and respiration. Moreover, this sensor records the details of the consecutive phases in a cardiac cycle of the apex cardiogram, and identify the peaks including percussion wave, tidal wave and diastolic wave of the radial pulse wave. To record subtle human physiological signals including radial pulsilogram and apex cardiogram with excellent signal/noise ratio, stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows great potential in the applications of medical diagnosis and daily health monitoring.

  11. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Pirrone, Nicola; Thorne, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects. PMID:28117743

  12. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrre Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects.

  13. VA Health Care: Processes to Evaluate, Implement, and Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    VA HEALTH CARE Processes to Evaluate, Implement, and Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed Report to...Monitor Organizational Structure Changes Needed What GAO Found Recent internal and external reviews of Veterans Health Administration (VHA...operations have identified deficiencies in its organizational structure and recommended changes that would require significant restructuring to address

  14. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  15. Design of an embedded health monitoring infrastructure for accessing multi-processor soc degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Zhao, Yong

    An embedded health-monitoring infrastructure for a highly reliable MP-SoC for data-streaming systems is presented. Different from the traditional approach of a dependable design, our infrastructure is based on life-time prognostics from health- monitoring sensors that are embedded near the target

  16. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Arthur, J R

    2001-04-01

    Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications, particularly in relation to the chronic disease prevalence of the Western world such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ten years have elapsed since recommended dietary intakes of selenium were introduced on the basis of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. Since then 30 new selenoproteins have been identified, of which 15 have been purified to allow characterisation of their biological function. The long term health implications in relation to declining selenium intakes have not yet been thoroughly examined, yet the implicit importance of selenium to human health is recognised universally. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine at the active site of a wide range of selenoproteins. The four glutathione peroxidase enzymes (classical GPx1, gastrointestinal GPx2, plasma GPx3, phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx4)) which represent a major class of functionally important selenoproteins, were the first to be characterised. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a recently identified seleno-cysteine containing enzyme which catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of thioredoxin and therefore plays a regulatory role in its metabolic activity. Approximately 60% of Se in plasma is incorporated in selenoprotein P which contains 10 Se atoms per molecule as selenocysteine, and may serve as a transport protein for Se. However, selenoprotein-P is also expressed in many tissues which suggests that although it may facilitate whole body Se distribution, this may not be its sole function. A second major class of selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes which catalyse the 5'5-mono-deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4

  17. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  18. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  19. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  20. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  1. Recent Advances in Energy Harvesting Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Davidson; Changki Mo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in energy harvesting technologies for structural health monitoring applications. Many industries have a great deal of interest in obtaining technology that can be used to monitor the health of machinery and structures. In particular, the need for autonomous monitoring of structures has been ever-increasing in recent years. Autonomous SHM systems typically include embedded sensors, data acquisition, wireless communication, and energy harvesting systems. A...

  2. Data Processing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks får Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Danna, Nigatu Mitiku; Mekonnen, Esayas Getachew

    2012-01-01

    The gradual deterioration and failure of old buildings, bridges and other civil engineering structures invoked the need for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems to develop a means to monitor the health of structures. Dozens of sensing, processing and monitoring mechanisms have been implemented and widely deployed with wired sensors. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), on the other hand, are networks of large numbers of low cost wireless sensor nodes that communicate through a wireless medi...

  3. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  4. 健康监测的发展动态%Health monitoring development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩

    2009-01-01

    首先介绍了桥梁健康监测的概况,接着论述了桥梁健康监测系统的组成,然后阐述了桥梁健康监测系统在国内外的应用,最后对桥梁健康监测进行了展望,从而进一步改进桥梁健康监测技术.%It introduces the general situation of bridge health monitoring first, discusses the constitution of bridge health monitoring system, il-lustrates the application of bridge health monitoring system in country and abroad, and prospects bridge health monitoring, so as to further im-prove bridge health monitoring technology.

  5. The human gut microbiome impacts health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiome can now be characterized in unprecedented detail by an approach based on high-throughput sequencing of total stool DNA, that we name quantitative metagenomics. Central to the approach is a catalog that lists all the genes of intestinal microbes that are known - 9.9 millions, identified by the analysis of 1267 stool samples. Beyond the gene list, genetic units that carry them begun to be known; many of these correspond to bacterial species that were never isolated and cultured yet. Quantitative metagenomics allows developing powerful algorithms to diagnose a disease, monitor patients and identify individuals at risk to progress towards a disease. This lays ground for developing new approaches to better restore and even preserve the health by modulation of the altered microbiome, which contributes to promote or aggravate a disease.

  6. Application of Wireless Monitoring System to Structural Health Monitoring of Long-Spanned Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-cheng; QI Xin; Li Qiao

    2007-01-01

    The remote monitoring system applied to the construction control and health monitoring of the Nanjing Third Yangtze River Bridge is introduced. The system makes it possible to get the structure capabilities and environmental parameters of the bridge at the predetermined moment. It sends the collected data over a long distance to an assigned position for display and analysis. The related methods and working condition of the wireless monitoring system are discussed. The measured data during 48 h are employed to determine the feasibility for the closure of the bridge.

  7. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  8. Health and human rights: a statistical measurement framework using household survey data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Owino, Abraham; Ssekiboobo, Agnes; Atuhaire, Leonard; Jehopio, Peter

    2015-05-03

    Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the level of human rights observance. In this paper, we evaluate and present an appraisal for a possibility of applying household survey to study the determinants of health and human rights and also derive the probability that human rights are observed; an important ingredient into the national planning framework. Data from the Uganda National Governance Baseline Survey were used. A conceptual framework for predictors of a hybrid dependent variable was developed and both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques employed. Multivariate post estimation computations were derived after evaluations of the significance of coefficients of health and human rights predictors. Findings, show that household characteristics of respondents considered in this study were statistically significant (p human rights observance. For example, a unit increase of respondents' schooling levels results in an increase of about 34% level of positively assessing human rights observance. Additionally, the study establishes, through the three models presented, that household assessment of health and human rights observance was 20% which also represents how much of the entire continuum of human rights is demanded. Findings propose important evidence for monitoring and evaluation of health in the context human rights using household survey data. They provide a benchmark for health and human rights assessments with a focus on international and national development plans to achieve socio-economic transformation and health in society.

  9. Stennis Space Center's approach to liquid rocket engine health monitoring using exhaust plume diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D. G.; Tejwani, G. D.; Bircher, F. E.; Loboda, J. A.; Van Dyke, D. B.; Chenevert, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Details are presented of the approach used in a comprehensive program to utilize exhaust plume diagnostics for rocket engine health-and-condition monitoring and assessing SSME component wear and degradation. This approach incorporates both spectral and video monitoring of the exhaust plume. Video monitoring provides qualitative data for certain types of component wear while spectral monitoring allows both quantitative and qualitative information. Consideration is given to spectral identification of SSME materials and baseline plume emissions.

  10. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the

  11. Ultrasonic guided wave mechanics for composite material structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huidong

    The ultrasonic guided wave based method is very promising for structural health monitoring of aging and modern aircraft. An understanding of wave mechanics becomes very critical for exploring the potential of this technology. However, the guided wave mechanics in complex structures, especially composite materials, are very challenging due to the nature of multi-layer, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behavior. The purpose of this thesis is to overcome the challenges and potentially take advantage of the complex wave mechanics for advanced sensor design and signal analysis. Guided wave mechanics is studied in three aspects, namely wave propagation, excitation, and damage sensing. A 16 layer quasi-isotropic composite with a [(0/45/90/-45)s]2 lay up sequence is used in our study. First, a hybrid semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) and global matrix method (GMM) is used to simulate guided wave propagation in composites. Fast and accurate simulation is achieved by using SAFE for dispersion curve generation and GMM for wave structure calculation. Secondly, the normal mode expansion (NME) technique is used for the first time to study the wave excitation characteristics in laminated composites. A clear and simple definition of wave excitability is put forward as a result of NME analysis. Source influence for guided wave excitation is plotted as amplitude on a frequency and phase velocity spectrum. This spectrum also provides a guideline for transducer design in guided wave excitation. The ultrasonic guided wave excitation characteristics in viscoelastic media are also studied for the first time using a modified normal mode expansion technique. Thirdly, a simple physically based feature is developed to estimate the guided wave sensitivity to damage in composites. Finally, a fuzzy logic decision program is developed to perform mode selection through a quantitative evaluation of the wave propagation, excitation and sensitivity features. Numerical simulation algorithms are

  12. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Remote Monitoring in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Ryan, Michael P; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Several randomized trials and decision analysis models have found that remote monitoring may reduce health care utilization and expenditures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), compared with in-office monitoring. However, little is known about the generalizability of these findings to unselected populations in clinical practice. To compare health care utilization and expenditures associated with remote monitoring and in-office monitoring in patients with CIEDs, we used Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases. We selected patients newly implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), or permanent pacemaker (PPM), in 2009, who had continuous health plan enrollment 2 years after implantation. Generalized linear models and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders and estimate differences in health care utilization and expenditures in patients with remote or in-office monitoring. We identified 1,127; 427; and 1,295 pairs of patients with a similar propensity for receiving an ICD, CRT-D, or PPM, respectively. Remotely monitored patients with ICDs experienced fewer emergency department visits resulting in discharge (p = 0.050). Remote monitoring was associated with lower health care expenditures in office visits among patients with PPMs (p = 0.025) and CRT-Ds (p = 0.006) and lower total inpatient and outpatient expenditures in patients with ICDs (p monitoring of patients with CIEDs may be associated with reductions in health care utilization and expenditures compared with exclusive in-office care.

  13. [Protection of the environment, protection of the health. Note 1 - fluvial monitoring: cultural evolution and methodological evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchioni, M; Scuri, S; Morichetti, L; Petrelli, F; Grappasonni, I

    2006-01-01

    The article underlines the fundamental importance of the protection and promotion of environmental quality for the human health. The evolution of fluvial monitoring techniques is contemplated from chemical and bacteriological analysis until the Index Functional Index (I.F.F). This evolution it's very important because shows a new methodological and cultural maturation that has carried from a anthropocentric vision until an ecocentric vision. The target of this ecological vision is the re-establishment of ecological functionality of the rivers, eliminating the consumer's vision of the water considered only as a usable resource. The importance of an correct monitoring of a river is confirmed, even though the preventive approach priority remains.

  14. Roller Bearing Health Monitoring Using CPLE Frequency Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Jen-Yi; Jones, Jess H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a unique vibration signature analysis technique Coherence Phase Line Enhancer (CPLE) Frequency Analysis - for roller bearing health monitoring. Defects of roller bearing (e.g. wear, foreign debris, crack in bearing supporting structure, etc.) can cause small bearing characteristic frequency shifts due to minor changes in bearing geometry. Such frequency shifts are often too small to detect by the conventional Power Spectral Density (PSD) due to its frequency bandwidth limitation. This Coherent Phase Line Enhancer technology has been evolving over the last few years and has culminated in the introduction of a new and novel frequency spectrum which is fully described in this paper. This CPLE technology uses a "key phasor" or speed probe as a preprocessor for this analysis. With the aid of this key phasor, this CPLE technology can develop a two dimensional frequency spectrum that preserves both amplitude and phase that is not normally obtained using conventional frequency analysis. This two-dimensional frequency transformation results in several newly defined spectral functions; i. e. CPLE-PSD, CPLE-Coherence and the CPLE-Frequency. This paper uses this CPLE frequency analysis to detect subtle, low level bearing related signals in the High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). For many rotating machinery applications, a key phasor is an essential measurement that is used in the detection of bearing related signatures. There are times however, when a key phasor is not available; i. e. during flight of any of the SSME turbopumps or on the SSME High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) where no speed probe is present. In this case, the CPLE analysis approach can still be achieved using a novel Pseudo Key Phasor (PKP) technique to reconstruct a 1/Rev PKP signal directly from external vibration measurements. This paper develops this Pseudo Key Phasor technique and applies it to the SSME vibration data.

  15. Optical sensor for precision in-situ spindle health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui

    An optical sensor which can record in-situ measurements of the dynamic runout of a precision miniature spindle system in a simple and low-cost manner is proposed in this dissertation. Spindle error measurement technology utilizes a cylindrical or spherical target artifact attached to the miniature spindle with non-contact sensors, typically capacitive sensors which are calibrated with a flat target surface not a curved target surface. Due to the different behavior of an electric field between a flat plate and a curved surface and an electric field between two flat plates, capacitive sensors is not suitable for measuring target surfaces smaller than its effective sensing area. The proposed sensor utilizes curved-edge diffraction (CED), which uses the effect of cylindrical surface curvature on the diffraction phenomenon in the transition regions adjacent to shadow, transmission, and reflection boundaries. The laser diodes light incident on the cylindrical surface of precision spindle and photodetectors collect the total field produced by the diffraction around the target surface. Laser diode in the different two direction are incident to the spindle shaft edges along the X and Y axes, four photodetectors collect the total fields produced by interference of multiple waves due to CED around the spindle shaft edges. The X and Y displacement can be obtained from the total fields using two differential amplifier configurations, respectively. Precision miniature spindle (shaft φ5.0mm) runout was measured, and the proposed sensor can perform curve at the different speed of rotation from 1500rpm to 8000rpm in the X and Y axes, respectively. On the other hand, CED also show changes for different running time and temperature of spindle. These results indicate that the proposed sensor promises to be effective for in-situ monitoring of the miniature spindle's health with high resolution, wide bandwidth, and low-cost.

  16. Development of a model based Structural-Health-Monitoring-Systems for condition monitoring of rotor blades; Entwicklung eines modellgestuetzten Structural-Health-Monitoring-Systems zur Zustandsueberwachung von Rotorblaettern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, C.; Friedmann, H.; Henkel, F.O. [Woelfel Beratende Ingenieure GmbH und Co.KG, Hoechberg (Germany); Frankenstein, B.; Schubert, L. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a development of a Structural-Health-Monitoring-System which is to supervise the condition of the rotor blades of wind power plants and to detect in time structural changes before total failures. It is based on a combination of measuring techniques from the areas of the led rollers in the ultrasonic range and low-frequency modal analysis. The combination of both techniques was already promisingly used with past investigations of rotor blades. By means of modal analysis, statements to the total behaviour of the structure of rotor blades are possible. Endangered and strongly stressed areas additionally are supervised by led rollers within the ultrasonic range. The authors also report on the conception and execution of a fatigue test at a material rotor blade with a length by 39.1 m.

  17. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  18. Status monitoring and health assessment of Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya,Hainan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiaomin; SHI Qi; CHEN Gang; FONG T C W; WONG D C C; HUANG Hui; WANG Hankui; ZHAO Meixia

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring survey and health assessment for benthic community were carried out in Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya, Hainan, China in 2002. Monitoring survey included manta tow, line intercept transect, video transect and digital photograph. The mean live coral cover was 23.40%. Comparison of used monitoring methods showed that video transect can replace line intercept transect, and 50 m transect is better than 20 m transect in uneven coral region. Survey data and comparison with previous research work showed that Luhuitou fringing reef has been damaged severely and has a general declining trend with live coral cover from about 85% in the 1960s down to 20% in 2004,but it still has quite high biodiversity and therefore has special protection value. Main factors of Luhuitou fringing reef declining were human activities including reef rock digging and curios collecting, destructive fishing, sediment and pollutant from coastal land, and recent marine aquaculture. Only strengthening integrated management can reach improvement and restoration of Luhuitou declining coral reef ecosystem.

  19. Human resources for mental health care: current situation and strategies for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuma, Ritsuko; Minas, Harry; van Ginneken, Nadja; Dal Poz, Mario R; Desiraju, Keshav; Morris, Jodi E; Saxena, Shekhar; Scheffler, Richard M

    2011-11-05

    A challenge faced by many countries is to provide adequate human resources for delivery of essential mental health interventions. The overwhelming worldwide shortage of human resources for mental health, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries, is well established. Here, we review the current state of human resources for mental health, needs, and strategies for action. At present, human resources for mental health in countries of low and middle income show a serious shortfall that is likely to grow unless effective steps are taken. Evidence suggests that mental health care can be delivered effectively in primary health-care settings, through community-based programmes and task-shifting approaches. Non-specialist health professionals, lay workers, affected individuals, and caregivers with brief training and appropriate supervision by mental health specialists are able to detect, diagnose, treat, and monitor individuals with mental disorders and reduce caregiver burden. We also discuss scale-up costs, human resources management, and leadership for mental health, particularly within the context of low-income and middle-income countries.

  20. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming.