WorldWideScience

Sample records for human health epidemiological

  1. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Genome Epidemiology : A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.

    After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.

    This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.

    The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.

  3. Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in West Africa as a model for sustainable partnerships in animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen M; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Ndjakani, Yassa; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter; Mukanga, David; Wurapa, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

  4. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Tricou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR, an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only place where post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is available. Both are located in Bangui, the capital of the CAR. For positive samples, a portion of the N gene was amplified and sequenced to determine the molecular epidemiology of circulating strains.In 2012, 966 exposed persons visited the anti-rabies dispensary and 632 received a post-exposure rabies vaccination. More than 90% of the exposed persons were from Bangui and its suburbs and almost 60% of them were under 15-years of age. No rabies-related human death was confirmed. Of the 82 samples from suspected rabid dogs tested, 69 were confirmed positive. Most of the rabid dogs were owned although unvaccinated. There was a strong spatiotemporal correlation within Bangui and within the country between reported human exposures and detection of rabid dogs (P<0.001. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that three variants belonging to Africa I and II lineages actively circulated in 2012.These data indicate that canine rabies was endemic in the CAR in 2012 and had a detrimental impact on human health as shown by the hundreds of exposed persons who received PEP. Implementation of effective public health interventions including mass dog vaccination and improvement of the surveillance and the access to PEP are urgently needed in this country.

  5. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected.

  6. Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Hamid Amani; Massoud Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results:Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions:In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.

  7. Welcome to epidemiology and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Youl

    2009-10-29

    The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology.

  8. Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tricou, Vianney; Bouscaillou, Julie; Kamba Mebourou, Emmanuel; Koyanongo, Fidèle Dieudonné; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-01-01

    Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines...

  9. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.

  10. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  11. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  12. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  13. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  14. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simoes Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  15. Climate Changes and Human Health: A Review of the Effect of Environmental Stressors on Cardiovascular Diseases Across Epidemiology and Biological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Paolo; Di Giosia, Paolo; Petrarca, Marco; Lattanzio, Francesco; Stamerra, Cosimo Andrea; Ferri, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke. Up to now, findings suggest that humans acclimate under different weather conditions, even though extreme temperatures and higher levels of air pollution can influence health-related outcomes. In these cases, climate change adversely affects cardiovascular system and the high-risk subjects for cardiovascular diseases are those more exposed. Finally, we examine climate change implications on publich health and suggest adaptation strategies to monitor the high-risk population, and reduce the amount of hospital admissions associated to these events. Such interventions may minimize the costs of public health and reduce the mortality for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN RODENTICIDES POISONING IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Costa Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the epidemiological profile of human poisoning by rodenticides in Brazil and Regions, in the period 2000 to 2008. This is a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data from the National System of Toxic- harmacological Information. Calculations were performed in the incidence rate and fatality rate. The North and Northeast regions had the highest mortality rates for the period. Children from 1 to 4 years had high incidence in all regions except in Northeast, where teenagers were most affected. The rodenticide poisoning was more incident in urban areas and among females, and had attempt suicide as predominant circumstance. Although most cases have evolved for healing, there was almost 40% unconfirmed healing in the South region and 57% of ignored evolution in Southeast. Deaths caused by ingestion of rodenticides were below 5%. The rodenticide poisoning has remained in Brazil with a major public health problem and, despite the differences in the country, the poisoning profile did not change significantly between different regions.

  18. Epidemiology of health effects of radiofrequency exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbom, Anders; Green, Adele; Kheifets, Leeka; Savitz, David; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies about the effects of radiofrequency fields (RFs) on human health in order to summarize the current state of knowledge, explain the methodologic issues that are involved, and aid in the planning of future studies. There have been a large number of occupational studies over several decades, particularly on cancer, cardiovascular disease, adverse reproductive outcome, and cataract, in relation to RF exposure. More recently, there have been studies of residential exposure, mainly from radio and television transmitters, and especially focusing on leukemia. There have also been studies of mobile telephone users, particularly on brain tumors and less often on other cancers and on symptoms. Results of these studies to date give no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relation between RF exposure and any adverse health effect. On the other hand, the studies have too many deficiencies to rule out an association. A key concern across all studies is the quality of assessment of RF exposure. Despite the ubiquity of new technologies using RFs, little is known about population exposure from RF sources and even less about the relative importance of different sources. Other cautions are that mobile phone studies to date have been able to address only relatively short lag periods, that almost no data are available on the consequences of childhood exposure, and that published data largely concentrate on a small number of outcomes, especially brain tumor and leukemia.

  19. Chinese health care system and clinical epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Gregersen, Hans; Yuan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide potentially huge research opportunities in the future. However, constructing a complete register system at a nationwide level is challenging. In the future, China will demand increased capacity of researchers and data managers, in particular within clinical epidemiology, to explore the rich resources. PMID:28356772

  20. Health as a clinic-epidemiological concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2015-06-01

    I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse's biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse's 'theoretical' approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse's view that health is a theoretical concept, a 'species normal functional ability'. I will claim that Boorse's view is actually a view on normal physiology. My claim is that health is best described as the state of absence of chronic diseases or disabilities (clinic-epidemiologically associated with a morbimortality index higher than the risk of death, disease and disabilities for individuals of the same population group or reference class free of that chronic clinical conditions). Health, therefore, is not the mere absence of disease. Diseases that do not increase patients' morbimortality and disability indexes are not incompatible with health; after all, clinical health is compatible with appropriate health care and medical treatments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  2. Epidemiology of fascioliasis in human endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S

    2005-09-01

    Considered a secondary zoonotic disease until the mid-1990s, human fascioliasis is at present emerging or re-emerging in many countries, including increases of prevalence and intensity and geographical expansion. Research in recent years has justified the inclusion of fascioliasis in the list of important human parasitic diseases. At present, fascioliasis is a vector-borne disease presenting the widest known latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Fasciola hepatica has succeeded in expanding from its European original geographical area to colonize five continents, despite theoretical restrictions related to its biology and in turn dependent upon environmental and human activities. Among the different epidemiological situations, human hypo- to hyperendemic areas, including epidemics, are noteworthy. A global analysis of the distribution of human cases shows that the expected correlation between animal and human fascioliasis only appears at a basic level. Areas presenting very high human prevalences and intensities, especially in children and females, have been recently described. In hypo- to hyperendemic areas of Central and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, human fascioliasis presents a range of epidemiological characteristics related to a wide diversity of environments. Thus far well-known epidemiological patterns of fascioliasis may not always explain the transmission characteristics in any given area and control measures should consider the results of ecoepidemiological studies undertaken in the zones concerned.

  3. The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

    The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M.…

  4. Electronic Health Information Legal Epidemiology Protocol 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors: Cason Schmit, JD, Gregory Sunshine, JD, Dawn Pepin, JD, MPH, Tara Ramanathan, JD, MPH, Akshara Menon, JD, MPH, Matthew Penn, JD, MLIS The Health Information...

  5. Social justice, epidemiology and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael

    2017-08-03

    A lifetime spent studying how social determinants of health lead to health inequalities has clarified many issues. First is that social stratification is an appropriate topic of study for epidemiologists. To ignore it would be to ignore a major source of variation in health in society. Not only is the social gradient in health appropriate to study but we have made progress both in understanding its causes and what can be done to address them. Post-modern 'critical theory' raises questions about the social construction of science. Given the attack on science by politicians of bad faith, it is important to recognise that epidemiology and public health have a crucial role to play in providing evidence to improve health of society and reduce inequalities. Evidence gives grounds for optimism that progress can be made both in improving the health of the worst-off in society and narrowing health inequalities. Theoretical debates about 'inequality of what' have been helpful in clarifying theories that drive further gathering of evidence. While it is important to consider alternative explanations of the social gradient in health-principal among them reverse causation-evidence strongly supports social causation. Social action is by its nature political. It is, though, a vital function to provide the evidence that underpins action.

  6. Human trichinellosis in Bulgaria--epidemiological situation and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdova-Mintcheva, R; Jordanova, D; Ivanova, M

    2009-02-23

    Human trichinellosis is a major food-borne zoonosis in Bulgaria with a high health, social, and economic impact. Every year outbreaks and sporadic cases are registered in the country. Epidemiological data based on standard protocols for epidemiological surveillance and control of human trichinellosis for each region in the country were collected and analysed at the National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, and the main epidemiological trends during the past 17 years (1990-2006) were determined. Since 1991 human trichinellosis has become a re-emerging zoonosis in Bulgaria. A total number of 145 trichinellosis outbreaks and 238 sporadic cases were registered. Altogether, 7544 persons have consumed meat or meat products harbouring Trichinella larvae, and of these, 4108 individuals (54.45%) contracted trichinellosis (with 2 deaths). The annual incidence of human trichinellosis varied from 0.27 to 7.40 per 100,000 population. Fifty-seven of the outbreaks were sourced to wild boar meat consumption, 67 were due to consumption of pork products, and in 21 outbreaks the source of infection was unidentified (4 of them were associated with consumption of mixed meat--pork and wild boar meat products). The peaks of outbreaks (12 per year) were registered in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2003. In recent years some decrease in the numbers of outbreaks was observed (2004: 6, 2005: 3, and 2006: 7).

  7. A human judgment approach to epidemiological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, David C; Brooks, Logan C; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J; Burke, Donald S; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems. Indeed, several recent challenges hosted by the U.S. government have fostered an open and collaborative environment for the development of these technologies. The primary focus of these challenges has been to develop statistical and computational methods for epidemiological forecasting, but here we consider a serious alternative based on collective human judgment. We created the web-based "Epicast" forecasting system which collects and aggregates epidemic predictions made in real-time by human participants, and with these forecasts we ask two questions: how accurate is human judgment, and how do these forecasts compare to their more computational, data-driven alternatives? To address the former, we assess by a variety of metrics how accurately humans are able to predict influenza and chikungunya trajectories. As for the latter, we show that real-time, combined human predictions of the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 U.S. flu seasons are often more accurate than the same predictions made by several statistical systems, especially for short-term targets. We conclude that there is valuable predictive power in collective human judgment, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this approach.

  8. Online genetic databases informing human genome epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Julian PT

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genotyping technology and the information available via projects such as the human genome sequencing and the HapMap project, more and more data relevant to the study of genetics and disease risk will be produced. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of human genome epidemiology studies rely on the ability to identify relevant studies and to obtain suitable data from these studies. A first port of call for most such reviews is a search of MEDLINE. We examined whether this could be usefully supplemented by identifying databases on the World Wide Web that contain genetic epidemiological information. Methods We conducted a systematic search for online databases containing genetic epidemiological information on gene prevalence or gene-disease association. In those containing information on genetic association studies, we examined what additional information could be obtained to supplement a MEDLINE literature search. Results We identified 111 databases containing prevalence data, 67 databases specific to a single gene and only 13 that contained information on gene-disease associations. Most of the latter 13 databases were linked to MEDLINE, although five contained information that may not be available from other sources. Conclusion There is no single resource of structured data from genetic association studies covering multiple diseases, and in relation to the number of studies being conducted there is very little information specific to gene-disease association studies currently available on the World Wide Web. Until comprehensive data repositories are created and utilized regularly, new data will remain largely inaccessible to many systematic review authors and meta-analysts.

  9. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  10. Self-organized criticality in human epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, Nico

    2005-07-01

    As opposed to most sociological fields, data are available in good quality for human epidemiology, describing the interaction between individuals being susceptible to or infected by a disease. Mathematically, the modelling of such systems is done on the level of stochastic master equations, giving likelihood functions for real live data. We show in a case study of meningococcal disease, that the observed large fluctuations of outbreaks of disease among the human population can be explained by the theory of accidental pathogens, leading the system towards a critical state, characterized by power laws in outbreak distributions. In order to make the extremely difficult parameter estimation close to a critical state with absorbing boundary possible, we investigate new algorithms for simulation of the disease dynamics on the basis of winner takes all strategies, and combine them with previously developed parameter estimation schemes.

  11. Mathematical models of human african trypanosomiasis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kat S; Stone, Chris M; Hastings, Ian M; Keeling, Matt J; Torr, Steve J; Chitnis, Nakul

    2015-03-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma spp. and transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). HAT is usually fatal if untreated and transmission occurs in foci across sub-Saharan Africa. Mathematical modelling of HAT began in the 1980s with extensions of the Ross-Macdonald malaria model and has since consisted, with a few exceptions, of similar deterministic compartmental models. These models have captured the main features of HAT epidemiology and provided insight on the effectiveness of the two main control interventions (treatment of humans and tsetse fly control) in eliminating transmission. However, most existing models have overestimated prevalence of infection and ignored transient dynamics. There is a need for properly validated models, evolving with improved data collection, that can provide quantitative predictions to help guide control and elimination strategies for HAT.

  12. Effects of noise on human health. Methodological analysis of the findings of three epidemiological studies; Gesundheitliche Auswirkungen von Laermbelastung. Methodische Betrachtungen zu den Ergebnissen dreier epidemiologischer Studien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellach, B. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6; Dortschy, R. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6; Mueller, D. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6; Ziese, T. [Robert-Koch-Inst., Berlin (Germany). Bundesinstitut fuer Infektionskrankheiten und Nicht-Uebertragbare Krankheiten, Fachbereich 6

    1995-03-01

    Studies on noise impact necessitate extensive acoustic measurements to find out about the real noise level, owing to the fact that not only the real noise level but also the subjective feeling of `noise nuisances` may correlate with health disorders. In order to test this hypothesis, this investigation summarizes the results of complex risk assessment studies in consideration of questionnaires on noise levels from three large-scale studies of the former Institute of Social medicine and Epidemiology (now: Department 6 of the Robert-Koch Institute). (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Feststellung der tatsaechlichen Laermbelaestigung sind umfangreiche und aufwendige akustische Messungen erforderlich. Es korreliert nicht nur die tatsaechliche Laermbelastung, sondern auch die subjektiv empfundene Laermbelaestigung, wie sie in Frageboegen erfasst werden kann, mit Gesundheitsstoerungen. Zur Ueberpruefung dieser Hypothese sind im vorliegenden Text die Ergebnisse von komplexen Risikobewertungen unter Einbeziehung von Fragebogenangaben zur Laermbelastung aus drei grossen Studien des ehemaligen Instituts fuer Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie (jetzt Fachbereich 6 des Robert Koch-Instituts) zusammengefasst. (orig.)

  13. Epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the trematoda Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Human fasciolosis is endemic in some parts of South America, Africa, Eastern Asia and Europe. High prevalence of human fasciolosis does not necessarily occur in areas where fasciolosis is a major veterinary problem. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has not been reported in humans in Serbia and former Yugoslavia, although a large variety of animals, such as sheep and cattle show infection rates that may reach significant proportions in some areas. Humans can become accidental hosts of this parasite by ingesting contaminated drinking water or plants in an endemic area. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has a variable clinical presentation depending on the stage of the disease. Typical symptoms that may be associated with fascioliasis can be divided by the phases of the disease including the acute or liver phase, the chronic or biliary phase, the obstructive phase, and ectopic or pharyngeal fascioliasis. The diagnosis of human fasciolosis may be problematical and delayed, especially in non-endemic areas, because physicians rarely encounter this disease and a long list of other diseases must be included in the differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of fasciolosis is complex and requires the application of direct an indirect methods of diagnostics: clinical diagnosis, haematological and biochemical findings, parasitological diagnosis, immuno-diagnosis, imaging procedures, liver biopsy. At the Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in 2005, we recorded the first case of human fasciolosis in a woman from Belgrade, a citizen of Serbia, who developed clinical symptoms of acute fasciolosis after several months of living in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This article reviews the epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis. .

  14. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  15. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  16. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  17. Tele-Epidemiology and Public Health in the Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Stephanie; Kotchi, Serge Olivier; Ludwig, Antoinette; Turgeon, Patricia; Pelcat, Yann; Aube, Guy; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2016-08-01

    The management of key public health issues requires solid evidence-based knowledge for the prevention and control of various emerging or re-emerging vector borne diseases (e.g. Lyme disease, West Nile virus, etc.) and environmentally-linked diseases (e.g. enteric infections from recreational water contamination). Earth observation (EO) images enhance knowledge and capacity to characterize risk of illness across the vast Canadian territory by deriving new and up-to-date data from population, climatic and environmental determinants of health relevant to public health actions such as risk mapping, risk communication and identification of vulnerable populations.Modeling of infectious disease transmission has made possible the identification of risk areas and the underlying factors (human activities, ecology, environment and climate) that may explain this emergence. New data products derived from Earth observation satellites pertaining to climate, land cover and land use, and distribution and density of animal and human populations have greatly improved the resolution and the specificity of explanatory and predictive models.This article focuses on the scope of tele-epidemiology activities of the Canadian public health community as well as current and potential future fields of application for Earth observation data. It will demonstrate the strength, sustainability and innovative character of these approaches to improve scale-dependent decision- making at different levels of government in Canada (federal, provincial/territorial and regional) and increase the efficiency of many preventive, preparedness and response actions.Examples of tele-epidemiology applications will be presented such as the risk assessment of microbial contamination of recreational waters and modelling the risk of vector borne diseases in the Canadian context.

  18. The right to sutures: social epidemiology, human rights, and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

    2010-12-15

    The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission's work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.

  19. Social capital and health: implications for public health and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1998-11-01

    Public health and its "basic science", epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating "social capital" compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and more community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion faired well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual "treatment" approaches vs universal policies to build "social capital". For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values.

  20. Epidemiology in the Era of Health Informatics: Opportunities & Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, epidemiology has played a key role in improving our understanding about the determinants of health and disease. In the 19th century epidemiological observations led to the discovery of the modes of communication of cholera much before the discovery of the causative organism responsible for it. Similarly, in the 20th century, it led to the discovery of the risks of tobacco smoking, and the modes of transmission of AIDS. In the 21st century, advancement in the computation, visualization, communication, and mhealth technologies are likely to expand the landscape of epidemiology which has now acquired the status of a core discipline of health sciences.

  1. Epidemiology and health-environment relationship: reflections on environmental change, sustainable development and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Montoya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a discussion on current environmental problems and their relationship to the health of populations. The limitations of the model of economic and social development are analyzed focusing on the augmentation of the capital and the industrial production and its negative impact on natural resources, the balance of ecosystems and human vulnerability. The methodological basics and the developments in environmental epidemiological approach are exposed analyzing their main potential application. Finally, options for solutions are formulated linking them to the premises of sustainable development and environmental justice. The responsibility of the academic environment is pointed out in the training of human and scientific resources in the field of environmental epidemiology, as well as the role of the community in terms of environmental awareness and active participation from a point of view that becomes critical, responsible and capable of defining proposals to make part of the solution.

  2. Using NASA Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth to Enhance PM2.5 Concentration Datasets for Use in Human Health and Epidemiology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, A. K.; Weber, S.; Braggio, J.; Talbot, T.; Hall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a criterion air pollutant, and its adverse impacts on human health are well established. Traditionally, studies that analyze the health effects of human exposure to PM2.5 use concentration measurements from ground-based monitors and predicted PM2.5 concentrations from air quality models, such as the U.S. EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. There are shortcomings associated with these datasets, however. Monitors are not distributed uniformly across the U.S., which causes spatially inhomogeneous measurements of pollutant concentrations. There are often temporal variations as well, since not all monitors make daily measurements. Air quality model output, while spatially and temporally uniform, represents predictions of PM2.5 concentrations, not actual measurements. This study is exploring the potential of combining Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites with PM2.5 monitor data and CMAQ predictions to create PM2.5 datasets that more accurately reflect the spatial and temporal variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations on the metropolitan scale, with the overall goal of enhancing capabilities for environmental public health decision-making. AOD data provide regional information about particulate concentrations that can fill in the spatial and temporal gaps in the national PM2.5 monitor network. Furthermore, AOD is a measurement, so it reflects actual concentrations of particulates in the atmosphere, in contrast to PM2.5 predictions from air quality models. Results will be presented from the Battelle/U.S. EPA statistical Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM), which was used to combine three PM2.5 concentration datasets: monitor measurements, AOD data, and CMAQ model predictions. The study is focusing on the Baltimore, MD and New York City, NY metropolitan regions for the period 2004-2006. For each region, combined monitor/AOD/CMAQ PM2.5 datasets generated by the HBM

  3. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  4. Epidemiology and the Tobacco Epidemic: How Research on Tobacco and Health Shaped Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I provide a perspective on the tobacco epidemic and epidemiology, describing the impact of the tobacco-caused disease epidemic on the field of epidemiology. Although there is an enormous body of epidemiologic evidence on the associations of smoking with health, little systematic attention has been given to how decades of research have affected epidemiology and its practice. I address the many advances that resulted from epidemiologic research on smoking and health, such as demonstration of the utility of observational designs and important parameters (the odds ratio and the population attributable risk), guidelines for causal inference, and systematic review approaches. I also cover unintended and adverse consequences for the field, including the strategy of doubt creation and the recruitment of epidemiologists by the tobacco industry to serve its mission. The paradigm of evidence-based action for addressing noncommunicable diseases began with the need to address the epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, an imperative for action documented by epidemiologic research.

  5. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  6. World Health Organization Group I Pulmonary Hypertension: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating disease characterized by pathologic remodeling of the resistance pulmonary arteries, ultimately leading to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. In this article we discuss the definition of PAH, the initial epidemiology based on the National Institutes of Health Registry, and the updated epidemiology gleaned from contemporary registries, pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and proliferation, and RV failure in PAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recognizing Excellence in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology: The 2014 National MCH Epidemiology Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Jones, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of programs, policies, and practices developed by professionals in the field of maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiology is highlighted biennially by 16 national MCH agencies and organizations, or the Coalition for Excellence in MCH Epidemiology. Description In September 2014, multiple leading agencies in the field of MCH partnered to host the national CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference in Phoenix, Arizona. The conference offered opportunities for peer exchange; presentation of new scientific methodologies, programs, and policies; dialogue on changes in the MCH field; and discussion of emerging MCH issues relevant to the work of local, state, and national MCH professionals. During the conference, the National MCH Epidemiology Awards were presented to individuals, teams, institutions, and leaders for significantly contributing to the improved health of women, children, and families. Assessment During the conference, the Coalition presented seven deserving health researchers and research groups with national awards in the areas of advancing knowledge, effective practice, outstanding leadership, young professional achievement, and lifetime achievement. The article highlights the accomplishments of these national-level awardees. Conclusion Recognition of deserving professionals strengthens the field of MCH epidemiology, and sets the standard for exceptional research, mentoring, and practice. PMID:26723200

  8. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  9. The Mental Health of Older Persons After Human-Induced Disasters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Dan J; Sawyer, Emily; Lee, Irene; Lie, David C; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Farrington, Julia; Crompton, David; Kisely, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Older people are increasingly "in harm's way" following human-induced disasters (HIDs). There is debate in the literature as to the relative impact of disasters on their psychological health compared with other age groups. Natural disasters and HIDs are thought to affect survivors differentially, and this may extend to older adults as a group. In the absence of existing systematic reviews, we aimed to synthesize the available evidence and conduct meta-analyses of the effects of HIDs on the psychological health of older versus younger adults. A meta-analysis was conducted on papers identified through a systematic review. The primary outcomes measured were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorder, and psychological distress. We identified 11 papers from 10 studies on HIDs (N = 26,753), of which 8 had sufficient data for a random-effects meta-analysis. Older adults were 2.85 times less likely to experience PTSD symptoms following HID (95% CI: 1.42-5.70) when compared with younger adults. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Health and emergency services need to be increasingly prepared to meet the psychological needs of older people, given the global rise in the numbers of older adults affected by disasters of all kinds. Preliminary evidence suggests that old age may be a protective factor for the development of PTSD in the wake of HID. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Coma, M. S.; Esteban, J. G.; Bargues, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiological picture of human fascioliasis has changed in recent years. The number of reports of humans infected with Fasciola hepatica has increased significantly since 1980 and several geographical areas have been described as endemic for the disease in humans, with prevalence and intensity ranging from low to very high. High prevalence of fascioliasis in humans does not necessarily occur in areas where fascioliasis is a major veterinary problem. Human fascioliasis can no longer be c...

  11. [Epidemiological intelligence as a model of organization in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz

    2012-03-01

    The concept of epidemiological intelligence, as a construction of information societies, goes beyond monitoring a list of diseases and the ability to elicit rapid responses. The concept should consider the complexity of the definition of epidemiology in the identification of this object of study without being limited to a set of actions in a single government sector. The activities of epidemiological intelligence include risk assessment, strategies for prevention and protection, subsystems of information, crisis management rooms, geographical analysis, etc. This concept contributes to the understanding of policies in health, in multisectorial and geopolitical dimensions, as regards the organization of services around public health emergencies, primary healthcare, as well as disasters. The activities of epidemiological intelligence should not be restricted to scientific research, but the researchers must beware of threats to public health. Lalonde's model enabled consideration of epidemiological intelligence as a way to restructure policies and share resources by creating communities of intelligence, whose purpose is primarily to deal with public health emergencies and disasters.

  12. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis: a review and proposed new classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, M S; Esteban, J G; Bargues, M D

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiological picture of human fascioliasis has changed in recent years. The number of reports of humans infected with Fasciola hepatica has increased significantly since 1980 and several geographical areas have been described as endemic for the disease in humans, with prevalence and intensity ranging from low to very high. High prevalence of fascioliasis in humans does not necessarily occur in areas where fascioliasis is a major veterinary problem. Human fascioliasis can no longer be considered merely as a secondary zoonotic disease but must be considered to be an important human parasitic disease. Accordingly, we present in this article a proposed new classification for the epidemiology of human fascioliasis. The following situations are distinguished: imported cases; autochthonous, isolated, nonconstant cases; hypo-, meso-, hyper-, and holoendemics; epidemics in areas where fascioliasis is endemic in animals but not humans; and epidemics in human endemic areas.

  13. Functions of environmental epidemiology and surveillance in state health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Martha; Anderson, Henry; Blackmore, Carina; Fagliano, Jerald; Heumann, Michael; Kass, Daniel; McGeehin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance and epidemiology are the foundations for disease prevention because they provide the factual basis from which agencies can set priorities, plan programs, and take actions to protect the public's health. Surveillance for noninfectious diseases associated with exposure to agents in the environment like lead and pesticides has been a function of state health departments for more than 3 decades, but many state programs do not have adequate funding or staff for this function. Following the efforts to identify core public health epidemiology functions in chronic diseases, injury, and occupational health and safety, a workgroup of public health environmental epidemiologists operating within the organizational structure of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has defined the essential core functions of noninfectious disease environmental epidemiology that should be present in every state health department and additional functions of a comprehensive program. These functions are described in terms of the "10 Essential Environmental Public Health Services" and their associated performance standards. Application of these consensus core and expanded functions should help state and large metropolitan health departments allocate resources and prioritize activities of their environmental epidemiologists, thus improving the delivery of environmental health services to the public.

  14. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  15. Ethics, big data and computing in epidemiology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Knoppers, Bartha M; Lee, Lisa M; Hlaing, WayWay M; Goodman, Kenneth W

    2017-05-01

    This article reflects on the activities of the Ethics Committee of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE). Members of the Ethics Committee identified an opportunity to elaborate on knowledge gained since the inception of the original Ethics Guidelines published by the ACE Ethics and Standards of Practice Committee in 2000. The ACE Ethics Committee presented a symposium session at the 2016 Epidemiology Congress of the Americas in Miami on the evolving complexities of ethics and epidemiology as it pertains to "big data." This article presents a summary and further discussion of that symposium session. Three topic areas were presented: the policy implications of big data and computing, the fallacy of "secondary" data sources, and the duty of citizens to contribute to big data. A balanced perspective is needed that provides safeguards for individuals but also furthers research to improve population health. Our in-depth review offers next steps for teaching of ethics and epidemiology, as well as for epidemiological research, public health practice, and health policy. To address contemporary topics in the area of ethics and epidemiology, the Ethics Committee hosted a symposium session on the timely topic of big data. Technological advancements in clinical medicine and genetic epidemiology research coupled with rapid advancements in data networks, storage, and computation at a lower cost are resulting in the growth of huge data repositories. Big data increases concerns about data integrity; informed consent; protection of individual privacy, confidentiality, and harm; data reidentification; and the reporting of faulty inferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Over several decades a number of epidemiological studies have identified the inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables and the risk of several cancers, including gastric, breast, colo-rectal, lung, prostate, bladder and endometrial cancers, via plausible physiological mechanisms. Although retrospective case-control studies have consistently reported inverse associations between the risk of these cancers and the intake of cruciferous vegetables and isothiocyanate-containing plants, current prospective cohort studies have found these associations to be weaker and less consistent. Genetic variations affecting the metabolism of glucosinolate hydrolysis products may modulate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on cancer risk, which may be one of the reasons for the discrepancies between retrospective and prospective studies. In addition, methodological issues such as measurement errors of dietary exposure, misclassification, recall bias, publication bias, confounding and study design should be carefully considered in interpreting the results of case-control and cohort studies and in drawing conclusions in relation to the potential effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancers. Although recent comprehensive reviews of numerous studies have purported to show the specific protective role of cruciferous vegetables, and particularly Brassicas, against cancer risk, the current epidemiological evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce the risk only of gastric and lung cancers. However, there is at present no conclusive evidence that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables attenuates the risk of all other cancers.

  17. Analysis of health outcome time series data in epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touloumi, G; Atkinson, R; Le Tertre, A; Samoli, E; Schwartz, J; Schindler, C; Vonk, JM; Rossi, G; Saez, M; Rabszenko, D; Katsouyanni, K

    2004-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants. These studies have been criticized for the statistical methods and for inconsistency in results between cities. An important development in air pollution epidemiology has come from

  18. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  19. Health perspectives: international epidemiology of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stephanie Alison; Parikh, Seema; Workman, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Populations globally are ageing, in part due to dramatic increases in life expectancies, forcing a reconsideration of what constitutes being "elderly" and "old." The proportion of older adults living with disability may be decreasing, yet older individuals are living with a significant burden of chronic disease, geriatric impairments in cognition, vision and hearing and reduced physiological reserve (frailty). Caring for a growing number of medically complex individuals has implications for medical workforce size and composition, health programmes and expenditure. Future responses to an ageing population will require further innovation in health-care delivery models, and increasing representation of older adults in clinical trials. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  1. Epidemiology and diagnostics of human fasciolosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dakić Zorica; Inđić Nikola; Milošević Branko; Poluga Jasmina; Kulišić Zoran; Korać Miloš; Stajković Novica; Ofori-Belić Irena; Pavlović Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the trematoda Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Human fasciolosis is endemic in some parts of South America, Africa, Eastern Asia and Europe. High prevalence of human fasciolosis does not necessarily occur in areas where fasciolosis is a major veterinary problem. Infection with Fasciola hepatica has not been reported in humans in Serbia and former Yugoslavia, although a large variety of animals, such as sheep and cattle show infection rate...

  2. Mentoring in epidemiology and public health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith G

    2013-08-01

    In the past, mentoring was the job of one senior researcher in which the mentor molded the mentee in his/her own image. With public health being a very multidisciplinary field, mentoring may need to evolve to facilitate the needs of emerging scientists-including epidemiologists. The mentoring relationship can begin at many education stages, including high school. Involving students at all education levels acts as a way to recruit and nurture interest in public health. On the basis of the experience in the medical sciences, mentoring programs also can be used to recruit and retain high-quality professionals in our discipline. Mentoring functions nurture a young mentee with the bonus of greater workplace satisfaction for the mentor. Nevertheless, more understanding of what constitutes successful mentoring and how to develop programs that create great mentors is needed.

  3. Justice, stigma, and the new epidemiology of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Andrew M

    2009-02-01

    Recent research in epidemiology has identified a number of factors beyond access to medical care that contribute to health disparities. Among the so-called socioeconomic determinants of health are income, education, and the distribution of social capital. One factor that has been overlooked in this discussion is the effect that stigmatization can have on health. In this paper, I identify two ways that social stigma can create health disparities: directly by impacting health-care seeking behaviour and indirectly through the internalization of negative interpersonal judgments. I then argue that social arrangements that foster self-respect can reduce the impact of stigmatization on health disparities. I conclude by showing how John Rawls' conception of justice can be used to address the intersection of stigma, health, and self-respect, in contrast to critics of his position, who have seen him as excessively focused on the allocation of material goods.

  4. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populatio...

  5. Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot.

  6. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan R Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  7. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  8. Epidemiology of the human circadian clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Kuehnle, Tim; Juda, Myriam; Kantermann, Thomas; Allebrandt, Karla; Gordijn, Marijke; Merrow, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Humans show large inter-individual differences in organising their behaviour within the 24-h day-this is most obvious in their preferred timing of sleep and wakefulness. Sleep and wake times show a near-Gaussian distribution in a given population, with extreme early types waking up when extreme late

  9. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry rese...

  10. HUMAN OCULAR DIROFILARIOSIS: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenkić-Božinović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilarioses are zoonoses caused by filaria of the genus Dirofilaria, the parasites of domestic and wild animals. People are just random carriers of this parasite. In Europe, human dirofilariosis is caused by two species: Dirofilaria repens ( D. repens, also known as a species of The Old World , usually with the superficial localization of infection, and D. immitis, which is present throughout the world, and causes, beside superficial, visceral dirofilariosis. So far, based on the data from reference literature, it can be observed that in Serbia about 34 cases of human dirofilariosis have been diagnosed and published. It is assumed that the prevalence of this parasitosis is significantly higher as our country is an endemic area for dirofilariosis in dogs and the region where species of mosquitoes, which are transitory hosts and vectors of Dirofilaria spp., are present. The clinical picture of dirofilariosis depends on the type and location of the parasite in the human body. In our country, patients diagnosed with dirofilariosis had subcutaneous or subconjunctival infection in the majority of cases. Ocular dirofilariosis may affect the orbit and the periorbital region, the skin of the eyelids, the conjunctiva, the Tenon membrane, a retrobulbar space or has an intrabulbar localization. These patients may have a severe disability, and surgery alone can be complicated due to localization. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this unexpected important zoonoses, with special emphasis on the importance within the ophthalmic practice.

  11. [Epidemiological surveillance of human leptospirosis in Colombia, 2007-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Solmara; Rodríguez, Milena; Paredes, Andrea; Mendivelso, Fredy; Walteros, Diana; Rodríguez, Flor; Realpe, María Elena

    2013-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by a spirochete of the genus Leptospira . In Colombia, the disease represents a major public health issue, and there has been an increased number of cases in humans and animals. To characterize epidemiologically cases of leptospirosis reported to the National Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, and to make an approach to determine the serogroups circulating in the country. A retrospective observational study was designed using a process of monitoring records, which included cases reported by the software SIVIGILA and samples sent to the Microbiology Group of the National Laboratory Network (GM-RNL), for the period 2007-2011. We registered socio-demographic variables and analyzed 17 serogroups of Leptospira . A total of 11,786 records were processed, with 4,621 confirmed cases of leptospirosis. The geographic places which reported the highest number of cases were: Valle del Cauca, Antioquia, Risaralda, Atlántico and Barranquilla, and those with the highest incidence were Guaviare, Risaralda, San Andres, Santa Marta and Barranquilla. The largest number of cases was from urban areas, and more commonly in men (77%), students (19.4%) and housewives (13.6%). A median age of 29 years (IQR 45-19) was observed. There was evidence of 17 serogroups circulating in the country, from which the three most frequent were Australis (24.89%), Hebdomadis (9.33%) and Sejroe (8.0%). In Colombia, the reported cases have improved as well as their final classification, allowing us to determine the Australis serogroup as the most widely circulating one.

  12. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Cristolde; Nacima, Amílcar; Cuamba, Lutero; Gujral, Lorna; Amiel, Olga; Baltazar, Cynthia; Cliff, Julie; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-07-01

    In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities. We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided. This investigation included collection of clinical, demographic and epidemiological information and a case control study to investigate the risk factors associated with human rabies. Fourteen cases of human rabies were detected in Maputo (n = 10) and Matola (n = 3) cities and neighbouring Boane district (n = 1) between April and August 2014, all of whom had been admitted to hospital. All had a recent history of dog bite. Of the 14 rabid dogs, only one had been immunized. 819 cases of animal bites were registered, of which 64.6% (529/819) were from Maputo City. Dogs were responsible for 97.8% (801/819) of all animal bites, but only 27.0% (126/467) were immunized. Factors significantly associated with human rabies were: age <15 years (p = 0.05), bite by stray dog (p = 0.002), deep wound (p = 0.02), bite in the head (p = 0.001), bite by unimmunized dog (p = 0.01), no use of soap and water (p = 0.001), and no post-exposure prophylaxis (p = 0.01). Implementation of control measures for rabies is poor in Maputo and Matola cities, where cases of human rabies were strongly associated with bites by stray and unvaccinated dogs and irregular implementation of post-exposure measures.

  13. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Keum, NaNa; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health.

  15. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  16. Applied epidemiology: another tool in dairy herd health programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, K; Noordhuizen, J P; Stassen, E N

    1994-01-01

    Data bases of herd health programs concern data from individual animals mainly. Several parameters that determine herd performance can be calculated from these programs, and by comparing actual values with standard values, areas for further improvement of health (and production) can be advised. However, such advice is usually not backed up by the proper statistical analyses. Moreover, data concerning the environment of the animals are not present and hence advice concerning multifactorial diseases are based on common knowledge and experience. Veterinary epidemiology offers methods that might improve the value of herd health programs by identification and quantification of factors and conditions contributing to multifactorial disease occurrence. Implementation of these methods within herd health programs will lead to more scientifically sound advice.

  17. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of human intestinal amoebas in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Intestinal Amoebas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran.

  20. Contextual determinants of decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the family health team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvone Santa Barbara da Silva Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contextual determinants of implementing decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the family health team, in a municipality in the state of Bahia, Brazil. This was an evaluative study using the political model of implementation analysis. Data were obtained through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with managers and healthcare workers. Five themes emerged: planning; training of human resources; organization of the work process; linkage within institutions; and organization of family healthcare units. The results revealed that there are difficulties such as poor infrastructure of healthcare units, creation of flexibility in labor relations and healthcare worker turnover. The study shows that there is a need for stakeholder participation in the process of implementing the policy of decentralization of epidemiological surveillance for the micro-area of intervention that comprises the family health program.

  1. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  2. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  3. Antibiotic resistance as a major public health concern: epidemiology and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Veronica; Odone, Anna; Veronesi, Licia; Pasquarella, Cesira; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is mainly sustained by the improper use of antibiotics and has become a global public health concern both in the field of human and animal health. Italy has the highest prevalence of AMR among European countries, in particular carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, which reached 34.3% in 2013. Multidrug-resistant microorganisms' infections are associated with increased risk of complications, higher hospitalization rates, increased healthcare costs, loss of productivity and increased mortality. This paper summarizes the most recent epidemiological data regarding the spread of antibiotic resistance in Italy, consumption and economic impact, outlining the need for timely action and integrated approaches in all countries.

  4. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases.

  5. Epilepsy in India I: Epidemiology and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Amudhan; Gopalkrishna Gururaj; Parthasarathy Satishchandra

    2015-01-01

    Of the 70 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, nearly 12 million PWE are expected to reside in India; which contributes to nearly one-sixth of the global burden. This paper (first of the two part series) provides an in-depth understanding of the epidemiological aspects of epilepsy in India for developing effective public health prevention and control programs. The overall prevalence (3.0-11.9 per 1,000 population) and incidence (0.2-0.6 per 1,000 population per year) data from recen...

  6. Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii infection in Africa: a OneHealth systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sky Vanderburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a "One Health" perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (≤13% among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18-55%. Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11-33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10-32%. Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2-9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1-3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies

  7. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  8. Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2005-10-01

    most zoonoses makes advice requiring behavioural change for their control a difficult task. Our clearer understanding of the heterogeneity of susceptibility to infection, the complex genetic variations of people and parasite species and the development of molecular epidemiological tools is shedding more light on transmission routes and the spectrum of disease that is observed. Improved and new serological, molecular and imaging diagnostic tests and the development of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents has led to the attenuation of morbidity and mortality due to parasitic zoonoses in economically advantaged regions. Such advancements, in partnership with supportive behavioural change, has the potential for a sustainable global reduction in the burden of ill health due to parasitic zoonoses. Whether this will materialise is a challenge for us all.

  9. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  10. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  11. Electronic Health Information Legal Epidemiology Data Set 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors: Cason Schmit, JD, Gregory Sunshine, JD, Dawn Pepin, JD, MPH, Tara Ramanathan, JD, MPH, Akshara Menon, JD, MPH, Matthew Penn, JD, MLIS This legal data set...

  12. Epilepsy in India I: Epidemiology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Amudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 70 million persons with epilepsy (PWE worldwide, nearly 12 million PWE are expected to reside in India; which contributes to nearly one-sixth of the global burden. This paper (first of the two part series provides an in-depth understanding of the epidemiological aspects of epilepsy in India for developing effective public health prevention and control programs. The overall prevalence (3.0-11.9 per 1,000 population and incidence (0.2-0.6 per 1,000 population per year data from recent studies in India on general population are comparable to the rates of high-income countries (HICs despite marked variations in population characteristics and study methodologies. There is a differential distribution of epilepsy among various sociodemographic and economic groups with higher rates reported for the male gender, rural population, and low socioeconomic status. A changing pattern in the age-specific occurrence of epilepsy with preponderance towards the older age group is noticed due to sociodemographic and epidemiological transition. Neuroinfections, neurocysticercosis (NCC, and neurotrauma along with birth injuries have emerged as major risk factors for secondary epilepsy. Despite its varied etiology (unknown and known, majority of the epilepsy are manageable in nature. This paper emphasizes the need for focused and targeted programs based on a life-course perspective and calls for a stronger public health approach based on equity for prevention, control, and management of epilepsy in India.

  13. Epilepsy in India I: Epidemiology and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudhan, Senthil; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Of the 70 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, nearly 12 million PWE are expected to reside in India; which contributes to nearly one-sixth of the global burden. This paper (first of the two part series) provides an in-depth understanding of the epidemiological aspects of epilepsy in India for developing effective public health prevention and control programs. The overall prevalence (3.0-11.9 per 1,000 population) and incidence (0.2-0.6 per 1,000 population per year) data from recent studies in India on general population are comparable to the rates of high-income countries (HICs) despite marked variations in population characteristics and study methodologies. There is a differential distribution of epilepsy among various sociodemographic and economic groups with higher rates reported for the male gender, rural population, and low socioeconomic status. A changing pattern in the age-specific occurrence of epilepsy with preponderance towards the older age group is noticed due to sociodemographic and epidemiological transition. Neuroinfections, neurocysticercosis (NCC), and neurotrauma along with birth injuries have emerged as major risk factors for secondary epilepsy. Despite its varied etiology (unknown and known), majority of the epilepsy are manageable in nature. This paper emphasizes the need for focused and targeted programs based on a life-course perspective and calls for a stronger public health approach based on equity for prevention, control, and management of epilepsy in India. PMID:26425001

  14. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  15. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  16. Toxicology of microcystins with reference to cases of human intoxications and epidemiological investigations of exposures to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Mijović, Biljana; Codd, Geoffrey A; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2017-02-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have been documented throughout history, all over the world. Mass populations of these organisms typically present hazards to human health and are known for the production of a wide range of highly toxic metabolites-cyanotoxins, of which among the most common and most investigated are the microcystins. The toxicity of the family of microcystin congeners to animal and cell models has received much attention; however, less is known about their negative effects on human health, whether via acute or chronic exposure. Useful information may be acquired through epidemiological studies since they can contribute to knowledge of the relationships between cyanotoxins and human health in environmental settings. The aim of this review is to compile and evaluate the available published reports and epidemiological investigations of human health incidents associated with exposure to mass populations of cyanobacteria from throughout the world and to identify the occurrence and likely role of microcystins in these events. After an initial screening of 134 publications, 42 publications (25 on the chronic and 17 on the acute effects of cyanotoxins) describing 33 cases of poisonings by cyanobacterial toxins in 11 countries were reviewed. The countries were Australia, China, Sri Lanka, Namibia, Serbia, Sweden, UK, Portugal, Brazil, USA, and Canada. At least 36 publications link cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins including microcystins to adverse human health effects. The studies were published between 1960 and 2016. Although the scattered epidemiological evidence does not provide a definitive conclusion, it can serve as additional information for the medical assessment of the role of microcystins in cancer development and other human health problems. This paper discusses the major cases of cyanotoxin poisonings as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and importance of the performed epidemiological research. This study also proposes some recommendations for future

  17. Development of a curriculum for training in One Health analytical epidemiology at the University of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Muma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualised as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the ‘One Health’ initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.

  18. Current epidemiological trends for Chagas disease in Latin America and future challenges in epidemiology, surveillance and health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moncayo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas, who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and via blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases: acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts six-eight weeks. Several years after entering the chronic phase, 20-35% of infected individuals, depending on the geographical area, will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, oesophagus and colon, and of the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980s as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies in countries where accurate information was not previously available. A group of experts met in Brasilia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country programme in the Southern Cone countries, the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and via blood transfusion was interrupted in Uruguay in 1997, in Chile in 1999 and in Brazil in 2006; thus, the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi across the South American continent has decreased by 70%. Similar multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been reported towards the goal of interrupting the transmission of Chagas disease, as requested by a 1998 Resolution of the World Health Assembly. The cost-benefit analysis of investment in the vector control programme in Brazil indicates that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the programme is a health investment with very high return. Many well-known research institutions in Latin America were key elements of a

  19. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of human oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI. In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

  1. [Epidemiology and Public Health: tendencies of the Brazilian epidemiology production regarding volume, indexation and investigation areas - 2001 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Silvana Rubano Barretto; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho

    2010-07-01

    This article examines and interprets the trends of epidemiological production in Brazil in the Public Health context. CAPES indicators from 2001 to 2006 were used as database. We analyzed 26 programs and select the 10 major ones to analyze their bibliographic production in indexed journals. It was observed that the total production of epidemiological articles accounted for 40% of production in Public Health and 55% of the production was published in international journals, especially Cadernos de Saúde Pública, Revista de Saúde Pública and Ciência & Saúde Coletiva. The most prevalent themes were public health nutrition, maternal and infant health and, infectious diseases, particularly AIDS. Environmental e worker's heath, oral health, violence and health of the elderly have been ratified as objects of study for the discipline, while meta-analysis and geoprocessing appear as a useful tool for health services. We conclude that the epidemiological production tends to increase in indexed publications, covering various topics and a wide spectrum of relevant issues to Brazilian health policy.

  2. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Barthélémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains

  3. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  4. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  5. [Kolsky register of births as an instrument of epidemiologic studies of female reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaktstold, A; Talykova, L V; Chashchin, V P; Nieboer, E; Zotov, A M; Nikanov, A N; Romanova, N P; Udland, Iu Io

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluate possible use of Monchegorsk retrospective birth database for demographic and epidemiologic studies of various female reproductive health parameters, newborn health parameters, as well as their connections with occupational and other environmental factors.

  6. EXPERIENCE OF ORGANIZING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION MONITORING, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES TO MINIMIZE RISKS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE MAGADAN REGION POPULATION RELATED TO THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN MAGADAN REGION AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION "CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MAGADAN REGION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rubtsova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of activities of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Magadan region and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Magadan region" in the context of monitoring of the radiation situation in the Magadan region from 12.03.2011 in connection with the Fukushima accident in Japan. The authors present the data on radiological laboratory studies, the analysis of performed organizational activities, the results of co-operation with the state and other regulatory authorities.

  7. An International Comparison of the Instigation and Design of Health Registers in the Epidemiological Response to Major Environmental Health Incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behbod, Behrooz; Motreff, Yvon; Beck, Charles R; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik; Muravov, Oleg I; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy Funk; Lauriola, Paolo; Close, Rebecca; Crabbe, Helen; Pirard, Philippe

    CONTEXT: Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected,

  8. An international comparison of the instigation and design of health registers in the epidemiological response to major environmental health incidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behbod, B.; Leonardi, G.; Motreff, Y; Beck, C.R.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.; Muravov, O.L.; Bayleyegn, T.; Wolkin, A.F.; Lauriola, P.; Close, R.; Crabbe, H.; Pirard, P.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected,

  9. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  10. Health impacts of workplace heat exposure: an epidemiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-01-01

    With predicted increasing frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather due to changing climate, workplace heat exposure is presenting an increasing challenge to occupational health and safety. This article aims to review the characteristics of workplace heat exposure in selected relatively high risk occupations, to summarize findings from published studies, and ultimately to provide suggestions for workplace heat exposure reduction, adaptations, and further research directions. All published epidemiological studies in the field of health impacts of workplace heat exposure for the period of January 1997 to April 2012 were reviewed. Finally, 55 original articles were identified. Manual workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress, especially those in low-middle income countries in tropical regions. At risk workers include farmers, construction workers, fire-fighters, miners, soldiers, and manufacturing workers working around process-generated heat. The potential impacts of workplace heat exposure are to some extent underestimated due to the underreporting of heat illnesses. More studies are needed to quantify the extent to which high-risk manual workers are physiologically and psychologically affected by or behaviourally adapt to workplace heat exposure exacerbated by climate change.

  11. La epidemiología ocupacional como herramienta básica para la salud de los trabajadores Occupational epidemiology as a basic tool for workers' health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caristina Robaina Aguirre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un pequeño bosquejo del desarrollo de la Epidemiología como ciencia y su importancia en salud pública en general. Se transita por las definiciones de vieja y nueva epidemiología, de enfermedades crónicas, transmisibles y no transmisibles, del concepto de epidemiología social, etc. para posteriormente hablar de la importancia de la Epidemiología Ocupacional en la Salud PúblicaA review of the development of Epidemiology as a science, and its significance in public health in general, was made. The old and new definitions of epidemiology, of chronic, transmissible and non-transmissible diseases, of social epidemiology concept, etc., are analysed to further deal with the importance of Occupational Epidemiology in Public Health.

  12. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  13. Epidemiology of human leptospirosis in Malaysia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacer, Douadi; Thong, Kwai Lin; Min, Ng Choung; Bin Verasahib, Khebir; Galloway, Renee L; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Souris, Marc; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging disease, especially in countries with a tropical climate such as Malaysia. A dramatic increase in the number of cases has been reported over the last decade; however, information on the epidemiological trends of this disease is lacking. The objective of this study is to provide an epidemiological description of human leptospirosis cases over a 9-year period (2004-2012) and disease relationship with meteorological, geographical, and demographical information. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the patterns of human leptospirosis cases and their association with intrinsic (sex, age, and ethnicity) and extrinsic (location, rainfall, and temperature) factors. Data was grouped according to age, sex, ethnicity, seasonality and geographical distribution, and analyzed using statistical tools to understand the influence of all the different factors on disease incidence. A total of 12,325 cases of leptospirosis were reported between 2004 and 2012 with an upward trend in disease incidence, with the highest in 2012. Three hundred thirty-eight deaths were reported with an overall case fatality rate of 2.74%, with higher incidence in males (9696; 78.7%) compared with female patients (2629; 21.3%), and overall male to female ratio of 3.69:1. Patients aged cohorts between 30-39 years old (16.22 per 100,000 population) had the highest disease incidence while the lowest incidence occurred between Leptospirosis cases. This collaborative efforts between medical, academic and governmental institutions has enabled the construction of this comprehensive database that is essential to understand the disease trends in Malaysia and add insights into the prevention and control of this disease.

  14. Promotion of health and human functionality

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    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  15. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  16. Epidemiology of the 21 st century and cyberspace: rethinking power and the social determination of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The study of epidemiologic processes as a form of socially determined movement requires a renewed understanding of the social order, and thus, an updated understanding of the social relations that move society. Recently, the dominance of big corporations on cyberspace has become visible as a new historical process that conditions the social order and extends the technological subordination of daily life, therefore expanding community massive submission to standard conducts. The new digital technological revolution, about which some frightening prognoses are made for the next decades, could easily imply the advent of an era of radical subsumption of life processes. This will negatively affect not only our general way of living, thinking and planning, but also our deepest daily intimacy. This movement implies radical effects on health which we call cybernetic determination and subsumption. This novel process raises new questions on public health and prevention; but also requires a new reading of reality, a rethinking of human life and health, of its social determination, which implies the need for new new categories and analysis and renewed challenges for critical epidemiology.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG STRAINS OF Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, ISOLATED FROM HUMANS, POULTRY AND FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Méndez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Human gastro-enteritis caused by Salmonella enterica is a major health problem in developing countries such as Colombia. In some parts of Colombia, the disease is endemic, and its incidence appears to be increasing, with outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea becoming more frequent. At this time, it is not very clear if either poultry or food is responsible for human salmonellosis contamination in Colombia. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles (PFGEPs of Salmonella enterica from human patients, poultry and food found in Colombia and to determine the epidemiologic associations between these strains. Twenty-nine isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica were isolated from: 10 pediatric patients in Bogotá, D.C., 10 different types of food and 9 chickens. All isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. Eleven different patterns were observed. These patterns consisted of 12-17 restriction fragments, each with a molecular size of 30-800 kb. The results suggested that Salmonella enterica was transmitted from poultry and food to humans. Surprisingly, among the strains investigated it was impossible to find a direct linkage between poultry and food, indicating, either that Salmonella was incorporated into the food during food processing by handlers, or that foods other than poultry products were the source of human infection. This study about the molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica in Colombia provided new information about possible means of human contamination, and should permit health institutions to take adequate measures to avoid sporadic cases and outbreaks of salmonellosis.

  18. Chromosome surveys of human populations: between epidemiology and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    It is commonly held that after 1945 human genetics turned medical and focussed on the individual rather than on the study of human populations that had become discredited. However, a closer look at the research practices at the time quickly reveals that human population studies, using old and new tools, prospered in this period. The essay focuses on the rise of chromosome analysis as a new tool for the study of human populations. It reviews a broad array of population studies ranging from newborn screening programmes to studies of isolated or 'primitive' people. Throughout, it highlights the continuing role of concerns and opportunities raised by the propagation of atomic energy for civilian and military uses, the collection of large data bases and computers, and the role of international organisations like the World Health Organisation and the International Biological Programme in shaping research agendas and carving out a space for human heredity in the postwar era.

  19. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  20. Leptospirosis in Mexico: Epidemiology and Potential Distribution of Human Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokani Sánchez-Montes

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is widespread in Mexico, yet the potential distribution and risk of the disease remain unknown.We analysed morbidity and mortality according to age and gender based on three sources of data reported by the Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Geography and Statics of Mexico, for the decade 2000-2010. A total of 1,547 cases were reported in 27 states, the majority of which were registered during the rainy season, and the most affected age group was 25-44 years old. Although leptospirosis has been reported as an occupational disease of males, analysis of morbidity in Mexico showed no male preference. A total number of 198 deaths were registered in 21 states, mainly in urban settings. Mortality was higher in males (61.1% as compared to females (38.9%, and the case fatality ratio was also increased in males. The overall case fatality ratio in Mexico was elevated (12.8%, as compared to other countries. We additionally determined the potential disease distribution by examining the spatial epidemiology combined with spatial modeling using ecological niche modeling techniques. We identified regions where leptospirosis could be present and created a potential distribution map using bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation. Our data show that the distribution of the cases was more related to temperature (75% than to precipitation variables. Ecological niche modeling showed predictive areas that were widely distributed in central and southern Mexico, excluding areas characterized by extreme climates.In conclusion, an epidemiological surveillance of leptospirosis is recommended in Mexico, since 55.7% of the country has environmental conditions fulfilling the criteria that favor the presence of the disease.

  1. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean-Lee; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified an infected sibling as an important risk factor. An oral–oral route of spread has been substantiated with several studies showing the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in drinking water and the role of poor living conditions and sanitation in H. pylori infection, supporting an oral–fecal route of spread. Screening for H. pylori as a gastric cancer prescreening strategy has been described in Japan, and the importance of H. pylori eradication as a gastric cancer–prevention strategy has now been further emphasized in Japanese guidelines. Two studies have shown a decrease in the burden of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori eradication. PMID:21896079

  2. Biostatistics and epidemiology a primer for health and biomedical professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition, Biostatistics and Epidemiology has attracted loyal readers from across specialty areas in the biomedical community. Not only does this textbook teach foundations of epidemiological design and statistical methods, but it also includes topics applicable to new areas of research. Areas covered in the fourth edition include a new chapter on risk prediction, risk reclassification and evaluation of biomarkers, new material on propensity analyses, and a vastly expanded chapter on genetic epidemiology, which  is particularly relevant to those who wish to understand the epidemiological and statistical aspects of scientific articles in this rapidly advancing field. Biostatistics and Epidemiology was written to be accessible for readers without backgrounds in mathematics. It provides clear explanations of underlying principles, as well as practical guidelines of "how to do it" and "how to interpret it."a philosophical explanation of the logic of science, subsections that ...

  3. Epidemiological and functional implications of molecular variants of human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichero L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus genomes are classified into molecular variants when they present more than 98% of similarity to the prototype sequence within the L1 gene. Comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of these viruses have elucidated some features of their phylogenetic relationship. In addition, human papillomavirus intratype variability has also been used as an important tool in epidemiological studies of viral transmission, persistence and progression to clinically relevant cervical lesions. Until the present, little has been published concerning the functional significance of molecular variants. It has been shown that nucleotide variability within the long control region leads to differences in the binding affinity of some cellular transcriptional factors and to the enhancement of the expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed differences in E6 and E7 biochemical and biological properties among molecular variants. Nevertheless, further correlation with additional functional information is needed to evaluate the significance of genome intratypic variability. These results are also important for the development of vaccines and to determine the extent to which immunization with L1 virus-like particles of one variant could induce antibodies that cross-neutralize other variants.

  4. The changing epidemiology of Ebstein's anomaly and its relationship with maternal mental health conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Breidge; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Ebstein's anomaly in Europe and its association with maternal health and medication exposure during pregnancy. DESIGN: We carried out a descriptive epidemiological analysis of population-based data. SETTING: We included data fr...

  5. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. © 2015 the Nordic

  6. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  7. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C.; Dickey, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O.; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E.; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Loeffler, Christopher R.; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties. PMID:28335428

  8. A One Health, participatory epidemiology assessment of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) management in Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Jeanne L; Monje, Fred; Asiimwe-Karimu, Grace; Amuguni, Hellen Janetrix; Odoch, Terence

    2015-03-01

    Sporadic anthrax outbreaks have occurred in and around Uganda's Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) for years, affecting wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Reported outbreaks (2004-2005 and 2010) in QENP collectively killed over 500 wild animals and over 400 domestic animals. A 2011 outbreak in Sheema district temporarily froze local markets while killing two humans and seven bovines. One Health is multidisciplinary at its core, yet studies sometimes focus on the effects of animals on human health to the detriment of investigating the surrounding ecological and cultural contexts. Participatory methods connect problems - such as disease - to their context. A multidisciplinary team used participatory epidemiology and conventional structured questionnaires to investigate the impacts of anthrax on human livelihoods and the related perceptions of conservation, public health, and veterinary health efforts in the QENP area. Proximities to previous anthrax outbreaks and to QENP were treated as risk factors in the collection and evaluation of data. Participants' feedback indicates that anthrax prevalence may be greater than officially reported. Community member perceptions about anthrax and other diseases appear to be more closely related to their proximity to QENP than their proximity to anthrax outbreaks. Neither risk factor had a strong effect on knowledge of disease, nor any effect on behaviors associated with disease response or control. Instead, participants reported that social pressures, the economics of poverty, and the lack of health and veterinary infrastructure highly influenced responses to disease. The complex connections between the social needs and the economic context of these communities seem to be undermining current anthrax control and education measures. This livelihood-based decision-making may be unlikely to respond to educational intervention alone. This study provides a strong base for further research and for improvements in effective disease

  9. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolfinopoulou, K; Bitsolas, N; Patrinos, S; Veneti, L; Marka, A; Dougas, G; Pervanidou, D; Detsis, M; Triantafillou, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Billinis, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented. In 1998, the notification system began distinguishing between visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean annual incidence of reported leishmaniasis cases between 1998 and 2011 was 0.36 per 100,000 population. Of a total 563 leishmaniasis cases reported after 1998, 523 (93%) were visceral leishmaniasis cases. Incidence of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases fluctuated during this period, generally decreasing after 2007, with a small re-increase in 2011. The mean annual incidence rate of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases was significantly higher in less than four year-olds (p islands. Between 1998 and 2011, Attica concentrated almost half of the reported visceral leishmaniasis cases, with incidence rates in western Attica and western Athens above 12.00 per 100,000 population. Compared to visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis had a rather sporadic distribution, with many prefectures appearing free of cases. From 2004, the notification also included risk factors and of 287 cases with known immune status, 44 (15%) were immunocompromised. Moreover having a dog at home was reported by 209 of 312 leishmaniasis cases (67%), whereas 229 of 307 cases (75%) reported the presence of stray dogs near their residence. Linking clinical surveillance data with laboratory data and improving collaboration with the veterinary public health sector are some of the future challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance in Greece.

  10. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  11. Public health systems strengthening in Africa: the role of South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuonza, Lazarus; Tint, Khin San; Harris, Bernice; Nabukenya, Immaculate

    2011-01-01

    The South Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (SAFELTP) was created in 2006 after recognizing the need to build and sustain the country's human resource capacity in field (applied) epidemiology and public health practice. The programme was formed as a collaboration between the South Africa Department of Health (DoH), the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Pretoria. The primary goal of the programme was to produce field-trained epidemiologists equipped with knowledge and practical skills to effectively and efficiently address the public health priorities of South Africa. SAFELTP is a 2-year full-time training, consisting of a combination of classroom-based instruction (30%) and mentored field work (70%). The training places emphasis on public health surveillance, investigation of disease epidemics, public health laboratory practice and communication of epidemiologic information, among other aspects of epidemiology research. At completion, residents are awarded a Master of Public Health (MPH) degree from the University of Pretoria. Since its inception in 2006, 48 residents have enrolled onto the programme and 30 (62%) of them have completed the training. Over the past 5 years, the residents have conducted more than 92 outbreak investigations, 47 surveillance evaluations, 19 planned studies, analyzed 37 large databases and presented more than 56 papers at local and international conferences. In recognition of the high-quality work, at least five SAFELTP residents have received awards at various international scientific conferences during the 5 years. In conclusion, the South Africa FELTP is now fully established and making valuable contributions to the country's public health system, albeit with innumerable challenges.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.

  13. Epidemiology of Brucella Infection in the Human, Livestock and Wildlife Interface in the Katavi-Rukwa Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Justine A Assenga; Matemba, Lucas E; Muller, Shabani K.; Malakalinga, Joseph J.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. In Tanzania, the disease is underreported due to insufficient awareness, inadequate diagnostic protocols, including lack of appropriate reagents for diagnosis. Livestock and wildlife are considered potential sources of infection to humans; however, the role played by these carriers in the epidemiology of the disease in the ecosystems in Tanzania is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to establish the...

  14. Participation in a trauma-focused epidemiological investigation may result in sensitization for current health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, M.J.; Spinhoven, Ph.; van Emmerik, A.A.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives - Participation in health survey research may result in a worsening of self-assessed health status and enhanced service-use by increasing self-awareness of current health status. The present study investigated whether participation in a traumafocused epidemiological study sensitized parti

  15. El enfoque epidemiologico del sistema de salud de Cuba The epidemiologic approach of the Cuban health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez Calvo

    1999-08-01

    mensurar la distancia entre lo ideal y lo real. En conclusión, se reconoce cierto vacío entre la argumentación teórica y la práctica epidemiológica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, aunque sean inobjetables los avances en el ámbito sanitario en estas casi cuatro décadas. Resulta ineludible el desafío que esto representa para alcanzar el liderazgo epidemiológico que en el discurso se promueve, para lo cual la reforma del sector salud emerge como un excelente y oportuno espacio.The international recognition of the achievements of the Cuban health system, the stability -questioned on some occasions - of health indicators, and the enormous human resources and materials invested to develop the policies and national sanitary strategies comprise an excellent field to analyze the epidemiological contribution to those positive results in the health area. Among those outstanding results, the longer life expectancy, the low mortality rates, infant mortality, and mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases partly due to the elimination or eradication of a group of diseases preventable by immunization. Were these results reached by an epidemiologically oriented health system? Do the procedures carried out allow for the proposal of a Cuban School of Epidemiology? The objective of this paper is to offer answers to these queries through a critical appraisal on the presumable epidemiological orientation of the health system, and the incorporation of epidemiological thinking in the sanitary strategies that have been designed and developed in Cuba. An arbitrary, but notorious dichotomy, the Seminar on the "Uses and Perspectives of Epidemiology", held in Buenos Aires in 1983, has traced rules for the epidemiological performance in the Region as a whole and contributed to the analysis above. The dichotomy -before and after the Seminar - created the national scenarios for practicing epidemiology at the academic, investigative and health services levels, supported on 4 basic

  16. An epidemiological approach to characterise the human exposure pathways in a contaminated estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ausenda; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Paixão, Eleonora; Caeiro, Sandra; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    This study's aim was to develop and implement an integrative epidemiologic cross-sectional study that allows identifying and characterising exposure pathways of populations living and working on the shores of a contaminated estuarine environment. Population residing in Carrasqueira, located on the Sado estuary with known contaminated areas was compared to another population on a noncontaminated estuary (Vila Nova de Mil Fontes - VNMF), considered a nonexposed population. Simple random samples of individuals were selected in each study population from the National Health Service Lists: 140 individuals were selected in Carrasqueira and 219 in VNMF. Participation rates were higher in the exposed group (62.5%, n=102 in Carrasqueira and 48.3%, n=100 individuals in VNMF). The same structured questionnaire was used in both populations, including questions on occupational activities, leisure activities, consumption of food (including fish and mollusks from the estuary) and use of water for human intake and agriculture. Results showed that a significantly higher proportion of Carrasqueira participants reported doing tasks in their job that promote direct (48.8% vs 1.2% in VNMF, p-valuecontamination from the contaminated estuarine environment. The study design and the selection of both populations were adequate for this type of epidemiologic study of potential routes of human contamination in a mixture of contaminated estuarine environment and can be used in other estuarine areas with similar environmental risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human health effects of short-term ozone exposure: a review of Chinese epidemiological evidence%我国臭氧短期暴露的人群健康效应研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫美霖; 李湉湉; 刘晓途; 段恒轶; 刘兆荣

    2012-01-01

    Plenty of epidemiological studies consistently indicate that ambient ozone has short-term effects on mortality and morbidity. Photochemical pollution has become the chief issue in most Chinese cities. Epidemiological studies on short-term effects of ambient ozone conducted in China published since 1990 were collected. Time series study and case-crossover study were the two main research designs. Different measurements of ozone exposure and health outcomes were used in these studies. The majority of researches reported a significant relationship between ambient ozone and mortality. Hospitalizations for multiply diseases were covered. However rare studies concerned health effects of ozone on vulnerable populations. Fewer dose-response were reported in China compared with those in U.S. and Europe, and restricted to some big cities. Therefore studies in China could not provide adequate evidence in policy making for air quality control.%国内外大量观察性流行病学研究已给出臭氧(O3)暴露与人群多种健康结局的显著相关性.光化学污染成为我国当前城市空气污染的首要问题.该文对国内外1990年以来发表的我国O3短期暴露人群健康效应的流行病学研究资料进行综述.时间序列和病例交叉是两种主要的研究方法.研究中的暴露对象以全人群为主.仅一篇文献采用了多种O3暴露度量方式.大部分研究结果显示O3暴露与人群死亡风险有显著相关性.与O3暴露相关的非死亡健康效应研究探讨更细的健康结局,少数文献关注到敏感人群面临的健康风险,且仅两项大陆城市报道O3暴露的非死亡健康效应,其余均为中国香港、中国台湾地区的研究.对比北美和欧洲的研究情况,我国现有研究很少,且集中在中国香港、中国台湾、上海、广州等,而在污染较严重的大陆地区研究非常匮乏,因而空气污染控制政策的修订所需数据相当欠缺.

  18. Epidemiology and social justice in light of social determinants of health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Marmot, Michael

    2009-02-01

    The present article identifies how social determinants of health raise two categories of philosophical problems that also fall within the smaller domain of ethics; one set pertains to the philosophy of epidemiology, and the second set pertains to the philosophy of health and social justice. After reviewing these two categories of ethical concerns, the limited conclusion made is that identifying and responding to social determinants of health requires inter-disciplinary reasoning across epidemiology and philosophy. For the reasoning used in epidemiology to be sound, for its scope and (moral) purpose as a science to be clarified as well as for social justice theory to be relevant and coherent, epidemiology and philosophy need to forge a meaningful exchange of ideas that happens in both directions.

  19. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  20. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available employment. Current use of fossil-fuel causes substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Nevertheless, health challenges still exist (lower health scores) dealing with rural conditions such as distance from medical facilities...] ecological degradation, the pumping and treatment of extraneous water, compliance to the conditions of the environmental authorisation and the management and sustainable closure thereof, until the Minister has issued [an] a closure certificate in terms...

  1. Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis): epidemiology, economic impact and public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleha, A A

    1991-12-01

    Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) is an important parasitic disease found worldwide affecting sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo, as well as other domestic ruminants. The common causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica which require various species of Lymnaea, fresh water snails, as their intermediate hosts. The epidemiology of the disease and its prevalence in Malaysia is mentioned briefly. The disease causes considerable impact on the economy of the livestock industry. The economic losses consist of costs of anthelmintics, drenches, labor, liver condemnation at meat inspection; and losses in production due to mortality, reduction in meat, milk and wool production; and reduction in growth rate, fertility and draught power. The disease also has public health significance, causing human fascioliasis and "halzoun".

  2. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2013-11-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes. These include visceral and ocular larva migrans, neurotoxocariasis and covert or common toxocariasis. Toxocara canis is one of the most widespread public health and economically important zoonotic parasitic infections humans share with dogs, cats and wild canids, particularly foxes. This neglected disease has been shown through seroprevalence studies to be especially prevalent among children from socio-economically disadvantaged populations both in the tropics and sub-tropics and in industrialised nations. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs or larvae from a range of wild and domestic paratenic hosts. Most infections remain asymptomatic. Clinically overt infections may go undiagnosed, as diagnostic tests are expensive and can require serological, molecular and/or imaging tests, which may not be affordable or available. Treatment in humans varies according to symptoms and location of the larvae. Anthelmintics, including albendazole, thiabendazole and mebendazole may be given together with anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. The development of molecular tools should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocariasis and the role of other ascaridoid species in the epidemiology of Toxocara spp. Molecular technologies may also help to reveal the public health importance of T. canis, providing new evidence to support the implementation of national control initiatives which have yet to be developed for Toxocara spp. A number of countries have implemented reproductive control programs in owned and stray dogs to reduce the number of young dogs in the population. These programs would positively impact upon T. canis transmission since the parasite is most fecund and prevalent in puppies. Other control measures for T

  3. Human exposure to chemical mixtures: Challenges for the integration of toxicology with epidemiology data in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Antonio F; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the potential adverse effects from longterm exposure to complex mixtures at low doses, close to health-based reference values. Traditional chemical-specific risk assessment based on animal testing may be insufficient and the lack of toxicological studies on chemical mixtures remains a major regulatory challenge. Hence, new methodologies on cumulative risk assessment are being developed but still present major limitations. Evaluation of chemical mixture effects requires an integrated and systematic approach and close collaboration across different scientific fields, particularly toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment and statistics for a proper integration of data from all these disciplines. Well designed and conducted epidemiological studies can take advantage of this new paradigm and can provide insight to support the correlation between humans low-dose exposures and diseases, thus avoiding the uncertainty associated with extrapolation across species. In this regard, human epidemiology studies may play a significant role in the new vision of toxicity testing. However, this type of information has not been fully considered in risk assessment, mainly due to the inherent limitations of epidemiologic studies. An integrated approach of in vivo, in vitro and in silico data, together with systematic reviews or meta-analysis of high quality epidemiological studies will improve the robustness of risk assessment of chemical mixtures and will provide a stronger basis for regulatory decisions. The ultimate goal is that experimental and mechanistic data can lend support and biological plausibility to the human epidemiological observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    science, agronomy, agricultural sustainability, toxicology, epidemiology and the medical sciences will promote greater understanding of the complex relationships between soil and human health.

  5. Public Health and Epidemiological Considerations For Avian Influenza Risk Mapping and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Dudley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2, Africa (H5N1, H10N7, Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2, and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9. Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenzas are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 "bird flu" virus, and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g., H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans. Key factors needing further investigation from a risk management perspective include identification of the driving forces behind the emergence and persistence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses within poultry populations, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses between industrial poultry farms and backyard poultry flocks. More information is needed regarding the extent to which migratory bird populations to contribute to the transnational and transcontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the potential for wild bird

  6. Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-23

    Dr. Kiersten Kugeler discusses the Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States.  Created: 2/23/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2015.

  7. Interdisciplinary education to integrate pathology and epidemiology: towards molecular and population-level health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Shuji; King, Emily E; Beck, Andrew H; Sherman, Mark E; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2012-10-15

    In recent decades, epidemiology, public health, and medical sciences have been increasingly compartmentalized into narrower disciplines. The authors recognize the value of integration of divergent scientific fields in order to create new methods, concepts, paradigms, and knowledge. Herein they describe the recent emergence of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE), which represents an integration of population and molecular biologic science to gain insights into the etiologies, pathogenesis, evolution, and outcomes of complex multifactorial diseases. Most human diseases, including common cancers (such as breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma) and other chronic diseases (such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, autoimmune diseases, psychiatric diseases, and some infectious diseases), are caused by alterations in the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, microbiome, and interactome of all of the above components. In this era of personalized medicine and personalized prevention, we need integrated science (such as MPE) which can decipher diseases at the molecular, genetic, cellular, and population levels simultaneously. The authors believe that convergence and integration of multiple disciplines should be commonplace in research and education. We need to be open-minded and flexible in designing integrated education curricula and training programs for future students, clinicians, practitioners, and investigators.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of human cases of tuberculosis by Mycobacterium bovis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-Suazo, Feliciano; Pérez-Guerrero, Laura; Arriaga-Díaz, Camila; Escartín-Chávez, Minerva

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of Mycobacterium bovis in human cases of tuberculosis (TB) in an endemic area of the disease in cattle. Sputum, urine and other tissue samples were obtained from: (1) TB-symptomatic patients, (2) dairy farm workers and (3) abattoir workers. Samples of macroscopic lesions suspicious of TB were also obtained from cattle at slaughter in the same geographic area. A total of 562 human samples were collected: 255 from symptomatic patients, 218 from farm workers and 93 from abattoir workers. Samples were analysed by the bacillus acido-alcohol resitant (BAAR) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and cultured in Stonebrink and Löwenstein-Jensen. Spoligotyping was performed in all isolates obtained by culture and the DNA obtained by PCR. From the total number of human cases, 34 (6%) showed M. bovis spoligotype; eight spoligotypes from cattle showed an identical pattern to three spoligotypes from humans; a different set of spoligotypes from cattle (n = 8) had only one spacer difference to a set of spoligotypes from humans (n = 2). These results provide further evidence that infected cattle represent a risk to public health and support previous reports about the role of M. bovis in Mexican patients. There is no doubt that genotyping M. bovis isolates collected from cattle may have a substantial impact on our understanding of the epidemiology of TB.

  9. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  10. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population.

  11. Friend or foe? The current epidemiologic evidence on selenium and human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Malagoli, Carlotta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.

  12. [Epidemiologic survey of teniasis in Health and Family Program in Uberaba, MG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Flavia Maria; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Carvalho, Angela C F Banzatto de

    2005-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Program to evaluate some Epidemiologic aspects of teniasis. Previous history of passing proglottides was registered in 185 (0.2%) of them, and 112 (60.5%) received praziquantel. After this 97 (86.6%) passed proglottides characterized as Taenia Saginata and Taenia Solium in 36 (37.1%) and 4 (4.1%) respectively.

  13. The future of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease).

  14. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and response through Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurapa, Frederick; Afari, Ebenezer; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sackey, Samuel; Clerk, Christine; Kwadje, Simon; Yebuah, Nathaniel; Amankwa, Joseph; Amofah, George; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer

    2011-01-01

    The lack of highly trained field epidemiologists in the public health system in Ghana has been known since the 1970s when the Planning Unit was established in the Ghana Ministry of Health. When the Public Health School was started in 1994, the decision was taken to develop a 1 academic-year general MPH course. The persisting need for well-trained epidemiologists to support the public health surveillance, outbreak investigation and response system made the development of the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP) a national priority. The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for serving Ghana Health Service staff. The success of the short courses led to development of the FELTP. By October 2007, the new FELTP curriculum for the award of a Masters of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology and Disease Control was approved by the Academic Board of the University of Ghana and the programme started that academic year. Since then five cohorts of 37 residents have been enrolled in the two tracks of the programme. They consist of 12 physicians, 12 veterinarians and 13 laboratory scientists. The first two cohorts of 13 residents have graduated. The third cohort of seven has submitted dissertations and is awaiting the results. The fourth cohort has started the second year of field placement while the fifth cohort has just started the first semester. The field activities of the graduates have included disease outbreak investigations and response, evaluation of disease surveillance systems at the national level and analysis of datasets on diseases at the regional level. The residents have made a total of 25 oral presentations and 39 poster presentations at various regional and global

  15. Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, EBPH: a new vision for two old journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The launch of this new journal, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health (EBPH, enables us to embrace new challenges, and renew our commitment to our readers, our authors and fellow editors, and ultimately to the public health community worldwide.EBPH is an open access journal streaming from two previous journals, one focused on public health (The Italian Journal of Public Health, http://ijphjournal.it/ [1-8], ...

  16. An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13. Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities.

  17. Vitamin D and Human Health: Celebrating Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Spedding

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of Nutrients: Vitamin D and Human Health celebrates diversity in vitamin D research with articles from bench-to-bedside, examining mechanisms, epidemiology, and clinical issues in the management of non-skeletal disease following themes set by an earlier review in Nutrients [1]. Vitamin D became synonymous with calcium and bone metabolism originating from Casimir Funk’s concept of “Vitamines”. This suggests that vitamin D is an amine found in food with a single mode of action affecting calcium and bone metabolism [2], whereas vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone derived from sunshine with a plethora of physiological functions (autocrine, paracrine, endocrine [3], and epigenetic [4] associating vitamin D deficiency with many illnesses [1]. Deficiency is pandemic and most prevalent where sun exposure is limited by culture climate and skin colour [5]. Whilst reports have focused on diet and bone metabolism [6], this Special Issue of Nutrients about Vitamin D and Human Health focuses on non-skeletal disease, and research driven by industry and community health concerns.

  18. Health, Human Capital, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2010-09-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health's effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health.

  19. Urgent need for human resources to promote global cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Fuster, Valentin

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates the existence of a global shortage of over 4 million health-care workers. Given the growing global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the shortfall in global human resources for health (HRH) is probably even greater than predicted. A critical challenge going forward is to determine how to integrate CVD-related human resource needs into the overall global HRH agenda. We describe the CVD implications of core HRH objectives, including coverage, motivation, and competence, in addition to issues such as health-care worker migration and the need for input from multiple stakeholders to successfully address the current problems. We emphasize gaps in knowledge regarding HRH for global CVD-related care and research opportunities. In light of the current global epidemiologic transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, now is the time for the global health community to focus on CVD-related human resource needs.

  20. Improving the Health of Minority Communities through Probation-Public Health Collaborations: An Application of the Epidemiological Criminology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Roberto Hugh; Akers, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that common dynamic risks may underlie both criminal justice system involvement and poor health outcomes among members of minority groups in the U.S. We introduce the epidemiological criminology framework as a way of conceptualizing, researching, and intervening to reduce both health and criminal behaviors…

  1. Improving the Health of Minority Communities through Probation-Public Health Collaborations: An Application of the Epidemiological Criminology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Roberto Hugh; Akers, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the notion that common dynamic risks may underlie both criminal justice system involvement and poor health outcomes among members of minority groups in the U.S. We introduce the epidemiological criminology framework as a way of conceptualizing, researching, and intervening to reduce both health and criminal behaviors…

  2. Costs and epidemiological changes of chronic diseases: implications and challenges for health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Aviles, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The need to integrate economic and epidemiological aspects in the clinical perspective leads to a proposal for the analysis of health disparities and to an evaluation of the health services and of the new challenges which are now being faced by health system reforms in middle income countries. To identify the epidemiological changes, the demand for health services and economic burden from chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension) in a middle income county. We conducted longitudinal analyses of costs and epidemiological changes for diabetes and hypertension in the Mexican health system. The study population included both the insured and uninsured populations. The cost-evaluation method was used, based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2014-2016, six models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique, using confidence intervals of 95%, and the Box-Pierce test. Regarding epidemiological changes expected in both diseases for 2014 vs. 2016, an increase is expected, although results predict a greater increase for diabetes, 8-12% in all three studied institutions, (p management per patient in the case of diabetes, and from $485 to $622 in patients with hypertension. Comparing financial consequences of health services required by insured and uninsured populations, the greater increase (23%) will be for the insured population (p financial requirements of both diseases will amount to 19.5% of the total budget for the uninsured and 12.5% for the insured population. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are, the economic impact of expected epidemiological changes on the social security system will be particularly strong. Another relevant challenge is the appearance of internal competition in the use and allocation of financial resources with programs for other chronic and infectious diseases.

  3. Whole grains and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  4. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  5. Forests, Trees and Human Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard; Sangster, Marcus; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The link between modern lifestyles and increasing levels of chronic heart disease, obesity, stress and poor mental health is a concern across the world. The cost of dealing with these conditions places a large burden on national public health budgets so that policymakers are increasingly looking...... Union’s COST Action E39 ‘Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing’, and draws together work carried out over four years by scientists from 25 countries working in the fields of forestry, health, environment and social sciences. While the focus is primarily on health priorities defined within Europe...... at prevention as a cost-effective alternative to medical treatment. Attention is turning towards interactions between the environment and lifestyles. Exploring the relationships between health, natural environments in general, and forests in particular, this groundbreaking book is the outcome of the European...

  6. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  7. Health, Human Capital, and Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Hoyt

    2013-01-01

    How much does disease depress development in human capital and income around the world? I discuss a range of micro evidence, which finds that health is both human capital itself and an input to producing other forms of human capital. I use a standard model to integrate these results, and suggest a re-interpretation of much of the micro literature. I then discuss the aggregate implications of micro estimates, but note the complications in extrapolating to general equilibrium, especially because of health’s effect on population size. I also review the macro evidence on this topic, which consists of either cross-country comparisons or measuring responses to health shocks. Micro estimates are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the cross-country relationship, but nevertheless imply high benefit-to-cost ratios from improving certain forms of health. PMID:24147187

  8. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan; Pereg, Lily; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is important for the maintenance of soil quality. Healthy, biodiverse soils are crucial for human health and wellbeing from several reasons, for example: biodiversity has been shown to be important in controlling populations of pathogens; healthy, well-covered soils can reduce disease outbreaks; carbon-rich soils may also reduce outbreaks of human and animal parasites; exposure to soil microbes can reduce allergies; soils have provided many of our current antibiotics; soil organisms can provide biological disease and pest control agents, healthy soils mean healthier and more abundant foods; soil microbes can enhance crop plant resilience; healthy soils promote good clean air quality, less prone to wind and water erosion; and healthy soils provide clean and safe water through filtration, decontamination by microbes and removal of pollutants. Soil microbes and other biota provide many benefits to human health. Soil microbes are a source of medicines, such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs and many more. Organisms that affect soil health and thus human health include those involved in nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter and determining soil structure (e.g. aggregation). Again these are related to food security but also affect human health in other ways. Many beneficial organisms have been isolated from soil - plant growth promoting and disease suppressive microbes used as inoculants, foliar inoculants for improvement of ruminant digestion systems and inoculants used in bioremediation of toxic compounds in the environment. Soil biodiversity is highly recognised now as an important feature of healthy soil and imbalances have been shown to give advantage to harmful over beneficial organisms. This presentation will highlight the many connections of biodiversity to soil quality and human health.

  9. Epidemiological analysis of human fascioliasis in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asma W; Tanveer, Akhtar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    A coprological study was performed to assess human fascioliasis in 7200 subjects inhabiting rural communities of localities close to the capital city of Lahore in the northeastern part of the very highly populated Punjab province, Pakistan, a country where human infection had never been reported before 2005. The analysis of 1200 subjects including 50 subjects/month throughout a two-year study in each of six localities surveyed provided an overall prevalence of 1.18%, with a range between 0.67% and 1.75% according to localities. Infection rates did not differ according to gender, excepting a higher rate in females (1.13% vs 0.77%) in one locality. Prevalences according to age groups proved to be higher in 11-20 years with 1.57%, followed by 1.18% in 0-10 years and 0.47% in 21-30 years, while no infection above 30 years. Seasonal prevalences proved to be significantly different when comparing summer and autumn with winter and spring. Monthly prevalences showed two peaks, the highest in August (4.67%) and another in January (2.17%). Correlation studies of monthly prevalences with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and pan evaporation showed significant results only with humidity. Despite prevalences being low, the very high number of inhabitants and population densities of the areas surveyed suggest a wide public health problem potentially infecting up to 150,000 rural people, children included, only in the respective districts. Additionally, the situation becomes of more concern when considering the present climate change trend affecting the Punjab, which indicates a progressively increasing fascioliasis transmission risk in that animal endemic area in the near future.

  10. Soil biodiversity and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  11. Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Mark

    2016-11-24

    Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided.

  12. Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Messina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided.

  13. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  14. Human health monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  15. Changing Epidemiology of Human Brucellosis, China, 1955–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang; Xiong, Weiyi; Gilbert, Marius; Huang, Zhuojie; Yu, Jianxing; Yin, Wenwu; Wang, Liping; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Yu; Mu, Di; Zeng, Lingjia; Ren, Xiang; Geng, Mengjie; Zhang, Zike; Cui, Buyun; Li, Tiefeng; Wang, Dali; Li, Zhongjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease, was made statutorily notifiable in China in 1955. We analyzed the incidence and spatial–temporal distribution of human brucellosis during 1955–2014 in China using notifiable surveillance data: aggregated data for 1955–2003 and individual case data for 2004–2014. A total of 513,034 brucellosis cases were recorded, of which 99.3% were reported in northern China during 1955–2014, and 69.1% (258, 462/374, 141) occurred during February–July in 1990–2014. Incidence remained high during 1955–1978 (interquartile range 0.42–1.0 cases/100,000 residents), then decreased dramatically in 1979–1994. However, brucellosis has reemerged since 1995 (interquartile range 0.11–0.23 in 1995–2003 and 1.48–2.89 in 2004–2014); the historical high occurred in 2014, and the affected area expanded from northern pastureland provinces to the adjacent grassland and agricultural areas, then to southern coastal and southwestern areas. Control strategies in China should be adjusted to account for these changes by adopting a One Health approach. PMID:28098531

  16. Global Shifts in Cardiovascular Disease, the Epidemiologic Transition, and Other Contributing Factors: Toward a New Practice of Global Health Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Walter; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-02-01

    One of the major drivers of change in the practice of cardiology is population change. This article discusses the current debate about epidemiologic transition paired with other ongoing transitions with direct relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Challenges specific to patterns of risk factors over time; readiness for disease surveillance and meeting global targets; health system, prevention, and treatment efforts; and physiologic traits and human-environment interactions are identified. This article concludes that a focus on the most populated regions of the world will contribute substantially to protecting the large gains in global survival and life expectancy accrued over the last decades.

  17. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    , ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...

  18. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  19. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  20. Climate Change and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on human health span the trajectory of time—past, present, and future. The key finding from the Working Group II, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that health impacts due to climate change have already occurred in the past, are currently occurring and will continue to occur, at least for the foreseeable future, even with immediate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions [1]. According to the IPCC, there has been increased heat-related mortality and decreased cold-related mortality in some regions as a result of warming (Box 1. Moreover, local changes in temperature and rainfall have altered the distribution of some water-borne illnesses and disease vectors. Impacts of climate-related extremes include alteration of ecosystems, disruption of food production and water supply, damage to infrastructure and settlements, morbidity and mortality, and consequences for mental health and human well-being [1]. [...

  1. The Oral Health Burden in the United States: A Summary of Recent Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Daniel J.; Weintraub, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews recent large-scale epidemiological surveys of oral health in the United States, outlines risk factors for oral disease, and makes recommendations for future surveys. Discussion is limited to dental caries, periodontal diseases, tooth loss, edentulism, oral cancer, and orofacial clefts. (Author/MSE)

  2. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the

  3. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural

  4. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen-Chau, T.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the preval

  5. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  6. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  7. Comparative genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter: application in routine public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleihauf, E; Mutschall, S; Billard, B; Taboada, E N; Haldane, D

    2017-01-01

    A subtyping methodology for Campylobacter, Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting (CGF40), has been described recently. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of CGF40 as a tool to enhance routine public health surveillance of campylobacteriosis. Isolates of Campylobacter from across the province were requested and sent for CGF40 subtyping. Epidemiological data from cases reported to public health officials in Nova Scotia, Canada, from January 2012 to March 2015 were linked with blinded CGF40 subtyping results. CGF40 was epidemiologically valid; subtyping discerned known epidemiologically related isolates and augmented case-finding. Predominant sources and locations of subtype detection from the national reference database showed some study subtypes were rare and even novel to the database, while others were more commonly identified over multiple years and with exposures locally and internationally. A case-case study design was applied to examine risk factors for the most common CGF40 subtypes detected. Differences in the epidemiology of different CGF40 subtypes were observed. Statistically significant associations were noted for specific subtypes with rural residence, local exposure, contact with a pet dog or cat, contact with chickens, and drinking unpasteurized milk. With prospective use, CGF40 could potentially identify unrecognized outbreaks and contribute to epidemiological investigations of case clusters.

  8. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  9. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  10. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  11. Diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Epidemiological, therapeutic aspects and patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Youssouf; Bensghir, Rajaa; Ihbibane, Fatima; OuladLashen, Ahd; Sodqi, Mustapha; Marih, Latifa; Chakib, Abdelfattah; Marhoum, Kamal El Filali

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, no data on the association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and diabetes have been published. To review the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data and evaluate the experience of people living with HIV and suffering from diabetes. Our study population was composed of 190 outpatients (87 males and 103 females) attending the Infectious Diseases department of the University Hospital Center of Casablanca (Ibn Rochd). Using the computerized medical records, we identified patients with HIV-Diabetes and collected their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data. At the enrollment date of each patient, we measured anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and arm circumference). We also asked each patient, about the impression on their bodies' appearance and the degree of concern with regard to the diabetes. The population of patients with HIV, the prevalence of diabetes was 10.5%, among the patients taking an antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence was 13.5%. Diabetes has been diagnosed in 113 patients before the discovery of their HIV infection. At time of recruitment, 111 of them were under antiretroviral therapy for a mean period of 3.1years. Zidovudine was the most prescribed drug followed by lamivudine. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 144 patients. Eighty-seven patients feel conscious about their body appearance which makes them feel bad about the way they look. Metformin was prescribed in 46 cases. The majority of patients (73.1%) considered diabetes as a second health problem. Only 46 patients were well balanced. The multidisciplinary consultation and patient education should enable an appropriate management of diabetes in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges Posed by Tick-Borne Rickettsiae: Eco-Epidemiology and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeeva, Marina E.; Dasch, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligately intracellular bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors, primarily by fleas and ticks. Once transmitted or experimentally inoculated into susceptible mammals, some rickettsiae may cause febrile illness of different morbidity and mortality, and which can manifest with different types of exhanthems in humans. However, most rickettsiae circulate in diverse sylvatic or peridomestic reservoirs without having obvious impacts on their vertebrate hosts or affecting humans. We have analyzed the key features of tick-borne maintenance of rickettsiae, which may provide a deeper basis for understanding those complex invertebrate interactions and strategies that have permitted survival and circulation of divergent rickettsiae in nature. Rickettsiae are found in association with a wide range of hard and soft ticks, which feed on very different species of large and small animals. Maintenance of rickettsiae in these vector systems is driven by both vertical and horizontal transmission strategies, but some species of Rickettsia are also known to cause detrimental effects on their arthropod vectors. Contrary to common belief, the role of vertebrate animal hosts in maintenance of rickettsiae is very incompletely understood. Some clearly play only the essential role of providing a blood meal to the tick while other hosts may supply crucial supplemental functions for effective agent transmission by the vectors. This review summarizes the importance of some recent findings with known and new vectors that afford an improved understanding of the eco-epidemiology of rickettsiae; the public health implications of that information for rickettsial diseases are also described. Special attention is paid to the co-circulation of different species and genotypes of rickettsiae within the same endemic areas and how these observations may influence, correctly or incorrectly, trends, and conclusions drawn from the surveillance of

  13. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Guha-Sapir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension between flood affected and non-affected households. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding, flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis.

  14. Plant Polyphenols as Dietary Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Bhooshan Pandey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health.

  15. The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. E...

  16. Ethnography of epidemiologic transition: Avian flu, global health politics and agro-industrial capitalism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuengsatiansup, Komatra

    2008-04-01

    This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies. The case of Thailand poses a question of how the strength of ethnographic practice could be deployed to account for the reality of the global-local interface of the new epidemiologic transition.

  17. An Exercise in Molecular Epidemiology: Human Rhinovirus Prevalence and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Catherine J.; Hall, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common human respiratory pathogens and is responsible for the majority of upper respiratory illnesses. Recently, a phylogeny was constructed from all known American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) HRV sequences. From this study, three HRV classifications (HRVA, HRVB, and HRVC) were determined and techniques…

  18. An Exercise in Molecular Epidemiology: Human Rhinovirus Prevalence and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Catherine J.; Hall, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common human respiratory pathogens and is responsible for the majority of upper respiratory illnesses. Recently, a phylogeny was constructed from all known American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) HRV sequences. From this study, three HRV classifications (HRVA, HRVB, and HRVC) were determined and techniques…

  19. Health Impacts of Workplace Heat Exposure: An Epidemiological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng; Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2013-01-01

    With predicted increasing frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather due to changing climate, workplace heat exposure is presenting an increasing challenge to occupational health and safety. This article aims to review the characteristics of workplace heat exposure in selected relatively high risk occupations, to summarize findings from published studies, and ultimately to provide suggestions for workplace heat exposure reduction, adaptations, and further research directions. All publis...

  20. [Epidemiology of tobacco use in health-science students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Marin, A; Fuentes-Almendras, M M; Sanz-Gallen, P; Canela-Argues, R; Canela-Soler, J; Pardell-Alenta, H; Salleras-Sanmarti, L L

    1994-04-01

    The characteristics of tobacco use by students of the Division of Health Sciences of the University of Barcelona have been studied. During the 1988-1989 school year, 382 students were individually interviewed about their use of tobacco by means of a questionnaire routinely used by the Department of Health and Social Security of the Generalitat of Catolonia (Spain), with pertinent modifications for this specific group. These interviews were performed by appropriately trained personnel. Information was also gathered on the influence of university-level studies on smoking habits, the effect of advertising and the efficacy of antitobacco programs and campaigns carried out by the government. The study sample was drawn from lists supplied by the registrars' offices, by means of a random sampling by school (Medicine, Pharmacy, Psychology, Odontology and Nursing). The prevalence of tobacco use was 40.8% (29.8% daily smokers and 11% occasional smokers). These results are similar to those described in the literature, although these values are somewhat higher than those in more developed countries with a longer tradition of resistance to the use of tobacco. It is important to note that studying health sciences does not appear to be a major influence on the student's habits, but that the social and cultural environment is the factor which weighs the most in this respect. In conclusion, to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in this important group, educational programs must be begun at the pre-university level (secondary school) and changes should be made in the curricula of the health professional so that areas related to tobacco use are more motivational for students.

  1. [Social inequality and health: Status and prospects of socio-epidemiological research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Thomas; Richter, Matthias; Schneider, Sven; Spallek, Jacob; Dragano, Nico

    2016-02-01

    Social differences in morbidity and mortality have always been a central topic in public health research. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest that has clearly resonated with the general public and the political arena as well. This article describes the development and establishment of social epidemiology in Germany and presents the current status of research. In addition, it describes different models for explaining health inequalities. On this basis, selected challenges and prospects of socio-epidemiological research are demonstrated. The reason why the analysis of social differences in morbidity and mortality will continue to be a key task of public health research in the national and international context in the future is also explained.

  2. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  3. Costs and epidemiological changes of chronic diseases: implications and challenges for health systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    Full Text Available The need to integrate economic and epidemiological aspects in the clinical perspective leads to a proposal for the analysis of health disparities and to an evaluation of the health services and of the new challenges which are now being faced by health system reforms in middle income countries.To identify the epidemiological changes, the demand for health services and economic burden from chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension in a middle income county.We conducted longitudinal analyses of costs and epidemiological changes for diabetes and hypertension in the Mexican health system. The study population included both the insured and uninsured populations. The cost-evaluation method was used, based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2014-2016, six models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique, using confidence intervals of 95%, and the Box-Pierce test.Regarding epidemiological changes expected in both diseases for 2014 vs. 2016, an increase is expected, although results predict a greater increase for diabetes, 8-12% in all three studied institutions, (p < .05. Indeed, in the case of diabetes, the increase was 41469 cases for uninsured population (SSA and 65737 for the insured population (IMSS and ISSSTE. On hypertension cases the increase was 38109 for uninsured vs 62895 for insured. Costs in US$ ranged from $699 to $748 for annual case management per patient in the case of diabetes, and from $485 to $622 in patients with hypertension. Comparing financial consequences of health services required by insured and uninsured populations, the greater increase (23% will be for the insured population (p < .05. The financial requirements of both diseases will amount to 19.5% of the total budget for the uninsured and 12.5% for the insured population.If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are, the economic

  4. [Evaluation of epidemiological articles published in 2 journals in the area of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Romero, A R; Franco-Marina, F; García-Sancho, M C; López-Cervantes, M

    1989-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the quality and quantity of the Mexican epidemiologic production published in two journals: Salud Pública de México (SPM) and Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana (BOSP). A previously accepted criterion was used to qualify a paper as an epidemiologic work. The period of study was eleven years (1975-1985) with 89 classified paper as "epidemiologic reports" (36 of BOSP and 53 of SPM). The variables included: original or revision's report; epidemiologic design; measures employed (frequency, association or potential impact); condition (contagious diseases, chronic-degenerative diseases or physiologic status); use of prevalent cases, incident cases or deaths; internal and external validity; bias' recognition; and number of references. Among the results that stand out are the proportion of cross-sectional designs (51.75), the weight for communicable diseases (36%), the detection of potential bias (65.7%) and the reports without references (30%). The discussion is centered in the main implications of these results when they are used to make decisions in the planning, operation and assessment of health services and in the generation of new epidemiologic knowledge.

  5. Essential evidence for guiding health system priorities and policies: anticipating epidemiological transition in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. Proposals: We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. Conclusion: African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.

  6. [Four axiological considerations in social epidemiology for the monitoring of health inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mújica, Oscar J

    2015-12-01

    As the conceptual components of the most important contemporary public health agendas at the global and regional levels are brought into alignment and as it becomes more clearly understood that equity is a constitutive principle of these agendas, there is also a growing awareness of the strategic value of monitoring social inequalities in health. This is the health intelligence tool par excellence, not only for objectively assessing progress towards achieving health equity, but also for reporting action on the social determinants of health, progress towards the attainment of health for all, and the success of intersectoral efforts that take a "health in all policies" approach. These transformations are taking place in the context of an increasingly evident paradigm shift in public health. This essay presents four axiological considerations inherent to-and essential for -conceptualizing and implementing ways to measure and monitor health inequalities: ecoepidemiology as an emerging field in contemporary public health; the determinants of health as the causal model and core of the new paradigm; the relationship between the social hierarchy and health to understand the health gradient; and the practical need for a socioeconomic classification system that captures the social dimension in the determinants of health. The essay argues that these four axiological considerations lend epidemiologic coherence and rationality to the process of measuring and monitoring health inequalities and, by extension, to the development of pro-equity health policy proposals.

  7. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  8. Epidemiological investigation of a human leptospirosis case reported in a suburban area near Marseille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dupouey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has been re-emerging in both developed and developing countries, including in Europe, where the phenomenon has notably been associated with urban transmission. In this work, we describe an epidemiological investigation that demonstrated a case of human infection due to peri-urban transmission of Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae in southeastern France.

  9. VIRUS OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA. EPIDEMIOLOGY, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PREVENTION OF PAPILLOMA VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Narvskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The information reflected modern knowledge about virus of human papilloma (VHP and pathogenesis of papilloma viral infection is presented in the lecture. The actual problems of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics and prevention of VHP associated damage of cervical epithelium have been described.

  10. Epidemiological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without the presence of human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; Hollema, H; Pieters, WJLM; Schroder, FP; Quint, WGV

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide epidemiological evidence to support the notion that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) without human papillomavirus (HPV) is a true entity. If a diagnosis of HPV-negative cervical neoplasia is erroneous, one would not expect there to be any differences in r

  11. A spatial epidemiological analysis of self-rated mental health in the slums of Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF. Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health outcomes, the methodology used here is also applicable to residuals of regression models, such as helping to avoid violating the assumption of data independence that underlies many statistical approaches. We assume that similar spatial structures can be found in other studies focussing on neighbourhood effects on health, and therefore argue for a more widespread incorporation of spatial statistics in epidemiological studies.

  12. Epidemiologic studies of the human microbiome and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J

    2016-01-01

    .... Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk...

  13. Human capital, schooling and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Paul

    2003-06-01

    A consensus has been forged in the last decade that recent periods of sustained growth in total factor productivity and reduced poverty are closely associated with improvements in a population's child nutrition, adult health, and schooling, particularly in low-income countries. Estimates of the productive returns from these three forms of human capital investment are nonetheless qualified by a number of limitations in our data and analytical methods. This paper reviews the problems that occupy researchers in this field and summarizes accumulating evidence of empirical regularities. Social experiments must be designed to assess how randomized policy interventions motivate families and individuals to invest in human capital, and then measure the changed wage opportunities of those who have been induced to make these investments. Statistical estimation of wage functions that seek to represent the relationship between wage rates and a variety of human capital stocks may yield biased estimates of private rates of return from these investments for a variety of reasons. The paper summarizes several of these problems and illustrates how data and statistical methods can be used to deal with some of them. The measures of labor productivity and the proxies specified for schooling and adult health are first discussed, and then the functional relationships between human capital and wages are described. Three types of estimation problem are discussed: (1) bias due to omitted variables, such as ability or frailty; (2) bias due to the measurement of an aggregation of multiple sources of human capital, e.g. genetic and socially reproducible variation, which may contribute to different gains in worker productivity; and (3) errors in measurement of the human capital stocks. Empirical examples and illustrative estimates are surveyed.

  14. The World Health Organization and the contested beginnings of psychiatric epidemiology as an international discipline: one rope, many strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    This paper focuses on the relatively late emergence of psychiatric epidemiology as an international discipline, through local-global exchanges during the first 15 years of the World Health Organization (WHO). Building an epidemiological canon within WHO's Mental Health Programme faced numerous obstacles. First, an idealist notion of mental health inherent in WHO's own definition of health contributed to tensions around the object of psychiatric epidemiology. Second, the transfer of methods from medical epidemiology to research on mental disorders required mobilizing conceptual justifications, including a 'contagion argument'. Third, epidemiological research at WHO was stymied by other public health needs, resource scarcity and cultural barriers. This history partly recapitulates the development of psychiatric epidemiology in North America and Europe, but is also shaped by concerns in the developing world, translated through first-world 'experts'. Resolving the tensions arising from these obstacles allowed WHO to establish its international schizophrenia research, which in turn provided proof of concept for psychiatric epidemiology in the place of scepticism within and without psychiatry. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  15. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and transforming the public health workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmbuji, Peter; Mukanga, David; Mghamba, Janeth; Ahly, Mohamed; Mosha, Fausta; Azima, Simba; Senga, Sembuche; Moshiro, Candida; Semali, Innocent; Rolle, Italia; Wiktor, Stefan; McQueen, Suzzane; McElroy, Peter; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must

  17. Smoking and cardiovascular health: A review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and control of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The causal associations between cigarette smoking and human diseases are irrefutable. In this review, we focus on the epidemiological pattern of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular risk, the underlying mechanistic process of such a causal link, how to prevent premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality particularly through smoking cessation, and the health benefits of such cessation measures. Finally, we conclude our review summarizing a few of the proven evidence-based tobacco control strategies and policies from across the globe. We did not conduct a systematic review but followed a similar structure. We abstracted the most relevant published literature on the electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library applying specific search terms. We also searched gray literature and consulted experts in the field for cross-references. Smoking has been estimated to cause about 11% of all deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and sudden death through a variety of mechanisms, including the promotion of atherosclerosis, the triggering of coronary thrombosis, coronary artery spasm, and cardiac arrhythmias, and through reduced capacity of the blood to deliver oxygen. Smoking cessation also confers substantial benefits on people with serious heart disease. Smoking cessation should be viewed as therapeutic rather than preventive intervention, similar to treating asymptomatic hypertension. Smoking cessation is highly cost-effective relative to other frequently used medical and surgical interventions. Tobacco related illnesses are important public health issues worldwide. It has been estimated that there are1.1 billion smokers worldwide and 250 million of them live in India.

  18. Epidemiology in a health services administration curriculum: what topics are important to practicing healthcare administrators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Edmond A

    2008-01-01

    There is no published empirical research into what topics should be covered in a managerial epidemiology course for graduate students in health services administration (HSA). The goal of the research described here was to identify epidemiologic topics seen as important to healthcare executives. A survey was conducted of a convenience sample of alumni the Graduate program in Health Services Administration of Xavier University in Cincinnati Ohio. Alumni were asked to rank 68 epidemiologic topics on a likert-type scale: 1 = Not important; 2 = Slightly Important; 3 = Important; 4 = Very Important; 5 = Not applicable. Demographic characteristics were collected including: age of respondents, gender, years since graduation, and current position. All responses of important (3) and very important (4) were grouped together. Topics were then ranked based on the percent of respondents who answered the question and ranked the topic as a 3 or 4. A total of 858 surveys were mailed to alumni, and 177 completed surveys were returned for a 21% response rate. Respondents were 64% male, and there were similar number of graduates from all age groups and from year of graduation. The largest groups of respondents were CEOs and Managers. Clinical guidelines, Quality and Satisfaction, and Benchmarking ranked highest for number or respondents ranking the topic as important or very important. The majority of graduates indicated that almost all epidemiologic topics are important or very important. Topics dealing with quality were ranked highest by the graduates.

  19. Taxonomy, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis: From fundamental knowledge to health ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Gottstein, Bruno; Saarma, Urmas; Millon, Laurence

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and represents one of the 17 neglected diseases prioritised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2012. Considering the major medical and veterinary importance of this parasite, the phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus is of considerable importance; yet, despite numerous efforts with both mitochondrial and nuclear data, it has remained unresolved. The genus is clearly complex, and this is one of the reasons for the incomplete understanding of its taxonomy. Although taxonomic studies have recognised E. multilocularis as a separate entity from the Echinococcus granulosus complex and other members of the genus, it would be premature to draw firm conclusions about the taxonomy of the genus before the phylogeny of the whole genus is fully resolved. The recent sequencing of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus genomes opens new possibilities for performing in-depth phylogenetic analyses. In addition, whole genome data provide the possibility of inferring phylogenies based on a large number of functional genes, i.e. genes that trace the evolutionary history of adaptation in E. multilocularis and other members of the genus. Moreover, genomic data open new avenues for studying the molecular epidemiology of E. multilocularis: genotyping studies with larger panels of genetic markers allow the genetic diversity and spatial dynamics of parasites to be evaluated with greater precision. There is an urgent need for international coordination of genotyping of E. multilocularis isolates from animals and human patients. This could be fundamental for a better understanding of the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis and for designing efficient healthcare strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of social epidemiology and community-engaged interventions to improve health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina B; Yen, Irene H; Syme, S Leonard

    2011-05-01

    The past quarter century has seen an explosion of concern about widening health inequities in the United States and worldwide. These inequities are central to the research mission in 2 arenas of public health: social epidemiology and community-engaged interventions. Yet only modest success has been achieved in eliminating health inequities. We advocate dialogue and reciprocal learning between researchers with these 2 perspectives to enhance emerging transdisciplinary language, support new approaches to identifying research questions, and apply integrated theories and methods. We recommend ways to promote transdisciplinary training, practice, and research through creative academic opportunities as well as new funding and structural mechanisms.

  1. [Epidemiological study of oral health in a young adult Mapuche population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V

    1989-04-01

    An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.

  2. From biological anthropology to applied public health: epidemiological approaches to the study of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalak, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article describes two large, multisite infectious disease programs: the Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium (TBESC) and the Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs). The links between biological anthropology and applied public health are highlighted using these programs as examples. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the TBESC and EIPs conduct applied public health research to strengthen infectious disease prevention and control efforts in the United States. They involve collaborations among CDC, public health departments, and academic and clinical institutions. Their unique role in national infectious disease work, including their links to anthropology, shared elements, key differences, strengths and challenges, is discussed.

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  4. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity....... For these reasons, this chapter highlights the fields within epidemiology that are most relevant to toxic metals and discusses where these substances serve to illustrate important epidemiological concepts. Chapter sections include subjects such as epidemiological terms, study design, study population, exposure......Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...

  5. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly ( p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  6. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  7. [Epidemiology of parkinsonism in the Guadalajara Health Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, J A; Ortiz-García, R; González-Zerega, A; López-Gosling, I; Guzmán, A; Dragomir, E

    2014-09-01

    1) To determine the prevalence of Parkinson syndromes in the Guadalajara Health Area and its Basic Health Zones, as well as the typology of the Parkinson's disease; 2) to determine the distribution of antiparkinsonian medication use in the whole Area, and 3) to evaluate the cost per person and per year of this use according to the criteria of sex and age. A descriptive cross-sectional study including 1,352 subjects affected by parkinsonism in the Guadalajara Area of both sexes and all ages. The variables measured were age, sex, environment, diagnosis, typology of the Parkinson's disease using the Hoehn and Yahr index, treatment, total cost and mean cost of the treatment per person per year. Prevalences were calculated, and the appropriate descriptive statistics were used. The prevalence of parkinsonism was 585/10(5) inhabitants, being higher in a rural environment (P<.05), in females (P<.01) and in subjects over 90 years (P<.01). The majority suffered from Parkinson's disease (P<.001), of whom 43.4% had symptoms equivalent to Yahr grade II (P<.001). The active ingredient most used was levodopa/carbidopa (51.3%) (P<.001) and the mean drug cost per person was 514.37€. The prevalence of parkinsonism is similar to that in the rest of the country, although in our study there is a predominance of females and it is in a rural environment. Levodopa is the drug most used, and the mean therapeutic cost per person is similar to the rest of Spain. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. An epidemiological perspective of ultraviolet exposure--public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robyn M

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 30 years, many countries have developed strong sun protection programs, spurred on by rapidly increasing skin cancer incidence and concerns about stratospheric ozone depletion. More recently, considerable concern has arisen about widespread vitamin D insufficiency, creating a "sun exposure dilemma," since in most regions vitamin D predominantly derives from endogenous synthesis in the skin initiated by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Little attention has been paid to whether a similar dilemma exists for UV-related eye conditions.For the eyes, to our current knowledge, exposure to UV radiation has only adverse effects. There is strong evidence that acute high dose exposure to UV radiation causes photokeratitis and photoconjunctivitis, while even low dose chronic exposure to UV radiation is a risk factor for cataract, pterygium, and squamous cell carcinoma of the cornea and conjunctiva. There is weaker evidence in relation to other conditions, including ocular melanoma and age-related macular degeneration. Ultraviolet radiation-related eye diseases are common, disabling, and cause a considerable disease burden worldwide.The "correct" public health message for optimal sun exposure is not clear cut, with too many variables-ambient UV radiation, personal skin type, age, weight, clothing habits, medication, and others-for a blanket sun safety message. In addition, there remain many unknowns, including strong evidence supporting or refuting the very many proposed health benefits of vitamin D. More evidence is required to define disease burdens for UV-induced eye diseases, to evaluate the decrease in disease burden from sun protective measures and to elucidate any beneficial effects of exposure of the eye to UV radiation, to provide appropriate advice to the public.

  9. Oil development and health in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: the popular epidemiology process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna Karin

    2005-02-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an increasing corporate access to and control over natural resources resulting in environmental degradation, inequalities and ill health. Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon. During this process, millions of gallons of untreated toxic wastes, gas and oil have been released into the environment. Indigenous federations, peasant's movements and environmental groups have claimed that contamination has caused widespread damage to both people and the environment. This article tells the story of how the relationship between local organisations and research institutions developed around an epidemiological study constructed to address communities' concerns. Local organisations set the agenda of the research: they were involved in the hypothesis formulation, consulted in each step during the study and responsible of the dissemination of the findings. This process is known as popular epidemiology. Practical and personal issues and dilemmas faced during the research process are discussed with emphasis on the communication and dissemination of the findings. The article concludes the need of alliances between communities and researchers in order to protect health and environment. Popular epidemiology is an essential approach for public health researchers to reaffirm their roots in improving public health as a primary value.

  10. El abordaje epidemiológico de las desigualdades en salud a nivel local The epidemiological approach to health inequalities at the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Para responder la pregunta ¿cuáles son los usos y limitaciones de la epidemiología en la reducción de las desigualdades en el nivel local? se problematiza el "papel" de la epidemiología. La hipótesis es que la epidemiología produce conocimiento útil a la gestión en el nivel local para el desarrollo de intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de desigualdades en salud. Estas desigualdades se expresan en un espacio construido por colectivos humanos en procesos sociales e históricos. La producción de conocimiento epidemiológico en el nivel local debe estar orientada a dar soporte a las acciones de un actor social en situación y en un determinado escenario. Por eso se revalorizan los estudios ecológicos y la georreferencia. Esta producción y aplicación de conocimiento es también un fenómeno organizacional. Se entienden las organizaciones como "redes de conversaciones". Se concluye que las acciones estratégicas y las acciones comunicativas de los trabajadores de salud deben constituirse como eje central en la definición de nuevos modelos de cuidado y de gestión comprometidos con la reducción de desigualdades en salud, donde la epidemiología cumple un rol relevante.What are the advantages and limitations of epidemiology for decreasing health inequalities at the local level? To answer this question, the current article discusses the role of epidemiology. The hypothesis is that epidemiology produces useful knowledge for local management of interventions aimed at reducing health inequalities, expressed in spaces built by human communities through social and historical processes. Local production of epidemiological knowledge should support action by social actors in specific situations and contexts, thus renewing the appreciation for ecological designs and georeference studies. Such knowledge output and application are also an organizational phenomenon. Organizations can be seen as "conversational networks". In conclusion, strategic

  11. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  12. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  13. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  14. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections a

  15. Caste-, work-, and descent-based discrimination as a determinant of health in social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    Social epidemiology explores health in the context of broad social determinants of health, where the boundary lines between health and politics appear increasingly blurred. Social determinants of health such as caste, discrimination, and social exclusion are inherently political in nature, hence it becomes imperative to look at health through a broader perspective of political philosophy, ideology, and caste that imposes enormous obstacles to a person's full attainment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. Caste is descent based and hereditary in nature. It is a characteristic determined by one's birth into a particular caste, irrespective of the faith practiced by the individual. Caste denotes a system of rigid social stratification into ranked groups defined by descent and occupation. Under various caste systems throughout the world, caste divisions also dominate in housing, marriage, and general social interaction divisions that are reinforced through the practice and threat of social ostracism, economic boycotts, and even physical violence-all of which undermine health equality.

  16. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  17. GISEpi: a simple geographical information system to support public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, F F; Braga, A L; Pinheiro, R S; Lopes, J A

    1997-05-01

    One important question for the implementation of a surveillance system concern the type of instrument that can provide timely information on the course of diseases and other health events. This may facilitate prompt implementation of prevention and intervention efforts, such as strengthening control action in one specific area or initiation of epidemiological investigation. Since health related variables of interest are often spatially distributed they require special tools for representation and analysis. Owing to their inherent ability to manage spatial information, geographical information systems (GIS) provide an excellent framework for the design of surveillance systems. This paper presents a simple information system, based on the concepts of GIS, designed for representation and elementary analysis of epidemiological data. An example of its potential use to support malaria control activities in Brazil is discussed.

  18. Epidemiology of child injuries in Uganda: challenges for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.

  19. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  20. Human Tuberculosis I. Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Pathogenetic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaragli, Giampietro; Frosini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an almost genetically monomorphic pathogen is a human parasite, transmitted mostly by humans and causes tuberculosis (TB). TB is firmly associated to poverty, although lack of proper nutrition and lowered immune status are contributing factors for disease development. TB remains second only to HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of mortality worldwide due to a single infectious agent and is responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths annually. Some steps of the progress of our knowledge of M. tuberculosis physiology and its interactions with human beings, are reviewed here. This progress has provided fertile ground for improving diagnosis and cure of TB infection. For TB diagnostics laboratories in high-burden countries, primary isolation is the first step before performing drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis. IGRA (interferon-γ release assay)-based tests for diagnosis of active TB are sufficiently fast, specific and sensitive to allow to contain infection and distinguish among latent TB infection and BCG vaccination individuals from those who have clinically resolved M. tuberculosis infection after anti-TB treatment.

  1. Local health department epidemiologic capacity: a stratified cross-sectional assessment describing the quantity, education, training, and perceived competencies of epidemiologic staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A O'Keefe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Local health departments (LHDs must have sufficient numbers of staff functioning in an epidemiologic role with proper education, training and skills to protect the health of communities they serve. This pilot study was designed to describe the composition, training and competency level of LHD staff and examine the hypothesis that potential disparities exist between LHDs serving different sized populations.Material and Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with directors and epidemiologic staff from a sample of 100 LHDs serving jurisdictions of varied sizes. Questionnaires included inquiries regarding staff composition, education, training and measures of competency modeled on previously conducted studies by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Number of epidemiologic staff, academic degree distribution, epidemiologic training and both director and staff confidence in task competencies were calculated for each LHD size strata.Results: Disparities in measurements were observed in LHDs serving different sized populations. LHDs serving small populations reported a smaller average number of epidemiologic staff than those serving larger jurisdictions. As size of population served increased, percentages of staff and directors holding bachelors’ and masters’ degrees increased, while those holding RN degrees decreased. A higher degree of perceived competency of staff in most task categories was reported in LHDs serving larger populations.Discussion: LHDs serving smaller populations reported fewer epidemiologic staff, therefore might benefit from additional resources. Differences observed in staff education, training and competencies suggest that enhanced epidemiologic training might be particularly needed in LHDs serving smaller populations. Results can be used as a baseline for future research aimed at identifying areas where training and personnel resources might be particularly needed to increase the

  2. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawathi Ni M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak. Methods We analysed the patient records of all rabies cases from the Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar, and district hospitals in Buleleng and Tabanan. A conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect the rabies virus genome in saliva, corneal swabs, and ante- and post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Results There were 104 human rabies cases in Bali during November 2008-November 2010. Patients' mean age was 36.6 years (range 3-84 years; SD 20.7, most were male (56.7%, and originated from rural districts. Almost all (92% cases had a history of dog bite. Only 5.8% had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV after the bite incident. No patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG. The estimated time from dog bite to the onset of signs and symptoms was 110.4 days (range 12-720 days; SD 118.2. The mean length of medical care until death was 21.8 hours (range 1-220 hours; SD 32.6. Less than 50% of patients had prodromal symptoms. The most frequent prodromal symptom was pain or paraesthesia at the bite site (37.6%. The two most common central nervous system infection signs were agitation (89.2% and confusion (83.3%. Signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction included hydrophobia (93.1%, hypersalivation (88.2%, and dyspnea (74.4%. On admission, 22 of 102 patients (21.6% showed paralytic manifestations, while the rest (78.4% showed furious rabies manifestations. The case-fatality rate was 100%. The rabies virus genome was detected in 50 of 101 patients (49.5% with the highest detection rate from post-mortem CSF samples. Conclusions Rabies is a major public health problem in Bali. Human fatalities occur because of a lack of knowledge

  3. Improving epidemiologic surveillance and health promoter training in rural Latin America through information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Andrés; López, Diego M; Sáez, Alberto; Seoane, Joaquín; Rendón, Alvaro; Shoemaker, Richard; Fernández, Ignacio

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents two technological developments oriented to increase the efficiency of the epidemiologic surveillance system and to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of the rural establishments with only e-mail connectivity through wireless systems. The Telematics Department of the University of Cauca has developed a computerized epidemiologic surveillance system for the collecting, sending, processing, visualization, and feedback of epidemiologic information at national level. The use of the system in a pilot area has solved the problems of subregister, increasing the volume of data collection in 15%. The complete epidemiologic system is currently being implemented in 22 health care establishments in the Department of Cauca in Colombia. Likewise, the Technical University and Carlos III University of Madrid have developed a distance training system with a high-usability interface both for students and teachers. The system includes authoring, distribution, tracking, and visualization of courses synchronized through electronic mail messages in a clear way for the user. Both systems use a creative combination of e-mail and XML (eXtensible Markup Language)-based technologies, ready to be used through slow, intermittent, and asynchronous communication systems.

  4. Epidemiology of human avian influenza in Indonesia, 2005-2009: a descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiku Adisasmito

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim The study set out to better understand the epidemiology, natural history, therapeutic management and outcomes associated with confirmed human cases of Avian Influenza (AI in Indonesia.Methods This observational study utilized data from 93 cases with laboratory-confirmed H5N1 Influenza between September 2005 and August 2009. Cases were identified through records obtained from the Ministry of Health, as well as the Provincial health office and district health office records. Categorical data were analyzed with frequency tables, chi-square tests, and relative risks, and continuous data were analyzed using univariate statistics and Wilcoxon tests.Results Most subjects (54% first presented to a physician’s office or clinic. All of the subjects were hospitalized, and the vast majority (85% had respiratory symptoms as their predominant symptom at presentation. There was no clear association of any of these case characteristics with survival. Cases with direct poultry exposure were 2.8 times more likely to receive oseltamivir treatment than those without direct exposure (RR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.44 – 5.78. While the overall number of survivors was small, cases with documented oseltamivir treatment were approximately 24% more likely to survive than cases for which oseltamivir treatment was not documented (RR 1.24; 95% CI: 0.34-4.58. In oseltamivir treated cases, the median time from symptom onset to start of antiviral treatment was 2.5 days in survivors compared to 7.0 days for those who died. Fatality, therefore, may be related to delay in initiation of treatment after presentation.Conclusions The data suggest that early treatment with the antiviral drug oseltamivir may play an important role in survival. However, a low clinical suspicion of disease likely remains an important impediment to early diagnosis. Therefore, a clear policy for the protocol of early diagnosis & treatment of febrile illness including influenza is necessary. (Med J Indones

  5. Strategies to work with HLA data in human populations for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Vidan-Jeras, B; Nunes, J M

    2012-01-01

    HLA-NET (a European COST Action) aims at networking researchers working in bone marrow transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics to improve the molecular characterization of the HLA genetic diversity of human populations, with an expected strong impact on both public health...... outcome is the provision of population genetic characterizations and comparisons in a standard way by all interested laboratories. This article reports the recommendations of four working groups (WG1-4) of the HLA-NET network at the mid-term of its activities. WG1 (Population definitions and sampling...... strategies for population genetics' analyses) recommends avoiding outdated racial classifications and population names (e.g. 'Caucasian') and using instead geographic and/or cultural (e.g. linguistic) criteria to describe human populations (e.g. 'pan-European'). A standard 'HLA-NET POPULATION DATA...

  6. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  7. [International Classification of Public Health Nursing Practices - CIPESC®: a pedagogical tool for epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko; Gryschek, Anna Luiza de Fátima Pinho Lins; Costa, Angela Aparecida; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; de Araújo, Núbia Virgínia D'Ávila Limeira; Pereira, Erica Gomes; Dias, Vânia Ferreira Gomes; Cubas, Marcia Regina

    2012-06-01

    The CIPESC® is a tool that informs the work of nurses in Public Health and assists in prioritizing their care in practice, management and research. It is also a powerful pedagogical instrument for the qualification of nurses within the Brazilian healthcare system. In the teaching of infectious diseases, using the CIPESC® assists in analyzing the interventions by encouraging clinical and epidemiological thinking regarding the health-illness process. With the purpose in mind of developing resources for teaching undergraduate nursing students and encouraging reflection regarding the process of nursing work, this article presents an experimental application of CIPESC®, using meningococcal meningitis as an example.

  8. Epidemiological studies on animal and human trichinellosis in Estonia

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    Järvis T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1999, muscle samples from 814 sylvatic animals and 1,173 domestic and synanthropic animals were collected in 15 districts of Estonia ; the prevalence of trichinellosis ranged from 1.0 % to 79.4 % for sylvatic animals and from 0.6 % to 24.5 % for domestic or synanthropic animals and for animals from fur-bearing farms. The most important reservoirs of Trichinella in nature were the raccoon dog, the red fox, the lynx and the wolf. Three species of Trichinella (T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi were identified by several types of PCR-based analyses. Meat from sylvatic animals was the main source of Trichinella infection for humans.

  9. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies.

  10. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  11. Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Yin, Wenwu; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Wang, Liping; Mu, Di; Ren, Xiang; Zeng, Lingjia; Chen, Qiulan; Li, Wei; Wei, Jianchun; Lai, Shengjie; Zhou, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Using national surveillance data for 120,111 human anthrax cases recorded during 1955−2014, we analyzed the temporal, seasonal, geographic, and demographic distribution of this disease in China. After 1978, incidence decreased until 2013, when it reached a low of 0.014 cases/100,000 population. The case-fatality rate, cumulatively 3.6% during the study period, has also decreased since 1990. Cases occurred throughout the year, peaking in August. Geographic distribution decreased overall from west to east, but the cumulative number of affected counties increased during 2005−2014. The disease has shifted from industrial to agricultural workers; 86.7% of cases occurred in farmers and herdsmen. Most (97.7%) reported cases were the cutaneous form. Although progress has been made in reducing incidence, this study highlights areas that need improvement. Adequate laboratory diagnosis is lacking; only 7.6% of cases received laboratory confirmation. Geographic expansion of the disease indicates that livestock control programs will be essential in eradicating anthrax. PMID:27983489

  12. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part V: Epidemiological Disaster Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    Studies of the health aspect of disasters focus either on the epidemiology of disasters to define the causes and the progression from a hazard to a disaster, or the evaluations of interventions provided during any phase of a disaster. Epidemiological disaster research studies are undertaken for the purposes of: (1) understanding the mechanisms by which hazards evolve into a disaster; (2) determining ways to mitigate the risk(s) that a specific hazard will progress into a disaster; (3) predicting the likely damages and needs of the population-at-risk for an event; and (4) identifying potential measures to increase the resilience of a community to future events. Epidemiological disaster research utilizes the Conceptual, Temporal, and Societal Frameworks to define what occurs when a hazard manifests as an event that causes a disaster. The findings from such studies should suggest interventions that could augment the absorbing, buffering, or/and response capacities to lessen the probability of similar damages occurring from the next event. Ultimately, the use of these Frameworks in studying the health aspects of a disaster will help define what to expect in a specific setting and the standards and best practices upon which education, training, competencies, performance, and professionalization will be built.

  13. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis of epidemiological modeling to guide public health intervention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of disease transmission has provided quantitative predictions for health policy, facilitating the evaluation of epidemiological outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. However, typical sensitivity analyses of deterministic dynamic infectious disease models focus on model architecture and the relative importance of parameters but neglect parameter uncertainty when reporting model predictions. Consequently, model results that identify point estimates of intervention levels necessary to terminate transmission yield limited insight into the probability of success. We apply probabilistic uncertainty analysis to a dynamic model of influenza transmission and assess global uncertainty in outcome. We illustrate that when parameter uncertainty is not incorporated into outcome estimates, levels of vaccination and treatment predicted to prevent an influenza epidemic will only have an approximately 50% chance of terminating transmission and that sensitivity analysis alone is not sufficient to obtain this information. We demonstrate that accounting for parameter uncertainty yields probabilities of epidemiological outcomes based on the degree to which data support the range of model predictions. Unlike typical sensitivity analyses of dynamic models that only address variation in parameters, the probabilistic uncertainty analysis described here enables modelers to convey the robustness of their predictions to policy makers, extending the power of epidemiological modeling to improve public health.

  14. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  15. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, B E; Kharrazi, H; Lehmann, H P

    2015-08-13

    To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, "Monitor Health," "Diagnose & Investigate," and "Evaluate." Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice.

  16. Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, J A

    1990-08-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers). The diseases arising from exposures to some of these fibers include pleural thickening (plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and calcification), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancers, mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and other cancers). Risk factors important in assessing these diseases include assessment of latency, duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, fiber origin and characteristics (length and diameter), other possible confounding occupational or environmental exposures, and smoking. Methodological issues commonly presenting problems in evaluation of these data include assessment of the adequacy of environmental exposures, particularly in regard to fiber identification, distribution, and concentration over the duration of exposure, and the adequacy of study design to detect health effects (disease frequency, latency, and cohort size). Research priorities include further assessment and standardization of pleural thickening relative to fiber exposure, uniform mesothelioma surveillance, further epidemiological assessment of certain silicate and man-made mineral fiber cohorts with emphasis given to assessment of tremolite and small diameter glass and ceramic fibers. Further assessment of possible health risks of the general public should await improved definition of relevant fiber exposure in ambient air.

  17. Epidemiology of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS in Humans and Animals in the Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens. Although acute gastroenteritis is the most common clinical symptom, complications can occur resulting in bacteraemia with or without focal infections. Food products, especially food of animal origin such as poultry are associated with the transmission to humans. In Africa, NTS are among the most common cause of bloodstream infections in children younger than 5 years. Epidemiological data on NTS are lacking in Africa both for human and animal infections. Therefore, a study providing a better understanding of the factors that lead to the emergence of NTS is a prerequisite for the design of improved intervention strategies to control these pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study the epidemiology of NTS pathogens in humans and animals in The Gambia and Senegal. Chapter 1 reviews the current status of knowledge on NTS infections in Africa with focus on The Gambia and Senegal. It also provides the background against which these studies were conducted. Chapter 2 describes the prevalence of NTS along the poultry production chain in Casamance, Senegal. Fifty seven randomly selected broiler farms, 42 street restaurants and 285 chicken carcasses were studied. The following farm prevalences were reported: 35.1, 38.6 and 29.8% in chicken faeces, on carcass skin, and in muscles, respectively. NTS were found in chicken meat servings of 14.3% of the 42 street restaurants and in 40.4% of the 285 chicken carcasses examined. The most prevalent serotypes among the eighteen identified were Salmonella Brancaster (57.9%, Salmonella Goelzau (10.7%, Salmonella Kentucky (8.4%, and Salmonella Hadar (7.3%. The following serotypes were for the first time identified in Senegal: Salmonella Bandia, Salmonella Bessi, Salmonella Brunei, Salmonella Hull, Salmonella Istanbul, Salmonella Javiana, Salmonella Magherafelt, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella oxford, Salmonella Poona, Salmonella Rubislaw

  18. Molecular epidemiology and pathogenic potential of underdiagnosed human papillomavirus types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisti Stefano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV tests are crucial diagnostic tools for the prevention of neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. However most commercial methods are designed to detect high-risk (HR HPV types and a limited selection of low-risk ones, thus missing a fair number of intermediate/low-risk types. As a result, many HPV infections remain undiagnosed, generating distrust in virological diagnosis among gynaecologists, who continue to rely preferentially on cytological and colposcopic findings. Results In this study, we tested 6,335 consecutive clinical samples, most of them from Italian patients with cytological abnormalities. The samples, collected in 2000–2007, were analyzed using PCR amplification of a 173–206 bp (depending on HPV type conserved region in the L1 open reading frame, restriction endonuclease analysis and, where required, sequence analysis for type determination. Analysis of a smaller male sample and long term follow-up of a few female subjects was also performed. A total of 2,161 samples tested positive for HPV DNA (32.1%; 21.3% of them were mixed infections. Overall, 59 known and 2 unknown HPV types were detected. Their relative prevalence was calculated; notably, types not clearly identifiable using the most common commercial method accounted for 36% of infections. Clinical findings associated with the underdiagnosed types ranged from H-SIL to low-grade abnormalities, although none of these infections resulted in invasive cancer. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of some underdiagnosed HPV types in the population (principally HPV53, HPV66, HPV84, and HPV87 and their frequent association with cytological abnormalities, techniques capable of detecting and typing them would prove extremely useful.

  19. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  20. Industry and traffic related particles and their role in human health

    OpenAIRE

    Oravisjärvi, K. (Kati)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Combustion generated ultrafine particles have been found to be responsible for adverse effects on human health. New emission reduction technologies and fuels will change the composition of particle emissions. It is important to confirm that the new reduction technologies are designed to minimise the adverse health effects. In this doctoral thesis the potential health effects caused by traffic and industrially generated particles were studied using epidemiological, experimental...

  1. Immigration and changes in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy : an emerging public health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years Italy is confronting with massive migratory movements from developing countries where hemoglobinopathies are widespread. This is causing a large diffusion and a changing spectrum in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy. Methods Investigations recently published in Italy on hemoglobinopathies among immigrants were revised in order to appreciate the impact of immigration from developing countries on epidemiology of these pathologies and to outline adequate guidelines of prevention. Results Although in Italy there is a limited number of investigations regarding the relation between immigration and hemoglobin disorders, published data show that in our Nation there is a changing and increasing spectrum of hemoglobinopathies linked to immigration. Conclusions Prospective and retrospective actions of public healthy preventive policy are requested, based upon information (health educational programs for immigrants and caregivers, screenings among immigrants (school screening, pre-marital, preconception and early pregnancy screening, newborn screening, counseling for foreign at-risk couples and healthy carriers.

  2. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  3. Can we establish relationship between outdoor air ventilation and health based on the published epidemiological data?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrer, Paolo; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanetti, Annaclara

    2015-01-01

    , multidisciplinary review was carried out of the scientific literature on health and outdoor air ventilation in non-industrial indoor environments (not covered by previous reviews on this topic) and of major reviews on this topic. The results show, that effects on health were seen for wide range of ventilation rates......Appropriate exposure control is prerogative for reducing the burden of disease (BOD) due to inadequate air quality indoors (IAQ). Ventilation with outdoor air is one of the available exposure control methods and is widespread. It is often assumed that this method will bring tangible effects...... on health. This paper examines whether the available archival epidemiological evidence provides information on the link between outdoor air ventilation and health that can be used for regulative purposes, when ventilation requirements for non-industrial built environments are set. To achieve this goal...

  4. Epidemiological Criminology: Contextualization of HIV/AIDS Health Care for Female Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Farrell, C Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, women are increasingly being incarcerated. One unintended consequence is the increase in unhealthy female offenders. Among the more serious health concerns are HIV and AIDS. Challenges associated with caring for women with HIV/AIDS impacts not only disease management and infection control within correctional facilities but also the prisoners' home communities where they will need health care, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, housing assistance, and employment opportunities. No bridging theory has been presented that links prison and community health concerns with criminal justice policy. This article not only presents recommendations for effective HIV/AIDS policy but also suggests epidemiological criminology as a means of explicit merging of health with justice issues and consequently provides a bridging framework.

  5. A social epidemiological aspect of the Greenlandic part of Inuit Health in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine

    part of the cross-sectional population survey Inuit Health in Transition collected from 2005 to 2007. 2246 participants in towns and villages in West Greenland answered a questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis of suicidal behaviour (suicide ideation, suicide attempts and suicide among family......A social epidemiology aspect of Inuit Health in Transition Cecilia Petrine Pedersen, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Greenland has a sad record of high suicide rates - especially among young men, and social neglect in the form of alcohol abuse in the childhood home......, sexual assaults and violence is a part of life for many people in Greenland. The purpose of this study is to draw a picture of social and mental health conditions in Greenland today among adult men and women by looking at suicidal behaviour and social neglect. Methods: Data is based on the Greenlandic...

  6. Current Methods and Challenges for Epidemiological Studies of the Associations Between Chemical Constituents of Particulate Matter and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jenna R; Chang, Howard H; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Peng, Roger D; Waller, Lance A

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have been critical for estimating associations between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Because total PM mass is a temporally and spatially varying mixture of constituents with different physical and chemical properties, recent epidemiological studies have focused on PM constituents. Most studies have estimated associations between PM constituents and health using the same statistical methods as in studies of PM mass. However, these approaches may not be sufficient to address challenges specific to studies of PM constituents, namely assigning exposure, disentangling health effects, and handling measurement error. We reviewed large, population-based epidemiological studies of PM constituents and health and describe the statistical methods typically applied to address these challenges. Development of statistical methods that simultaneously address multiple challenges, for example, both disentangling health effects and handling measurement error, could improve estimation of associations between PM constituents and adverse health outcomes.

  7. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  9. Epidemiology of Brucella infection in the human, livestock and wildlife interface in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenga, Justine A; Matemba, Lucas E; Muller, Shabani K; Malakalinga, Joseph J; Kazwala, Rudovick R

    2015-08-08

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of public health importance worldwide. In Tanzania, the disease is underreported due to insufficient awareness, inadequate diagnostic protocols, including lack of appropriate reagents for diagnosis. Livestock and wildlife are considered potential sources of infection to humans; however, the role played by these carriers in the epidemiology of the disease in the ecosystems in Tanzania is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies in humans, wildlife and livestock; and molecular prevalence of Brucella spp in cattle and goats in the Katavi- Rukwa ecosystem. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected in humans at 0.6 % (95 % CI: 0.1, 2.1 %); cattle at 6.8 % (95 % CI: 5.4, 8.5 %), goats at 1.6 % (95 % CI: 0.4, 4.1 %) and buffaloes at 7.9 % (95 % CI: 1.7, 21.4 %). One of the two sampled lions tested positive. Cattle had a significantly higher prevalence of anti-Brucella antibodies as compared to goats (P Brucella infection. Eight (3.5 %) out of 231 milk samples tested were positive for Brucella spp on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Brucella abortus biovar 1 was detected in cattle milk. However, no Brucella spp were detected in goat milk. This study has shown the presence of anti- Brucella antibodies in humans, livestock, and wildlife in the Katavi- Rukwa ecosystem. Transmission of the infection between wildlife, livestock and humans is likely to continue due to increasing human activities in the human wildlife interface. This information is an important contribution to public health policy development in the human wildlife interface of the Katavi- Rukwa ecosystem.

  10. Elimination of leprosy as a public health problem by 2000 AD: an epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Kamga, Henri Lucien Foumou; Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Tabah, Earnest Nji; Oyediran, Alain Bankole O O; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2011-01-01

    supplies free multi-drug therapy) opportunities. Elimination created the unrealistic expectation that the leprosy problem could be solved by 2000. First, the elimination goal was not feasible in several areas which had high incidence of leprosy. Even if elimination was to be attained, significant numbers of new cases of leprosy would continue to occur and many people with physical imperfections, severe psychological, economic and social problems caused by leprosy would need continuous assistance. Extra-human reservoirs of Mycobacterium leprae, the relationship between leprosy and poverty, prevention of disabilities, lack of a reliable laboratory test to detect subclinical infection and a vaccine are also challenging issues. The evidence base available to inform on leprosy elimination is highly positive with the availability of multi-drug therapy blister packs. There are concerns that leprosy was not the right disease to be targeted for elimination as there are no reliable diagnostic tests to detect subclinical infection including the lack of a vaccine, extra-human reservoirs (monkeys and armadillos), increase in the burden of child cases, no good epidemiological indicator as prevalence instead of incidence is used to measure elimination. Multi-drug therapy treats leprosy very well but there is no proof that it concurrently interrupts transmission. The high social stigma, prevention of disabilities, and the relationship between leprosy and poverty are still major concerns.

  11. Elimination of Leprosy as a public health problem by 2000 AD: an epidemiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi; Assob, Jules Clement Nguedia; Njunda, Anna Longdoh; Kamga, Henri Lucien Foumou; Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Tabah, Earnest Nji; Oyediran, Alain Bankole OO; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2011-01-01

    the Nippon Foundation that supplies free multi-drug therapy) opportunities. Elimination created the unrealistic expectation that the leprosy problem could be solved by 2000. First, the elimination goal was not feasible in several areas which had high incidence of leprosy. Even if elimination was to be attained, significant numbers of new cases of leprosy would continue to occur and many people with physical imperfections, severe psychological, economic and social problems caused by leprosy would need continuous assistance. Extra-human reservoirs of Mycobacterium leprae, the relationship between leprosy and poverty, prevention of disabilities, lack of a reliable laboratory test to detect subclinical infection and a vaccine are also challenging issues. Conclusion The evidence base available to inform on leprosy elimination is highly positive with the availability of multi-drug therapy blister packs. There are concerns that leprosy was not the right disease to be targeted for elimination as there are no reliable diagnostic tests to detect subclinical infection including the lack of a vaccine, extra-human reservoirs (monkeys and armadillos), increase in the burden of child cases, no good epidemiological indicator as prevalence instead of incidence is used to measure elimination. Multi-drug therapy treats leprosy very well but there is no proof that it concurrently interrupts transmission. The high social stigma, prevention of disabilities, and the relationship between leprosy and poverty are still major concerns. PMID:22145052

  12. Epidemiological study on human and canine leptospirosis in Central and North Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Soman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the epidemiology of human and animal leptospirosis in Central and Northern Kerala, by isolation techniques and serology. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 35 rodents (11 bandicoots and 24 rats, autopsy specimens from two canines, blood from 15 canines and 30 human beings were subjected to isolation trials for Leptospira. Sera from these animals and human beings were screened for leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Results: Leptospira could be isolated from human blood as well as from rodent kidney tissues. The MAT could detect the presence of leptospiral antibodies in 54.54% of human sera, 36.36% of dog sera and 21.42% of rodent sera. Pomona and Australis were the most predominant serovars detected in man, dog, and rodents. Tentative serotyping of the isolates by MAT revealed its identity as Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. Conclusion: Detection of common serovars of Leptospira in man and animals by serology as well as isolation reiterates the major role played by animals in the epidemiology of human leptospirosis.

  13. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  14. Recent data on the epidemiology and prophylaxis of human rabies in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, P

    1990-01-01

    Rabies is an animal disease which is transmitted to man only by accident, most often through the bite (more rarely after scratches or licks of mucosa) of a rabid animal, domestic or wild. A good knowledge of the epizootiology of animal rabies is therefore necessary to establish, on solid grounds, the prophylaxis of human rabies. Inter-human transmission of rabies being an exceptional event which will be considered separately, the epidemiology of human rabies mainly studies the sources and circumstances of human exposure to rabid animals, which differ according to the epizootiology of animal rabies in a given country: either enzootic (or hyperenzootic) canine rabies, or enzootic selvatic rabies. It appears that the risk of human rabies is higher in the first situation for two reasons: (i) rabies viruses show an increased virulence due to numerous serial passages in dogs (viruses with short incubation period) and (ii) high frequency of dog-man contacts due to the high density of both populations.

  15. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy; Souad Mohamed Alsaqabi

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  16. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  17. Functional foods and their expanding applications in the improvement of human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the last few decades, various epidemiological investigations have reinforced the concept that diet plays an important role in human health. These analyses have demonstrated that the types of food consumed, the composition of those foods, and the amounts consumed can all be linked to the promo...

  18. Monitoring Bone Health after Spaceflight: Data Mining to Support an Epidemiological Analysis of Age-related Bone Loss in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S,; Amin, S.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Through the epidemiological analysis of bone data, HRP is seeking evidence as to whether the prolonged exposure to microgravity of low earth orbit predisposes crewmembers to an earlier onset of osteoporosis. While this collaborative Epidemiological Project may be currently limited by the number of ISS persons providing relevant spaceflight medical data, a positive note is that it compares medical data of astronauts to data of an age-matched (not elderly) population that is followed longitudinally with similar technologies. The inclusion of data from non-ISS and non-NASA crewmembers is also being pursued. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide critical information for NASA to understand the impact of low physical or minimal weight-bearing activity on the aging process as well as to direct its development of countermeasures and rehabilitation programs to influence skeletal recovery. However, in order to optimize these results NASA needs to better define the requirements for long term monitoring and encourage both active and retired astronauts to contribute to a legacy of data that will define human health risks in space.

  19. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Edmund J; Taylor, Nicholas G H

    2011-08-11

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture.

  20. Spinal curves and health: a systematic critical review of the epidemiological literature dealing with associations between sagittal spinal curves and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sanne Toftgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether sagittal spinal curves are associated with health in epidemiological studies, (2) estimate the strength of such associations, and (3) consider whether these relations are likely to be causal.......The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether sagittal spinal curves are associated with health in epidemiological studies, (2) estimate the strength of such associations, and (3) consider whether these relations are likely to be causal....

  1. Aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis cases in Galicia (NW Spain), 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Llovo, J; Bartolomé, C

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium infects millions of people worldwide causing acute gastroenteritis, but despite its remarkable epidemiological and economic impact, information on the epidemiological trends of human cryptosporidiosis is still scarce in most countries. Here we investigate a panel of 486 cases collected in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula) between 2000 and 2008, which sheds new light on the epidemiology in this region of the South Atlantic European façade. Incidence rates in Galicia are one order of magnitude higher than those reported in other regions of Spain, suggesting that this parasite remains largely underdiagnosed in this country, and are also larger than those typical of other European countries with available data. Two species dominate our dataset, Cryptosporidium hominis (65%) and C. parvum (34%). The sex ratio of patients infected by either species was 0·5, but C. hominis was significantly more common in younger males. C. parvum infections were more acute and required more specialized medical attention, which suggests a differential adaptation of each species to human hosts. The parasites display strong seasonal and geographical variation. C. parvum incidence peaked during summer and was mainly detected in rural areas while C. hominis infections were more frequent in autumn and exhibited a more even geographical distribution. Such differences probably reflect their distinct sources of infection - C. parvum is mainly zoonotic and C. hominis anthroponotic - and the effects of climatic variables, like temperature and rainfall.

  2. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (PLeptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  3. The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cancer and other health outcomes: Epidemiological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Luzardo, O P

    2016-06-01

    Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research.

  4. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  5. The use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, F

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s (1936, Snow on Cholera, Commonwealth Fund, New York), and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s (1964, Goldberger on Pellagra, M. Terris, ed., Louisiana State Univ. Press, Baton Rouge). The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  6. [Air pollution in Switzerland--quantification of health effects using epidemiologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N; Kaiser, R; Rapp, R; Sommer, H; Wanner, H U; Seethaler, R; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    1997-08-23

    Public health costs ascribable to air pollution are socialized in our society. To quantify the damage to public health, epidemiologic studies are needed. We present the methods and epidemiologic background data which form the basis for estimating the public health effect ascribable to air pollution. The figures are presented per 1 million "average" Swiss population and per 10 micrograms/m3 increase in long-term annual mean particulate pollution (PM10). Quantification was restricted to the health effects given below (due to lack of complete data for other effects or to avoid duplicating health effects which may be described by overlapping measurements). In parenthesis we present (1) the mean effect estimates (+/-1 SE) (% increase per 10 micrograms/m3 increment in PM10) derived from national and international epidemiologic studies, and (2) the expected absolute additional health effects (+/-1 SE) per 1 million Swiss population and per 10 micrograms/m3 increment in PM10, based on Swiss population statistics: total mortality (long-term estimates from the 2 US cohort studies) (+4.4% [+/-1.1]/349 [+/-91] premature deaths per year); prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults (+25% [+8.4]/increase in long-term prevalence by 3,513 [+/-1.475]); bronchitis among children (35% [+/-13]/5,180 [+/-2,590] additional children sufferers in a year); repeated cough among children (+54% [+/-8.8]/23,490 [+/-5,873] additional children per year); cough/phlegm in adults (+12.8% [+/-7.8]/1.56 [+/-1.08] million person-days per year); hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (+1.47% [+/-0.5]/71 [+/-24] additional admissions or 1,104 (+/-390) hospital days); admissions for cardiovascular diseases (+0.9% [+/-0.25]/70 [+19] admissions; 970 (+/-270) hospital days); restricted activity days (+10.5% [+/-0.77]/0.42 [+/-0.03] million person-days); days with asthma attacks among the 6.7% asthmatics (Swiss prevalence) (+5.3% [+/-2.1]/ 240,000 [+/-102,000] additional person-days). Conservative

  7. Antioxidant relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

  8. Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from consuming aquatic food resources from chemically contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozonoff, D. (Boston Univ. School of Public Health, MA (United States)); Longnecker, M.P. (UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic approaches to assessing human cancer risk from contaminated waters must confront the problems of long latency and rarity of the end point (cancer). The latency problem makes determination of diet history more difficult, while the low frequency of cancer as an end point reduces the statistical power of the study. These factors are discussed in relation to the study designs most commonly employed in epidemiology. It is suggested that the use of biomarkers for persistent chemicals may be useful to mitigate the difficulty of determining exposure, while the use of more prevalent and timely end points, such as carcinogen-DNA adducts or oncogene proteins, may make the latency and rarity problems more tractable.

  9. Climate change and human health: present and future risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J; Woodruff, Rosalie E; Hales, Simon

    2006-03-11

    There is near unanimous scientific consensus that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity will change Earth's climate. The recent (globally averaged) warming by 0.5 degrees C is partly attributable to such anthropogenic emissions. Climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely. Here, we summarise the epidemiological evidence of how climate variations and trends affect various health outcomes. We assess the little evidence there is that recent global warming has already affected some health outcomes. We review the published estimates of future health effects of climate change over coming decades. Research so far has mostly focused on thermal stress, extreme weather events, and infectious diseases, with some attention to estimates of future regional food yields and hunger prevalence. An emerging broader approach addresses a wider spectrum of health risks due to the social, demographic, and economic disruptions of climate change. Evidence and anticipation of adverse health effects will strengthen the case for pre-emptive policies, and will also guide priorities for planned adaptive strategies.

  10. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health.

  11. Frontiers in the bioarchaeology of stress and disease: cross-disciplinary perspectives from pathophysiology, human biology, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Haagen D

    2014-10-01

    Over the last four decades, bioarchaeology has experienced significant technical growth and theoretical maturation. Early 21st century bioarchaeology may also be enhanced from a renewed engagement with the concept of biological stress. New insights on biological stress and disease can be gained from cross-disciplinary perspectives regarding human skeletal variation and disease. First, pathophysiologic and molecular signaling mechanisms can provide more precise understandings regarding formation of pathological phenotypes in bone. Using periosteal new bone formation as an example, various mechanisms and pathways are explored in which new bone can be formed under conditions of biological stress, particularly in bone microenvironments that involve inflammatory changes. Second, insights from human biology are examined regarding some epigenetic factors and disease etiology. While epigenetic effects on stress and disease outcomes appear profoundly influential, they are mostly invisible in skeletal tissue. However, some indirect and downstream effects, such as the developmental origins of adult health outcomes, may be partially observable in bioarchaeological data. Emerging perspectives from the human microbiome are also considered. Microbiomics involves a remarkable potential to understand ancient biology, disease, and stress. Third, tools from epidemiology are examined that may aid bioarchaeologists to better cope with some of the inherent limitations of skeletal samples to better measure and quantify the expressions of skeletal stress markers. Such cross-disciplinary synergisms hopefully will promote more complete understandings of health and stress in bioarchaeological science.

  12. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations.

  13. Quality assurance for accuracy of anthropometric measurements in clinical and epidemiological studies [Errare humanum est = to err is human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K Mony

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii manual of standard operating procedures, (iii choice of robust equipment, (iv equipment calibration, (v standardization training and certification, and (vi measurements resampling.

  14. Quality Assurance for Accuracy of Anthropometric Measurements in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies: [Errare humanum est = to err is human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Prem K; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Gajendran, Jayachitra K; Vaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anthropometry involves the external measurement of morphologic traits of human beings. High quality anthropometric measurements are fundamental to clinical and epidemiological research. The measurements for each method have inherent variations, either due to biologic variation or due to error in measurement. Errors in measurement cannot be avoided completely but they can be minimized to a large extent. We define methods to estimate measurement error in anthropometry, offer guidelines for acceptable error, and suggest ways to minimize measurement error; thereby improving anthropometry quality in health assessments. We propose that special attention be paid to the following six key parameters for quality assurance of anthropometric measurements: (i) Identification of certified lead anthropometrist and trainer, (ii) manual of standard operating procedures, (iii) choice of robust equipment, (iv) equipment calibration, (v) standardization training and certification, and (vi) measurements resampling.

  15. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  16. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  17. Faith Moves Mountains-Mountains Move Faith: Two Opposite Epidemiological Forces in Research on Religion and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidt, N C; Hvidtjørn, D; Christensen, K; Nielsen, J B; Søndergaard, J

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests opposite epidemiological forces in religion and health: (1). Faith seems to move mountains in the sense that religion is associated with positive health outcomes. (2). Mountains of bad health seem to move faith. We reflected on these forces in a population of 3000 young Danish twins in which all religiosity measures were associated with severe disease. We believe the reason for this novel finding is that the sample presents as a particularly secular population-based study and that the second epidemiological force has gained the upper hand in this sample. We suggest that all cross-sectional research on religion and health should be interpreted in light of such opposite epidemiological forces potentially diluting each other.

  18. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover. Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material was

  19. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Thomas, Lian F; Cook, Elizabeth A J; de Glanville, William A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wamae, Claire N; Fèvre, Eric M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  20. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; de Glanville, William A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wamae, Claire N.; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  1. Epidemiology of Mental Health Attendances at Emergency Departments: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Barratt

    Full Text Available The characteristics of Emergency Department (ED attendances due to mental or behavioural health disorders need to be described to enable appropriate development of services. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of mental health-related ED attendances within health care systems free at the point of access, including clinical reason for presentation, previous service use, and patient sociodemographic characteristics.Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies describing ED attendances by patients with common mental health conditions.18 studies from seven countries met eligibility criteria. Patients attending due to mental or behavioural health disorders accounted for 4% of ED attendances; a third were due to self-harm or suicidal ideation. 58.1% of attendees had a history of psychiatric illness and up to 58% were admitted. The majority of studies were single site and of low quality so results must be interpreted cautiously.Prevalence studies of mental health-related ED attendances are required to enable the development of services to meet specific needs.

  2. Epidemiological study on Buccal Health in the 12 years old population of Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumaidi Colina Sánchez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 12 years-old children population is worldwide taken as a reference age to compare the buccal health condition of different countries, by means of various indicators that measure the presence of the main buccal diseases. The knowledge of these epidemiological profiles generates information to guide the services planning policies of the Primary Health Care. Objective: To characterize 12 years-old population's buccal health condition. Methods: Cross- sectional descriptive correlative study with a stratified probabilistic sample of 90 children starting from a universe conformed by the 269 adolescents that constitute the total of the 12 years old population of the Health Care Area VIII in Cienfuegos municipality. Pearson’s chi-square and Mantel-Haenszel lineal tendency tests were used with the determination of the relative risk and reliance intervals of 95%. Results: The decay prevalence reached 54, 4%. The COP-D index was 2, 45 being the decayed component the major percentage with 4.6%. The periodontal disease was more frequent in boys than in girls, with 54, 9% and 30, 8% respectively. 80,9% of the segments is healthy. In those affected, the calculation prevailed in 11,7%. It was determined that faulty obturations, inheritance and faulty buccal hygiene were the most affecting risk factors for children with decays, while in the periodontal disease it was faulty buccal hygiene. Malocclusions presented a prevalence rate of 40%. Out of which, 55,6% required secondary level attention. Those with habits present a risk 2 times superior of making sick. The sick epidemiological category was present in 77,8% of the total. Conclusions: We emphasize the prevention need as core issue of the primary medical care in the world today; being the General-Integral Dentist a transforming agent that according to his/her formation is capable to assume the existent health problem and to modify it positively, acting from the earliest ages.

  3. EVALUATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium spp. IN DOMICILED DOGS

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    Giselle Ramos da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cryptosporidium consists of protozoa with large reproduction and dissemination capacity. Transmission can occur indirectly by ingestion of water contaminated with viable oocysts or directly between animals, between humans, or between animals and human. In various parts of the world, pets have been cited as potential sources of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of natural Cryptosporidium spp. infection in domestic dogs in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, as well as the association of the infection with epidemiological and sanitary data. Stool samples from 97 dogs were analyzed using the techniques of centrifugal sedimentation in formalin-ether with subsequent staining by Kinyoun method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test of Pearson and Fisher Exact test, with significance level of 5.0%. Positivity was detected in 31.9% (31/97 of samples. It was the first record of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs from northeastern Brazil. We verified significant association between the rate of infection and veterinary medical care, vaccination, and type of environment in which the dogs were kept. Keywords: canine; cryptosporidiosis; epidemiology; zoonosis.

  4. The role of developmental plasticity and epigenetics in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A; Low, Felicia M

    2011-03-01

    Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. This relationship reflects plastic responses made by the developing organism as an evolved strategy to cope with immediate or predicted circumstances, to maximize fitness in the context of the range of environments potentially faced. There is now increasing evidence, both in animals and humans, that such developmental plasticity is mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. However, recognition of the importance of developmental plasticity as an important factor in influencing later life health-particularly within the medical and public health communities-is low, and we argue that this indifference cannot be sustained in light of the growing understanding of developmental processes and the rapid rise in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease globally. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Individual predisposition, household clustering and risk factors for human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: new epidemiological insights.

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    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all

  6. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of human West Nile virus disease in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B

    2013-10-29

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002-2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002-2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Disease in South Dakota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Hildreth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002–2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002–2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  8. Pandemic and Avian Influenza A Viruses in Humans: Epidemiology, Virology, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Cao, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The intermittent outbreak of pandemic influenza and emergence of novel avian influenza A virus is worldwide threat. Although most patients present with mild symptoms, some deteriorate to severe pneumonia and even death. Great progress in the understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis and a series of vaccines has been promoted worldwide; however, incidence, morbidity, and mortality remains high. To step up vigilance and improve pandemic preparedness, this article elucidates the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and treatment of human infections by influenza A viruses, with an emphasis on the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, H5N1, and H7N9 subtypes.

  9. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans: epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Matloob

    2014-12-01

    New human influenza A virus strains regularly emerge causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Lately, several zoonotic avian influenza A strains have been reported to directly infect humans. In early 2013, a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) strain was discovered in China to cause severe respiratory disease in humans. Since then, over 450 human cases of H7N9 infection have been discovered and 165 of them have died. Multiple epidemiological, phylogenetic, in vivo, and in vitro studies have been done to determine the origin and pathogenesis of novel H7N9 strain. This article reviews the literature related to the epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis of the H7N9 strain since its discovery in February 2013 till August 2014. The data available so far indicate that H7N9 was originated by a two-step reassortment process in birds and transmitted to humans through direct contact with live-bird markets. H7N9 is a low-pathogenic avian virus and contains several molecular signatures for adaptation in mammals. The severity of the respiratory disease caused by novel H7N9 virus in humans can be partly attributed to the age, sex, and underlying medical conditions of the patients. A universal influenza vaccine is not available, though several strain-specific H7N9 candidate vaccine viruses have been developed. Further, novel H7N9 virus is resistant to antiviral drug amantadine and some H7N9 isolates have acquired the resistance to neuraminidase-inhibitors. Therefore, constant surveillance and prompt control measures combined with novel research approaches to develop alternative and effective anti-influenza strategies are needed to overcome influenza A virus.

  11. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP: a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Victor M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  12. Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Augusto; Cáceres, Victor M

    2008-12-16

    The Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP) is a public health capacity-building training programme aimed at developing high-caliber field epidemiologists at various levels of the public health system. It began in 2000 as part of the effort to rebuild public health infrastructure in six Central American and Caribbean countries following the devastation of Hurricanes Mitch and Georges in late 1998. Since then, the CA FETP has evolved from one regional training programme managed by CDC to several national FETPs with each country assuming ownership of its domestic programme. The curriculum is competency-based, and is divided into a three-tiered training pyramid that corresponds to the needs at the local, district and central levels of the health system. Trainees at each tier spend about 20% of their time in the classroom and 80% in the field implementing what they have learned while being mentored by graduates of the programme. FETP trainees have responded to multiple natural disasters and conducted hundreds of investigations including surveillance evaluations, outbreak responses and planned studies. Also graduates of the CA FETP are assuming influential positions in their respective ministries. As countries meet the challenge of institutionalizing their programmes, the CA FETP concept will increasingly be recognized as a model for sustainable public health capacity development.

  13. [Health inequalities among occupations: epidemiologic hints for labour and social protection policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Based on existing information systems in Italy, a program can be created for monitoring and surveillance of occupational differences in health. In recent years, a number of proposals were made for defining wearing-out jobs and for reforming the retirement age and/or required number of years of contributions: on these occasions the need to create a programme for monitoring occupational health was stressed. To this end, ISPESL (the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention), in cooperation with the Epidemiology Unit of the Piedmont Region of Italy, assessed the validity of epidemiological indicators from existing sources and their use in creating a surveillance system of wearing-out jobs. The main results of the evaluations performed to date are presented herein. The results are discussed in relation to the information needs for developing both health policies and other types of policies addressing occupation. Each of the articles in this issue deals with a specific model (based on information sources available in Italy in the 1990's) for studying the relationship between health [general and cause-specific mortality; accidents and accident proneness; the main causes of chronic morbidity (cancer, diabetes, and vascular and respiratory diseases); self-reported health: perceived health, chronic illnesses; absenteeism, lifestyles, stress, working conditions] and occupation (most recent occupation or the main lifetime occupation recorded by the specific information source, using a 55-item classification created especially for this research). Here, the statistically significant associations are compared with data in the literature and discussed in light of the information needs for developing health policies and other pertinent policies. For men, the data on health indicators taken from the available information sources were adequate for identifying occupational differences in health. Certain occupations were consistently disadvantaged: masons and

  14. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

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    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  15. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  16. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  17. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  18. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  19. Epidemiology of Chronic Urticaria in Korea Using the Korean Health Insurance Database, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nami; Lee, Jeong Dong; Lee, Hyun Young; Kang, Dae Ryong; Ye, Young Min

    2017-09-01

    There are very few epidemiological studies on chronic urticaria (CU). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of CU and to depict demographics and medication patterns for the disease in a nationwide population-based study. Data on urticaria (L50 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) from 2010 to 2014 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Algorithms designed to evaluate prescription drug claims for antihistamines were applied to identify CU. The crude prevalence of CU was 2,256.5 per 100,000 person-years and tended to increase every year. The age-standardized prevalence of CU was significantly higher in females than in males (2,466.8 vs 1,819.2 per 100,000 person-years, P<0.001). Age-specific prevalence was highest for older adults over the age of 65 years and lowest for ages 10-29 years. The median duration of CU was 591 days, and symptoms lasted for at least 1 year in 61.9% of patients. Gastrointestinal disease was the most common comorbidity in adults, whereas allergic rhinitis and common cold were more prevalent in children with CU. Around a third of CU patients were taking antihistamine treatment alone, and 70% were treated with both antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids. Cyclosporine was prescribed for 0.02% of CU patients. The present study outlines recent longitudinal epidemiological data on the prevalence of CU in Korea. In light of limitations on the use of claims data, including no specific disease code for CU and a possible discordance between drug claims and the presence of urticaria symptoms, further investigations are necessary to describe the exact epidemiologic profile of CU patients.

  20. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  1. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Pascal; Laurence Pascal; Marie-Laure Bidondo; Amandine Cochet; Hélène Sarter; Morgane Stempfelet; Vérène Wagner

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majori...

  2. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  3. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  4. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Donaldson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic.

  5. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojima Masayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.

  6. Molecular epidemiological characterization and health burden of thalassemia in Jiangxi Province, P. R. China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common inherited disease in southern China. However, this disorder is usually ignored by Jiangxi provincial health system and government due to lack of epidemiological data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 9489 samples from Hakka Han and Gan-speaking Han in three geographical areas of Jiangxi Province were analyzed for both complete blood cell (CBC count and reverse dot blot (RDB gene chip for thalassemia. RESULTS: 1182 cases of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCV<82 fL were found by CBC count, and were tested by RDB gene chip to reveal a total of 594 mutant chromosomes, including 433 α-thalassemia mutant chromosomes and 172 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of thalassemia with the heterozygote frequency of 9.49% in southern Jiangxi province, whereas the low frequency was found in middle (3.90% and northern Jiangxi (2.63%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the epidemiological data, the estimated numbers of pregnancies in Jiangxi province in which the fetus is at risk for β-thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb H disease are 34 (95% CI, 16 to 58, 79 (95% CI, 50 to 114 and 39 (95% CI, 27 to 58 per year, respectively. We suggested that prevention network of thalassemia should be established, especially in high prevalent southern Jiangxi (Hakka Han, including establishment of thalassemia database collection, hematological analysis laboratories, genetic counselling clinics, prenatal diagnosis centers and neonatal screening centers.

  7. Molecular Epidemiological Characterization and Health Burden of Thalassemia in Jiangxi Province, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Guo; Wang, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Lin, Fen; Tong, Xin; Yang, Hui-Tian; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Hu, Rong; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Yang, Hui; Luo, Zhao-Yun; Li, Wen-Yu; Yang, Li-Ye

    2014-01-01

    Background Thalassemia is the most common inherited disease in southern China. However, this disorder is usually ignored by Jiangxi provincial health system and government due to lack of epidemiological data. Materials and Methods A total of 9489 samples from Hakka Han and Gan-speaking Han in three geographical areas of Jiangxi Province were analyzed for both complete blood cell (CBC) count and reverse dot blot (RDB) gene chip for thalassemia. Results 1182 cases of suspected thalassemia carriers with microcytosis (MCVthalassemia mutant chromosomes and 172 β-thalassemia mutant chromosomes. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of thalassemia with the heterozygote frequency of 9.49% in southern Jiangxi province, whereas the low frequency was found in middle (3.90%) and northern Jiangxi (2.63%). Conclusions Based on the epidemiological data, the estimated numbers of pregnancies in Jiangxi province in which the fetus is at risk for β-thalassemia major or intermedia, Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb H disease are 34 (95% CI, 16 to 58), 79 (95% CI, 50 to 114) and 39 (95% CI, 27 to 58) per year, respectively. We suggested that prevention network of thalassemia should be established, especially in high prevalent southern Jiangxi (Hakka Han), including establishment of thalassemia database collection, hematological analysis laboratories, genetic counselling clinics, prenatal diagnosis centers and neonatal screening centers. PMID:25000193

  8. Skill Enhancement for Health: An Evaluation of An Online Pilot Teaching Module on Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry MURPHY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Skill Enhancement for Health: An Evaluation of An Online Pilot Teaching Module on Epidemiology Rory McGREAL, PhD Athabasca University – Canada’s Open University Athabasca AB, CANADA Sue DAVIS, MSc. New Brunswick Community College–Saint John Saint John, CANADA Terry MURPHY, PhD Consortium for Information Technology in Education (CITE Saint John, CANADA Chris SMITH, BA Consortium for Information Technology in Education (CITE Saint John, CANADA ABSTRACT The evaluation of this pilot of an epidemiology course conducted online and delivered across Canada was based on four main criteria: design, content, process and outcomes. Data was collected through seven sources: participant online survey results, post-pilot workshop feedback, four focus groups, telephone interviews with participants, interviews with course developers, examination of online materials, and analysis of log files generated by the web server. The pilot course had the following outcomes: Findings on the delivery showed that the course took much more time than estimated; the online environment was challenging/frustrating for some; there were technical glitches; discussion boards were not regularly used; interaction with instructors was minimal; feedback from instructors was slow in coming; the short development time led to errors/mismatches between content and assessment; and the high student/teacher ratio of 1:48 made it difficult to provide timely feedback.

  9. Measuring child exposure to violence and mental health reactions in epidemiological studies: challenges and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane Seixas; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Green, Genevieve Rachel; Hoven, Christina W

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines challenges and current issues involved in measuring exposure to different types of violence which are associated mental health problems in children and adolescents. Standardized measures suitable for epidemiological studies, selected based on their relevance in the current literature, are briefly described and commented. The assessment of child's exposure to violence may focus on a specific event (e.g., kidnapping), a specific context (e.g., war) or even of a certain type of exposure (e.g., intrafamilial physical violence). The assessment of child mental health after exposure to violence has traditionally focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - most frequently measured through non-diagnostic scales. However, other mental health reactions may be present and screening as well as diagnostic instruments which may be used to assess these reactions are also described. Two issues of emerging importance - the assessment of impairment and of traumatic grief in children - are also presented. Availability of culturally appropriate instruments is a crucial step towards proper identification of child mental health problems after exposure to violence.

  10. Health benefits of reducing NO x emissions in the presence of epidemiological and atmospheric nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappin, A. J.; Hakami, A.; Blagden, P.; Nasari, M.; Szyszkowicz, M.; Burnett, R. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the logarithm of concentration is a better predictor of mortality risk from long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and NO2 than concentration itself. A log-concentration-response function (CRF) predicts a heightened excess risk per unit concentration at low levels of exposure that further increases as the air becomes less polluted. Using an adjoint air quality model, we estimate the public health benefits of reducing NO x emissions, on a per-ton and source-by-source basis. Our estimates of benefits-per-ton assume linear in concentration and log-concentration CRFs for NO2 and a CRF that is linear in concentration for O3. We apply risk coefficients estimated using the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort. We find that a log-concentration CRF for NO2 leads almost consistently to larger benefits-per-ton than a linear in concentration CRF (e.g., 500 000 ton-1 compared to 270 000 ton-1 for Ottawa). We observe that concentrations gradually decline due to widespread, progressive emissions abatement, entailing increasing health benefits as a result of (1) a log-concentration CRF for NO2 and (2) the nonlinear response of O3 to NO x emissions. Our results indicate that NO x abatement has the potential to incur substantial and increasing health benefits, by up to five times with 85% emission reductions, for Canada into the future.

  11. An ecological approach to assessing the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J; Reeve, Richard; Denwood, Matthew J; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; Browning, Lynda M; Haydon, Daniel T; Reid, Stuart W J

    2012-04-22

    We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we assessed the more probable source of resistance of these two populations. The ecological diversity of AMR phenotypes was significantly greater in human isolates than in animal isolates, at the resolution of both sample and population. Of 5200 isolates, there were 65 resistance phenotypes, 13 unique to animals, 30 unique to humans and 22 were common to both. Of these 22, 11 were identified first in the human isolates, whereas only five were identified first in the animal isolates. We conclude that, while ecologically connected, animals and humans have distinguishable DT104 communities, differing in prevalence, linkage and diversity. Furthermore, we infer that the sympatric animal population is unlikely to be the major source of resistance diversity for humans. This suggests that current policy emphasis on restricting antimicrobial use in domestic animals may be overly simplistic. While these conclusions pertain to DT104 in Scotland, this approach could be applied to AMR in other bacteria-host ecosystems.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of human and animal tuberculosis in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Cadmus, S I B; Venter, E H; Pourcel, C; Hauk, Y; Vergnaud, G; Godfroid, J

    2011-07-05

    From 2005 to 2007, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains were isolated from cattle, goats and pigs samples collected at the Bodija abattoir and from human samples from tuberculosis patients and livestock traders at the Akinyele cattle market in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Seventy four isolates obtained from humans (24) and livestock (50) were identified as MTC strains. Thirty two isolates were spoligotyped. Nineteen of these 32 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis whilst 13 were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. M. bovis was isolated from two humans, whereas M. tuberculosis was isolated from a bovine, a pig and a goat. All the M. bovis isolates identified in this study belonged to the Africa 1 clonal complex. Multiple locus VNTR [variable number of tandem repeats] analysis (MLVA) was carried out on the 74 isolates. Three major clusters were defined. Group A consisted of 24 M. tuberculosis isolates (MLVA genotypes 1-18). One strain was isolated from a bovine and one from a pig. Group B consisted of 49 M. bovis strains (MLVA genotypes 19-48), mainly of cattle origin but also included four goat, nine pig and two human isolates. Group C consisted of a single M. tuberculosis isolate (MLVA genotype 49) obtained from a goat. Spoligotyping and MLVA confirmed it as clustering with the East Africa Indian clade found in humans in Sudan and the Republic of Djibouti. The isolation of three M. tuberculosis strains from livestock raises the question of their epidemiological importance as a source of infection for humans.

  13. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  14. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  15. Trends in employer postings for epidemiology jobs: an analysis of PublicHealthJobs.net data from 2003 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L

    2017-08-12

    To analyze public health job posting data to help objectively inform epidemiology faculty and students about skills sought by employers. Raw data from PublicHealthJobs.net database (January 2003-October 2016) was data-mined and analyzed (n = 25,308 job postings). There were 3985 jobs that were classified with an epidemiology designation, either as the only designation or co-occurring with another designation. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for job type, industry, location, degree requirements, CPH credential, and specialized skills. The majority of recent postings (January 2014-October 2016) were for full-time positions (60.8%). The highest proportion of recent job industries was education/academic/research (44.3%), state government (17.5%), and nonprofit/NGO (16.3%). A masters-level degree was listed in 71.4% of postings, frequently co-occurring with other degree levels. Epidemiology as the only job class was listed in 1765 postings (45.3%). Most characteristics of epidemiology job postings did not appreciably change over the time period, but there were some specialized skill differences. This analysis illustrates how employment sites can be used to identify employer preferences in epidemiology hires. There may be some skills that are beneficial additions to public health curricula or that job-seeking future epidemiologists may wish to enhance during their training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Jane V; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2007-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized

  17. [Two decades of bridging activities between pharmacology, epidemiology and public health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Pol; García, Laura; Bosch, Fèlix

    2015-01-01

    Unsurprisingly, disciplines such as epidemiology, public health and pharmacology have points of confluence. Consequently, in Spain, both professionals and organizations from these disciplines have collaborated on many different activities altogether. This article compiles two decades of shared initiatives among these fields, coordinated by the Esteve Foundation. We discuss 20 collaborations, including face-to-face activities and joint publications. These activities involved numerous institutions and over 1,000 professionals. Among other activities, we would like to stress the training activities in scientific writing and editing. In particular, we highlight the 32 editions of a training workshop on how to write a scientific article, which has been running since 2004 to the present day. We conclude that collaborations between different institutions and professionals have acted and will continue to act as a bridge between disciplines and to contribute to scientific progress from a multidisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiologic survery of teniasis in health and family program in Uberaba, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Maria Esteves; Mario León Silva-Vergara; Ângela C.F. Banzatto de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizado inquérito para avaliar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase em 100.144 indivíduos do Programa Saúde da Família. Foram identificados 185 (0,2%) indivíduos com antecedentes de teníase. Destes, 112 (60,5%) receberam tratamento com praziquantel. Em 97 (86,6%) dos casos, houve eliminação de proglotes que corresponderam a Taenia saginata e Taenia solium em 36 (37,1%) e 4 (4,1%), respectivamente.An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Prog...

  19. Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    of neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship......UNLABELLED: The thesis includes seven published papers and an overview concerning the epidemiological aspects of mental health problems and psychopathology in children aged 0-3 years. The research behind the thesis focuses at psychopathology in the first years of life. The aim has been...... to investigate phenomenology, prevalence, risk factors and predictors, in order to contribute to the knowledge about early developmental psychopathology, and improve the scientific foundation for identification and treatment of mental illness of infants and toddlers, and optimize the foundation for prevention...

  20. Analysis on the move: deconstructing troublesome health questions and troubling epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M

    2000-03-01

    Qualitative research gets close to experiences of pain, illness, and disease; consequently, qualitative researchers often find themselves asked troublesome questions (i.e., laypeople ask for practical, helpful answers to their everyday illness concerns). This is not surprising, but of interest is the fact that academics ask each other such troublesome questions as part of academic discourse. When academics ask such questions, they may sometimes be after practical information, but they may also be using the questioning as an attack on the supposed excessive relativism of social constructionism. Three key analytical moves that offer a useful deconstruction of troublesome health questions are outlined, showing that they are another useful topic of constructionist inquiry. To lessen abstraction, these moves are brought to bear on a case study of a possible connection between pesticide use and birth defects, thus showing how social science and epidemiology can be connected, troubled, and extended in the process.

  1. EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH | Waling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFICACY OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN HEALTH. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... add variety to household diets and nutrients, and improve household incomes for improved food security situation.

  2. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  3. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  4. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  5. Developmental origins of health and disease: experimental and human evidence of fetal programming for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gusmão Correia, M L; Volpato, A M; Águila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2012-07-01

    The concept of developmental origins of health and disease has been defined as the process through which the environment encountered before birth, or in infancy, shapes the long-term control of tissue physiology and homeostasis. The evidence for programming derives from a large number of experimental and epidemiological observations. Several nutritional interventions during diverse phases of pregnancy and lactation in rodents are associated with fetal and neonatal programming for metabolic syndrome. In this paper, recent experimental models and human epidemiological studies providing evidence for the fetal programming associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and related diseases are revisited.

  6. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Ole

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion

  7. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  8. Human rights and the politics of risk and blame: lessons from the international reproductive health movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, L P

    1997-01-01

    Recent debates about the "politicization" of public health obscure the ways in which epidemiological concepts of risk are routinely used in the legal and political systems to apportion blame and responsibility for poor health. This article uses the example of reproductive health and rights to argue that new understandings of the connection between socioeconomic conditions and poor health will only generate change when they are reframed into political claims and pressed by social movements. In this connection, human rights language, principles, and practice hold great potential for the US reproductive rights movement, which has sometimes been constrained by the narrow scope of court rulings.

  9. Hispanic Latin America, Spain and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean: A rich source of reference material for public health, epidemiology and tropical medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Basáñez María-Gloria; Bórquez Annick; Williams John R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There is a multiplicity of journals originating in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (SSLAC) in the health sciences of relevance to the fields of epidemiology and public health. While the subject matter of epidemiology in Spain shares many features with its neighbours in Western Europe, many aspects of epidemiology in Latin America are particular to that region. There are also distinctive theoretical and philosophical approaches to the study ...

  10. Democracy, Human Rights and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2012-01-01

    Significant improvements in human rights and democracy have been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Yet, human rights, especially women's rights, are still being violated in many parts of the developing world. The adverse effects of such violations on women's and children's health are well known, but they are rarely measured. This study uses cross-national data from over 145 countries to estimate the impact of democracy and respect for human rights on various measures of women's health while controlling for confounding socio-economic factors such as income, education, fertility and healthcare. It finds that democracy and regards for human rights contribute positively to women's health outcomes, as do socio-economic variables.

  11. Statistical Reasoning and Methods in Epidemiology to Promote Individualized Health: In Celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Zeger, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiology is concerned with determining the distribution and causes of disease. Throughout its history, epidemiology has drawn upon statistical ideas and methods to achieve its aims. Because of the exponential growth in our capacity to measure and analyze data on the underlying processes that define each person's state of health, there is an emerging opportunity for population-based epidemiologic studies to influence health decisions made by individuals in ways that take into account the individuals' characteristics, circumstances, and preferences. We refer to this endeavor as "individualized health." The present article comprises 2 sections. In the first, we describe how graphical, longitudinal, and hierarchical models can inform the project of individualized health. We propose a simple graphical model for informing individual health decisions using population-based data. In the second, we review selected topics in causal inference that we believe to be particularly useful for individualized health. Epidemiology and biostatistics were 2 of the 4 founding departments in the world's first graduate school of public health at Johns Hopkins University, the centennial of which we honor. This survey of a small part of the literature is intended to demonstrate that the 2 fields remain just as inextricably linked today as they were 100 years ago.

  12. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  13. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  14. Impact of diurnal temperature range on human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xu; Jin, Liu; Song, Jian; Su, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Increasing epidemiological studies have shown that a rapid temperature change within 1 day is an independent risk factor for human health. This paper aimed to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and human health and to propose future research directions. A literature search was conducted in October 2013 using the databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. Empirical studies regarding the relationship between DTR and mortality and morbidity were included. Twenty-five relevant studies were identified, among which, 11 investigated the relationship between DTR and mortality and 14 examined the impact of DTR on morbidity. The majority of existing studies reported that DTR was significantly associated with mortality and morbidity, particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Notably, compared with adults, the elderly and children were more vulnerable to DTR effects. However, there were some inconsistencies regarding the susceptible groups, lag time, and threshold of DTR. The impact of DTR on human health may be confounded or modified by season, socioeconomic, and educational status. Further research is needed to further confirm the adverse effects of DTR in different geographical locations; examine the effects of DTR on the health of children aged one or under; explore extreme DTR effects on human health; analyze the difference of DTR effects on human health in different locations and the modified effects of potential confounding factors; and develop detailed preventive measures against large DTR, particularly for susceptible groups.

  15. Impact of diurnal temperature range on human health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xu; Jin, Liu; Song, Jian; Su, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Increasing epidemiological studies have shown that a rapid temperature change within 1 day is an independent risk factor for human health. This paper aimed to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and human health and to propose future research directions. A literature search was conducted in October 2013 using the databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. Empirical studies regarding the relationship between DTR and mortality and morbidity were included. Twenty-five relevant studies were identified, among which, 11 investigated the relationship between DTR and mortality and 14 examined the impact of DTR on morbidity. The majority of existing studies reported that DTR was significantly associated with mortality and morbidity, particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Notably, compared with adults, the elderly and children were more vulnerable to DTR effects. However, there were some inconsistencies regarding the susceptible groups, lag time, and threshold of DTR. The impact of DTR on human health may be confounded or modified by season, socioeconomic, and educational status. Further research is needed to further confirm the adverse effects of DTR in different geographical locations; examine the effects of DTR on the health of children aged one or under; explore extreme DTR effects on human health; analyze the difference of DTR effects on human health in different locations and the modified effects of potential confounding factors; and develop detailed preventive measures against large DTR, particularly for susceptible groups.

  16. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  17. [An epidemiological study of health behavior and health consciousness in smoking behavior modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuno, T; Yoshida, K; Shimada, N; Muto, T

    1990-05-01

    Among health enhancement activities which have been promoted at various worksites smoking cessation is the most common but is seldom very successful. Smoking cessation programs have almost always neglected individual background factors. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors critical to behavior modification with respect to smoking cessation at worksites. Five hundred and sixty-five chemical factory workers responded to questionnaires on their smoking behavior lifestyle, drinking habits, opinions on smoking, opinions on quitting smoking, knowledge about the effects of smoking on health, and type A behavior pattern. Two hundred thirty two male smokers (age 20-58) were chosen for the smoking cessation program, which was administered during the periodical health examinations. One year after receiving the anti-smoking education their smoking behaviors were again surveyed. Fifteen employees had quit smoking and 79 had reduced consumption by more than 10 cigarettes per day. A principal component analysis was performed in order to extract factors from the numerous items on the questionnaire. Principal component scores were compared between the group that had stopped smoking or had cut back by more than 10 cigarettes per day (Responsive Group) and the rest of the smokers (Unresponsive Group). Principal component scores, which appear to be related to levels of individual health consciousness and levels of regular exercise, were significantly higher in the responsive group than in the unresponsive group. No significant differences were noted between the two groups for principal component scores for knowledge of effects of smoking on health, drinking habits, opinions on smoking, opinions on quitting smoking, and type A behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Leadership of the Department of Epidemiology of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Its First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, David D

    2016-03-01

    This commentary reviews the contributions of each of the 7 Chairs of the Department of Epidemiology from the Department's inception in 1919 to the advent of the Centennial Celebration of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 2016. The founding Chair, Wade Hampton Frost (1919-1938), was among the handful of foundational thinkers in the discipline of epidemiology. Kenneth Maxcy (1938-1954) and Philip Sartwell (1954-1970) oversaw the Department through the epidemiologic transition from a preponderance of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases to a preponderance of noncommunicable diseases. Abraham Lilienfeld (1970-1975) and Leon Gordis (1975-1993) were perhaps best known for their mastery of teaching, influencing generations of both medical and public health students. Jonathan Samet (1994-2008) oversaw a major curriculum revision and expanded the Department significantly, and David Celentano (2008-) is working to rebalance the practice of epidemiology with the etiological foundations of epidemiology. All Chairs were a product of their times, and their research focus and portfolios influenced the direction of the Department. Future generations of Johns Hopkins students will be influenced directly or indirectly by the heritage of these Chairs' actions and those of their faculty.

  19. Human rhinovirus infections in hospitalized children: clinical, epidemiological and virological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Pham, T M H; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Shimizu, H; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology and clinical impact of human rhinovirus (HRV) are not well documented in tropical regions. This study compared the clinical characteristics of HRV to other common viral infections and investigated the molecular epidemiology of HRV in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Vietnam. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1082 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for respiratory viruses by PCR. VP4/VP2 sequences of HRV were further characterized. HRV was the most commonly detected virus (30%), in which 70% were diagnosed as either pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Children with single HRV infections presented with significantly higher rate of hypoxia than those infected with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 (12·4% vs. 3·8% and 0%, respectively, P < 0·05), higher rate of chest retraction than PIV-1 (57·3% vs. 34·5%, P = 0·028), higher rate of wheezing than influenza A (63·2% vs. 42·3%, P = 0·038). HRV-C did not differ to HRV-A clinically. The genetic diversity and changes of types over time were observed and may explain the year-round circulation of HRV. One novel HRV-A type was discovered which circulated locally for several years. In conclusion, HRV showed high genetic diversity and was associated with significant morbidity and severe ARIs in hospitalized children.

  20. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health.

  1. Failing States as Epidemiologic Risk Zones: Implications for Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Katherine

    Failed states commonly experience health and mortality crises that include outbreaks of infectious disease, violent conflict, reductions in life expectancy, and increased infant and maternal mortality. This article draws from recent research in political science, security studies, and international relations to explore how the process of state failure generates health declines and outbreaks of infectious disease. The key innovation of this model is a revised definition of "the state" as a geographically dynamic rather than static political space. This makes it easier to understand how phases of territorial contraction, collapse, and regeneration interrupt public health programs, destabilize the natural environment, reduce human security, and increase risks of epidemic infectious disease and other humanitarian crises. Better understanding of these dynamics will help international health agencies predict and prepare for future health and mortality crises created by failing states.

  2. An overview of the effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds on vertebrates, as documented in human and ecological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sally S; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2009-10-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are primary examples of persistent organic pollutants that induce toxicity in both wildlife and humans. Over the past 200 years these compounds have been almost exclusively generated by human activity and have left a string of disasters in the wake of their accidental release. Most recently, the contamination of the Irish pork supply with dioxins resulted in an international recall of all Irish pork products. Epidemiologic data on human and ecological dioxin exposures have revealed a common pattern of biological response among vertebrate species, which is mediated through activation of the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). These AhR-mediated effects include profound consequences on the vertebrate individual exposed in early life with respect to myriad developmental endpoints including neurologic, immunologic, and reproductive parameters. Humans appear to be susceptible to these effects in a manner similar to that of the laboratory and wildlife species, which have demonstrated such outcomes. Furthermore, epidemiologic data suggest that there is little or no margin of exposure for humans with respect to these developmental effects. Given these concerns, prudent public health policy should include the continued reduction of exposures.

  3. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  4. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeler Edmund J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated. A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease

  5. The watershed as a conceptual framework for the study of environmental and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Beseler, Cheryl L; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J

    2009-02-18

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

  6. Grounding & human health - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, I. A.; Jamieson, S. S.; ApSimon, H. M.; Bell, J. N. B.

    2011-06-01

    Whilst grounding is often undertaken in industry as a matter of good practice in situations where the risk of excess charge exists, little thought is usually given to the biological effects that such measures may have, or possible benefits that may arise from the more widespread application of electrostatic and other 'electromagnetic hygiene' measures in hospitals and the general built environment. Research, which is still in its infancy, indicates that grounding the human body using suitable methodologies, particularly in low electromagnetic field environments, can significantly enhance biological functioning. It is proposed that there are often a number of electrostatic and 'electromagnetic hygiene' factors that need to be addressed before the beneficial effects of grounding the human body can be fully realised in many everyday environments.

  7. [Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and Epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of low-birth-weight infants among OECD countries for over 20 years. In 2011, the proportion of low-birth-weight infants in Japan was 9.6%, whereas the mean proportion in OECD countries was only 6.8%. In particular, young Japanese women's strong desire to be thin has been pointed out as the underlying cause. Indeed, the frequencies of unhealthy thinness among third-year female junior and senior high school Japanese students have been increasing since the start of "Healthy Parents and Children 21", and both groups have reached about 20%. The hypothesis of the fetal origins of adult disease (Barker's theory) was proposed by Professor David J. Barker of Southampton University, who had conducted descriptive epidemiological studies in England and Wales and birth cohort studies in Hertfordshire, for example. In early 21st century, it became the wider theory known as the "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)", which was composed of developmental plasticity and the mismatch concept. Birth cohort studies are believed to be suitable for epidemiological studies to demonstrate the DOHaD theory. These studies and their collaborations are very popular in European countries, whereas such collaborations lagged behind in Japan. Recently, a new paradigm, "preemptive medicine", has been proposed in Japan. The importance of interdisciplinary studies focusing on fetal and childhood periods was also recommended as a political strategy. We just expect the realization of nationwide large-scale interdisciplinary research projects based on DOHaD and preemptive medicine and the establishment of a central research institute of these studies.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gloria I; Bautista, Christian T; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay; Carrion, Gladys; Arias, Sonia; Sateren, Warren B; Negrete, Monica; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, Jose L; Carr, Jean K

    2006-04-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains in Medellín, Colombia, 115 HIV-1-positive individuals who were recruited from an HIV outpatient hospital (Universitario San Vicente de Paul) during the period from July 2001 to January 2002 were genotyped. All samples were analyzed by envelope heteroduplex mobility assay and found to be subtype B. Twenty-four samples were randomly selected for sequencing of the protease and the reverse transcriptase regions; all isolates were found to be subtype B. Phylogenetic analysis of seven nearly full-length genomes showed that all samples were subtype B. This study shows that the HIV epidemic in Colombia continues to be dominated by the subtype B virus. The predominance of subtype B genotypes of HIV-1 strains in Medellín resembles what is seen in the nearby countries of Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

  9. Help Received for Perceived Needs Related to Mental Health in a Montreal (Canada Epidemiological Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify variables associated with help received in terms of information, medication, counselling and total help received (including other needs among 571 individuals needing health care services for mental health problems. Study participants were randomly selected from an epidemiological survey. Data on help received were collected using the Canadian version of the Perceived Need for Care Questionnaire (PNCQ, and were analyzed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Most help received was in the form of counselling, followed by medication and information. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who reported receiving help for all their needs were more likely to have psychological distress, to be non-verbally aggressive, to consult more healthcare professionals, to be men and to be somewhat older. Compared with individuals who received no help, those who received partial help were more likely to be not addicted to drugs or alcohol, to consult more healthcare professionals, and to be older. Healthcare services should prioritize strategies (e.g., early detection, outreach, public education on mental and addiction disorders that address barriers to help seeking among youth, as well as individuals addicted to drugs and alcohol or those presenting with aggressive behavior.

  10. Health effects for the population living near a cement plant: an epidemiological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Martina; Borgini, Alessandro; Tittarelli, Andrea; Fattore, Elena; Cau, Alessandro; Fanelli, Roberto; Crosignani, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the association between the exposure to air pollution and several adverse health effects. To evaluate the possible acute health effects of air pollution due to the emissions of a cement plant in two small municipalities in Italy (Mazzano and Rezzato), a case-control study design was used. The risks of hospital admission for cardiovascular or respiratory diseases for increasing levels of exposure to cement plant emissions were estimated, separately for adults (age>34 years) and children (0-14 years). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using unconditional regression models. Attributable risks were also calculated. Statistically significant risks were found mainly for respiratory diseases among children: OR 1.67 (95% CI 1.08-2.58) for the moderately exposed category (E1), OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.19-2.97) for the highly exposed category (E2), with an attributable risk of 38% of hospital admissions due to the exposure to cement plant exhausts. Adults had a weaker risk: OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.18-1.61) for group E1, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.56) for group E2; the attributable risk was 23%. Risks were higher for females and for the age group 35-64. These results showed an association between the exposure to plant emissions and the risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular or respiratory causes; this association was particularly strong for children.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION IN BRAZIL'S PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jambo Alves Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Several studies have reported on the epidemiology of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR in Europe and North America; however, there is currently no data relating to Brazil. Objective: To describe the incidence of ACLR in Brazil and investigate temporal trends and differences between age and sex groups. Methods: All reported ACLR cases in the public hospital system between January 2008 and December 2014 were extracted from the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in ACLR incidence in the overall population and among sex and age groups, hospitalization time, and health care costs. Results: A total of 48,241 ACLR were reported from 2008-2014 with an overall incidence of 3.49 per 100,000 persons/year. Males accounted for 82% of the procedures. The incidence of ACLR increased by 56% among males (p=0.01 and by 112% among females (p=0.001. The mean hospitalization time decreased from 2.4 days in 2008 to 1.8 day in 2014 (R2 = 0.883, p= 0.002. The total cost across all years was US$56 million, with a mean of US$1,145 per ACLR. Conclusion: Although the total incidence of ACLR in Brazil is lower compared to other countries, it has increased over the years, especially in females. The creation of an ACLR registry is necessary in the future, for more accurate control and new investigations.

  12. Review of Participatory Epidemiology Practices in Animal Health (1980-2015) and Future Practice Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allepuz, Alberto; de Balogh, Katinka; Aguanno, Ryan; Heilmann, Martin; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this study we combined an inventory of the major applications, geographic regions and diseases covered by participatory epidemiology (PE) activities in the field of animal health since 1980, together with an email discussion forum with PE practitioners from different regions of the world. The inventory included the search of peer-reviewed papers, master and technical reports, conference proceedings, manuals, training materials and projects. The search resulted in a low number of PE activity results until the year 2000, followed by a considerable increase (especially from 2012). Most of the identified activities were implemented in Africa and Asia, and focused on surveillance, disease survey and prioritization, and disease control. Seventy-nine PE practitioners working predominantly in Africa, Asia and Europe (29, 22 and 18 respectively) contributed to the email discussion forum. They proposed various modifications to the existing PE definition and discussed different issues related to the applicatoin of PE, its institutionalization for use in policy development, as well as the priorities for future development. The need to increase the number of PE trained people together with some methodological developments and the application of this methodology in developed countries, were some of the points highlighted during the forum. These factors stress the importance of further developing PE as a useful approach for engaging communities in addressing animal and related public health risks. PMID:28095472

  13. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in a large Israeli health maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Clara; Nwankwo, Chizoba; Friedman, Mira; Kenet, Gabriel; Chodick, Gabriel; Shalev, Varda

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C affects an estimated 130 million people worldwide and is a major cause of chronic liver disease. This retrospective database study aims to describe the epidemiology of HCV-infected patients in Maccabi Healthcare Services, a 2-million-member health maintenance organization in Israel. HCV was identified by cross-linking diagnoses, laboratory data, and dispensed HCV treatment (1993-2013). The point-prevalence of HCV in 2012 and annual incidence of newly-diagnosed HCV during 2003-2012 (index period) were calculated. The age-adjusted prevalence of HCV was 5.19/1,000 population (n = 10,648). The highest prevalence was found among males and in patients aged 35-54 years. Two thirds of HCV-infected patients were immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). HCV genotype 1 was predominant (67%). A total of 6,150 patients were newly diagnosed with HCV infection during the index period. The age-standardized rate of newly-diagnosed HCV declined from over 50/100,000 (2003) to 15/100,000 (2012). This rate was highest in males from the FSU, particularly for birth cohorts in 1950-70. The study results suggest that the reported incidence of HCV infection in Israel is declining, while prevalence is particularly high among FSU immigrants and genotype 1 is predominant. As the HCV treatment landscape evolves, these estimates can inform future studies and health technology assessments.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections in cervical samples from cuban women older than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Yudira; Torres, Griselda; Kourí, Vivian; Limia, Celia María; Goicolea, Adibel; Capó, Virginia; Pérez, Lissette; de la Torre, Ana Isabel; López, Ledy Xiomara; Govín, Anamays; Correa, Consuelo Beatriz; Alemán, Yoan; Alvarez, Alina Ana; Manzano, Blanca Rosa

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women. DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated. HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70-46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.

  15. Molecular epidemiology and disinfectant susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes from meat processing plants and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Even; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne; Røtterud, Ole-Johan; Vardund, Traute; Kapperud, Georg; Nesbakken, Truls

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes from the meat processing industry producing cold cuts and from cases of human listeriosis by discriminative pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A subset of the isolates was also investigated for susceptibility to a disinfectant based on quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) frequently used in the meat processing industry. The purpose of this investigation was to obtain knowledge of sources, routes of contamination and genetic types of L. monocytogenes present along the production line in the meat processing industry, and to compare meat industry isolates and human isolates. Of the 222 isolates from four meat-processing plants, 200 were from two plants responsible for nearly 50% of the production of cold cuts in the Norwegian market. The strain collection included historical routinely sampled isolates (1989-2002) and isolates systematically sampled through a one year period (November 2001 to November 2002) from fresh meat and production environments in three plants. No isolates were obtained in samples from employees (throat, faeces). Human strains included all available reported isolates from Norwegian patients in selected time periods. The L. monocytogenes PFGE data showed a large genetic heterogeneity, with isolates separated into two genetic lineages and further subdivided into 56 different PFGE profiles. Certain profiles were observed on both sides of production (before and after heat treatment) indicating contamination of end products by fresh meat or fresh meat environments. While fresh meat isolates almost exclusively grouped within lineage I, isolates from end products showed a more balanced distribution between lineages I and II. Ten profiles were common among isolates from human and meat industry. Typing of human isolates identified a previously unrecognised outbreak. Generally, a higher QAC resistance incidence was observed among isolates from the meat processing industry than

  16. Trichothecenes in the environment: relevance to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakin, Daniel L

    2003-07-20

    Trichothecenes are agriculturally important mycotoxins of relevance to human health. Fungi capable of producing trichothecenes can be found throughout the world, and include certain species of Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys. The production of mycotoxins by these toxigenic species is determined by genetic factors and the environmental conditions of their growth. The environmental fate of trichothecenes may be affected by other microorganisms that can detoxify them. Deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin are examples of trichothecenes that are detectable as natural and unavoidable contaminants of certain agricultural commodities as well as commercial foods. Current estimates of dietary exposure to deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin are below thresholds for adverse effects that have been reported in experimental animal studies, although historical epidemics of human illness have rarely been described in association with consumption of food derived from heavily contaminated grains. The toxicodynamic properties of trichothecenes include inhibition of protein synthesis and immunomodulatory effects. Very little information is available relating to their toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in humans. While there is general agreement that the diet represents an important source of human exposure to trichothecenes, risk assessment from non-dietary routes of exposure is complicated by the limited epidemiological data that are currently available.

  17. Fatal human anaplasmosis associated with macrophage activation syndrome in Greece and the Public Health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Spanakis, Nikos; Spanakos, Gregory; Pervanidou, Danai; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Campos, Elsa; Petra, Theofania; Kanellopoulos, Petros; Georgiadis, George; Antalis, Emmanouil; Kontos, Vassileios; Giannopoulos, Lambros A; Tselentis, Yiannis; Papa, Anna; Tsakris, Athanassios; Saroglou, George

    2017-02-08

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum that has the potential to spread in new geographical areas. The first fatal case of HGA in Greece is presented. Fever of unknown origin, renal and respiratory insufficiency and development of macrophage activation syndrome characterized the clinical presentation. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the groEL gene revealed the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The epidemiological and clinical features were collected during an epidemiological investigation. Public health measures were instituted by the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. The Public Health intervention required the collaboration of epidemiologists, veterinarians and microbiologists. Emphasis was given to communication activities and misconceptions concerning canines and their role in the disease. The emergence of human anaplasmosis in a new geographical area highlights the importance of disease awareness and of the need for continued support for tick and tick-borne disease surveillance networks.

  18. Commentary on "Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010." Karami S, Daugherty SE, Schonfeld SJ, Park Y, Hollenbeck AR, Grubb RL 3rd, Hofmann JN, Chow WH, Purdue MP, Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Department of Health and Human Services, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 177(12):1368-77. [Epub 2013 Apr 26]. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws406.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorjian, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend= 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation.

  19. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of human calicivirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary, 1998 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Farkas, Tibor; Berke, Tamás; Jiang, Xi; Matson, David O; Szücs, György

    2002-11-01

    Between November 1998 and November 2000, 196 stool specimens from 21 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis occurring in 11 of the 19 counties of Hungary were collected and tested for human caliciviruses. Human caliciviruses were detected and characterized by a type-common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. Twenty (95%) and 14 (67%) outbreaks were positive by EIA and RT-PCR, respectively, and 12 RT-PCR-positive outbreaks were also confirmed by sequencing. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 13 Norwalk-like virus sequences in the 12 outbreaks, including 11 Norwalk-like virus genogroup II (seven in Hawaii-like, two Lordsdale-like, one Melksham-like, and one Hillingdon-like) and two Norwalk-like virus genogroup I (related to Southampton-like and Desert Shield-like clusters) viruses. Multiple Norwalk-like virus clusters, with a predominance of Hawaii-like viruses, played an important role in nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks during the study period. This is the first country-wide molecular epidemiological investigation of human calicivirus-associated, gastroenteritis outbreaks in Hungary and Central-Eastern Europe.

  1. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought...... or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  2. Issues in the development of statistical and epidemiological data for mental health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M

    1976-05-01

    The planning of health services consists of a process that generally involves the following steps: (a) situational analysis, or the description, definition and statement of the problem, its characteristics and dimensions in relation to population and time; (b) the formulation of alternative tactical approaches to the handling and solution of the problem; (c) decision analysis or the selection of a plan; (d) discussion and implementation of the plan selected; (e) evaluation of the results achieved in relation to the problem, situations or populations concerned. This paper discusses the content of a programme of mental health services research for collecting and analysing the information needed to apply these processes to the planning of mental health services, monitoring the manner in which the plan is being implemented, and assessing its effectiveness in achieving short-term and intermediate objectives and long-term goals. Statistical and epidemiological information play an important role in these processes, particularly in the situational analysis and the evaluation processes. Illustrations have been provided of types of data that are produced in the national mental health statistics programme in the United States. Difficulties in using such data to answer questions concerning the needs for mental health services, and manpower requirements for delivering services to meet these needs are discussed. In many instances, currently available data are quite inadequate for answering key issues such as these, plus others related to living arrangements of the population, the effect of services on the persons who receive them, their families and the communities in which they live. Thus, much still remains to be done to develop systematic, comparative morbidity statistics on the incidence, duration and prevalence of mental disorders in the general population, on the needs for mental health services, and on the effectiveness of our efforts to prevent disorders that can be

  3. Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a potential general health indicator for cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Aznar, Francisco Javier; Raga, Juan Antonio; Jepson, Paul D; Duignan, Pádraig; Deaville, Rob; Flach, Leonardo; Viddi, Francisco; Baker, John R; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula; Echegaray, Mónica; Genovo, Tilen; Reyes, Julio; Felix, Fernando; Gaspar, Raquel; Ramos, Renata; Peddemors, Vic; Sanino, Gian Paolo; Siebert, Ursula

    2009-07-23

    The presence of tattoo skin disease (TSD) was examined in 1392 free-ranging and dead odontocetes comprising 17 species from the Americas, Europe, South Africa, New Zealand and Greenland. We investigated whether TSD prevalence varied with sex, age and health status. TSD was encountered in cetaceans from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans as well as in those from the North, Mediterranean and Tasman Seas. No clear patterns related to geography and host phylogeny were detected, except that prevalence of TSD in juveniles and, in 2 species (dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis), in adults was remarkably high in samples from Peru. Environmental factors and virus properties may be responsible for this finding. Sex did not significantly influence TSD prevalence except in the case of Peruvian P. spinipinnis. Generally, there was a pattern of TSD increase in juveniles compared to calves, attributed to the loss of maternal immunity. Also, in most samples, juveniles seemed to have a higher probability of suffering TSD than adults, presumably because more adults had acquired active immunity following infection. This holo-endemic pattern was inverted in poor health short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from the British Isles, and in Chilean dolphins Cephalorhynchus eutropia from Patagonia, where adults showed a higher TSD prevalence than juveniles. Very large tattoos were seen in some adult odontocetes from the SE Pacific, NE Atlantic and Portugal's Sado Estuary, which suggest impaired immune response. The epidemiological pattern of TSD may be an indicator of cetacean population health.

  4. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  5. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  6. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  7. Human resources for health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mohan; Rao, Krishna D; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Sundararaman, Thiagarajan

    2011-02-12

    India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. Bringing qualified health workers to rural, remote, and underserved areas is very challenging. Many Indians, especially those living in rural areas, receive care from unqualified providers. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system, and the resources to train them are still inadequate. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population, and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector--two issues that the government urgently needs to address. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. At the same time, additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance, quantity, and quality of nursing, medical, and public health education in the country.

  8. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  9. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in Romania can be achieved only through consensus orchestrated prioritizing people's attitudes and values. In order to achieve a maximum performance, cultural change must precede structural and functional changes, such an approach leading to a lasting transformation. Cultural change is not about social traditions, history, language, art, etc.., But those on the behavior, mentality, attitude towards work, economy and society. Sustainable development have to mean quality and achieve only limited natural capital, social and anthropogenic own or attracted. A drawing resources must be addressed by cost and their global rarity. Sustainable development for Romania, represents the effective management of resources in the national competitiveness and national foreign goods and services. Human health suppliers, health organizations that offer health services and those who need these services, meet on a market, called health services market, whose mechanism has features different from the other markets, not only from the point of view of the two forces, demand and supply, but also from the third party who pays. In the context of globalization, human development, defined as a process of people’s expanding possibilities to choose, cannot exist without an appropriate health. People often make choices in the economic, social and political fields, situated in the centre of development policies. From the human health perspective, attention is aimed at quality of the economic development, and not quantity, in three critical domains: expectation and quality of life, educational level and access to all the necessary economic resources in order to lead a decent life.

  10. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of human enterovirus serotype 68 in Thailand, 2006-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Linsuwanon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Publications worldwide have reported on the re-occurrence of human enterovirus 68 (EV68, a rarely detected pathogen usually causing respiratory illness. However, epidemiological data regarding this virus in particular on the Asian continent has so far been limited. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We investigated the epidemiology and genetic variability of EV68 infection among Thai children with respiratory illnesses from 2006-2011 (n = 1810. Semi-nested PCR using primer sets for amplification of the 5'-untranslated region through VP2 was performed for rhino-enterovirus detection. Altogether, 25 cases were confirmed as EV68 infection indicating a prevalence of 1.4% in the entire study population. Interestingly, the majority of samples were children aged >5 years (64%. Also, co-infection with other viruses was found in 28%, while pandemic H1N1 influenza/2009 virus was the most common co-infection. Of EV68-positive patients, 36% required hospitalizations with the common clinical presentations of fever, cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. The present study has shown that EV68 was extremely rare until 2009 (0.9%. An increasing annual prevalence was found in 2010 (1.6% with the highest detection frequency in 2011 (4.3%. Based on analysis of the VP1 gene, the evolutionary rate of EV68 was estimated at 4.93 × 10(-3 substitutions/site/year. Major bifurcation of the currently circulating EV68 strains occurred 66 years ago (1945.31 with (1925.95-1960.4695% HPD. Among the current lineages, 3 clusters of EV68 were categorized based on the different molecular signatures in the BC and DE loops of VP1 combined with high posterior probability values. Each cluster has branched off from their common ancestor at least 36 years ago (1975.78 with (1946.13-1984.9795% HPD. CONCLUSION: Differences in epidemiological characteristic and seasonal profile of EV68 have been found in this study. Results from Bayesian phylogenetic investigations also revealed that EV68 should be

  11. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  12. Current outlook of childhood cancer epidemiology in a middle-income country under a public health insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Velasco-Hidalgo, Liliana; Zapata-Tarrés, Marta; Cárdenas-Cardos, Rocío; Aguilar-Ortiz, Marco R

    2017-02-01

    In Mexico, childhood cancer (0-18 years) is treated in a multidisciplinary way while providing care for more than half of the affected children through a public medical insurance. This insurance is given to all children who do not have any health care coverage in Mexico. This program is offered to the poorest of all Mexicans. All the children with this disease are submitted to pathology diagnosis and treatment according to national treatment protocols from 57 accredited medical institutions. From 2007 to 2015, a total of 24,039 children with cancer have been registered; the male gender predominates by 55%. The highest incidence was in the group aged between 0 and 4 years. Every year, there has been an increment in registration. In 2015, there were 3,433 new patients with an incidence of 150.1/million. In the same year, the incidence for all types of leukemia increased to 89.5/million. But for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the incidence was found to be 79.8/million, which is extremely high. The mortality rate for all these patients in 2015 was 5.3/100,000. However, with regard to children aged between 15 and 18 years, the mortality rate was 8.5/100,000. Abandonment rate was 10%, and there were nine state institutions that had a mortality rate between 25% and 50% among their patients. Coincidentally, as per the Human Development Index, the parameters for education, health, and income were low for those nine institutions. The purpose of this work is to show the epidemiology and the burden we are facing due to this disease.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of sexually transmitted human papillomavirus in a self referred group of women in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an STI clinic with visible external genital warts (EGW). Scrapings were taken from visible external genital warts (EGW). These scrapings were analysed by PCR for the presence of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then genotyped by means of a commercially available assay (LiPA). A comparison of genotyping results determined by the LiPA assay and direct amplicon DNA sequencing was also performed. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients out of 105 samples (88%) had detectable levels of HPV DNA. The majority of individuals with EGW (66%) showed the presence of two or more genotypes. The most common HPV genotypes present in the study population were HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-53. Potential effects of vaccination on HPV molecular epidemiology indicate that 40% of the patients could have been protected from the high risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of external genital warts in women aged between 18 and 34 from Ireland based on results from a LiPA assay. The study shows that most individuals are infected with multiple genotypes including those with high oncogenic potential and that the newly available HPV vaccines could have a significant impact on prevalence of the most common HPV genotypes in this study population.

  14. Epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in older adults in Mexico: challenges for health planning and management in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Duarte, Maria Beatriz; Cuadra, Silvia Magali

    2016-05-30

    This study estimated the epidemiological and financial indicators of hypertension in order to identify challenges in strategic planning and management for health systems in Latin America. This is a longitudinal study with a population base of 187 326 reported cases of older adults with hypertension, diagnosed at public health institutions in Mexico. The cost-evaluation method that was used was based on the instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and financial consequences for 2015-2017, time series analyses and probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Regarding epidemiological changes for 2015 versus 2017, an increase of 8-12% is expected (p financial requirements. The total amount estimated for hypertension in 2015 (in US dollars) was $1 575 671 330. It included $747 527 259 as direct costs and $829 144 071 as indirect costs. If the risk factors and the different healthcare services for older adults remain as they are currently, the financial consequences of epidemiological changes in older adults will have a major impact on the users' pockets, following in order of importance, on social security providers and on public assistance providers. The challenges and implications of our findings in the context of universal coverage reforms in Latin America reinforce the urgent need to develop more and better strategic planning for the prevention of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Human trichinellosis in children from Timis County, Romania: epidemiological features from a retrospective study conducted between 1990 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Iacobiciu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by the ingestion of inadequately cooked pork containing Trichinella larvae, has been a serious health problem in Timis, the largest of the Romanian counties. The authors conducted a survey on trichinellosis in children from Timis County, emphasising epidemiological aspects. Medical records from 106 children who were hospitalised at the Victor Babes Infectious Diseases Hospital in Timisoara from 1990 to 2006 were investigated. Children affected by trichinellosis were predominantly in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (34.9%. Most patients (59.43% were inhabitants of urban areas and 59.43% of cases were males. Winter was the season when the number of cases peaked (76.42%. The highest prevalence of disease (18.87% was recorded in 1994. For 38.68% of the patients, eosinophilia ranged between 10% and 20%. The length of hospitalisation ranged from 8 to 14 days in 50.94% of cases. In recent years, human trichinellosis has decreased in Timis County as a result of an improvement in the implementation of hygiene measures. The highest prevalence of the disease recorded in 1994 can be explained by an economic transition period when national pig farms began to close. Winter was the season with the highest prevalence because people eat a lot of pork during the traditional holidays.

  16. The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, K J; Lim, C C W; Al-Hamzawi, A O; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S E; Gureje, O; Hisateru, T; Hu, C; Huang, Y; Karam, E; Kiejna, A; Lepine, J P; Navarro-Mateu, F; Oakley Browne, M; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Ten Have, M L; Torres, Y; Xavier, M; Zarkov, Z; Kessler, R C; Scott, K M; de Jonge, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data

  17. Epidemiology of human influenza A(H7N9) infection in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yiu-Hong; To, May-Kei; Lam, Tsz-Sum; Yau, Shui-Wah; Leung, Oi-Shan; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a case series study to review the epidemiology of human influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong. We reviewed case records of confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong in the 2013-2014 winter season. We compared the median viral shedding duration and interval from illness onset to initiation of oseltamivir treatment between severe and mild cases. We estimated the incubation period of influenza A(H7N9) virus from cases with a single known date of poultry exposure. A total of 10 cases were reported and all were imported infection from Mainland China. Four patients died and the cause of death was related to influenza A(H7N9) infection in two patients. The median interval from illness onset to initiation of oseltamivir treatment for the severe cases (4.5 days) was significantly longer than the mild cases (2 days; p = 0.025). Severe cases had a significantly longer viral shedding duration than mild cases (p = 0.028). The median incubation period for cases with a single known exposure date was 4 days. Nasopharyngeal aspirate taken from the 88 close contacts of the 10 patients all tested negative for influenza A virus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Delayed administration of antiviral treatment may be associated with a more severe illness for influenza A(H7N9) infection. Despite our aggressive contact tracing policy with laboratory testing of all close contacts, no secondary case was identified which implied that the potential of human-to-human transmission of the circulating influenza A(H7N9) virus remains low. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  19. Differences in clinical and epidemiological features between tuberculosis cases notified in primary and tertiary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Curbani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare, on the basis of clinical, radiological and epidemiological aspects, all cases of tuberculosis (TB diagnosed in the tertiary healthcare services to those diagnosed at the primary healthcare providers in the municipality of Vitória-ES. Methods: Cross- sectional, retrospective study, with analysis of the SINAN’s database, to identify all cases among residents of the municipality of Vitória-ES and diagnosed with TB in 2006 and 2007. Patients were divided into two groups: cases diagnosed in Primary Health Care (PHC and those diagnosed in Tertiary Health Care (THC. For statistical analysis, it was used the software STATA CORP 9.0. Results: 338 patients were identified; 207 (61.24% of these were diagnosed in PHC and 131 (38.76% in THC. The pulmonary form was predominant in both groups. However, the extrapulmonary form presented higher frequency in the THC group. When analyzing the results of sputum smear, the positivity was found in 114 (55.07% patients of the PHC and in 57 (43.51% of THC. Regarding the positive cultures, 119 (57.48% patients diagnosed in PHC and only 38 (29% in THC tested positive. Conclusion: There is evidence of high proportion of patients with TB communicated as “new cases” in THC in the city and it was observed a predominance of the pulmonary form in both groups - PHC and THC, although the extrapulmonary form was more frequent in the latter. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p251

  20. Benefits of Wine Polyphenols on Human Health: A Review

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    Roxana Banc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents  an overview of the health benefits of wine polyphenols, induced by a moderate consumption. Several studies have shown that moderate wine intake may have many beneficial effects on human health and these effects are mainly attributed to the phenolic derivatives, especially flavonoids. Beside flavonoid compounds, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids and stilbenes are important non-flavonoid compounds present in grapes and wine. In the present review, the biological role of these classes of polyphenols in wine is briefly introduced, together with the knowledge on their bioavailability. The health-protective properties of wines are mainly due to antioxidant activities and capability to eliminate free radicals of the phenolic compounds. Additionally, these compounds (e.g. catechin and their oligomers and proanthocyanidins, quercetin, resveratrol have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate red wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including lung, esophagus, stomach, colon, endometrium, ovarian and prostate cancer. The bioavailability of phenolic compounds differs largely among different polyphenol molecules, thus the most abundant polyphenols in wines are not necessarily those leading to the highest levels of active metabolites in target tissues. Therefore, since wine is a complex mixture, it is likely that a multitude of chemical constituents, as well as their metabolites, act synergistically on human health.

  1. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) - III

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III (NESARC-III) is a nationally representative survey of 46,500 adult Americans that collected...

  2. Molecular typing of Salmonella from Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, showing the epidemiological relationship between poultry and human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góis, P B P; Carneiro, M R P; Jain, S; Santos, M I S; Batista, M V A; Cândido, A L

    2015-09-25

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has been widely used for epidemiological and phylogenetic purposes ow-ing to its rapidity and efficiency. The aim of this study was to perform genome typing of Salmonella samples isolated from different sources by RAPD profiling. Thirty-three Salmonella samples from the bacterial collection of the Laboratório de Virologia Comparada, Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Brazil, and two standard samples were used. RAPD profiling was conducted using six primers of the Ready-To-Go RAPD system. The amplified products were electro-phoresed on 5% polyacrylamide gel and silver-stained. RAPD analysis resulted in reproducible and stable banding patterns and showed high genetic diversity among the isolated strains. The Primer P1-generated dendrogram showed an epidemiologic relationship between the human and poultry isolated samples, highlighting the usefulness of RAPD for molecular typing and epidemiological studies.

  3. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H S G; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

  4. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific

  5. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  6. Nearby green space and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Vries, de Sjerp

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific recognition that contact with nature in general, and contact with urban green more specific, have the potential to positively contribute to human health. For the purpose of developing healthy urban neighbourhoods, this raises the question how to take scientific evidenc

  7. Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Runkle, Jennifer R; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A; Bennett, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

  8. Environment and health with respect to a poverty-related disease: the epidemiology of trachoma in Spain, 1925-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Bernabeu-Mestre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma currently represents one of the three main causes of ‘avoidable' blindness and reaches intolerable dimensions in many developing countries. It was endemic in many regions of eastern Spain until well into the twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to analyze the epidemiological development of this disease in contemporary Spain; to examine its determining factors, particularly environmental and sanitary/health factors, and, finally, to study the health care, environmental and socio-economic measures that led to its control and eradication. We believe that the historical approach not only highlights the role of environmental factors in the development of trachoma, but may also aid in understanding the current epidemiology of trachoma.

  9. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Ould Ahmed Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus.Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been per­formed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75% and camels (76% was significantly higher than that of sheep (24% and cattle (23% (P<0.0001. Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localiza­tions in hu­mans (50% and camels (72.7% and in the liver in sheep (76.1% and cattle (82.3%.Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s diversity of E. granulosus.

  10. Diversity and epidemiology of plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae from human and non-human reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria

    The family of Enterobacteriaceae is comprised of Gram negative bacteria found in a variety of natural environments as well as in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and many animals including diverse mammals, birds and reptiles. Three species of the enteric bacteria are largely responsible....... It is believed that these practices lead to the generation of reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes in the GI tracts of intensively reared food - production animals like pigs, poultry and cattle. Moreover, it has been previously shown that the bla genes (e.g. genes encoding resistance to ß-lactams) could...... be transmitted between different bacteria on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids and variety of transposons. Evidences were also published indicating that zoonotic bacteria like E. coli or S. enterica resistant to diverse antimicrobials and harbouring plasmids might have been transmitted from farm...

  11. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  12. [Health examination in future at the era of low tuberculosis incidence--from contacts examination toward active epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hideo; Shirai, Chika

    2013-03-01

    Japan is still "intermediate burden" country as medium-incidence of tuberculosis (TB). But the incidence of TB varies by public health units. The priority for TB control would be lowering in the areas where the incidence of TB is relatively low. In addition, younger age groups get low prevalence of TB infection than elderly persons. As a result, fewer experiences for TB diagnosis and treatment in the hospital and the medical facility would cause the delay in the detection of TB patients which eventually cause outbreaks. Although there are differences in population density and population mobility between urban and rural areas, the socially economic vulnerable patients and foreign patients are the common risks. Any public health units' policies of TB should correspond to the individual situation. At the era of low tuberculosis incidence, the infection risk is to be "From ubiquitous to the uneven distribution". This makes TB detection much more difficult. At this symposium, each speaker presented the case for actually experienced with QFT test and/or VNTR analysis. They mainly focused on the paradigm shift in TB control which is indispensable for resolving the gaps in regional differences and the differences in diagnostic capability. Although the cases in this symposium were not for the low incidence situation, the pioneering approaches presented here would boost the future application of QFT and VNTR analysis nationwide. The discussions also partially covered the technical infrastructure for molecular epidemiology which covers the whole country. By making full use of QFT test and VNTR analysis as a contact screening tool, we can appropriately understand the risk of TB infection in the region from a buildup of bacteria and patient information. Now is the time to prepare for. Active surveillance of TB by this way would clarify the risk of the disease and lead to the advocacy essential for the resolution. 1. Current situation and challenge of contact survey by using QFT

  13. [Health challenges as the second millenium is ending. Conceptual epidemiology, social pathology, medicine and professional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Suárez, M

    1990-01-01

    In this article it is outlined the work of doctor Bustamante in fighting against diseases such as yellow fever, typhus, malaria, and smallpox; and the development and impel that this professional gave to preventive and social medicine is pointed out. It is established that health care professionals currently must not only highly studied and prepared, as they should manage all features related with public health, but also change-men-and-women who are capable to influence future generations, which will be the responsible in relocating men at the equilibrium point concerned to their health. Said equilibrium point is not only modified in its biopsychosocial aspect, but also its essence is deeply affected. This paper is a warning to physicians to fight together in response to humanity, that has set their confidence in them, as the current problem of drugs and dependence to drugs unhinges everything wholeness. To doctor Suarez is intolerable that, in spite of technological advances in the world, yet exist deaths caused by pneumonia or diarrhea. The hazards of the century are frightened: nuclear war and AIDS; but the characteristics that have distinguished human species and allowed its survival and superation are trusted: mental activity, ability of judgement, and consciousness; which are valuable for a deep philosophic discussion that allows us to continue our advance. An enumeration of the medicine achievements in this century is made.

  14. Identification of Climatic Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Human West Nile Virus Infections in Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air

  15. A different look at the epidemiological paradox: self-rated health, perceived social cohesion, and neighborhood immigrant context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2014-11-01

    We use data from Waves 1 and 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to examine the effects of neighborhood immigrant concentration, race-ethnicity, nativity, and perceived cohesion on self-rated physical health. We limit our sample to adults whose addresses do not change between waves in order to explore neighborhood effects. Foreign-born Latinos were significantly less likely to report fair or poor health than African Americans and U.S.-born whites, but did not differ from U.S.-born Latinos. The main effect of immigrant concentration was not significant, but it interacted with nativity status to predict health: U.S.-born Latinos benefited more from neighborhood immigrant concentration than foreign-born Latinos. Perceived cohesion predicted health but immigrant concentration did not moderate the effect. Finally, U.S.-born Latinos differed from others in the way cohesion is associated with their health. Results are discussed within the framework of the epidemiological paradox.

  16. First human rabies case in French Guiana, 2008: epidemiological investigation and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Meynard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species, closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.

  17. The sero-epidemiology of human papillomavirus among Caucasian transplant recipients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive study of high-risk mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV, little is known of the epidemiology of cutaneous HPV. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London and Oxford, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 425 Caucasian OTR without skin cancer. Results Overall, 86% of participants were seropositive to at least one HPV: 41% to mucosal alpha types, 33% to cutaneous alpha types, 57% to alpha types, 56% to beta, 47% to gamma types and 45% to other types (nu, mu, HPV101 and 103. In both centres, the most common types were HPV6 (33% and 26% for London and Oxford respectively, HPV8 (24% and 18%, HPV15 (26% and 29%, HPV17 (25% and 21%, HPV38 (23% and 21%, HPV49 (19% and 21%, HPV4 (27% and 23%, HPV65 (30% and 25%, HPV95 (22% and 20%, HPV1 (33% and 24% and HPV63 (28% and 17%. The seroprevalence of 8 HPV types differed significantly (P Conclusion Findings for mucosal HPV types were in line with results from previous studies. We observed differences in HPV seroprevalence between organ transplant recipients from two geographically close centres but no clear risk factor was found associated with cutaneous HPV seropositivity among organ transplant recipients. These findings have implications for interpretation of future seroepidemiology studies addressing the association between HPV and cutaneous SCC in OTR populations.

  18. The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus infection among women and men having sex with women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Alan G

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this review is to summarise epidemiological data that support an understanding of the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) among women and men having sex with women (MSW). HPV is a common infection of the anal canal among women and MSW. Although there have been a limited number of studies to date, both oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV genotypes commonly occur among these populations even when individuals do not report receptive anal sex. Genotype distribution is quite diverse, with recent studies typically detecting more than two dozen genotypes in the anal canal in samples of women and MSW. Factors most consistently associated with HPV in the anal canal among both women and MSW are lifetime number of sexual partners and detection of HPV at the genitals. The common finding of genotypic concordance between the genitals and anal canal in women and MSW, and the infectious nature of HPV, in addition to a limited number of studies offering empirical evidence of anal-to-genital self-inoculation and evidence of HPV hand carriage, may help explain the detection of HPV in the anal canal outside the context of receptive anal sex. HPV vaccination has been shown to reduce anal HPV infection among women and is also a promising prevention strategy among MSW.

  19. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Ha, Ngo; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Horby, Peter; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Zhu, Xiaotong; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Hien, Tran Tinh; Zamora, Javier; Schultsz, Constance; Wertheim, Heiman Frank Louis; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.

  20. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Moser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD. It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin’s effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality.

  1. Epidemiological determinants of occupational exposure to HIV, HBV and HCV in health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadadi A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers (HCWs are at substantial risk of acquiring bloodborne pathogen infections through contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials. The main objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiological characteristics of occupational exposure to blood/body fluids, related risk factors of such exposure, and hepatitis B vaccination status among HCWs."nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2004 to June 2005 at three university hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Using a structured interview, we questioned HCWs who had the potential for high-risk exposure during the year preceding the study."nResults: With a total number of 467 exposures (52.9% and an annual rate of 0.5 exposures per HCW, 391 (43% of the 900 HCWs had at least one occupational exposure to blood and other infected fluids during the previous year. The highest rate of occupational exposure was found among nurses (26% and the housekeeping staff (20%. These exposures most commonly occurred in the medical and emergency wards (23% and 21%, respectively. The rate of exposure in HCWs with less than five years of experience was 54%. Percutaneous injury was reported in 280 participants (59%. The history of hepatitis B vaccination was positive in 85.93% of the exposed HCWs. Sixty-one percent had used gloves at the time of exposure. Hand washing was reported in 91.4% and consultation with an infectious disease specialist in 29.4%. There were 72 exposures to HIV, HBV and HCV; exposure to HBV was the most common. In 237 of the enrolled cases, the source was unknown. Job type, years of experience and hospital ward were the risk factors for exposure."nConclusion: Education, protective barriers and vaccination are important in the prevention of viral transmission among HCWs.

  2. Isocyanates and human health: Multi-stakeholder information needs and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockey, JE; Redlich, CA; Streicher, R; Pfahles-Hutchens, A; Hakkinen, PJ; Ellison, GL; Harber, P; Utell, M; Holland, J; Comai, A; White, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Objective Outline the knowledge gaps and research priorities identified by a broad-base of stakeholders involved in the planning and participation of an international conference and research agenda workshop on isocyanates and human health held in Potomac, Maryland in April 2013. Methods A multi-modal iterative approach was employed for data collection including pre-conference surveys, review of a 2001 consensus conference on isocyanates, oral and poster presentations, focused break-out sessions, panel discussions and post-conference research agenda workshop. Results Participants included representatives of consumer and worker health, health professionals, regulatory agencies, academic and industry scientists, labor, and trade associations. Conclusions Recommendations were summarized regarding knowledge gaps and research priorities in the following areas: worker and consumer exposures; toxicology, animal models, and biomarkers; human cancer risk; environmental exposure and monitoring; and respiratory epidemiology and disease, and occupational health surveillance. PMID:25563538

  3. Health – promoting effect of quercetin in human diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kobylińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a plant flavonoid phytochemical exhibiting a broad spectrum of properties i.a. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. However, the effect of quercetin is not clear. This compound at low concentrations can stimulate proliferation of human cells, so it can be a potential drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and in high concentrations, it induces apoptosis thereby eliminating the infected or abnormal cells and can serve as a potential anticancer drug with wide clinical application. Action of quercetin can be explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signalling system. Due to its widespread occurrence in the plant world, it is an integral component of the human diet. The dietary quercetin occurs most often in the form of β-glycosides connected mostly with rutinose, rhamnose and glucose. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of flavonoids, including quercetin, ranges from 3 to 70 mg. Epidemiological studies confirm an inverse correlation between the consumption of flavonoids and the incidence of lifestyle diseases and tumor formation. Published data indicate that consumption of foods rich in flavonoids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, flavonoids - including quercetin – seem to be an interesting pro-health agent.

  4. [Health--promoting effect of quercetin in human diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylińska, Agnieszka; Janas, Krystyna M

    2015-01-09

    Quercetin is a plant flavonoid phytochemical exhibiting a broad spectrum of properties i.a. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. However, the effect of quercetin is not clear. This compound at low concentrations can stimulate proliferation of human cells, so it can be a potential drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and in high concentrations, it induces apoptosis thereby eliminating the infected or abnormal cells and can serve as a potential anticancer drug with wide clinical application. Action of quercetin can be explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signalling system. Due to its widespread occurrence in the plant world, it is an integral component of the human diet. The dietary quercetin occurs most often in the form of β-glycosides connected mostly with rutinose, rhamnose and glucose. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of flavonoids, including quercetin, ranges from 3 to 70 mg. Epidemiological studies confirm an inverse correlation between the consumption of flavonoids and the incidence of lifestyle diseases and tumor formation. Published data indicate that consumption of foods rich in flavonoids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, flavonoids - including quercetin - seem to be an interesting pro-health agent.

  5. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Ukraine, an emergent zoonosis: epidemiological report of 1465 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamatin, Rusłan V; Pavlikovska, Tamara M; Sagach, Olga S; Nikolayenko, Svitlana M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O; Masny, Aleksander; Cielecka, Danuta; Konieczna-Sałamatin, Joanna; Conn, David Bruce; Golab, Elzbieta

    2013-12-01

    The filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens is currently considered to be one of the most extensively spreading human and animal parasites in Europe. In Ukraine, reporting cases of dirofilariasis has been mandatory since 1975, and the disease was included in the national surveillance system for notifiable diseases. Up until December 31st 2012, a total of 1533 cases have been registered, with 1465 cases occurring within the previous 16 years. Most of the cases of dirofilariasis were registered in 6 regions: Kyiv, and the Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Chernihiv oblasts. In the years 1997-2002 the highest incidence rate was noted in the Kherson oblast in the south of the country (9.79 per 100 000 people), and the lowest in western Ukraine (0.07-1.68 per 100 000 people). D. repens infections were registered in all oblasts. Parasitic lesions were most often located in the head, the subconjunctival tissue and around the eyes. D. repens lesions were also found in the limbs, torso, male sexual organs, and female mammary glands. Dirofilariasis was diagnosed in persons aged from 11 months to 90 years old, most often among people between 21-40 years of age. Most patients had only one parasitic skin lesion; the majority of isolated nematodes were female. The results of our analysis point to a constant increase in D. repens dirofilariasis incidence in humans in Ukraine. Despite educational efforts, infections have become more frequent and the territory in which the disease occurs has enlarged to encompass the whole of Ukraine. Nevertheless, the Ukrainian sanitary-epidemiological services managed to achieve some measure of success, e.g. by creating a registration system for D. repens infections and establishing proper diagnostics for the disease.

  6. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI. To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four types of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs, patients with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI were studied in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=4755 were collected and tested from children and adults with ARTI over a 26-month period, and 4447 of 4755 (93.5% patients’ clinical presentations were recorded for further analysis. Results Of 4755 patients tested, 178 (3.7% were positive for HPIV. Ninety-nine (2.1% samples were positive for HPIV-3, 58 (1.2% for HPIV-1, 19 (0.4% for HPIV-2 and 8 (0.2% for HPIV-4. 160/178 (88.9% HPIV-positive samples were from paediatric patients younger than 5 years old, but no infant under one month of age was HPIV positive. Seasonal peaks of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 occurred as autumn turned to winter and summer turned to autumn. HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 were detected less frequently, and their frequency of isolation increased when the frequency of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 declined. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and more “hoarseness” (p=0.015, “abnormal pulmonary breathing sound” (p Conclusions HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and similar clinical manifestations were found in the patients with four different types of HPIVs. The study suggested pathogenic activity of HPIV in gastrointestinal illness. The clinical presentation of HPIV infection may differ by patient age.

  7. Plant science and human nutrition: challenges in assessing health-promoting properties of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Mithen, Richard F

    2011-07-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants.

  8. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health.

  9. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interview with Dr. Jennifer S Smith Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Jennifer S.Smith is an Associate Professor of Department of Epidemiology,Gillings School of Global Public Health,University of North Carolina.Dr.Smith is also affiliated with the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center(Cancer Epidemiology),UNC Center for AIDS Research,and the UNC Center for Women’s Health Research.Dr.Smith has conducted research on HPV infection

  11. Chapter 2. Fasciola, lymnaeids and human fascioliasis, with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, María Adela; Bargues, María Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Fascioliasis, caused by liver fluke species of the genus Fasciola, has always been well recognized because of its high veterinary impact but it has been among the most neglected diseases for decades with regard to human infection. However, the increasing importance of human fascioliasis worldwide has re-launched interest in fascioliasis. From the 1990s, many new concepts have been developed regarding human fascioliasis and these have furnished a new baseline for the human disease that is very different to a simple extrapolation from fascioliasis in livestock. Studies have shown that human fascioliasis presents marked heterogeneity, including different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns in different endemic areas. This heterogeneity, added to the present emergence/re-emergence of the disease both in humans and animals in many regions, confirms a worrying global scenario. The huge negative impact of fascioliasis on human communities demands rapid action. When analyzing how better to define control measures for endemic areas differing at such a level, it would be useful to have genetic markers that could distinguish each type of transmission pattern and epidemiological situation. Accordingly, this chapter covers aspects of aetiology, geographical distribution, epidemiology, transmission and control in order to obtain a solid baseline for the interpretation of future results. The origins and geographical spread of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in both the ruminant pre-domestication times and the livestock post-domestication period are analyzed. Paleontological, archaeological and historical records, as well as genetic data on recent dispersal of livestock species, are taken into account to establish an evolutionary framework for the two fasciolids across all continents. Emphasis is given to the distributional overlap of both species and the roles of transportation, transhumance and trade in the different overlap situations. Areas with only one Fasciola

  12. Applications of deuterium oxide in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bila, Wendell Costa; Mariano, Reysla Maria da Silveira; Silva, Valmin Ramos; Santos, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira

    2017-02-06

    The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.

  13. Organic Fertilisation, Soil Quality and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chapters: 1) Convergence or divide in the movement for sustainable and just agriculture. 2) No-till agriculture in the USA. 3) Organic fertilizers in sub-Saharan farming systems. 4) Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. 5) Pseudomonas and microbes for disease-suppressive soils. 6) Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation, Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity. 7) Sustainable agricultural NP turnover in the 27 European countries. 8) Tomato production for human health, not...

  14. A dynamic human health risk assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Umesh; Singh, Gurmit; Pant, A B

    2012-05-01

    An online human health risk assessment system (OHHRAS) has been designed and developed in the form of a prototype database-driven system and made available for the population of India through a website - www.healthriskindia.in. OHHRAS provide the three utilities, that is, health survey, health status, and bio-calculators. The first utility health survey is functional on the basis of database being developed dynamically and gives the desired output to the user on the basis of input criteria entered into the system; the second utility health status is providing the output on the basis of dynamic questionnaire and ticked (selected) answers and generates the health status reports based on multiple matches set as per advise of medical experts and the third utility bio-calculators are very useful for the scientists/researchers as online statistical analysis tool that gives more accuracy and save the time of user. The whole system and database-driven website has been designed and developed by using the software (mainly are PHP, My-SQL, Deamweaver, C++ etc.) and made available publically through a database-driven website (www.healthriskindia.in), which are very useful for researchers, academia, students, and general masses of all sectors.

  15. Simulating Nationwide Pandemics: Applying the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis System to Human Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombroski, M; Melius, C; Edmunds, T; Banks, L E; Bates, T; Wheeler, R

    2008-09-24

    This study uses the Multi-scale Epidemiologic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) system developed for foreign animal diseases to assess consequences of nationwide human infectious disease outbreaks. A literature review identified the state of the art in both small-scale regional models and large-scale nationwide models and characterized key aspects of a nationwide epidemiological model. The MESA system offers computational advantages over existing epidemiological models and enables a broader array of stochastic analyses of model runs to be conducted because of those computational advantages. However, it has only been demonstrated on foreign animal diseases. This paper applied the MESA modeling methodology to human epidemiology. The methodology divided 2000 US Census data at the census tract level into school-bound children, work-bound workers, elderly, and stay at home individuals. The model simulated mixing among these groups by incorporating schools, workplaces, households, and long-distance travel via airports. A baseline scenario with fixed input parameters was run for a nationwide influenza outbreak using relatively simple social distancing countermeasures. Analysis from the baseline scenario showed one of three possible results: (1) the outbreak burned itself out before it had a chance to spread regionally, (2) the outbreak spread regionally and lasted a relatively long time, although constrained geography enabled it to eventually be contained without affecting a disproportionately large number of people, or (3) the outbreak spread through air travel and lasted a long time with unconstrained geography, becoming a nationwide pandemic. These results are consistent with empirical influenza outbreak data. The results showed that simply scaling up a regional small-scale model is unlikely to account for all the complex variables and their interactions involved in a nationwide outbreak. There are several limitations of the methodology that should be explored in future

  16. Human epidemiology: a review of fiber type and characteristics in the development of malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration of the human epidemiology of diseases arising from exposure to naturally occurring and man-made mineral fibers encompasses the several forms of asbestos (chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite-actinolite), other naturally occurring silicates (talc, sepiolite, erionite, attapulgite, vermiculite, and wollastonite), and man-made mineral fibers (glass continuous filament, glass/rock/slag insulation wools, ceramic and other refractory fibers, and glass microfibers...

  17. [Analysis on the epidemiological features of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y J; Lai, S J; Chen, Q L; Mu, D; Li, Y; Li, X X; Yin, W W; Yu, H J

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human brucellosis in northern and southern areas of China, and to develop national strategies for brucellosis prevention and control. Methods: Individual data on human brucellosis was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System to describe the situation of brucellosis in China during 2015-2016. Epidemiological features of the disease in northern and southern areas of China were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 125 cases were reported in mainland China during 2015-2016, with an average incidence rate as 3.81/100 000. The overall incidence rate from the northern provinces was 7.77/100 000 in 2016, a 18.6% decrease from 2015 (9.55/100 000), whereas the incidence rate in the southern provinces was 0.27/100 000 in 2016, with an increase of 28.6% than 0.21/100 000 in 2015. 90.0% of the newly infected counties mainly distributed in southern China. As for the locations of reporting cases, most of them were in the same counties in the northern areas (52.3%) while most cases in the southern areas (59.6%) were imported from other counties. The median age of the cases was 48 (IQR: 38-58) years, with male-to-female ratios as 2.7∶1 in the north and 2.2∶1 in the south. Majority of the cases were occupation-related, from both the northern (86.8%) and southern (62.7%) areas. Human brucellosis occurred every month throughout the year but with an obvious seasonal increase between March and July. Conclusions: Different epidemiological features of human brucellosis appeared in both northern and southern areas of China. The disease was seen endemic in the northern and dispersal in the southern provinces. Appropriate strategies for brucellosis prevention and control should be developed, according to the different epidemiological characteristics in the northern or southern areas.

  18. Farm Animal Welfare and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    The paper examines the relationship between farm animal welfare, industrial farm animal production, and human health consequences. The data suggest that when the animal welfare of land-based farm animals is compromised, there are resulting significant negative human health consequences due to environmental degradation, the use of non-therapeutic levels of antibiotics for growth promotion, and the consequences of intensification. This paper accepts that even if meat and fish consumption is reduced, meat and fish will be part of the diet of the future. Industrial production modified from the current intensified systems will still be required to feed the world in 2050 and beyond. This paper identifies the concept of sustainable intensification and suggests that if farm animal welfare is improved, many of the human health consequences of intensified industrial production can be eliminated or reduced. In water-based farm animal production, many new systems are resulting in a product that actually protects the environment and can be done at industrial levels without the use of antibiotics.

  19. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and non-cancer health outcomes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Lundin, Jessica I; Sceurman, Bonnielin K

    2011-11-01

    The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. To examine potential health risks in humans, we searched and reviewed the literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with non-cancer health risks in humans. We also reviewed biomonitoring studies of glyphosate to allow for a more comprehensive discussion of issues related to exposure assessment and misclassification. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies on glyphosate and non-cancer outcomes evaluated a variety of endpoints, including non-cancer respiratory conditions, diabetes, myocardial infarction, reproductive and developmental outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, and Parkinson's disease. Our review found no evidence of a consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between any disease and exposure to glyphosate. Most reported associations were weak and not significantly different from 1.0. Because accurate exposure measurement is crucial for valid results, it is recommended that pesticide-specific exposure algorithms be developed and validated.

  20. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  1. Epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Ribas, João Gabriel Ramos; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F

    2010-07-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is present in diverse regions of the world, where its infection is usually neglected in health care settings and by public health authorities. Since it is usually asymptomatic in the beginning of the infection and disease typically manifests later in life, silent transmission occurs, which is associated with sexual relations, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions. There are no prospects of vaccines, and screening of blood banks and in prenatal care settings is not universal. Therefore, its transmission is active in many areas such as parts of Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean region, Asia, and Melanesia. It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. These diseases are not curable as yet, and current treatments as well as new perspectives are discussed in the present review.

  2. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries.

  3. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic disease transmission; these factors may independently, or potentially synergistically, lead to enhanced leptospirosis transmission in Fiji and other similar settings.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Baja California, Mexico: A result of human migration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-López, Carlos A; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael; Reynaud, Yann; García-Ortiz, Rosa Alejandra; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge A; Rivera, Sandra; Vázquez-Chacón, Carlos A; Vaughan, Gilberto; Martínez-Guarneros, José Armando; Victoria-Cota, Nelva Lorena; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Rastogi, Nalin; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel

    2016-07-11

    The State of Baja California (BC) exhibits the highest incidence and prevalence rates of tuberculosis (TB), and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in Mexico. However information about the circulation of M. tuberculosis lineages in BC and Mexico as a whole is limited. Here, we describe the genetic relationship and genetic diversity among M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (n=140) collected in BC between October 2009 and April 2011 with other regions of Mexico, the United States, and Latin America. All specimens were genotyped based on 24 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci. Population structure and minimum spanning tree (MST) analyses were used to assess the genetic diversity and distribution of BC isolates in comparison to USA and South America strains. Among the nine lineages observed, LAM, Haarlem and S were the most frequent identified in BC. Population structure analysis clustered most BC isolates (41%) into three distinctive groups that included strains from San Diego and South America, whereas other BC strains (22%) clustered with other Mexican strains. A subset of isolates (12%) seemed to be autochthonous of BC, while 25% were cosmopolitan and grouped into multiple clusters. It is highly likely that the TB genetic structure observed in BC is due to human migration. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanism involved in the phylogeographic distribution of M. tuberculosis in Mexico. Implementation of domestic molecular TB surveillance programs is required to better understand the molecular epidemiology of TB not only in the region but at the national level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in Italian women with cervical cytological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Meloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection and high-risk HPV types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. The present study investigated the HPV-type specific prevalence in 650 women, aged 15-76 years, with cytological abnormalities and the association between HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 160 women for whom cytological results for Pap-Test were available, during the period 2008-2011 in Cagliari (Southern Italy.Design and Methods. HPV-DNA extraction was performed by lysis and digestion with proteinase K and it was typed by using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Assay.Results. Overall the HPV prevalence was 52.6%; high-risk genotypes were found in 68.9% of women and multiple-type infection in 36.1% of HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-52 (23.4%, HPV-53 (15.7%, HPV-16 (15.4% and HPV-6 (12.4%. Among the women with cytological diagnosis, any-type of HPV DNA was found in 49.4% of the samples and out of these 93.7% were high-risk genotypes. Genotype HPV 53 was the commonest type among women affected by ASCUS lesions (21.4%, genotype 52 in positive L-SIL cases (22.5%, genotype 16 H-SIL (27.3%.Conclusions. This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities while, unlike previously published data, genotype HPV-52 was the most common type in our series. These data may contribute to increase the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccination strategies.

  6. Evidence of human papilloma virus infection and its epidemiology in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin-Fang Yao; Ju-Wei Sha; Guang-Can Li; Jin Li; He-Shun Xia; Xiao-Ling Yang; Huan-Yuan Huang; You-Gao Fu; Rui-Qin Wang; Xi-Yin Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To look for the evidence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and to investigate the potential role and epidemiology of HPV infection in the pathogenesis of esophageal carcinomas in Henan emigrants.METHODS: Papilloma virus (PV) and HPV were determined by UltrasensiveTM S-P immunohistochemistry (IHC)and in situ hybridization (ISH) in esophageal carcinoma tissues (82.cases) and the normal mucosa (40 cases).RESULTS: IHC revealed that the positive rate of PV was 75.0%, 68.18% and 72.5% respectively while the HPV (16/18-E6) positive rate was 45.0%, 36.36%, 37.5%,respectively in esophageal carcinoma tissue specimens from Henan emigrants,the local citizens and patients in Hubei Cancer Hospital. The PV and HPV (16/18-E6) were negative in all normal esophageal mucosa specimens. No correlation was found between HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and in grade 1-3 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. In situ hybridization showed that the HPV (16/18) DNA positive rate was 30.0%, 31.8%, 25.0%, respectively in the 3 groups of samples. No positive hybridization signal was found in 40 normal esophageal mucosa specimens. The positive rate of HPV (16/18) DNA in the esophageal carcinoma specimens was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa specimens (P< 0.05). The positive rate was not different among the 3 groups of esophageal carcinoma tissue specimens (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: HPV infection is high in esophageal carcinoma of Henan emigrants, local residents and patients in Hubei Cancer Hospital. HPV is closely related with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. HPV infection may play an important role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Opportunity for selection in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection defined by differential survival and reproduction of individuals in populations is influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors operating at every age and stage in human life history: generation of gametes, conception, birth, maturation, reproduction, senescence, and death. Biological systems are built upon a hierarchical organization nesting subcellular organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within individuals, individuals within families, and families within populations, and the latter among other populations. Natural selection often acts simultaneously at more than one level of biological organization and on specific traits, which we define as multilevel selection. Under this model, the individual is a fundamental unit of biological organization and also of selection, imbedded in a larger evolutionary context, just as it is a unit of medical intervention imbedded in larger biological, cultural, and environmental contexts. Here, we view human health and life span as necessary consequences of natural selection, operating at all levels and phases of biological hierarchy in human life history as well as in sociological and environmental milieu. An understanding of the spectrum of opportunities for natural selection will help us develop novel approaches to improving healthy life span through specific and global interventions that simultaneously focus on multiple levels of biological organization. Indeed, many opportunities exist to apply multilevel selection models employed in evolutionary biology and biodemography to improving human health at all hierarchical levels. Multilevel selection perspective provides a rational theoretical foundation for a synthesis of medicine and evolution that could lead to discovering effective predictive, preventive, palliative, potentially curative, and individualized approaches in medicine and in global health programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in Egypt: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Wael M

    2014-11-01

    Climate change is an emerging global issue. It is expected to have significant impacts both in Egypt and around the world. Thus, the country is in need for taking action to prepare for the unavoidable effects of climate change, including the increase in water stress, the rise in sea level, and the rapidly increasing gap between the limited water availability and the escalating demand for water in the country. Also, weather and climate play a significant role in people's health. Direct impacts of climate change on the Egyptians public health may include also increased prevalence of human parasitic diseases. Climate could strongly influence parasitic diseases transmitted through intermediate hosts. The present work reviews the future of such parasitic diseases in the view of the current available evidence and scenarios for climate change in the Egypt.

  9. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  10. Oral health status of adults in Southern Vietnam - a cross-sectional epidemiological study

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    Truong Nhan B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the prevalence of decayed, missing, filled (DMF and sound teeth (St and to determine the relative risk of teeth in different dental regions for D, M, and F, of adults living in urban and rural areas in Southern Vietnam. Methods Cross-sectional DMF and St data of 2965 dentate subjects aged 20 to 95 living in urban and rural areas in three provinces were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and an oral examination. The sample was stratified by age, gender, residence and province. Results The percentage of subjects having missing teeth was high for all ages while it was low for subjects with decayed and filled teeth. The mean number of missing teeth increased gradually by age from approximately 1 in each jaw at the age of 20 to 8 at the age of 80. The number of decayed teeth was relative low at all ages, being highest in molars at young ages. The mean number of filled teeth was extremely low at all ages in all dental regions. Every additional year of age gives a significantly lower chance for decay, a higher chance for missing, and a lower chance for filled teeth. Molars had a significantly higher risk for decay, missing and filled than premolars and anterior teeth. Females had significantly higher risk for decayed and filled teeth, and less chance for missing teeth than males. Urban subjects presented lower risk for decay, but approximately 4 times greater chance for having fillings than rural subjects. Low socio-economic status (SES significantly increased the chance for missing anterior and molar teeth; subjects with high SES had more often fillings. Conclusions The majority of adults of Southern Vietnam presented a reduced dentition

  11. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

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    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  12. Relation between demographic and epidemiological characteristics and permanency under a dental health care program for HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, A; Khaszki, C; Blanco, B; Schnaiderman, M; Scholnik, L; Bonazzi, M; Bordoni, N

    1998-01-01

    The association between factors involved in health care and the health status of the people has been proven. The use of health care services, particularly in the case of patients who suffer from chronic pathologies, has been the object of many studies aimed at establishing factors which contribute to guarantee permanence in treatment and implementation of health care controls. The purpose of the present study was to identify the response of HIV infected or AIDS patients to the oral health care program and establish the association between permanence in treatment and the presence of risk factors, epidemiological or demographic conditions of the users. Ninety patients selected at random from the 300 who attended the Clinic for High Risk Patient Care, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (CLAPAR, Spanish acronym) during 1994-1995 were included in this study. The patients were assigned to one of seven groups, according to their permanence in treatment and commitment to the program during the phase of maintenance in health. Each of these categories was characterized in terms of age, sex, educational level, place of residence (CIRFS, 1990), type of job, type of health coverage and place where healthcare was received, risk behavior and date of positive serological diagnosis. The frequency of each variable was established. Contingency tables were employed to establish the statistical significance of the association between the different variables and the patient categories. The data revealed that 24.2% of the patients performed occasional or emergency consultation, 57.1% achieved discharge with or without the assistance of the social worker or are still in treatment and 18.7% abandoned the program. Significant association were found between the response to odontological treatment and the following variables: place of residence, date of positive serological diagnosis, and risk behavior. We may conclude that certain demographic, epidemiological or life

  13. Climate change, air quality, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Weather and climate play important roles in determining patterns of air quality over multiple scales in time and space, owing to the fact that emissions, transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of air pollutants all can be influenced by meteorologic variables such as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and mixing height. There is growing recognition that development of optimal control strategies for key pollutants like ozone and fine particles now requires assessment of potential future climate conditions and their influence on the attainment of air quality objectives. In addition, other air contaminants of relevance to human health, including smoke from wildfires and airborne pollens and molds, may be influenced by climate change. In this study, the focus is on the ways in which health-relevant measures of air quality, including ozone, particulate matter, and aeroallergens, may be affected by climate variability and change. The small but growing literature focusing on climate impacts on air quality, how these influences may play out in future decades, and the implications for human health is reviewed. Based on the observed and anticipated impacts, adaptation strategies and research needs are discussed.

  14. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  15. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  16. Raisins in human health: A review

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    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  17. A Simulation Study on Hypothetical Ebola Virus Transmission in India Using Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM: A Way towards Precision Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkaprabha Sau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Precision public health is a state-of-the-art concept in public health research and its application in health care. Application of information technology in field of epidemiology paves the way to its transformation to digital epidemiology. A geospatial epidemiological model was simulated to estimate the spread of Ebola virus disease after a hypothetical outbreak in India. Methods. It was a simulation study based on SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered compartmental model. Simulation was done in Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM. Epidemiological profile of Ebola virus, that transmitted throughout the Sierra Leon in 2014–2016, was fitted into the SEIR deterministic compartment model designed for India. Result. Spatiotemporal distribution of EVD exposed, infectious, and recovered population at 4-month interval represented by different figures. It is estimated that if no intervention is taken to stop the spread, within 2 years, almost half of the country will be effected by EVD and cumulative number of exposed individuals, infectious persons, and deaths will be 106947760, 30651674, and 18391005, respectively. Conclusion. Precision public health may play the key role to achieve the health related targets in the Sustainable Development Goals. Policy makers, public health specialists, and data scientists need to put their hands together to make precision public health a reality.

  18. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  19. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-07

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  20. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  1. The role of basic health insurance on depression: an epidemiological cohort study of a randomized community sample in Northwest China

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    Tian Donghua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has focused on the relationship between health insurance and mental health in the community. The objective of this study is to determine how the basic health insurance system influences depression in Northwest China. Methods Participants were selected from 32 communities in two northwestern Chinese cities through a three-stage random sampling. Three waves of interviews were completed in April 2006, December 2006, and January 2008. The baseline survey was completed by 4,079 participants. Subsequently, 2,220 participants completed the first follow-up, and 1,888 completed the second follow-up. Depression symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Results A total of 40.0% of participants had at least one form of health insurance. The percentages of participants with severe depressive symptoms in the three waves were 21.7%, 22.0%, and 17.6%. Depressive symptoms were found to be more severe among participants without health insurance in the follow-up surveys. After adjusting for confounders, participants without health insurance were found to experience a higher risk of developing severe depressive symptoms than participants with health insurance (7 months: OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.82; p = 0.01; 20 months: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.61; p  Conclusion A lack of basic health insurance can dramatically increase the risk of depression based on northwestern Chinese community samples.

  2. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  3. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  4. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  5. Health and human development: nursing and the human right to health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2008-03-01

    This article aims at understanding the influence of the right to health legal framework to Brazilian Nursing. To achieve this purpose the historical evolution of the right to development is described and the concept of right to health is introduced. Then, the right to health in Brazil and Nursing actions to guarantee this right in their daily practice is discussed. In Brazil, health is a right of all and a duty of the State. However, there is a great inequality in the distribution of health services among regions, rural and urban areas, the rich and the poor. Nursing professionals face several challenges in their practice to provide the care as stated by the laws. They play an important role as transformation agents, helping the community to acquire a sense of collective identity regarding their human rights and right to health.

  6. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  7. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  8. Companion animals and human health: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Edney, A T

    1995-01-01

    Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reac...

  9. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  10. Review of Antibiotic Resistance in the Indian Ocean Commission: A Human and Animal Health Issue

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    Noellie Gay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR is a major threat to human, animal health, and environment worldwide. For human, transmission occurred through a variety of routes both in health-care settings and community. In animals, AMR was reported in livestock, pets, and wildlife; transmission of AMR can be zoonotic with the probably most important route being foodborne transmission. The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC, composed of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France, and Seychelles recognized the surveillance of AMR in both animal and human as a main public health priority for the region. Mayotte, French overseas territory, located in Comoros archipelago, was also included in this review. This review summarized our best epidemiological knowledge regarding AMR in Indian Ocean. We documented the prevalence, and phenotypic and genotypic profiles of prone to resistance Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria both in animals and humans. Our review clearly pointed out extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as main human and animal health issue in IOC. However, publications on AMR are scarce, particularly in Comoros, Mayotte, and Seychelles. Thus, research and surveillance priorities were recommended (i estimating the volume of antimicrobial drugs used in livestock and human medicine in the different territories [mainly third generation cephalosporin (3GC]; (ii developing a “One Health” surveillance approach with epidemiological indicators as zoonotic foodborne pathogen (i.e., couple Escherichia coli resistance to 3GC/carbapenems; (iii screening travelers with a history of hospitalization and consumption of antibiotic drug returning from at risk areas (e.g., mcr-1 transmission with China or hajj pilgrims allowing an early warning detection of the emergence for quick control measures implementation in IOC.

  11. Comparison of epidemiologically linked Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human and poultry sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajhar, S A; Jennison, A V; Patel, B; Duffy, L L

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for most foodborne bacterial infections worldwide including Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of typing methods in the characterization of C. jejuni isolated from clinical diarrhoeal samples (n = 20) and chicken meat (n = 26) in order to identify the source of infection and rank isolates based on their relative risk to humans. Sequencing of the flaA short variable region demonstrated that 86% of clinical isolates had genotypes that were also found in chicken meat. A polymerase chain reaction binary typing system identified 27 different codes based on the presence or absence of genes that have been reported to be associated with various aspects of C. jejuni pathogenicity, indicating that not all isolates may be of equal risk to human health. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the C. jejuni isolates was classified into six classes (A, B, C, E, F, H) with 10·4% remaining unclassified. The majority (72·7%) of clinical isolates possessed sialylated LOS classes. Sialylated LOS classes were also detected in chicken isolates (80·7%). Antimicrobial tests indicated a low level of resistance, with no phenotypic resistance found to most antibiotics tested. A combination of typing approaches was useful to assign isolates to a source of infection and assess their risk to humans.

  12. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  13. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical