WorldWideScience

Sample records for human health atmospheric

  1. Humidity : a review and primer on atmospheric moisture and human health.

    OpenAIRE

    David, R.E.; McGregor, G.R.; Enfield, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining associations between weather and human health frequently includes the effects of atmospheric humidity. A large number of humidity variables have been developed for numerous purposes, but little guidance is available to health researchers regarding appropriate variable selection. We examine a suite of commonly used humidity variables and summarize both the medical and biometeorological literature on associations between humidity and human health. As an example of the importa...

  2. Implications for human health of global atmospheric changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, T.L.; Last, J.

    1991-01-01

    The possible impacts of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and ultraviolet irradiation, acid precipitation, and resulting demographic changes are reviewed, along with the implications of global ecological changes on society and sustainable development. Some manifestations of global warming caused by the greenhouse effect could include more frequently extreme weather conditions, rises in sea level, disruption of ocean currents, and changes in composition and distribution of vegetation. Consequences of these manifestations on human health include an increase in the frequency of droughts and heat waves, migration of disease carrying vectors to other areas, submergence of coastal areas and disruption of water supplies, destruction of tropical species potentially useful for medicinal purposes, and impaired production of crops leading to food shortages. Consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion due to chlorofluorocarbon pollution are thought to be a direct result of increased exposure to ultraviolet light; these consequences include higher risks of non-melanoma skin cancer. The effects of acid precipitation are thought to be primarily ecological and indirect. 61 refs,

  3. Dust storms and their impact on ocean and human health: dust in Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellog, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery has greatly influenced our understanding of dust activity on a global scale. A number of different satellites such as NASA's Earth-Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Se-viewing Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquire daily global-scale data used to produce imagery for monitoring dust storm formation and movement. This global-scale imagery has documented the frequent transmission of dust storm-derived soils through Earth's atmosphere and the magnitude of many of these events. While various research projects have been undertaken to understand this normal planetary process, little has been done to address its impact on ocean and human health. This review will address the ability of dust storms to influence marine microbial population densities and transport of soil-associated toxins and pathogenic microorganisms to marine environments. The implications of dust on ocean and human health in this emerging scientific field will be discussed.

  4. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Humidity: A review and primer on atmospheric moisture and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; McGregor, Glenn R; Enfield, Kyle B

    2016-01-01

    Research examining associations between weather and human health frequently includes the effects of atmospheric humidity. A large number of humidity variables have been developed for numerous purposes, but little guidance is available to health researchers regarding appropriate variable selection. We examine a suite of commonly used humidity variables and summarize both the medical and biometeorological literature on associations between humidity and human health. As an example of the importance of humidity variable selection, we correlate numerous hourly humidity variables to daily respiratory syncytial virus isolates in Singapore from 1992 to 1994. Most water-vapor mass based variables (specific humidity, absolute humidity, mixing ratio, dewpoint temperature, vapor pressure) exhibit comparable correlations. Variables that include a thermal component (relative humidity, dewpoint depression, saturation vapor pressure) exhibit strong diurnality and seasonality. Humidity variable selection must be dictated by the underlying research question. Despite being the most commonly used humidity variable, relative humidity should be used sparingly and avoided in cases when the proximity to saturation is not medically relevant. Care must be taken in averaging certain humidity variables daily or seasonally to avoid statistical biasing associated with variables that are inherently diurnal through their relationship to temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Butt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors impacting air quality, human health, and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels. We use a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the impact of residential fuel combustion on atmospheric aerosol for the year 2000. The model underestimates black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC mass concentrations observed over Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa, with better prediction when carbonaceous emissions from the residential sector are doubled. Observed seasonal variability of BC and OC concentrations are better simulated when residential emissions include a seasonal cycle. The largest contributions of residential emissions to annual surface mean particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations are simulated for East Asia, South Asia, and Eastern Europe. We use a concentration response function to estimate the human health impact due to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 from residential emissions. We estimate global annual excess adult (>  30 years of age premature mortality (due to both cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer to be 308 000 (113 300–497 000, 5th to 95th percentile uncertainty range for monthly varying residential emissions and 517 000 (192 000–827 000 when residential carbonaceous emissions are doubled. Mortality due to residential emissions is greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50 % of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model we estimate that residential emissions exert a global annual mean direct radiative effect between −66 and +21 mW m−2, with sensitivity to the residential emission flux and the assumed ratio of BC, OC, and SO2 emissions. Residential emissions exert a global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between −52 and −16 mW m−2, which is sensitive to the

  7. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  8. Elucidative analysis and sequencing of two respiratory health monitoring methods to study the impact of varying atmospheric composition on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Amit; Hothi, Navjot; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Nirankar; Chakraborty, Monojit; Bansal, Sangeeta

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric composition of ambient air consists of different gases in definite proportion that affect the earth's climate and its ecological system. Due to varied anthropogenic reasons, this composition is changed, which ultimately have an impact on the health of living beings. For survival, the human respiratory system is one of the sensitive systems, which is easily and closely affected by the change in atmospheric composition of an external environment. Many studies have been conducted to quantify the effects of atmospheric pollution on human health by using different approaches. This article presents different scenario of studies conducted to evaluate the effects on different human groups. Differences between the studies conducted using spirometry and survey methods are presented in this article to extract a better sequence between these two methodologies. Many studies have been conducted to measure the respiratory status by evaluating the respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions. Limited numbers of studies are found with repeated spirometry on the same subjects for long duration to nullify the error arising due to decrease in efforts by the same subjects during manoeuvre of pulmonary function tests. Present study reveals the importance of methodological sequencing in order to obtain more authentic and reliable results. This study suggests that impacts of deteriorating atmospheric composition on human health can be more significantly studied if spirometry is done after survey analysis. The article also proposes that efficiency and authenticity of surveys involving health impacts will increase, if medical data information of patients is saved in hospitals in a proper format.

  9. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2017-09-21

    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH₃Cl; methylene chloride, CH₂Cl₂; chloroform, CHCl₃; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl₂), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl₂), and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Among them, COCl₂ (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride.

  10. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2017-01-01

    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH3Cl; methylene chloride, CH2Cl2; chloroform, CHCl3; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl2), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Among them, COCl2 (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride. PMID:29051455

  11. Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Krupitsky, Dmitry; Grove, John S; Anderson, Bruce S

    2005-08-01

    Volcanic fog (vog) from Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii includes a variety of chemical species including sulfur compounds and traces of metals such as mercury. The metal species seen tended to be in the nanograms per cubic meter range, whereas oxides of sulfur: SO2 and SO3 and sulfate aerosols, were in the range of micrograms per cubic meter and rarely even as high as a few milligrams per cubic meter of air (nominally ppb to ppm). These sulfur species are being investigated for associations with both acute and chronic changes in human health status. The sulfate aerosols tend to be less than 1 microm in diameter and tend to dominate the mass of this submicron size mode. The sulfur chemistry is dynamic, changing composition from predominantly sulfur dioxide and trioxide gasses near the volcano, to predominantly sulfate aerosols on the west side of the island. Time, concentration and composition characteristics of submicron aerosols and sulfur dioxide are described with respect to the related on-going health studies and public health management concerns. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and particulate matter equal to or less than 1 microm in size were almost always below the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). These standards do not however consider the acidic nature and submicron size of the aerosol, nor the possibility of the aerosol and the sulfur dioxide interacting in their toxicity. Time series plots, histograms and descriptive statistics of hourly averages give the reader a sense of some of the exposures observed.

  12. Vulnerability assessment of urban ecosystems driven by water resources, human health and atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xinshuang; He, Li

    2016-05-01

    As ecosystem management is a hotspot and urgent topic with increasing population growth and resource depletion. This paper develops an urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment method representing a new vulnerability paradigm for decision makers and environmental managers, as it's an early warning system to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes in terms of natural, human, economic and social elements. The whole idea is to decompose a complex problem into sub-problem, and analyze each sub-problem, and then aggregate all sub-problems to solve this problem. This method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators, and socio-economic elements. Decision makers can find out relevant urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitude. To test the potential of the vulnerability methodology, it has been applied to a case study area in Beijing, China, where it proved to be reliable and consistent with the Beijing City Master Plan. The results of urban ecosystem vulnerability assessment can support decision makers in evaluating the necessary of taking specific measures to preserve the quality of human health and environmental stressors for a city or multiple cities, with identifying the implications and consequences of their decisions.

  13. Climate change and climate systems influence and control the atmospheric dispersion of desert dust: implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Ragaini, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    The global dispersion of desert dust through Earth’s atmosphere is greatly influenced by temperature. Temporal analyses of ice core data have demonstrated that enhanced dust dispersion occurs during glacial events. This is due to an increase in ice cover, which results in an increase in drier terrestrial cover. A shorter temporal analysis of dust dispersion data over the last 40 years has demonstrated an increase in dust transport. Climate systems or events such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Indian Ocean subtropical High, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and El Nino-Sothern Oscillation are known to influence global short-term dust dispersion occurrence and transport routes. Anthropogenic influences on dust transport include deforestation, harmful use of topsoil for agriculture as observed during the American Dust Bowl period, and the creation of dry seas (Aral Sea) and lakes (Lake Owens in California and Lake Chad in North Africa) through the diversion of source waters (for irrigation and drinking water supplies). Constituents of desert dust both from source regions (pathogenic microorganisms, organic and inorganic toxins) and those scavenged through atmospheric transport (i.e., industrial and agricultural emissions) are known to directly impact human and ecosystem health. This presentation will present a review of global scale dust storms and how these events can be both a detriment and benefit to various organisms in downwind environments.

  14. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  15. Evaluation of the pollution and human health risks posed by heavy metals in the atmospheric dust in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwailil, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a large amount of research assessing pollution levels and the related health risks posed by atmosphere dust has been undertaken worldwide. However, little work has been done in the oases of the arid regions of Northwest China. In this paper, we studied the pollution and health risks over a year of seven heavy metals in the atmospheric dust of Ebinur Basin, a typical oasis in Northwest China. The results showed the following: (1) The annual amount of atmospheric deposition in Ebinur Basin was 298.23 g m(-2) and the average monthly atmospheric deposition was 25.06 g m(-2). The average and maximum values of the seven heavy metals measured were all below the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (2nd). (2) Heavy metals of Cu, Cr, and As in the atmospheric deposition mainly originated from the natural geological background, while Zn came from human activity. This study also showed that among the seven measured heavy metals, the ratios of the no-pollution status of Pb, Cd, and Hg were higher than those of others with moderate degrees of pollution also accounting for a certain ratio. (3) The carcinogenic risks from As, Cd, and Cr were all lower than the corresponding standard limit values, and these metals are considered not harmful to the health of the basin. However, there is a relatively high risk of exposure for children from hand-to-mouth intake, which is worthy of attention. This research showed that both human activity and natural factors, such as wind and altitude, influenced the heavy metal contents in the atmospheric dust of the study area. Furthermore, recent human activity in the study area had the most negative influence on the accumulation of the heavy metals and the corresponding health risks, especially for Hg, Pb, and Cd, which is worthy of attention.

  16. Elevated Atmospheric Levels of Benzene and Benzene-Related Compounds from Unconventional Shale Extraction and Processing: Human Health Concern for Residential Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Orimoloye, Helen T

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of natural gas (NG) extraction across the United States (U.S.) raises concern for potential exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Benzene, a HAP and a primary chemical of concern due to its classification as a known human carcinogen, is present in petroleum-rich geologic formations and is formed during the combustion of bypass NG. It is a component in solvents, paraffin breakers, and fuels used in NG extraction and processing (E&P). The objectives of this study are to confirm the presence of benzene and benzene-related compounds (benzene[s]) in residential areas, where unconventional shale E&P is occurring, and to determine if benzene[s] exists in elevated atmospheric concentrations when compared to national background levels. Ambient air sampling was conducted in six counties in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex with passive samples collected in evacuated 6-L Summa canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with sampling performed at variable distances from the facility fence line. Elevated concentrations of benzene[s] in the atmosphere were identified when compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. The 24-hour benzene concentrations ranged from 0.6 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 592 ppbv, with 1-hour concentrations from 2.94 ppbv to 2,900.20 ppbv. Benzene is a known human carcinogen capable of multisystem health effects. Exposure to benzene is correlated with bone marrow and blood-forming organ damage and immune system depression. Sensitive populations (children, pregnant women, elderly, immunocompromised) and occupational workers are at increased risk for adverse health effects from elevated atmospheric levels of benzene[s] in residential areas with unconventional shale E&P.

  17. Human Health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has multiple risks that contribute to the overall burden of disease (i.e. the quadruple burden of disease), which may make people more vulnerable to the health impacts from climate change. In addition, the sector is vulnerable...

  18. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric emissions of Cu and Zn from coal combustion in China: Spatio-temporal distribution, human health effects, and short-term prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Junlin; Cui, Lulu; Wu, Yu; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Mindong

    2017-10-01

    China has become the largest coal consumer and important emitter of trace metals in the world. A multiple-year inventory of atmospheric copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) emissions from coal combustion in 30 provinces of China and 4 economic sectors (power plant, industry sector, residential sector, and others) for the period of 1995-2014 has been calculated. The results indicated that the total emissions of Cu and Zn increased from 5137.70 t and 11484.16 t in 1995-7099.24 t and 14536.61 t in 2014, at an annual average growth rate of 1.90% and 1.33%, respectively. The industrial sector ranked as the leading source, followed by power plants, the residential use, and other sectors. The emissions of Cu and Zn were predominantly concentrated in the northern and eastern regions of China due to the enormous consumption of coal by the industrial and the power sectors. The emissions of Cu and Zn were closely associated with mortality and life expectancy (LE) on the basis of multiple regression analysis. Spatial econometric models suggested that Cu and Zn emissions displayed significantly positive relevance with mortality, while they exhibited negative correlation with LE. The influence of the Cu emission peaked in the north of China for both mortality and LE, while the impacts of the Zn emission on mortality and LE reached a maximum value in Xinjiang Province. The results of the grey prediction model suggested that the Cu emission would decrease to 5424.73 t, whereas the Zn emissions could reach 17402.13 t in 2020. Analysis of more specific data are imperative in order to estimate the emissions of both metals, to assess their human health effects, and then to adopt effective measures to prevent environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  1. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  2. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  3. Atmospheric characteristics essential for health effects modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.S.

    1977-01-01

    Factors to be considered in evaluating the possible consequences of exposure of human populations to radioactive aerosols are reviewed. Mathematical models of the mechanisms of radioinduced carcinogenesis, tissue deposition and lung clearance of radioactive aerosols, and meteorological parameters affecting the diffusion of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere are discussed

  4. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    With the discovery of fire, humankind started changing the composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the industrial revolution, this has led to significant environmental problems, mainly air pollution and climate change. While climate change has been recognized as one key challenge of the Anthropocene, air pollution contributes to the top causes of global premature mortality. Air pollution also plays a key role in contamination of ecosystems and bio-magnification of toxins along food chains. Even though emissions leading to air pollution and climate change often originate from the same sources, they are generally perceived and regulated separately. Climate change impacts are global and hence are tackled at an international level. Conversely, air pollution has local to regional impacts and is thus a matter of national or regional legislation. This legislative and policy divide is generally useful, since full integration could lead, for example, to detrimental delays in action against air pollution through protracted international climate negotiations. However, the separation obscures the fact that almost any kind of human activity leads to the simultaneous emission of air pollutants, toxins and long-lived greenhouse gases. The atmosphere functions as a "dump" for human generated gaseous waste, which is then dispersed and transformed, partly chemically and partly micro-physically, perturbing natural processes in the atmosphere and leading to manifold impacts. In addition, air pollutants affect the Earth's radiative balance directly and indirectly, hence affecting climate change, while a changing climate in turn affects air pollution. Current policies often neglect these linkages and favor mitigation in one arena, which sometimes has detrimental effects on the other. One example is domestic wood burning, which though nearly carbon neutral, deteriorates air quality. Moreover, the design of appliances, machinery, or infrastructure generally does not attempt to

  5. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  6. Atmosphere pollutants-their health and environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, Ali Sasi; Ibsaim, Rajab A.

    2006-01-01

    The conducted studies, continuous monitoring and measuring of the atmosphere pollution surrounding the world cities for a decade in the last century demonstrated increased rates of some pollutants, often exceeded the levels which are considered to be safe for health. Most of the dangerous pollutants in the atmosphere are suspended particles, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone troposphere and lead, these are the main responsible pollutant in contaminating the atmosphere leading to increase of death percentage in the major cities. For a duration of nearly a century, atmosphere pollution accidents in cities like London approved that inhaling contaminated air is dangerous and deadly sometimes. In 1880 2200 person from London inhabitants have died when coal smoke with heating and industrial gases have been accumulated to form a toxic smog of sulfur oxide gas and suspended particles in the atmosphere of the city. In this paper we discuss type of atmosphere pollutants and their health and environmental effects on human being, creatures and earth and ways of eliminating that.(Author)

  7. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  8. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  9. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  10. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  11. Solar radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan; Brekke, Paal; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Joerg; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  12. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  13. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around point sources and human health risk assessment. II: Uptake of arsenic and chromium by vegetables grown near a wood preservation factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Moseholm, Lars; Nielsen, Margot M.

    1992-01-01

    Kale, lettuce, carrots and potatoes were grown in 20 experimental plots surrounding a wood preservation factory, to investigate the amount and pathways for plant uptake of arsenic and chromium. Arsenate used in the wood preservation process is converted to the more toxic arsenite by incineration...... of waste wood and is emitted into the atmosphere. Elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium were found both in the test plants and in the soil around the factory. Multivariate statistical analysis of the results indicated that the dominating pathway of arsenic and chromium from the factory...

  15. Effect of atmospheric pollution on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the incidence of smog episodes and their intensity have gone down considerably and difference in atmospheric pollutant levels between urban and rural areas is very small. Even the sudden moderate elevation of atmospheric pollution during winter months affects the pulmonary function adversely and provokes increased respiratory symptomes. The prevalence of rhinitis and allergy is more frequent both in adults and in children in urban townships than in rural areas. It has also been observed that industrial city dwellers have inferior pulmonary function. Very recent results indicate possible interaction between atmospheric pollutant levels and regeneration process following airways infection in yound children. (orig.) [de

  16. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with pollution ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. The ...

  17. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  18. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Syam, P.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  19. Modeling of urban atmospheric pollution and impact on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, Valari

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this dissertation, is to develop a methodology that provides an improved knowledge of the associations between atmospheric contaminant concentrations and health impact. The propagation of uncertainties from input data to the output concentrations through a Chemistry Transport Model was first studied. The influence of the resolutions of meteorological parameters and emissions data were studied separately, and their relative role was compared. It was found that model results do not improve linearly with the resolution of emission input. A critical resolution was found, beyond which model error becomes higher and the model breaks down. Based on this first investigation concerning the direct down scaling, further research focused on sub grid scale modeling. Thus, a statistical down scaling approach was adopted for the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability due to heterogeneous surface emissions. Emission fractions released from different types of sources (industry, roads, residential, natural etc.) were calculated from a high-resolution emission inventory. Then emission fluxes were mapped on surfaces emitting source-specific species. Simulations were run independently over the defined micro-environments allowing the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability. Sub grid scale concentrations were therefore combined with demographic and human activity data to provide exposure estimates. The spatial distribution of human exposure was parameterized through a Monte-Carlo model. The new information concerning exposure variability was added to an existing epidemiological model to study relative health risks. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used for this purpose. The principal outcome of the investigation was that a new functionality was added to the regression model which allows the dissociation of the health risk associated with each pollutant (e.g. NO 2 and PM 2.5 ). (author)

  20. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human rights approach to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Fiona

    2002-04-01

    Adopting human rights approach to health carries many benefits, because it emphasizes the equality of all persons and their inherent right to health as the foundation of the health care system. It also argues that promotion and protection of health are fundamentally important social goals, focuses particularly on the needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities, balances individual needs with the common good, and so forth. However, it also raises some practical issues, such as organization of interdisciplinary education and work, and different use of the language, which often goes unacknowledged. The relationship between human rights and health is a reciprocal one, and can be beneficial or harmful. For the relationship to be beneficial and successful, the differences between human rights and public health approach to health, centered around the perspective taking, attitudes, and abilities of health professionals, need to be acknowledged and reconciled, and the need for interdisciplinarity adequately fulfilled.

  2. Impact of hospital atmosphere on perceived health care outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ritu; Polsa, Pia; Soneye, Alabi; Fuxiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare service quality studies primarily examine the relationships between patients' perceived quality and satisfaction with healthcare services, clinical effectiveness, service use, recommendations and value for money. These studies suggest that patient-independent quality dimensions (structure, process and outcome) are antecedents to quality. The purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative by looking at the relationship between hospital atmosphere and healthcare quality with perceived outcome. Data were collected from Finland, India, Nigeria and the People's Republic of China. Regression analysis used perceived outcome as the dependent variable and atmosphere and healthcare service quality as independent variables. Findings - Results showed that atmosphere and healthcare service quality have a statistically significant relationship with patient perceived outcomes. The sample size was small and the sampling units were selected on convenience; thus, caution must be exercised in generalizing the findings. The study determined that service quality and atmosphere are considered significant for developing and developed nations. This result could have significant implications for policy makers and service providers developing healthcare quality and hospital atmosphere. Studies concentrate on healthcare outcome primarily regarding population health status, mortality, morbidity, customer satisfaction, loyalty, quality of life, customer behavior and consumption. However, the study exposes how patients perceive their health after treatment. Furthermore, the authors develop the healthcare service literature by considering atmosphere and perceived outcome.

  3. Speciation and Health Risks of Atmospheric Nanoparticulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kennedy

    Exposure to air pollution causes several adverse health effects such as asthma, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature death; and the San Joaquin Valley is one of the most heavily polluted regions in the US. The mountains that surround the valley allow air pollution, including particulate matter, to remain stagnant, prolonging the exposure of valley populations to it. The primary sources of particulate matter for this region are aluminosilicate dust from agricultural activities, and soot emissions from diesel trucks and vehicular traffic. A substantial fraction of emitted material is nanoparticulate matter (testing in cell culture studies, and correlation of particulate properties and sources with their negative health impacts. These results can help identify the sources of air pollution to prioritize for mitigation for the greatest health benefit. In addition, further chemical speciation can help monitor the results of such mitigation efforts. Here, natural particulate matter samples from Merced and Fresno, two cities in the San Joaquin Valley, were analyzed. Ultrafine particles present were 40 to 50 nm in diameter and mostly composed of aluminum, silicon, oxygen, and iron hydroxide. XAS data confirmed the presence of the aluminosilicate as smectite clay and the iron hydroxide as ferrihydrite. Furthermore, a chemical speciation study investigated industrial emissions of air particulate matter. Samples were analyzed using electron microscopy for elemental composition and size distribution, and found to contain fine metal particulates (lead and iron) that can lead to lung inflammation. From characterization data, in order to create a simplified proxy particle system for cell culture studies, amorphous silica particles were synthesized using a modified Stober Synthesis and coated with iron hydroxide. A range of iron hydroxide concentrations (0.06 to 1.63 mmol of iron per gram of silica) were used to test the effect of iron contamination on

  4. Wilderness, biodiversity, and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Dustin; Keri A. Schwab; Kelly S. Bricker

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates how wilderness, biodiversity, and human health are intertwined. Proceeding from the assumption that humankind is part of, rather than apart from, nature, health is re-imagined as a dynamic relationship that can best be conceived in broad ecological terms. Health, from an ecological perspective, is a measure of the wellness of the individual and...

  5. Impact of environmental radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    A clean environment is essential for human health because the interaction between the environment and human health shows the complexity. Air pollution, less water quality, noise etc directly affects the health. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land can also affect human health. Most of the modern technologies produce radiations in the environment having both beneficial and harmful effects through radioactive material. Natural radioactive sources include Cosmic radiation comes from the sun and outer space is absorbed by the atmosphere, a small amount reaches the earth's surface to which we are exposed. The exposure to this type of radiation is higher for people living above sea level. Radon is produced through the decay of uranium and thorium that are found naturally in the earth's crust. Primordial and terrestrial radiation are present in rocks and soils and occur when naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium decay within the earth's crust. Artificial (or man-made) radioactive sources include Fallout radiation, which results from past atmospheric nuclear bomb tests (1950s and 1960s many test explosions). Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, transmit disease. Today, radiation is a common used in medicine to diagnose illnesses, research to treat diseases and industry to generate electricity in nuclear power reactors. Radiation is energy that moves through space or matter at a very high speed. This energy can be in the form of particles, such as alpha or beta particles, which are emitted from radioisotopes. Radioactive Material is material that contains an unstable atomic nucleus releases radiation in the process of changing to a stable form. There are two types of health effects from radiation - threshold and non threshold

  6. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  7. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. © 2014 AWHONN.

  8. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O 3 ), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  9. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Potential Impact of Mars' Atmospheric Dust on Future Human Exploration of the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, D.; Levine, J. S.; Kerschmann, R.; Beaty, D. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Ashley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing focus by NASA and other space agencies on a crewed mission to Mars in the 2039 time-frame, many Mars-specific environmental factors are now starting to be considered by NASA and other engineering teams. Learning from NASA's Apollo Missions to the Moon, where lunar dust turned out to be a significant challenge to mission and crew safety, attention is now turning to the dust in Mars' atmosphere and regolith. To start the process of identifying possible dust-caused challenges to the human presence on Mars, and thus aid early engineering and mission design efforts, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Robotic Spacecraft Technical Discipline Team organized and conducted a Workshop on the "Dust in Mars' Atmosphere and Its Impact on the Human Exploration of Mars", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), Houston, TX, June 13-15, 2017. The workshop addressed the following general areas: 1. What is known about Mars' dust in terms of its physical and chemical properties, its local and global abundance and composition, and its variability.2. What is the impact of Mars atmospheric dust on human health.3. What is the impact of Mars atmospheric dust on surface mechanical systems (e.g., spacesuits, habitats, mobility systems, etc.). We present the top priority issues identified in the workshop.

  11. Influence resistance on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  12. Impacts on human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available .12 Noise pathway exposures 12-33 12.12.1 Worker 12-33 12.12.2 Community 12-34 12.13 Direct physical contact (traffic or machine injury) 12-34 12.13.1 Worker 12-34 12.13.2 Community 12-34 12.14 Dermal exposure to chemicals 12-34 12.14.1 Worker 12..., with air, water, noise, direct contact resulting from traffic or machine injuries, and dermal contact were considered. These were considered separately for workers and community members. The four scenarios were found to yield health risks as ranging from...

  13. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  14. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions of the Ombuds......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...

  15. Climate change and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the earth's climate, stemming from the greenhouse effect, are highly likely to damage human health. As well as the disruptions to food and fresh water supplies, there is the prospect of major diseases flourishing in warmer conditions, in addition the decrease in the ozone layer is causing an increased incidence of skin cancer

  16. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  17. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  18. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  19. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  20. CRRIS, Health Risk Assessment from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and the RETADD-II computer code regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. 2 - Method of solution: SUMIT performs geometric interpolation. TERRA and MLSOIL are terrestrial transport compartment models. DFSOIL computes soil-layer-specific dose factors based on the point-kernel method

  1. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  2. Depleted Uranium and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Floris, Giuseppe; Eyken, Peter V; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized. A concise analysis of the mechanisms underlying absorption, blood transport, tissue distribution and excretion of DU in the human body is the subject of the second part of this article. The following sections deal with pathological condition putatively associated with overexposure to DU. Developmental and birth defects, the Persian Gulf syndrome, and kidney diseases that have been associated to DU are the arguments treated in the third section. Finally, data regarding DU exposure and cancer insurgence will be critically analyzed, including leukemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. The aim of the authors is to give a contribution to the debate on DU and its effects on human health and disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Energy production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.R.; Brown, C.D.; Dixon-Davis, D.K.; Grahn, D.; Ludy, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: development and evaluation of socioeconomic and demographic factors; and quantitative aspects of the impacts of energy-related effluents on human health. Environmental effects of electric power generation by gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy, and water were studied at 15 sites. A system of general demographic models was developed for projecting number of deaths and population size by sex, age, and cause of death through time for any defined initial population and set of vital rates

  4. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  5. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  6. Human resources for health in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee, Martin; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Nolte, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    ... systems in the field of personnel. The authors also identify which strategies are most likely to lead to the optimal management of health professionals in the future. Human Resources for Health in Europe is key reading for health policymakers and postgraduates taking courses in health services management, health policy and health economics. It is also ...

  7. Human Water Use Impacts on the Strength of the Continental Sink for Atmospheric Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica; Sulis, Mauro; Kollet, Stefan; Siebert, Stefan; Wada, Yoshihide

    2018-05-01

    In the hydrologic cycle, continental landmasses constitute a sink for atmospheric moisture as annual terrestrial precipitation commonly exceeds evapotranspiration. Simultaneously, humans intervene in the hydrologic cycle and pump groundwater to sustain, for example, drinking water and food production. Here we use a coupled groundwater-to-atmosphere modeling platform, set up over the European continent, to study the influence of groundwater pumping and irrigation on the net atmospheric moisture import of the continental landmasses, which defines the strength of the continental sink. Water use scenarios are constructed to account for uncertainties of atmospheric feedback during the heatwave year 2003. We find that human water use induces groundwater-to-atmosphere feedback, which potentially weaken the continental sink over arid watersheds in southern Europe. This feedback is linked to groundwater storage, which suggests that atmospheric feedbacks to human water use may contribute to drying of watersheds, thereby raising water resources and socio-economic concerns beyond local sustainability considerations.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessment (NCA) and as called for under the President’s Climate Action Plan. The authors of this assessment have compiled and assessed current research on human health impacts of climate change and summarized the current “state of the science” for a number of key impact areas. This assessment provides a comprehensive update to the most recent detailed technical assessment for the health impacts of climate change, 2008 Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 (SAP 4.6) Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems (CCSP 2008). It also updates and builds upon the health chapter of the third NCA (Melillo et al. 2014). The lead and coordinating Federal agencies for the USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute of Health (NIH), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Available at https://health2016.globalchange.gov/ The interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of their National C

  9. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  10. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  12. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Peter [Technical Univ. Munich (Germany). Immission Research; Dameris, Martin [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling (Germany). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensive coverage of ozone both in the upper and the lower atmosphere. Essential overview of atmospheric ozone research written by two experienced and acknowledged experts. Numerous qualified references to the scientific literature. Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog. Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change. The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book. Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President. Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and

  13. Ozone in the atmosphere. Basic principles, natural and human impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, Peter; Dameris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage of ozone both in the upper and the lower atmosphere. Essential overview of atmospheric ozone research written by two experienced and acknowledged experts. Numerous qualified references to the scientific literature. Peter Fabian and Martin Dameris provide a concise yet comprehensive overview of established scientific knowledge about ozone in the atmosphere. They present both ozone changes and trends in the stratosphere, as well as the effects of overabundance in the troposphere including the phenomenon of photosmog. Aspects such as photochemistry, atmospheric dynamics and global ozone distribution as well as various techniques for ozone measurement are treated. The authors outline the various causes for ozone depletion, the effects of ozone pollution and the relation to climate change. The book provides a handy reference guide for researchers active in atmospheric ozone research and a useful introduction for advanced students specializing in this field. Non-specialists interested in this field will also profit from reading the book. Peter Fabian can look back on a life-long active career in ozone research, having first gained international recognition for his measurements of the global distribution of halogenated hydrocarbons. He also pioneered photosmog investigations in the metropolitan areas of Munich, Berlin, Athens and Santiago de Chile, and his KROFEX facility provided controlled ozone fumigation of adult tree canopies for biologists to investigate the effects of ozone increases on forests. Besides having published a broad range of scientific articles, he has also been the author or editor of numerous books. From 2002 to 2005 he served the European Geosciences Union (EGU) as their first and Founding President. Martin Dameris is a prominent atmospheric modeler whose interests include the impacts of all kinds of natural and man-made disturbances on the atmospheric system. His scientific work focuses on the connections between ozone and

  14. Risks to health of the population of the nonindustrial city from quality of atmospheric air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdikadirova I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment to public health living in the environmental problems is of great importance for humans today. However, the main attention is paid to major industrial centers, while for cities not having developed industries such studies are rare. The study of the intensity and structure of chemical air pollution was conducted to determine the risk levels for human health from effects of the chemical air pollution in residential areas of Aktau city (West Kazakhstan. Method of retrospective analysis of emissions into the atmosphere was used, and damage to health was determined in accordance with the risk assessment procedure. We take into account the major pollutants, the city being in the air basin - sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and total hydrocarbons. The main threat to children's health is caused by common hydrocarbons (88%, nitrogen oxides (5%, and ammonia (3%. The estimated cancer risk is defined at the level of 10-3 - 10-4, it corresponds to the limits and requires regular monitoring.

  15. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  16. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs III ), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM 2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs V , was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM 2.5 . Reduction of iAs V to iAs III occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAs III in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  18. How Health Humanities Will Save the Life of the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, the humanities have been shrinking in number of students, percent of faculty, and in number of degrees awarded. Humanities students also earn lower salaries than their STEM-prepared peers. At the same time, the health humanities have been in ascendance over the last fifteen years. The number of majors, minors and certificates has increased 266% in that time frame, attracting large numbers of students and preparing future patients, lay caregivers, and health care providers to interact with a complicated and dehumanized medical system. In 1982, British philosopher and educator Stephen Toulmin declared that medicine saved philosophy from irrelevance and possibly extinction. I propose that the health humanities can serve a similar function to stave off the decline of the broader humanities. The health humanities can (1) model an applied approach for the broader humanities to attract student interest; (2) develop students' capacity for critical reading, writing and reflection about health and medicine in society, practice, and their own lives and (3) inoculate all students against the influence of medicine, whether through preparing pre-health students to navigate the hidden medical curriculum or preparing future patients to navigate the health care system.

  19. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  20. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  1. Maternal health and human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2004)1 versus 807 per ... and mental health'. Malawi ratified the ... are gender discrimination, poverty, lack of education, an inadequate health .... Have relevant laws, policies and strategies been put in place ... State should seek support from, and continue to work in close.

  2. DOE/FDA/EPA: Workshop on methylmercury and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.; Bolger, M.; Cicmanec, J.; Durkee, S. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    In the US the general population is exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) principally through the consumption of fish. There is continuing discussion about the sources of this form of mercury (Hg), the magnitudes and trends in exposures to consumers, and the significance of the sources and their contributions to human health. In response to these discussions, the US Department of Energy, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the US Environmental Protection Agency cosponsored a two-day workshop to discuss data and methods available for characterizing the risk to human health presented by MeHg. This workshop was attended by 45 individuals representing various Federal and state organizations and interested stakeholders. The agenda covered: Agency interests; probabilistic approach to risk assessment; emission sources; atmospheric transport; biogeochemical cycling; exposure assessment; health effects of MeHg; and research needs.

  3. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  6. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  7. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  8. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  9. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  10. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  11. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  12. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  13. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  14. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  15. Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Benjamin D; Painter, Jeffrey F; Bonfils, Céline; Mears, Carl A; Solomon, Susan; Wigley, Tom M L; Gleckler, Peter J; Schmidt, Gavin A; Doutriaux, Charles; Gillett, Nathan P; Taylor, Karl E; Thorne, Peter W; Wentz, Frank J

    2013-10-22

    Since the late 1970s, satellite-based instruments have monitored global changes in atmospheric temperature. These measurements reveal multidecadal tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling, punctuated by short-term volcanic signals of reverse sign. Similar long- and short-term temperature signals occur in model simulations driven by human-caused changes in atmospheric composition and natural variations in volcanic aerosols. Most previous comparisons of modeled and observed atmospheric temperature changes have used results from individual models and individual observational records. In contrast, we rely on a large multimodel archive and multiple observational datasets. We show that a human-caused latitude/altitude pattern of atmospheric temperature change can be identified with high statistical confidence in satellite data. Results are robust to current uncertainties in models and observations. Virtually all previous research in this area has attempted to discriminate an anthropogenic signal from internal variability. Here, we present evidence that a human-caused signal can also be identified relative to the larger "total" natural variability arising from sources internal to the climate system, solar irradiance changes, and volcanic forcing. Consistent signal identification occurs because both internal and total natural variability (as simulated by state-of-the-art models) cannot produce sustained global-scale tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling. Our results provide clear evidence for a discernible human influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere.

  16. Dietary seaweed and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed as an ingredient is growing in popularity largely due to its perceived health-giving properties supported by findings from epidemiological studies.\\ud Increased seaweed consumption has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases however there is a paucity of evidence for health benefits derived from robust randomised controlled trials (RCT). Emerging data from short-term RCT\\ud involving seaweed isolates are promising. Further investigation of seaweed as a wholefood ingredient is ...

  17. Using smartphone technology to reduce health impacts from atmospheric environmental hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, F. H.; Wheeler, A. J.; Williamson, G. J.; Campbell, S. L.; Jones, P. J.; Koolhof, I. S.; Lucani, C.; Cooling, N. B.; Bowman, D. M. J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Background: Global environmental change is exacerbating human vulnerability to adverse atmospheric conditions including air pollution, aeroallergens such as pollen, and extreme weather events. Public information and advisories are a central component of responses to mitigate the human impacts of environmental hazards. Digital technologies are emerging as a means of providing personalised, timely and accessible warnings. Method: We describe AirRater, an integrated online platform that combines symptom surveillance, environmental monitoring, and notifications of changing environmental conditions via a free smartphone app. It was developed and launched in Tasmania, Australia (population 510 000), with the aim of reducing health impacts and improving quality of life in people with conditions such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. We present environmental data, user uptake and results from three online evaluation surveys conducted during the first 22 months of operation, from October 2015 through August 2017. Results: There were 3,443 downloads of the app from all regions of Tasmania. Of the 1,959 individuals who registered, 79% reported having either asthma or allergic rhinitis. Downloads increased during adverse environmental conditions and following publicity. Symptom reports per active user were highest during spring (72%), lowest in autumn (37%) and spiked during periods of reduced air quality. In response to online surveys, most users reported that the app was useful and had improved their understanding of how environmental conditions affect their health, and in some cases had prompted action such as the timely use of medication. Conclusion: Active engagement and consistent positive feedback from users demonstrates the potential for considerable individual, clinical and wider public health benefits from integrated and personalised monitoring systems such as AirRater. The perceived health benefits require objective verification, and such systems need to address

  18. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  19. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  20. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth) ... Your proposal should demonstrate an understanding of the ... demonstrated ability to work independently, and strong written and oral communications skills are ...

  1. Updated Human Health Risk Analyses for Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has revised the human health hazard assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos.

  2. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  3. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  4. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  5. One Health: Understanding and Improving Human, Animal, and Environmental Health as a Connected System Across NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, S.; Trtanj, J.; Jones, H.

    2017-12-01

    The One Health concept recognizes that the health of humans is inextricably linked with the health of animals and the environment. With a growing world population, changing climate, and increased global travel One Health approaches are increasingly useful. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides key stakeholders in the public health sector with the environmental intelligence they need to mitigate emerging health threats. The NOAA One Health Working Group's mission is to integrate and coordinate the network of observing systems and in situ sensors, detection and diagnostic capacity, research and modeling efforts, and sustained engagement with health partners to deliver useful information to public health and resource management communities. The NOAA One Health group divides its broad focus into themes: thermal extremes, water-borne disease, seafood security, Arctic, wildlife and zoonotic disease, vector-borne disease, and air quality (including wildfire). The group connects the work being done throughout NOAA to coordinate One Health related efforts, increase information sharing, promote interdisciplinary approaches, and work towards better disease prevention. We are working to enhance NOAA Science and services to deliver useful information on current and emerging health risks and benefits to health decision makers.

  6. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrre Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects.

  7. Introduction to radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This introductory chapter presents an overview of topics that are examined throughout the book. There are brief discussions on basic scientific notation, epidemiology, risk assessment, and the use of assumptions and approximations in scientific research. The book presents evidence that ionizing radiation causes a variety of human health hazards. The health hazards evaluated in detail are cancer and chromosomal damage

  8. Climate Change and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Semenza, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change science points to an increase in sea surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air qualit...

  9. Proposing a Health Humanities Minor: Some Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Virginia Bucurel; Boria, Damon

    2017-12-01

    For those interested in developing baccalaureate programs in health humanities, this essay draws on our experience of developing a minor in health humanities to share insights on what to expect, strategies that work well, and how to deal with obstacles. These insights range from how to explain the concept of health humanities to stakeholders (faculty, administrators, and community partners) to how to decide where to house a health humanities program. We share our insights in a way that promises to translate well to different institutional contexts. That said, this paper is more relevant for institutional contexts where budgets are stressed and, consequently, proposals to invest in humanities programs are a difficult sell. This paper is divided into sections addressing how to (a) earn institutional support, (b) gain campus buy-in, (c) identify benefits of the proposed program, (d) decide where to house the program, (e) calculate program cost, and (f) secure external funding. We conclude with some final reflections on the current status of our program and why we are committed to health humanities education.

  10. Atmospheric nuclear weapons test history narrated by carbon-14 in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kunihide; Nagatsu, Toshiharu; Togari, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Shosei

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons since 1945 caused a significant increase in the concentration of atmospheric 14 C. The 14 C concentration in plants that assimilate 14 C directly by photosynthesis reflects the atmospheric 14 C concentration. Carbon-14 is then transferred into the human body through the food chain. Based on animal experiments, the collagen in human teeth is metabolically inert after its formation. This implies that the collagen of each tooth retains the 14 C concentration which reflects the 14 C concentration in the blood at the time collagen metabolism ceased. The distribution of the 14 C concentration in the collagen of teeth from subjects of various ages would follow a pattern similar to that shown by soft tissues. In this paper the authors elucidate the relationship between the number of nuclear weapon tests and the distribution of 14 C concentration in teeth

  11. The New HIT: Human Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tiffany I; Goldstein, Mary K; Musen, Mark A; Cronkite, Ruth; Chen, Jonathan H; Gottlieb, Assaf; Leitersdorf, Eran

    2017-01-01

    Humanism in medicine is defined as health care providers' attitudes and actions that demonstrate respect for patients' values and concerns in relation to their social, psychological and spiritual life domains. Specifically, humanistic clinical medicine involves showing respect for the patient, building a personal connection, and eliciting and addressing a patient's emotional response to illness. Health information technology (IT) often interferes with humanistic clinical practice, potentially disabling these core aspects of the therapeutic patient-physician relationship. Health IT has evolved rapidly in recent years - and the imperative to maintain humanism in practice has never been greater. In this vision paper, we aim to discuss why preserving humanism is imperative in the design and implementation of health IT systems.

  12. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  13. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  14. Human radiation experimentation: a health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper observes ethical human experimentation can be considered in terms of two basic principles or tests: informed, willing and knowledgeable subjects; and expectation of benefits. A number of human experiments are evaluated in terms of these principles, including a sixteenth century toxicology experiment, the deliberate exposure by an x-ray pioneer, and the plutonium injection cases of the 1940's. The following rational ethic is proposed for the practice of health physics with respect to human radiation experimentation: At all levels, the health physicist has a professional as well as personal obligation to ensure that proper human requirements, including proper informed consent and willing subjects, arc carried out with respect to human radiation experimentation, and must be convinced that the real or potential benefits to be derived from the experiment clearly exceed the potential detriment and risk. (author)

  15. One health: The interface between veterinary and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitiz Shrestha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One Health is an emerging global key concept integrating human and animal health through international research and policy. The complex relationships between the human and animal have resulted in a human-animal-environment interface since prehistorical times. The people, animals, plants, and the environment are so intrinsically linked that prevention of risks and the mitigation of effects of crises that originate at the interface between humans, animals, and their environments can only improve health and wellbeing. The “One Health” approach has been successfully implemented in numerous projects around the world. The containment of pandemic threats such as avian influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome within months of outbreak are few examples of successful applications of the One Health paradigm. The paper begins with a brief overview of the human-animal interface and continues with the socio-economic and public health impact caused by various zoonotic diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome, Influenza, and Ebola virus. This is followed by the role of “One Health” to deal the global problem by the global solution. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary collaboration, training for health professionals and institutional support to minimize global health threats due to infectious diseases. The broad definition of the concept is supposed to lead multiple interpretations that impede the effective implementation of One Health approach within veterinary profession, within the medical profession, by wildlife specialists and by environmentalists, while on the other side, it gives a value of interdisciplinary collaboration for reducing threats in human-animal-environment interface.

  16. Plastic and Human Health: A Micro Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Kelly, Frank J

    2017-06-20

    Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to accumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants was critically examined. Although microplastics and human health is an emerging field, complementary existing fields indicate potential particle, chemical and microbial hazards. If inhaled or ingested, microplastics may accumulate and exert localized particle toxicity by inducing or enhancing an immune response. Chemical toxicity could occur due to the localized leaching of component monomers, endogenous additives, and adsorbed environmental pollutants. Chronic exposure is anticipated to be of greater concern due to the accumulative effect that could occur. This is expected to be dose-dependent, and a robust evidence-base of exposure levels is currently lacking. Although there is potential for microplastics to impact human health, assessing current exposure levels and burdens is key. This information will guide future research into the potential mechanisms of toxicity and hence therein possible health effects.

  17. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  18. Climate change and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John A; Berner, James E; Curtis, Tine

    2005-01-01

    In northern regions, climate change can include changes in precipitation magnitude and frequency, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, and climate warming and cooling. These changes can increase the frequency and severity of storms, flooding, or erosion; other changes may include drought...... or degradation of permafrost. Climate change can result in damage to sanitation infrastructure resulting in the spread of disease or threatening a community's ability to maintain its economy, geographic location and cultural tradition, leading to mental stress. Through monitoring of some basic indicators...... communities can begin to develop a response to climate change. With this information, planners, engineers, health care professionals and governments can begin to develop approaches to address the challenges related to climate change....

  19. Atmospheric pollution and human reproduction: Report on the Munich International Workshop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slama, R.; Darrow, L.; Parker, J.; Woodruff, T.J.; Strickland, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Glinianaia, S.; Hoggatt, J.; Kannan, S.; Hurley, K.; Kalinka, J.; Šrám, Radim; Brauer, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Heinrich, J.; Ritz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2008), s. 791-798 ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Atmospheric pollution * Birth weight * Exposure assessment Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 6.123, year: 2008

  20. Where Public Health Meets Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Karusa; Sawicki, Olga; Smith, Sally; Brion, Sophie; Sharma, Aditi; Mworeko, Lilian; Iovita, Alexandrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services. The rights-based validation process also involves the assessment of participation of affected communities in EMTCT program development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It brings awareness to the types of human rights abuses and inequalities faced by women living with, at risk of, or affected by HIV and syphilis, and commits governments to eliminate those barriers. This process demonstrates the importance and feasibility of integrating human rights, gender, and community into key public health interventions in a manner that improves health outcomes, legitimizes the participation of affected communities, and advances the human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:29302179

  1. The Impact of Mars Atmospheric Dust on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakolanu, U. G.

    2017-06-01

    The martian dust impact can be considered as an exposure to ultra fine particles of martian dust. Direct nose to brain pathway of particulate matter can affect the fine motor skills and gross motor skills, cognition may be affected.

  2. Atmospheric nuclear weapon test history as characterized by the deposition of 14C in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Togari, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Nagatsu, T.

    1990-01-01

    The 14 C concentration in the collagen of human teeth was retrospectively investigated to determine whether its incorporation was related to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Teeth were extracted for dental therapy from July 1987 to February 1988 from patients who were residents in Japan. Tooth collagen was extracted with HCl and converted to amorphous C by heating in a vacuum line. Specimens for 14 C analysis were prepared by mixing the amorphous C with silver powder. The 14 C concentration was measured by mass spectrometer. The 14 C concentration in tooth collagen rapidly increased in 1961 after the bomb tests, peaked around 1967-1968, and then gradually decreased. The collagen of human teeth maintains the 14 C concentration at the age of root completion for life. The results of this study indicate that the history of environmental contamination from atmospheric nuclear weapon's tests has been characterized by deposition of 14 C in the tooth collagen 14 C of human beings

  3. Domestic dogs and human health: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2007-02-01

    The domestic dog is one of the most commonly owned, and widely utilized, animals in today's society. This paper provides an overview of research that has explored the relationship between the domestic dog and human well-being. The article initially concentrates on the value of dogs for physical health in humans, exploring the evidence that this species can prevent us from becoming ill, facilitate our recovery from ill-health, and even serve as an early warning system for certain types of underlying ailment including cancer, oncoming seizures and hypoglycaemia. The paper then examines the relationship between dogs and psychological health in humans, exploring the ability of this species to aid the disabled and serve as a therapist to those in institutional settings such as hospitals, residential homes and prisons. Weaknesses in the existing research in this area are highlighted throughout the article. Taken together, the studies reviewed suggest that dogs can have prophylactic and therapeutic value for people.

  4. How the marine biotoxins affect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Silvia; Silvestro, Serena; Faggio, Caterina

    2018-03-01

    Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning. The spread of HABs is probably a result of anthropogenic activities and climate change, that influence marine planktonic systems, including global warming, habitat modification, eutrophication and growth of exogenous species in response to human pressures. HABs are a worldwide matter that requests local solutions and international cooperation. This review supplies an overview of HAB phenomena, and, in particular, we describe the major consequences of HABs on human health.

  5. Health effects of acid aerosols formed by atmospheric mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, M.T.; Phalen, R.F.; Mautz, W.J.; Mannix, R.C.; McClure, T.R.; Crocker, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Under ambient conditions, sulfur and nitrogen oxides can react with photochemical products and airborne particles to form acidic vapors and aerosols. Inhalation toxicological studies were conducted, exposing laboratory animals, at rest and during exercise, to multicomponent atmospheric mixtures under conditions favorable to the formation of acidic reaction products. Effects of acid and ozone mixtures on early and late clearance of insoluble radioactive particles in the lungs of rats appeared to be dominated by the oxidant component (i.e., the mixture did cause effects that were significantly different from those of ozone alone). Histopathological evaluations showed that sulfuric acid particles alone did not cause inflammatory responses in centriacinar units of rat lung parenchyma (expressed in terms of percent lesion area) but did cause significant damage (cell killing followed by a wave of cell replication) in nasal respiratory epithelium, as measured by uptake of tritiated thymidine in the DNA of replicating cells. Mixtures of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, which form nitric acid, caused significant inflammatory responses in lung parenchyma (in excess of effects seen in rats exposed to ozone alone), but did not damage nasal epithelium. Mixtures containing acidic sulfate particles, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide damaged both lung parenchyma and nasal epithelia. In rats exposed at rest, the response of the lung appeared to be dominated by the oxidant gas-phase components, while responses in the nose were dominated by the acidic particles. In rats exposed at exercise, however, mixtures of ozone and sulfuric acid particles significantly (2.5-fold) elevated the degree of lung lesion formation over that seen in rats exposed to ozone alone under an identical exercise protocol

  6. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  7. Role of Plastics on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod

    2018-05-01

    Plastics, currently the universal workhorse materials of modern economy, because of their low cost and varied functional properties are posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Rising concern about the impact of plastics on environment and human health, has forced the industry to look for alternatives. This review studies current understanding of benefits and concerns surrounding use of plastics, reviews literature about health effects in humans and discusses the current state of evidence, as well as future research trends. There is increasing concern regarding additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and their detection in humans, leading to harmful impact on health. The studies are divided, among many other issues on the fact of considering these additives as carcinogens or toxicants, but there is a consensus that these chemicals have the ability to alter the endocrine system. Human data are limited compared to large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds in animals. The concentrations of these additives in young children, a segment particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. The rapid increase in usage of plastics and increased awareness about its health hazard has lent urgency to the whole issue.

  8. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiron, M.; Quenel, Ph.; Zmirou, D.

    1997-01-01

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  9. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  10. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  11. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  12. The role of human activity and land use change in atmospheric chemistry and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the this paper, I review the importance of a mineral of fossil fuel emissions atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. I then review current estimates of the sources for each specie, deriving the fraction of each source that is due to specific land use practices or land cover categories. Understanding the current trends of those species with known increasing abundances and projecting increases into the future is possible if the estimated sources from human activity and land use change can be projected and if the known atmospheric sinks and the interactions in atmospheric chemistry and climate change are appropriately taken into account. Regional trends in the short-lived species can be projected as well, assuming the estimated sources and sinks are correct. However, significant uncertainties continue to surround the estimated budgets for most of these species. Uncertainties and the estimated ranges in different source strength estimates for each are also discussed

  13. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  14. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  15. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  16. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  17. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  18. Research Article (Human Resources for Health) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-14

    Jun 14, 2007 ... ... of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 4. ... six year Emergency Human Resource Programme aimed ... therefore to elucidate the extent of major surgical work ... back for review seven days after discharge. ... and 24 hour maternal condition, post-operative fever, wound.

  19. Exploring connections between trees and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Marie. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Humans have intuitively understood the value of trees to their physical and mental health since the beginning of recorded time. A scientist with the Pacific Northwest Research Station wondered if such a link could be scientifically validated. His research team took advantage of an infestation of emerald ash borer, an invasive pest that kills ash trees, to conduct a...

  20. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  1. Governance and human resources for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic

  2. The human face of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  3. New approaches in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009-2014; www.arcrisk.eu).

  4. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abass

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu.

  5. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and

  6. Human health and stoic moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lawrence C

    2003-04-01

    For the philosophy of medicine, there are two things of interest about the stoic account of moral norms, quite apart from whether the rest of stoic ethical theory is compelling. One is the stoic version of naturalism: its account of practical reasoning, its solution to the is/ought problem, and its contention that norms for creating, sustaining, or restoring human health are tantamount to moral norms. The other is the stoic account of human agency: its description of the intimate connections between human health, rational agency, and moral norms. There is practical guidance to be gained from exploring those connections, whether or not one is ready to follow stoic moral theory all the way to its austere end.

  7. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  8. The effects of extra-low-frequency atmospheric pressure oscillations on human mental activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyukov, A. A.; Didyk, L.

    Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans.

  9. Periodicities common to the solar atmosphere rotation and the functioning of human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagun, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    The study is made of the occurrence rates of menstrual cycle periods for ∼ 2000 women. Peaks on the distribution histogram, corresponding to 21, 25, 28 and 30 days, coincide with a set of axial rotation periods of the solar atmosphere. It is proposed that the functioning of human organism is determined not only by the Moon bu by the rithmics of solar system. 10 refs., 1 fig

  10. Human population and atmospheric carbon dioxide growth dynamics: Diagnostics for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsler, A. D.; Sornette, D.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the growth rates of human population and of atmospheric carbon dioxide by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model describing the growth dynamics of coupled processes involving human population (labor in economic terms), capital and technology (proxies by CO2 emissions). Human population in the context of our energy intensive economies constitutes arguably the most important underlying driving variable of the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Using some of the best databases available, we perform empirical analyses confirming that the human population on Earth has been growing super-exponentially until the mid-1960s, followed by a decelerated sub-exponential growth, with a tendency to plateau at just an exponential growth in the last decade with an average growth rate of 1.0% per year. In contrast, we find that the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has continued to accelerate super-exponentially until 1990, with a transition to a progressive deceleration since then, with an average growth rate of approximately 2% per year in the last decade. To go back to CO2 atmosphere contents equal to or smaller than the level of 1990 as has been the broadly advertised goals of international treaties since 1990 requires herculean changes: from a dynamical point of view, the approximately exponential growth must not only turn to negative acceleration but also negative velocity to reverse the trend.

  11. Humanized care in the family health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Health Community Agent (HCA has contributed in a meaningful way to enhance the bond professional-user/family, providing, thus, the humanized care for the users who receive attention from the Family Health Strategy (FHS. This research had the aim to investigate the strategies adopted by the health community agents in order to supply the humanized care for the FHS user. It is an exploratory research of qualitative nature which was accomplished in the Basic Health Units – BHU, placed in the Distrito Sanitário III, in João Pessoa – PB. Thirtyhealth community agents, from the Family Health Strategy, took part in the research. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire related to the objective proposed by the investigation and, afterwards, they were analyzed qualitatively through the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique. In this way, it was possible to foresee three main ideas: promoting care based on respect for the user’s singularity as well as the valuing of empathic relationship; home visit, guidance, surveillance, pointing out solutions for the user’sneeds; enhancement of the bond between community and the team responsible for action planning. The Collective Subject Discourse of the participants involved in the research, as regards the humanized care practice, had as core the respect for the patient’s dignity, prioritizing his or her real needs and emphasizing the multidisciplinary task. This investigation enables the reflection about the valuable contribution of the health community agents concerning the promotion of the humanized care having as reference the mentioned strategies.

  12. Working together for health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, V W

    2000-01-01

    The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and human rights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and human rights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined.

  13. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  14. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored.

  15. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  16. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetically modified plants and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal Mw

    2008-06-01

    Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt 'health campaigns', the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly - through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production - but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.

  18. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010 – 2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue may also be appropriate. Finally, new toxicological data suggests that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which may warrant a more robust assessment of this information. This paper provides a screening-level human health risk assessment using the margin of exposure of exposure approach, of contaminants of emerging concern detected in drinking water. As far as we are a

  19. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  20. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use ...

  1. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  2. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  3. Interactions of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM 2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures. The reactions that form ozone occur faster with greater sunlight and higher temperatures. Weather systems influence the movement and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere through the action of winds, vertical mixing, and precipitation, all of which are likely to alter in a changing climate. Recent studies indicate that, holding anthropogenic air pollution emissions constant, ozone concentrations in populated regions will tend to increase in future climate scenarios. For the USA, the climate impact on ozone is most consistently seen in north-central and north-eastern states, with the potential for many thousands of additional ozone-related deaths. The sensitivity of anthropogenic PM 2.5 to climate is more variable across studies and regions, owing to the varied nature of PM constituents, as well as to less complete characterization of PM reaction chemistry in available atmospheric models. However, PM emitted by wildland fires is likely to become an increasing health risk in many parts of the world as climate continues to change. The complex interactions between climate change and air quality imply that future policies to mitigate these twin challenges will benefit from greater coordination. Assessing the health implications of alternative policy approaches towards climate and pollution mitigation will be a critical area of future work.

  4. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  5. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  6. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  7. The Human Right to Equal Access to Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. San Giorgi (Maite)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe right to equal access to health care is a fundamental principle that is part of the human right to health care. For victims of a violation of the human right to equal access to health care it is important that a judicial or quasi-judicial human rights body can adjudicate their

  8. Global atmospheric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  9. The promotion of radioimmunoassay in human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay is an analytical technique which makes use of highly specific and sensitive antibodies to segregate particular substances of interest and radioactive tracers to permit quantification of minute amounts. Some procedures use specific biological ''reagents'' other than antibodies and tracers other than radionuclides. Radioimmunoassay plays an enormous role in medical diagnosis and research. Depending on the services to be performed, the radioimmunoassay laboratories are classified into 4 categories. The laboratory of each category is staffed and equipped with facilities according to its scope and quantity of work. From 1980-1982, nearly US$ 2 million had been used under the Agency's Technical Cooperation Programme for the promotion of radioimmunoassay in human health

  10. Promotion of radioimmunoassay in human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, R A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Radioimmunoassay is an analytical technique which makes use of highly specific and sensitive antibodies to segregate particular substances of interest and radioactive tracers to permit quantification of minute amounts. Some procedures use specific biological ''reagents'' other than antibodies and tracers other than radionuclides. Radioimmunoassay plays an enormous role in medical diagnosis and research. Depending on the services to be performed, the radioimmunoassay laboratories are classified into 4 categories. The laboratory of each category is staffed and equipped with facilities according to its scope and quantity of work. From 1980-1982, nearly US $2 million had been used under the Agency's Technical Cooperation Programme for the promotion of radioimmunoassay in human health.

  11. The impact of weather on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, F G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of weather on human health is a well-known fact, yet, alas, neglected in the past. Bioclimatology, a vast field of medical knowledge, has only been developed in the past few years. It shows that the air we breathe has a profound influence on our well-being. Electrical charges of the air, such as ions, spherics and electrofields can affect our endocrine, vegetative and autonomous nerve system. It may even be responsible for post-operative thromboembolism. The present article describes weather reactions, electric radiations, climate rhythm, medical aspects of weather changes, and their effect on health and disease. Special devotion is also given to the manifestations of evil winds.

  12. Assessing the Levels and Health Risk of Atmospheric Formaldehyde in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M.F. Mohammed; Essam A. Morsy; Turki M. Habeebullah; Said Munir

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric Formaldehyde (HCHO) was monitored in four sites on the Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia during August, 2013. The daily mean concentrations of HCHO were ranged from 1.09-18.92 g/m3. The levels of HCHO were significantly higher than the permissible exposure limit (0.042 μg/m3) of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). However, it were not exceeded the recommended exposure limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (20 μg/m3) and Egyptian...

  13. Mapping the institutional consolidation of EU human health expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, A.

    The EU’s role in the field of human health is solidifying in terms of law and policy, but also with respect to the institutional organisation of human health expertise. In light of the emerging health-care union and questions regarding the nature and scope of a European health law, the institutional

  14. Mapping the institutional consolidation of EU human health expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, Anniek

    2016-01-01

    The EU’s role in the field of human health is solidifying in terms of law and policy, but also with respect to the institutional organisation of human health expertise. In light of the emerging health-care union and questions regarding the nature and scope of a European health law, the institutional

  15. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  16. Gut microbiomes and their metabolites shape human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojun

    2018-03-01

    The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health. This editorial introduces six review papers that provide new discoveries of disease-associated microbiomes and suggest possible microbiome-based therapeutic approaches to human disease.

  17. Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter

    Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries. The daily intake (dose) and the corresponding systemic concentrations (response) are related in a saturable relationship, and low systemic vitamin C concentrations in observational studies are associated with negative health outcomes. However, there is no evidence that vitamin C supplementation impacts the risks for all-cause mortality, impaired cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, the development of eye diseases, infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. This might be related to the fact that prevention would not be realized by supplementation in populations already adequately supplied through dietary sources. Recent genetic association studies indicate that the dietary intake might not be the sole determinant of systemic concentrations, since variations in genes participating in redox homeostasis and vitamin C transport had been associated with lowered plasma concentrations. However, impact sizes are generally low and these phenomena might only affect individual of suboptimal dietary supply. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  19. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  20. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  1. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  2. Effects of air pollution on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1961-01-01

    An appreciable amount of knowledge exists about the effects of community air pollution upon human health. This knowledge comes in part from direct studies of the air pollution health problem and in part from investigations done for other purposes. It is equally apparent that there are many aspects of the subject of the health effects of air pollution on which sound information is lacking. Many years undoubtedly will pass before we have the answers to all the questions involved. Man-made air pollution could be entirely eliminated, but the price that civilization would be required to pay for this would be exorbitant by any standards, whether monetary or otherwise. It is unreasonable to contemplate that we could put a stop to all combustion, the chief source of man-made air pollution. It is logical, however, to consider that the clarification of the air on a qualitatively and quantitatively selective basis is feasible, and in some cases, highly desirable. This can be done, for example, by selectively arresting the contaminants at their source. 404 references.

  3. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  4. Interactions with human nutrition and other indices of population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The contamination of food is an important pathway involved in the internal combination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the amount of a certain food consumed. Semi-natural and natural ecosystems are of special interest in this content because they can provide critical pathways for radionuclide transfer to humans, and they can also act as temporary sinks or long-term sources for radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere. From the viewpoint of population health, another important role is played by the countermeasures. The reference values commonly adopted in radiation protection are conservative and they have been established for planning practices that could provide future sources of irradiation. After a large release of radionuclides, the evaluation of the problem must be as realistic as possible, otherwise the countermeasures will imply consequences worse than those produced by the accident itself (without any further intervention). This criterion was clearly stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection but it was frequently neglected after the Chernobyl accident. The results of a survey on the number of induced abortions following this incident are reported. These suggest that moral and ethical problems are involved above and beyond any economical implications. (Author)

  5. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  6. Daily atmospheric radionuclide observations and health impact estimation before and after the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident: Five-year trends by Canadian monitoring stations - Ten-year trends of atmospheric lead-210 and the correlation to atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Rd. Ottawa, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Mercury is a global threat to human and environmental health. Anthropogenic emissions of mercury have been larger than natural emissions since the start of the industrial age about 200 years ago. In the past decades, many studies have focused on monitoring and controlling anthropogenic emissions of mercury and their transport and transformation in the environment. In October 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury was formally adopted as international law. The new treaty aims to further cut mercury emissions and releases; it is the first global convention on environment and health. Coal burning for power generation and industrial use is one of the major sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions to the air. However, coal combustion processes produce significant quantities of dust containing not only mercury but also natural radionuclides that are released into the atmosphere. Like the case of mercury, those radionuclides can be transported over long distances, deposited on soil and oceans and accumulated in Arctic biota. Exposure to elevated levels of radiation is a health concern. This study analyses long-term trends of atmospheric lead-210 from Health Canada's radiological monitoring stations in the Arctic. Results are compared with ten-year records of atmospheric mercury reported by Environment Canada. A discussion is given on the correlation of long-range atmospheric transport of lead-210 and mercury from industrial sources, such as coal burning. It is expected that continuous decline of atmospheric mercury in the Arctic, especially with more and more countries signing the Minamata Convention, will result in a deceasing trend of atmospheric lead-210 from industrial sources as well. (authors)

  7. Extrapolation in human health hazard characterization: a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, B.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A classical deterministic risk assessment often uses conservative, worst-case assumptions to estimate the possible health risk in humans. When such an assessment shows an unacceptable human health risk, a more realistic risk assessment may be needed to estimate the actual health impact in the

  8. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  9. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, S M; Njenga, M Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F; Palmer, Guy H; McElwain, Terry F

    2015-01-01

    For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling for household size, the

  10. Particle deposition and clearance of atmospheric particles in the human respiratory tract during LACE 98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Hänel, G.

    2003-04-01

    During the LACE 98footnote{Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment, (Germany) 1998} experiment microphysical, chemical and optical properties of atmospheric particles were measured by several groups. (Bundke et al.). The particle deposition and clearance of the particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated using the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) deposition and clearance model (ICRP 1994). Particle growth as function of relative humidity outside the body was calculated from measurement data using the model introduced by Bundke et al.. Particle growth inside the body was added using a non-equilibrium particle growth model. As a result of the calculations, time series of the total dry particle mass and -size distribution were obtained for all compartments of the human respiratory tract defined by ICRP 1994. The combined ICRP deposition and clearance model was initialized for different probationers like man, woman, children of different ages and several circumstances like light work, sitting, sleeping etc. Keeping the conditions observed during LACE 98 constant a approximation of the aerosol burdens of the different compartments was calculated up to 4 years of exposure and compared to the results from Snipes et al. for the "Phoenix" and "Philadelphia" aerosol. References: footnotesize{ Bundke, U. et al.,it{Aerosol Optical Properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98)} ,10.1029/2000JD000188, JGR, 2002 ICRP,it{Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection, Bd. ICRP Publication 66}, Annals of the ICRP, 24,1-3, Elsevier Science, Ocford, 1994 Snipes et al. ,it{The 1994 ICRP66 Human Respiratory Tract Model as a Tool for predicting Lung Burdens from Exposure to Environmental Aerosols}, Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 12, 547-553,1997}

  11. Medical Humanitarianism Under Atmospheric Violence: Health Professionals in the 2013 Gezi Protests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciksoz, Salih Can

    2016-06-01

    During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East.

  12. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  13. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  14. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  15. Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Graduate Training Awards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Ecohealth) program initiative ... Each grant will consist of CA $15 000 for field research and up to CA $4 000 for ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  16. [Folate, vitamin B12 and human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel; Gaitán, Diego; Sánchez, Hugo; Allen, Lindsay H; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Chile, folate deficiency is virtually nonexistent, while vitamin B12 deficiency affects approximately 8.5-51% depending on the cut-off value used to define deficiency. Folate is found naturally mainly in vegetables or added as folic acid to staple foods. Vitamin B12 in its natural form is present only in foods of animal origin, which is why deficit is more common among strict vegetarians and populations with a low intake of animal foods. Poor folate status in vulnerable women of childbearing age increases the risk of neural tube birth defects, so the critical time for the contribution of folic acid is several months before conception since neural tube closure occurs during the first weeks of life. The absorption of vitamin B12 from food is lower in older adults, who are considered to have higher risk of gastric mucosa atrophy, altered production of intrinsic factor and acid secretion. Deficiency of these vitamins is associated with hematological disorders. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also induce clinical and sub-clinical neurological and of other disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent advances in the basic and applied knowledge of these vitamins relative to human health.

  17. Key challenges of human resources for health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Since independence the efforts have been to strengthen the health infrastructure, its accessibility and coverage. The human resources for health have been an important determinant for system but it has received significance recently. Even government expenditure on health has remained at not more than 1% of Gross Domestic Product which is very less as compared to world standard. Now the biggest challenge is the shortage of skilled human resource for health at all le...

  18. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A; Labunska, I; Blokov, I; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Stringer, R; Sadownichik, T [eds.; Antipkin, Yu G [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L P [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D A [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  19. Governance and human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-11-24

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  20. Governance and human resources for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieleman Marjolein

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH, HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic series has aimed to expand the evidence base on the role of governance in addressing the HRH crisis. The six articles comprising the series present a range of experiences. The articles report on governance in relation to developing a joint vision, building adherence and strengthening accountability, and on governance with respect to planning, implementation, and monitoring. Other governance issues warrant attention as well, such as corruption and transparency in decision-making in HRH policies and strategies. Acknowledging and dealing with governance should be part and parcel of HRH planning and implementation. To date, few experiences have been shared on improving governance for HRH policy making and implementation, and many questions remain unanswered. There is an urgent need to document experiences and for mutual learning.

  1. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T.; Arabskaya, L.P.; Bazyka, D.A.

    2006-04-01

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  2. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing...

  3. A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss PAHs impact on the environmental and the magnitude of the human health risks posed by such substances. They also contain important information on concentrations, burdens and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere. The main anthropogenic sources of PAHs and their effect on the concentrations of these compounds in air are discussed. The fate of PAHs in the air, their persistence and the main mechanisms of their losses are presented. Health hazards associated with PAH air pollution are stressed.

  4. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009.

  5. Human Physiology The Urban Health Crisis: Strategies for Health for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comes its English equivalent, Human Physiology. Though ... Summary of Human Physiology would have been a more appropriate ... This crisis has its origins in the interaction between .... The construction, layout and printing of the book are as.

  6. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Redwanur M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights.

  7. Site, Sector, Scope: Mapping the Epistemological Landscape of Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    This essay presents a critical appraisal of the current state of baccalaureate Health Humanities, with a special focus on the contextual differences currently influencing the implementation of this field in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the United States and United Kingdom. I argue that the epistemological bedrock of Health Humanities goes beyond that generated by its written texts to include three external factors that are especially pertinent to undergraduate education: site (the setting of Health Humanities education), sector (the disciplinary eligibility for funding) and scope (the critical engagement with a program's local context alongside an emergent "core" of Health Humanities knowledge, learning, and practice). Drawing largely from the Canadian context, I discuss how these differences can inform or obstruct this field's development, and offer preliminary recommendations for encouraging the growth of baccalaureate Health Humanities-in Canada and elsewhere-in light of these factors.

  8. Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm-Straker, Makini; Baldwin, Susie; Gaïgbé-Togbé, Bertille; Ndukwe, Nneka; Johnson, Pauline N; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to build the evidence base around human trafficking (HT) and health in the U.S. by employing a quantitative approach to exploring the notion that health care providers encounter this population. Furthermore, this study sought to describe the health care settings most frequented by victims of human trafficking. This was an anonymous, retrospective study of survivors of U.S.-based human trafficking. One hundred and seventy-three participants who endured U.S.-based human trafficking were surveyed. The majority (68%, n=117) of participants were seen by a health care provider while being trafficked. Respondents most frequently reported visiting emergency/urgent care practitioners (56%), followed by primary care providers, dentists, and obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs). While health care providers are serving this patient population, they do not consistently identify them as victims of human trafficking.

  9. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  10. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Induces Transcriptional Changes in Ex Vivo Human Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Rosani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP might be considered a novel tool for tissue disinfection in medicine since the active chemical species produced by low plasma doses, generated by ionizing helium gas in air, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS that kill microorganisms without substantially affecting human cells.In this study, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in human corneas exposed for 2 minutes (min to APCP and tested if the antioxidant n-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC was able to inhibit or prevent damage and cell death.Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses of corneal tissues collected at 6 hours (h post-APCP treatment demonstrated no morphological tissue changes, but a transient increased expression of OGG1 glycosylase that returned to control levels in 24 h. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real time PCR performed on different corneas revealed in the treated corneas many differentially expressed genes: namely, 256 and 304 genes showing expression changes greater than ± 2 folds in the absence and presence of NAC, respectively. At 6 h post-treatment, the most over-expressed gene categories suggested an active or enhanced cell functioning, with only a minority of genes specifically concerning oxidative DNA damage and repair showing slight over-expression values (<2 folds. Moreover, time-related expression analysis of eight genes up-regulated in the APCP-treated corneas overall demonstrated the return to control expression levels after 24 h.These findings of transient oxidative stress accompanied by wide-range transcriptome adjustments support the further development of APCP as an ocular disinfectant.

  11. Peroxiredoxin Expression of Human Osteosarcoma Cells Is Influenced by Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, Denis; Gelbrich, Nadine; Napp, Matthias; Daeschlein, Georg; Kramer, Axel; Sckell, Axel; Burchardt, Martin; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Stope, Matthias B

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the potential involvement of redox-specific signalling pathways in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP)-induced apoptosis on human osteosarcoma cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were treated with CAP with or without antioxidative agents and seeded in cell culture plates. Cell proliferation was determined by counting viable cells. Carrier gas-treated cells served as control. Peroxiredoxin (PRX) 1-3 expression and secretion were assessed. CAP treatment exhibited strongly attenuated proliferation rates. This effect was significantly attenuated by the addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). CAP-treated cells exhibited an increase of PRX 1 and 2 10 sec after treatment. The ratio of oxidized to reduced PRX1 and PRX2 was significantly altered with increasing cellular concentration of the oxidized dimer. Antioxidant supplementation with NAC increases proliferation of CAP-treated osteosarcoma cells, implicating an involvement of redox signalling. Activation of PRX1 and -2 indicate CAP affects redox homeostasis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed.

  13. Smartphone Air Quality and Atmospheric Aerosol Characterization for Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, S. B.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality is a major global concern. Tracking and monitoring air quality provides individuals with the knowledge to make personal decisions about their health and investigate the environment in which they live. Satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA Aerosol Robotic Network) of air quality is spatially and temporarlly limited and often neglects to provide individuals with the freedom to understand their own personal environment using their personal observations. Given the ubiquitous nature of smartphones, individuals have access to powerful processing and sensing capabilities. When coupled with the appropriate sensor parameters, filters, and algorithms, smartphones can be used both for 'citizen science' air quality applications and 'professional' scientific atmospheric investigations, alike, simplifying data analysis, processing, and improving deployment efficiency. We evaluate the validity of smartphone technology for air quality investigations using standard Cimel CE 318 sun photometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroradiometer (FTIR) observations at specific locations.

  14. A review of the consequences of global climate change on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Ara Jahan, Shamin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change has been significant enough to endanger human health both directly and indirectly via heat stress, degraded air quality, rising sea levels, food and water security, extreme weather events (e.g., floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc.), vulnerable shelter, and population migration. The deterioration of environmental conditions may facilitate the transmission of diarrhea, vector-borne and infectious diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, malnutrition, etc. Indirect effects of climate change such as mental health problems due to stress, loss of homes, economic instability, and forced migration are also unignorably important. Children, the elderly, and communities living in poverty are among the most vulnerable of the harmful effects due to climate change. In this article, we have reviewed the scientific evidence for the human health impact of climate change and analyzed the various diseases in association with changes in the atmospheric environment and climate conditions.

  15. Prediction of health effects of cross-border atmospheric pollutants using an aerosol forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kazunari; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi Thomas; Nojima, Masanori; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Fujitani, Yusuke; Otani, Shinji; Maki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masato; Kurozawa, Youichi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2018-08-01

    Health effects of cross-border air pollutants and Asian dust are of significant concern in Japan. Currently, models predicting the arrival of aerosols have not investigated the association between arrival predictions and health effects. We investigated the association between subjective health symptoms and unreleased aerosol data from the Model of Aerosol Species in the Global Atmosphere (MASINGAR) acquired from the Japan Meteorological Agency, with the objective of ascertaining if these data could be applied to predicting health effects. Subjective symptom scores were collected via self-administered questionnaires and, along with modeled surface aerosol concentration data, were used to conduct a risk evaluation using generalized estimating equations between October and November 2011. Altogether, 29 individuals provided 1670 responses. Spearman's correlation coefficients were determined for the relationship between the proportion of the participants reporting the maximum score of two or more for each symptom and the surface concentrations for each considered aerosol species calculated using MASINGAR; the coefficients showed significant intermediate correlations between surface sulfate aerosol concentration and respiratory, throat, and fever symptoms (R = 0.557, 0.454, and 0.470, respectively; p < 0.01). In the general estimation equation (logit link) analyses, a significant linear association of surface sulfate aerosol concentration, with an endpoint determined by reported respiratory symptom scores of two or more, was observed (P trend = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] of the highest quartile [Q4] vs. the lowest [Q1] = 5.31, 95% CI = 2.18 to 12.96), with adjustment for potential confounding. The surface sulfate aerosol concentration was also associated with throat and fever symptoms. In conclusion, our findings suggest that modeled data are potentially useful for predicting health risks of cross-border aerosol arrivals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  18. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  19. Endocrine distrupting chemicals and human health: The plausibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plausibility of research results on DDT and reproductive health ... cals in the environment and that human health is inextri- cably linked to the health of .... periods of folliculo-genesis or embryo-genesis that increases risk for adverse effects.

  20. Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R

    2017-06-05

    Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health , EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Educating health care professionals on human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Aimee M; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Jeremy; Dotzler, Jennifer; Vanek, John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-12-01

    The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre-post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the delayed intervention comparison

  2. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of 'health'. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary's failure to engage with an individual's human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health.

  3. A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project evaluated an alternative method of controlled atmosphere stunning of commercial broilers to induce anoxia utilizing a vacuum pump to reduce the oxygen tension, low atmospheric pressure stun (LAPS). A custom built 2 cage-module system (holding a total of 600 broilers each) with...

  4. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  5. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  6. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  7. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  8. Dynamic Interactions Between Health, Human Capital and Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with health, human capital and wealth accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one industrial, one health, and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of four main models in economic theory: Solow’s one-sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, Arrow’s learning by doing model, and Grossman’s growth model with health. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of health service and education are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth, health, human capital, economic structure, and time distribution among work, health caring, and education under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the propensity to consume health caring, the efficiency of producing health caring, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save.

  9. Assessing the Levels and Health Risk of Atmospheric Formaldehyde in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M.F. Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Formaldehyde (HCHO was monitored in four sites on the Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia during August, 2013. The daily mean concentrations of HCHO were ranged from 1.09-18.92 g/m3. The levels of HCHO were significantly higher than the permissible exposure limit (0.042 μg/m3 of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA. However, it were not exceeded the recommended exposure limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (20 μg/m3 and Egyptian law 4/1994 (0.37 mg/m3. Spatial variations of HCHO concentrations most probably due to variations in local meteorology and traffic flow, which was considered the main source of emissions. Exposure doses for various age groups were estimated, which ranged from 0.000004 to 0.000259 mg/kg/day. Maximum exposure dose was recorded for boys (age 12-14 years and children (6-8 years and minimum for females (19-65 years.

  10. 'Only connect': the case for public health humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2014-12-01

    Humanities in health has until now been primarily understood to mean humanities in medicine and has generally failed to include public health. I will argue in this paper that the common justifications for the former--including increased empathy among practitioners--are at least as applicable, if not more, to the latter. Growing emphasis on the social determinants of health and cultural competency in public health require public health students and professionals to develop a nuanced understanding of the influence of social context on health behaviour and to empathise with people in difficult circumstances. Literary fiction has been demonstrated to have an impact on skills related to empathy and social intelligence. Further, translating epidemiological evidence into public policy is a core task of public health and there is a growing body of research to indicate that statistical evidence is more persuasive when combined with narrative evidence. In this article I explore similarities and differences between proposed humanities in public health and programmes in humanities in medicine and highlight research gaps and possible implications of a more expansive view of humanities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. NASA Human Health and Performance Information Architecture Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Kadwa, Binafer; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center has a mission to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable mission success, optimizing human health and productivity in space before, during, and after the actual spaceflight experience of our crews, and include support for ground-based functions. Many of our spaceflight innovations also provide solutions for terrestrial challenges, thereby enhancing life on Earth.

  12. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  13. Fates, Budgets, and Health Implications of Macondo Spill Volatile Hydrocarbons in the Ocean and Atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Barletta, B.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Bradley, E. S.; Meinardi, S.; Lehr, B.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rowland, F. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Macondo Oil Spill released unprecedented oil and gas to the ocean, estimated at 63000 bbl/day, which dispersed and dissolved during rise (Technical Flow Rate Team Report, 2010); yet, most of the oil reached the sea surface as oil slicks that then evolved due to weathering and dispersant application (Mass Balance Report, 2010). Remote sensing (near infrared imaging spectrometry) allowed quantification of thick surface oil, values of which were incorporated into an overall oil budget calculation. Remote sensing data, atmospheric samples, and numerical modeling, strongly suggest significant volatile loss during rise, yet measured atmospheric concentrations were high. Scaling atmospheric measurements to the total oil spill implies very high, extensive, and persistent levels of atmospheric petroleum hydrocarbon exposure with strong health implications to on-site workers and to coastal residents from wind advection.

  14. Evaluating external costs of human health and environmental impacts using IAEA model SIMPACTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, Elena; Jelev, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    SIMPACTS (Simplified Approach for Estimating Impacts and External Costs of Electricity Generation) model developed at the International Atomic Energy Agency is a powerful and convenient tool for evaluating external costs induced by different energy sources. The model was developed for industrial countries and for developing countries as well where studies of alternatives of sustainable energy policies are conducted. The SIMPACTS allow the decision making factors involved in energy policy to have reasonable estimates of environment impacts and relating costs appealing to a rather low number of input parameters. The paper aims at analyzing by means of SIMPACTS the environmental impact produced by Cernavoda NPP operation in two cases: a) the impact of the Cernavoda NPP itself; b) the impact of an hypothetical coal based power plant of the same power level and located on the Cernavoda NPP site. The SIMPACTS modules AIRPACTS and NUCPACTS were applied to assess the impacts on human health, agricultural crops and building materials from exposure to routine atmospheric emissions and as well to quantify and value the adverse effects on human health due to routine atmospheric release of radionuclides from the NPP, via radioactive waste ground disposal or resulting from accidents in nuclear facility, respectively. The conclusion of this study based on SIMPACTS model application to assess the health effects and damage cost per year is that the Cernavoda NPP presents the lower health effects and damage cost comparing with power plants of other types

  15. Climate change, aeroallergens, natural particulates, and human health in Australia: state of the science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Paul John; Bennett, Charmian Margaret

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this article is to systematically review and assess what is known about the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates, and the associated human health impacts, and to examine responses to these in Australia, focusing on adaptation. Prior research was searched using several general and discipline-specific research databases. The review concludes that whereas there is little original research on the impacts of climate change on aeroallergens and other naturally derived particulates in Australia, or the human health consequences of these, research from overseas suggests that these impacts may be adverse and of considerable magnitude. More research is required to assess the impacts of climate change on these airborne particles and associated diseases in Australia and other parts of the Asia-Pacific. There are important policy implications of this review. There is a need for enhanced monitoring of the atmospheric environment and associated health conditions in Australia. Education about climate change and human health in general, and air quality and related diseases specifically, is required for the community, health professionals, and others. Improvements are needed in the preparedness of infrastructure, such as health care facilities and early warning systems, particularly for aeroallergens, and all of these adaptive policy responses require further research.

  16. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  17. Health effects from exposure to atmospheric mineral dust near Las Vegas, NV, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E. Keil

    Full Text Available Desert areas are usually characterized by a continuous deposition of fine airborne particles. Over time, this process results in the accumulation of silt and clay on desert surfaces. We evaluated health effects associated with regional atmospheric dust, or geogenic dust, deposited on surfaces in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA in Clark County, Nevada, a popular off-road vehicle (ORV recreational site frequented daily by riders, families, and day campers. Because of atmospheric mixing and the mostly regional origin of the accumulated particles, the re-suspended airborne dust is composed of a complex mixture of minerals and metals including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and others. Geogenic dust with a median diameter of 4.1 μm was administered via oropharyngeal aspiration to female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28-days. Immuno- and neurotoxicological outcomes 24 h following the last exposure were evaluated. Antigen-specific IgM responses were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/kg/day. Splenic and thymic lymphocytic subpopulations and natural killer cell activity also were significantly reduced. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were not affected, while brain CD3+ T cells were decreased in number. A lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg/day and a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of 0.01 mg/kg/day were derived based on the antigen-specific IgM responses. Keywords: Geogenic dust, Heavy metals, Minerals, Lung exposure, Immunotoxicity, Neurotoxicity

  18. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  19. Mineral magnetism of atmospheric dust over southwest coast of India: Impact of anthropogenic activities and implications to public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Anish Kumar; Shankar, R.; Manjunatha, B. R.; Harshavardhana, B. G.

    2014-03-01

    We have used rock magnetic techniques in this study to assess atmospheric pollution at five stations in and around Mangalore city on the southwestern coast of India. Samples of dust were collected from two suburban areas (Thokkottu and Pumpwell located respectively ~ 10 km and 3 km from the city center), the city center itself (Milagres) and industrial/port areas (Panambur and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL)). Low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf), frequency-dependent susceptibility (χfd), susceptibility of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (χARM) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM 20 to 1000 mT) were determined on 23 dust samples and inter-parametric ratios calculated. Results show that samples from suburban areas (particularly Thokkottu) are characterized by low χlf (Company Limited (KIOCL) at Panambur and its storage and export through the nearby New Mangalore Port. However, the dust sample from MRPL has magnetically "soft" minerals like magnetite. This magnetic mineral may have originated from petroleum refining processes at MRPL. Particulate pollution from industrial activities and motor vehicle exhaust is a threat to human health and is known to cause cardiovascular and respiratory ailments. Therefore, the pollution levels brought out by this study warrant a comprehensive epidemiological study in the area of study.

  20. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  1. The climate change convention and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, E J

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at Rio in June 1992, is intended to minimize climate change and its impact. Much of its text is ambiguous and it is not specifically directed to health considerations. It is, however, recognized that adverse effects of climate change on health are a concern of humankind, and health is an integral part of the Convention. The Convention includes commitments by the developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and to increase public awareness of these commitments. The significance of the Convention in these respects is discussed critically and future developments considered.

  2. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  3. Nanotechnology and human health: Scientific evidence and risk governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanotechnology, the science and application of objects smaller that 100 nanometres, is evolving rapidly in many fields. Besides the countless beneficial applications, including in health and medicine, concerns exist on adverse health consequences of unintended human exposure to nanomaterials....... In the 2010 Parma Declaration on Environment and Health, ministers of health and of environment of the 53 Member States of the WHO Regional Office for Europe listed the health implications of nanotechnology and nanoparticles among the key environment and health challenges. The WHO Regional Office for Europe...

  4. Human Dignity, Misthanasia, Public Health and Bioethics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da Rocha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on human dignity and misthanasia in the public health system in Brazil. For this, concepts, document reviews and public data about the condition of the Brazilian population’s access to public health were all used. The indicators show the health inequalities in the country, with the north and northeast at a disadvantage both in terms of access to health and the number of available professionals. Thus, the most underserved population tends to continue to be excluded from society and impaired with respect to their human dignity.

  5. Impact of UV Radiation on Genome Stability and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit

    2017-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer during the past few years has increased the incidence of solar UV radiation specifically the UV-C on earth's surface is one of the major environmental concerns because of the harmful effects of this radiation in all forms of life. The solar UV radiation including the harmful wavelength range of UV-B (280-320 nm) represents a significant climatic stress for both animals and plants, causing damage to the fundamental biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids, thus activating genotoxic stress and induces genome instability. When DNA absorbs UV-B light, energy from the photon causes covalent linkages to form between adjacent pyrimidine bases, creating photoproducts, primarily cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-6,4-pyrimidinone photoproduct (6,4PPs). Pyrimidine dimers create distortions in the DNA strands and therefore can inhibit DNA replication as well transcription. Lack of efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage may induce the formation of DNA double stand breaks (DSBs), one of the serious forms of damage in DNA double helix, as well as oxidative damage. Unrepaired DSBs in the actively dividing somatic cells severely affect cell growth and development, finally results in loss of cell viability and development of various diseases, such as cancer in man.This chapter mainly highlights the incidence of solar UV-radiation on earth's surface along with the formation of major types of UV-induced DNA damage and the associated repair mechanisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage and finally our present understanding on the impact on solar UV radiation on human health.

  6. Equity versus humanity in health care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussions of the economic aspects of health care often blur the distinction ... occupation with the treatment of economic symptoms rather than causes. ..... New York: Basic Books,. 1974. 14. ... Harvard University Press, 1971. 21. Benatar SR.

  7. Human health effects and remotely sensed cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria blooms (HAB) pose a potential health risk to beachgoers, including HAB-associated gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermal illness. We conducted a prospective study of beachgoers at a Great Lakes beach during July – September, 2003. We recorded each participan...

  8. IMPACT OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES ON HUMAN HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Pejnović, Natalija

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper explores adverse impacts of wireless technologies on user health. A wide range of situations in which radiation may influence the user was investigated. Emphasis was placed on the adverse impact of non-ionizing radiation. Thermal and non-thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation were explained in accordance with the operating principle of wireless devices. It is necessary to implement appropriate forms of protection in order to eliminate health risks or reduce them to the ...

  9. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  10. Health care and human rights: against the split duty gambit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Gopal

    2016-08-01

    There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget. The international objection is that separating a human right to health care fails the moral requirement that, for any given moral human right, the substance to which any two right-holders are entitled be of an equal standard.

  11. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  12. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  13. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  14. Oceans and Human Health: Microplastics and Harmful Algal Bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the focus of research and concern of environmental studies in the marine system is the impact of human activities in the ocean: the sources, distribution and fate of pollutants resulting from human activities. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact health can come from eating contaminated seafood, swimming in polluted water, and exposure to toxins from harmful algal blooms. This paper will present two areas of concern that illustrates the fact that the health of the oceans and the health of humans go hand in hand: chemical pollution from plastics in the ocean and harmful alga bloom. The nuclear methodologies than can be useful in these areas will also be introduced. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. (author)

  15. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  16. Human Resources for Health Research in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Resources for Health Research in Africa ... the management of research systems for optimal use of results;; packaging research for policymakers; ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  17. Applying Knowledge on Collagen of CLRI: In Human Health Care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applying Knowledge on Collagen of CLRI: In Human Health Care ... Kollagen & NeuSkin are products in the market based on technologies. ... derived products of biomedical value in tissue remodeling and engineering are in advanced stage ...

  18. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  19. Innovative strategies to improve human resources for health in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and scaling up health professionals' education and training, calling for sustainable and ... SA faces similar human resource challenges to other African countries. ... It also supports teacher ... as opposed to the traditional didactic-only lectures.

  20. Air quality and human health improvements from reduced deforestation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, C.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Significant areas of the Brazilian Amazon have been deforested over the past few decades, with fire being the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, degrading air quality and negatively impacting human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health. We show that dry season (August - October) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by satellite over southwest Brazil and Bolivia is positively related to Brazil's annual deforestation rate (r=0.96, Pannually across South America. Future increases in Brazil's deforestation rates and associated fires may threaten the improved air quality reported here.

  1. Human Wellbeing-Sociability, Performance, and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Britta; Farah, Adriana; Jones, Lawrence; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Since its discovery, it has played an important role in the life of many people, even though throughout history people have debated the consequences of drinking coffee to the human body and mind. The pleasurable

  2. Plastic Debris Is a Human Health Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Leslie, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The global threat of highly persistent plastic waste accumulating and fragmenting in the world’s oceans, inland waters and terrestrial environments is becoming increasingly evident.1−3 Humans are being exposed to both plastic particles and chemical additives being released from the plastic debris of

  3. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  4. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  5. Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?Elizabeth D. HilbornWarm, eutrophic surface water systems support the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in North Carolina and worldwide. These conditions are increasing with expanding human populations and clima...

  6. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  7. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  10. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments...... maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans...

  11. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks, and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the St...

  12. Ecological aspects of selenium and tellurium in human and animal health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, D V; Ingvoldstad, D

    1975-01-01

    Animal and human studies indicate that selenium inadequacy, in part, underlies various chronic diseases. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cancer and heart disease are most common where ambient Se availability is low. Plant Se uptake and Se blood levels are inverse to human cancer mortality. As the active group in glutathione peroxidase, Se/sup -2/ inhibits aberrant oxidations which lead to chronic diseases. It binds heavy metals, and with tocopherol maintains tissue integrity. Sulfur dioxide fallout from the atmosphere, resulting from fossil fuel burning, may diminish the nutritional availability of selenium by diminishing plant uptake. Intensive ruminant grazing returns unavailable Se/sup 0/ to soils. Trimethyl selenium ion, as excreted by animals, also appears to be unavailable to plants. Modern fertilization practices and the effect of buildup of sulfates in the soil, due to acid rains, both appear to lessen the availability of Se to plants. SeO/sub 2/ added to the atmosphere from combustion and volcanic activity react with SO/sub 2/ to yield Se/sup 0/. This is presumed to fall out as particles from the air. How traces of Se are otherwise carried in air, explaining its enrichment in some areas, is unknown. The New Zealand experience with Se inadequacy in animals and man may be repeated in other parts of the world. Se inadequacy is far more of a human health problem than Se toxicity. There are no known adverse health effects from tellurium, other than tellurium breath. 164 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Linking Human Health and Livestock Health: A “One-Health” Platform for Integrated Analysis of Human Health, Livestock Health, and Economic Welfare in Livestock Dependent Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, S. M.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L.; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F.; Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. Method We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Findings Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling

  14. The quest for One Health: Human Resource training aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angwara Kiwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH are key inputs into One Health. ‘… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin’ (Rweyemamu et al. 2006. A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools’ curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates’ understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools’ curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  15. A simplified model for calculating atmospheric radionuclide transport and early health effects from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1995-01-01

    During certain hypothetical severe accidents in a nuclear power plant, radionuclides could be released to the environment as a plume. Prediction of the atmospheric dispersion and transport of these radionuclides is important for assessment of the risk to the public from such accidents. A simplified PC-based model was developed that predicts time-integrated air concentration of each radionuclide at any location from release as a function of time integrated source strength using the Gaussian plume model. The solution procedure involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position, using simplified meteorology. The formulation allows for dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and daughter buildup, reactor building wake effects, the inversion lid effect, plume rise due to buoyancy or momentum, release duration, and grass height. Based on air and ground concentrations of the radionuclides, the early dose to an individual is calculated via cloudshine, groundshine, and inhalation. The model also calculates early health effects based on the doses. This paper presents aspects of the model that would be of interest to the prediction of environmental flows and their public consequences

  16. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the

  17. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  18. School Health Education about Human Sexuality. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…

  19. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  20. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  1. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  2. The current crisis in human resources for health in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview. The current crisis in human resources for health in. Africa has reached a serious level in many countries. A complex set of reasons has contributed to this problem, some exogenous, such as the severe economic measures introduced by structural adjustment, which often result in cutbacks in the number of health ...

  3. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  4. Health sciences students' contribution to human resources for health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by the experiences of managing the WIRHE scholarship programme, which highlighted the challenges faced by students from rural communities who try to gain access to institutions of higher education.[3] This report describes the Wits CRH experience of organising a student-led rural health careers day as a pilot project, ...

  5. Helminth Genomics: The Implications for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Ghedin, Elodie; Lustigman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    More than two billion people (one-third of humanity) are infected with parasitic roundworms or flatworms, collectively known as helminth parasites. These infections cause diseases that are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality, delays in the physical development of children, loss of productivity among the workforce, and maintenance of poverty. Genomes of the major helminth species that affect humans, and many others of agricultural and veterinary significance, are now the subject of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. Draft genome sequences of the filarial worm Brugia malayi and two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni, are now available, among others. These genome data will provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in helminth nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion, and evolution. They are likely also to predict new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets. In this review, we present an overview of these efforts and emphasize the potential impact and importance of these new findings. PMID:19855829

  6. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms ...

  7. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  8. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  9. Impacts of “metals” on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks into the differences and uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions on human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different properties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity...... to humans and ecosystems. First, we defined a list of the most significant metals in terms of impacts on human health. This was done according to precise criteria accounting for both physical and toxic properties of the metals. Second, we performed a LCIA on different key processes using various existing...... to the total impact on human health changes greatly according to the LCIA method used. These differences are due mainly to the number of metals included in each method and to the technique used to calculate the characterization factors. Results obtained with USEtox show no apparent correlation with results...

  10. Effect of human activities on the Earth's atmosphere and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, C

    1977-01-01

    Measurements showing the global increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are discussed in terms of estimates of the future increase in coal and oil consumption. The problems of predicting the scale of any warming of the earth's surface due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide are analysed. It is concluded that direct thermal energy input is of secondary importance, accounting for less than one tenth of that due to carbon dioxide. The problem of the increasing atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes due to their continued use as cooling liquids and spray can propellants is outlined: stratospheric ozone depletion and its implications for the incidence of skin cancer. Other man-made trace gases are not considered hazardous. Basic research on natural climate is recommended.

  11. Indicators of human health in ecosystems: what do we measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.C.; Eyles, J.; Gibson, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly, scientists are being called upon to assist in the development of indicators for monitoring ecosystem health. For human health indicators, they may draw on environmental exposure, human morbidity/mortality or well-being and sustainability approaches. To improve the rigour of indicators, we propose six scientific criteria for indicator selection: (1) data availability, suitability and representativeness (of populations), (2) indicator validity (face, construct, predictive and convergent) and reliability; (3) indicator responsiveness to change; (4) indicator desegregation capability (across personal and community characteristics); (5) indicator comparability (across populations and jurisdictions); and (6) indicator representativeness (across important dimensions of concern). We comment on our current capacity to adhere to such criteria with examples of measures of environmental exposure, human health and sustainability. We recognize the considerable work still required on documenting environment-human health relationships and on monitoring potential indicators in similar ways over time. Yet we argue that such work is essential in order for science to inform policy decisions which affect the health of ecosystems and human health. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM1.0 of urban environments: Carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risk by age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Teixeira, Elba C; Schneider, Ismael L; Lara, Sheila Rincón; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risks related to the exposure to atmospheric PAHs in an urban area. Our study focused in the association of these pollutants and their possible effect in human health, principally respiratory and circulatory diseases. Also, we determined a relationship between the inhalation risk of PAHs and meteorological conditions. We validated the hypothesis that in winter PAHs with high molecular weight associated to submicron particles (PM 1 ) may increase exposure risk, especially for respiratory diseases, bronchitis and pneumonia diseases. Moreover, in our study we verified the relationship between diseases and several carcinogenic PAHs (Ind, BbkF, DahA, BaP, and BghiP). These individual PAHs contributed the most to the potential risk of exposure for inhalation of PM 1.0 . Even at lower ambient concentrations of BaP and DahA in comparison with individual concentrations of other PAHs associated to PM 1.0 . Mainly, research suggests to include carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in future studies of environmental health risk due to their capacity to associate to PM 10 . Such carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs are likely to provide the majority of the human exposure, since they originate from dense traffic urban areas were humans congregate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Key challenges of human resources for health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Since independence the efforts have been to strengthen the health infrastructure, its accessibility and coverage. The human resources for health have been an important determinant for system but it has received significance recently. Even government expenditure on health has remained at not more than 1% of Gross Domestic Product which is very less as compared to world standard. Now the biggest challenge is the shortage of skilled human resource for health at all levels in the healthcare delivery system. The article aimed at understanding the current status of human resources for health and initiatives adopted to deal with existing shortage and to highlight factors leading to further shortage and to bring to notice the use of talent management strategy as a retention tool. Review Methodology The review used descriptive research design using secondary sources from journals-articles using key words. The study also used exclusion and inclusion criteria to select the articles. The study was done using extensive review of literature on health sector, health workforce, its availability and scarcity due to attrition/emigration in India. The critical review helped in setting objective for the study. Findings The review of articles provided insight into the current status of health workforce in India. The earlier studies emphasized that gap between demand and supply of human resource for health is mainly due to increasing population and burden of diseases. Studies have now identified other factors leading to further shortage as attrition/emigration of skilled health workforce. Most of the initiatives are mainly directed towards increasing supply of human resources for health to deal with the scarcity and less emphasis to control attrition. Few studies highlighted the use of talent management strategy to deal with the challenges of attrition and emigration that helps in retention and controlling further shortage. Recommendations

  14. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM plants for food use might have the potential to provide benefits in food quality, nutrition, health and environment, GM plants need additional considerations related with biosafety. Despite there is not evidence that GM foods are more dangerous to human health than conventional food it is necessary to test GM food following the best scientific methodology available. This review focuses on the potential effects that GM food might have on human health.

  15. Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Dada, Foluke O; Adelakun, Folake E

    2016-05-01

    The emigration of sub-Saharan African health professionals to developed Western nations is an aspect of increasing global mobility. This article focuses on the human resources for health challenges in Nigeria and the emigration of nurses from Nigeria as the country faces mounting human resources for health challenges. Human resources for health issues in Nigeria contribute to poor population health in the country, alongside threats from terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and political corruption. Health inequities within Nigeria mirror the geographical disparities in human resources for health distribution and are worsened by the emigration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Nigerian nurses are motivated to emigrate to work in healthier work environments, improve their economic prospects, and advance their careers. Like other migrant African nurses, they experience barriers to integration, including racism and discrimination, in receiving countries. We explore the factors and processes that shape this migration. Given the forces of globalization, source countries and destination countries must implement policies to more responsibly manage migration of nurses. This can be done by implementing measures to retain nurses, promote the return migration of expatriate nurses, and ensure the integration of migrant nurses upon arrival in destination countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  17. "More money for health - more health for the money": a human resources for health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Iain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH perspective. Methods Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. Results In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. Conclusions In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH

  18. "More money for health - more health for the money": a human resources for health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Jones, Iain; Whyms, Desmond

    2011-07-15

    At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH) perspective. Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA) and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH. This is a governance issue that will benefit from further

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Upton notes the wide misunderstanding of the health risks from nuclear energy because of its association with nuclear weapons, but he also notes and reviews a broad consensus within the scientific community on the risks of low-level irradiation. The author makes the point that society must be involved in determining the level of acceptable risk, and that society has a right to expect that risk assessments will be technically sound. The author uses a series of tables to present numerical interpretations of the scientific consensus, which finds the risk to be relatively small. 30 references, 11 tables

  20. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Mary L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  1. Wearable sensors for human health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, H. Harry; Reisner, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Wearable sensors for continuous monitoring of vital signs for extended periods of weeks or months are expected to revolutionize healthcare services in the home and workplace as well as in hospitals and nursing homes. This invited paper describes recent research progress in wearable health monitoring technology and its clinical applications, with emphasis on blood pressure and circulatory monitoring. First, a finger ring-type wearable blood pressure sensor based on photo plethysmogram is presented. Technical issues, including motion artifact reduction, power saving, and wearability enhancement, will be addressed. Second, sensor fusion and sensor networking for integrating multiple sensors with diverse modalities will be discussed for comprehensive monitoring and diagnosis of health status. Unlike traditional snap-shot measurements, continuous monitoring with wearable sensors opens up the possibility to treat the physiological system as a dynamical process. This allows us to apply powerful system dynamics and control methodologies, such as adaptive filtering, single- and multi-channel system identification, active noise cancellation, and adaptive control, to the monitoring and treatment of highly complex physiological systems. A few clinical trials illustrate the potentials of the wearable sensor technology for future heath care services.

  2. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  3. Institutional violence and humanization in health: notes to debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Yuri Nishijima; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2017-09-01

    This paper starts from humanization policies and the academic debate around them to reflect about institutional violence inside health services. Based on research on scientific publications in Collective Health, it was observed that violence in relationships between health professionals and users - which is at the core of the humanization's debate - is conceptualized as an excessive power in exercise of professional authority. Using Hannah Arendt thinking as theoretical contributions regarding the concepts of 'authority', 'power' and 'violence', our objective is to define and rethink these phenomena. Melting these reflections with the history of institutionalization of health in Brazil, and especially the changes in medical work during the twentieth century, we conclude that the problem of institutional violence on health services is not based on excess of authority and power of professionals, but rather in its opposite. When there is a vacuum of professional authority, and relationships between people do not happen through power relations, there is space for the phenomenon of violence.

  4. Health and Human Rights: New challenges for social responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s struggle against apartheid discrimination, including struggles in the health sector, laid the basis for a vibrant engagement of staff and students in human rights research, teaching and outreach in the Health Sciences Faculty at the University of Cape Town (UCT. This article provides a brief overview of this background context, then shows how this engagement has continued with new challenges emerging in the post-apartheid democratic period. Teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels has been complemented by a programme of ‘Training the Trainers’ in health and human rights. The programme targets teachers of health professionals at institutions in South and Southern Africa, resulting in national adoption of human rights competencies as an essential component of health professionals’ skills base. Research has also extended lessons learnt from the apartheid period into work with vulnerable groups, such as rural farm workers and the deaf, and seeks to build the capacity of marginal populations to change the conditions of their vulnerability in order to realize their rights. Partnerships with civil society organisations have been a strong thread, creating new knowledge and new ways of joint work towards realizing the right to health, including advocacy engagement in civil society movements and regional networks. Further, a focus on health professionals’ practice, in terms of dealing with potential dual loyalty conflicts and their role as gatekeepers in the health services on matters of patients’ rights, has shaped the research agenda. This article illustrates how knowledge production for the public good extends beyond notions of enhancing economic productivity for national development and provides a base for transdisciplinary and transinstitutional engagement. Additionally, non-traditional forms of knowledge networking and transfer have also been explored, including engagement with policy-makers and health managers

  5. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Johanna R

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. BPA is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between BPA and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking BPA to human health; 53 published within the last year. This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between BPA exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental BPA exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental BPA exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Concept of waste and its impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Impact of the environment on human health is increasingly being paid attention both at the international level and at the level of individual countries. Among the factors that anyhow can affect it negatively, various objects are distinguished and waste is not of the last consequence. It has different nature of origin, ways of further utilization and a degree of impact on human health and the environment. Its generation, utilization and neutralization are determined by the relevant processes; their research allows continuous improvement and reduction of their negative impact on human health and the environment. To analyze provisions of the international legislation concerning the concept of waste and its classification, as well as its potential impacts on human health and the environment. The study analyzes and uses international legal documents, data of international organizations and scientists' deductions. Furthermore, the study integrates information from scientific journals with scientific methods from the medical and legal point of view. Within the framework of the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis, the concept of waste, its classification and impact on human health and the environment have been researched. In consequence of the conducted study, it has been found that at the European level, considerable attention is paid to waste in the context of its possible negative impact on human health and the environment. Solution of this problem is carried out with the integrated approach, which is expressed both in enacting statutory acts and amending existing ones, as well as elucidating various aspects at the scientific, methodological, statistical and other levels. Waste in itself has different nature of origin, negative impact, ways of its further utilization. Some kinds of it can be used further in order to achieve other goals and needs that are not related to their generation, others can no longer be used for human benefits taking into account

  8. Human and veterinary medicine: the priority for public health synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mantovani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of ‘one medicine’ and 'one ‘health’ are supported and visualised as a tree (medicine, placed on the fertile soil (basic sciences, which divides into the two major branches of human and veterinary medicine, connected by the large branch of public health; minor branches (specialisations depart from the three larger ones. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is not only a must for public health, but also implies ethical considerations. The basic reasons requiring synergy are found in the common sharing of the environment, in the use of animal products by humans, in the common culture and in the many problems to be faced together. The long list of adversities requiring synergy is topped by zoonoses (intended both in the classic and in the extended sense and food safety that extends to many other items connected with nutrition, environment, human/animal coexistence and the management of public health; the entire quality of human life is affected. Human and veterinary medicine have a strong cultural background (many subject matters in common, but unfortunately the undergraduate and postgraduate education programme (with few important exceptions do not offer training in cooperation. The synergy between human and veterinary medicines is an indicator of 'good public health practice' and any obstacles to this collaboration should be identified and eliminated. The logo for a public health founded on synergy is drawn as an umbrella formed by the medical and veterinary activities, protecting the population (consumers and producers, the animals and their products and the environment from the possible adversities linked to health.

  9. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  10. Management of human resources in health care: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O

    1992-07-01

    Each of Canada's ten provinces has a publicly administered system of health insurance, funded by provincial and federal taxes, that is accessible to all citizens and covers all medically necessary services provided by physicians and hospitals. Canadians spend an estimated 9.2 percent of their gross national product on health care (about 2.8 percentage points below US spending), of which three quarters is public-sector spending. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Canada's health status is equal to or better than that of the United States, despite lower per capita health spending. About seven percent of the Canadian labour force works in health care, and attempts to introduce coordinated planning of human resources in health care have not as yet proceeded far. The predominant policy issue here is the supply and the role of physicians. It has been argued that entrenching within the system the fee-for-service method of paying physicians has created a disincentive to the delegation of responsibility to health personnel other than doctors. It is also argued that introduction of government-run health insurance provided the opportunity for human resource planning, but that the decision by governments to act only as the payer resulted in ad-hoc planning approaches. However, governments' concern over health care costs has led to a more direct role by them in the planning of the human resources in health. They are re-examining the autonomy and jurisdictional rights of the professions that deliver health care to Canadians.

  11. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  12. The role of carotenoids in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2002-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids are thought to provide health benefits in decreasing the risk of disease, particularly certain cancers and eye disease. The carotenoids that have been most studied in this regard are beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. In part, the beneficial effects of carotenoids are thought to be due to their role as antioxidants. beta-Carotene may have added benefits due its ability to be converted to vitamin A. Furthermore, lutein and zeaxanthin may be protective in eye disease because they absorb damaging blue light that enters the eye. Food sources of these compounds include a variety of fruits and vegetables, although the primary sources of lycopene are tomato and tomato products. Additionally, egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids are available in supplement form. However, intervention trials with large doses of beta-carotene found an adverse effect on the incidence of lung cancer in smokers and workers exposed to asbestos. Until the efficacy and safety of taking supplements containing these nutrients can be determined, current dietary recommendations of diets high in fruits and vegetables are advised.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for human health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyasena, R.D.; Airey, P.L.; Ganatra, R.D.; Nofal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Since first introduced in the early 1960s, radioimmunoassay (RIA) has gained wide acceptance as an analytical method adopted by an increasing number of developing countries as an appropriate technology that can be managed within the capabilities of local infrastructures. An informed estimate would be that there are, at present, more than 500 hospitals, university, or other laboratories in the developing world engaged in RIA on some scale. In the developing world, RIA is used primarily for patient management, but research activity is also increasing as expertise and resources improve. The majority of patient samples processed are in relation to thyroid disorders. However, the technique also is used widely in the investigation of other endocrine conditions and public health problems. Some developing countries have gained the capability to perform radioisotopic microassays in areas of clinical and research importance such as steroid receptor quantification in breast tissue; diagnosis of bacterial and parasitic disorders; investigation of infertility and sterility; narcotic drug abuse; and organ transplantation. 1 fig

  14. Probabilistic siting analysis of nuclear power plants emphasizing atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases and radiation-induced health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, Ilkka

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of probabilistic evaluation schemes for nuclear power plant siting. Effects on health attributable to ionizing radiation are reviewed, for the purpose of assessment of the numbers of the most important health effect cases in light-water reactor accidents. The atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants is discussed, and there is presented an environmental consequence assessment model in which the radioactive releases and atmospheric dispersion of the releases are treated by the application of probabilistic methods. In the model, the environmental effects arising from exposure to radiation are expressed as cumulative probability distributions and expectation values. The probabilistic environmental consequence assessment model has been applied to nuclear power plant site evaluation, including risk-benefit and cost-benefit analyses, and the comparison of various alternative sites. (author)

  15. CHICKEN MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITION FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3 and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6 fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.

  16. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  17. NPSAT1: Assessment Of Risk For Human Casualty From Atmospheric Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    wrapped copper wire, resembling a large solenoid. Between their core and insulations , these wires are approximately 0.370 millimeter in diameter and... insulation is melted. This action would expose the wires to significantly greater stress during atmospheric reentry and would most likely end in their...solid piece of metal to create a hollow void for cables when assembled. Modeling this component requires the operator to reduce the overall structure to

  18. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-08-31

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  19. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  20. Use of health effect risk estimates and uncertainty in formal regulatory proceedings: a case study involving atmospheric particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Oezkaynak, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Coal combustion particulates are released to the atmosphere by power plants supplying electrical to the nuclear fuel cycle. This paper presents estimates of the public health risks associated with the release of these particulates at a rate associated with the annual nuclear fuel production requirements for a nuclear power plan. Utilization of these risk assessments as a new component in the formal evaluation of total risks from nuclear power plants is discussed. 23 references, 3 tables

  1. Human exposure to cyanotoxins and their effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Simeunović, Jelica; Baltić, Vladimir; Stanić, Dina; Svirčev, Zorica

    2013-06-01

    Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria. They pose a threat to human health and the environment. This review summarises the existing data on human exposure to cyanotoxins through drinking water, recreational activities (e.g., swimming, canoeing or bathing), the aquatic food web, terrestrial plants, food supplements, and haemodialysis. Furthermore, it discusses the tolerable daily intake and guideline values for cyanotoxins (especially microcystins) as well as the need to implement risk management measures via national and international legislation.

  2. 'The medical' and 'health' in a critical medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sarah; Evans, Bethan; Woods, Angela; Kearns, Robin

    2015-03-01

    As befits an emerging field of enquiry, there is on-going discussion about the scope, role and future of the medical humanities. One relatively recent contribution to this debate proposes a differentiation of the field into two distinct terrains, 'medical humanities' and 'health humanities,' and calls for a supersession of the former by the latter. In this paper, we revisit the conceptual underpinnings for a distinction between 'the medical' and 'health' by looking at the history of an analogous debate between 'medical geography' and 'the geographies of health' that has, over the last few years, witnessed a re-blurring of the distinction. Highlighting the value of this debate within the social sciences for the future development of the medical humanities, we call for scholars to take seriously the challenges of critical and cultural theory, community-based arts and health, and the counter-cultural creative practices and strategies of activist movements in order to meet the new research challenges and fulfill the radical potential of a critical medical humanities.

  3. Soy and Gut Microbiota: Interaction and Implication for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Krishnan, Hari B; Pham, Quynhchi; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-11-23

    Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the United States, and soy foods are gaining popularity due to their reported health-promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health-promoting/disease-preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life. This review summarizes current knowledge on the effects of soy foods and soy components on gut microbiota population and composition. It was found, although results vary in different studies, in general, both animal and human studies have shown that consumption of soy foods can increase the levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and alter the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These changes in microbiota are consistent with reported reductions in pathogenic bacteria populations in the gut, thereby lowering the risk of diseases and leading to beneficial effects on human health.

  4. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  5. Urban pollution by electromagnetic radiation. What risk for human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines, domestic appliances, radios, TV sets, cell-phones, radar, etc., they are all instruments which, entering our everyday life, cause electromagnetic pollution. The risks for human health as a consequence of being exposed to this kind of radiation haven't been clearly ascertained yet, even if there is proof of the connection between the onset of some tumoral forms and exposure to electromagnetic fields. Many countries, among which Italy, are tackling the problem of safety distances, necessary to reduce exposure to non-ionising radiation, by issuing bills suitable for human health protection [it

  6. Gut-Bioreactor and Human Health in Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Hemant J

    2018-03-01

    Gut-microbiome provides the complementary metabolic potential to the human system. To understand the active participation and the performance of the microbial community in human health, the concept of gut as a plug-flow reactor with the fed-batch mode of operation can provide better insight. The concept suggests the virtual compartmentalized gut with sequential stratification of the microbial community in response to a typical host genotype. It also provides the analysis plan for gut microbiome; and its relevance in developing health management options under the identified clinical conditions.

  7. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  8. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, S.; Maann, A.A.; Zafar, I.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  9. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion

  11. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  12. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  13. Mental health and human rights: never waste a serious crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A serious health and human rights crisis is unfolding in Indonesia. Media reports in the Jakarta press have highlighted the high death rates in shelters for people with mental illness that are run by the Jakarta Social Affairs Agency. This crisis represents an opportunity to bring about systematic and substantial changes in the Indonesian mental health system. In order to realise this opportunity the necessary elements of an approach are presented and briefly discussed.

  14. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish an Ecohealth Chair in Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and the health of local ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  15. Human Health and Performance Aspects of the Mars Design Reference Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the current planning for exploration-class missions, emphasizing the medical, and human factors aspects of such expeditions. The details of mission architecture are still under study, but a typical Mars design reference mission comprises a six-month transit from Earth to Mar, eighteen months in residence on Mars, and a six-month transit back to Earth. Physiological stressors will include environmental factors such as prolonged exposure to radiation, weightlessness in transit, and hypogravity and a toxic atmosphere while on Mars. Psychological stressors will include remoteness from Earth, confinement, and potential interpersonal conflicts, all complicated by circadian alterations. Medical risks including trauma must also be considered. Results of planning for assuring human health and performance will be presented.

  16. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  17. Quantifying altitude of human habitation in studies of human health using geographical name server data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all studies examining the effects of altitude on human health have estimated the geographical altitude of defined regions, yet the primary interest lies in where people live, not the land around them. Populations are not homogenously distributed across altitudes. We propose a straightforward and computationally simple method for estimating the average altitude of habitation within the regional units for which health statistics are typically reported (such as counties. The United States Board on Geographical Names database contains records for over 2.7 million places, which can be processed to select places that are associated with human habitation. These points can easily be averaged by region yielding a representative altitude of human habitation within city, county, state regions, or by longitude and latitude zones. We provide an example of using this approach in a study of human health, and compare it with three other previously used methods of estimating altitude for counties.

  18. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  19. Human influences on the health of northern peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, E.

    1991-01-01

    The present area of peat is estimated to be 342 million hectares, with an average depth of 2.3 m. Peatlands are of interest for their flora and fauna, as a habitat for wildlife, for their capacity to moderate stream flows, and for their sequestration of nitrogen and sulfur (elements important in stream and lake acidification). Of great biogeochemical significance is the role of northern peatlands in the global carbon cycle. Their total stock of carbon stored as peat is 455 Pg, or 64% of the amount present as atmospheric CO 2 , 55% of total plant biomass, and 30% of the global pool of soil carbon excluding peat. The rate of peatland sequestration of atmospheric carbon is very small compared to current emissions of 5.6 Pg from fossil fuel combustion. On the other hand, northern peatlands emit ca 0.046 gigatonnes of carbon in the form of methane, which is about 20 times as effective as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 . Human disturbances to peatlands come directly from forestry, agriculture, and fuel/horticultural peat extraction, and indirectly from destruction or utilization of surrounding upland ecosystems, deposition of pollutants, and global warming. Approaches to the study of human impacts on peatlands are outlined and suggestions are offered to guide peatland research. Peatland conservation and restoration are also briefly reviewed. 65 refs

  20. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  1. Training trainers in health and human rights: implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Elena G; Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel; London, Leslie

    2011-07-25

    The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28%) completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%). Twenty-two respondents (48%) implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66) to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation to incorporate human rights educational initiatives at health

  2. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin-Ragaven Laurel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28% completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%. Twenty-two respondents (48% implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66 to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation

  3. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals.

  4. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in a congested city environment in a developing country: Kandy City, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasundara, Lakshika; Magana-Arachchi, D N; Ziyath, Abdul M; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Vithanage, Meththika

    2018-08-15

    This research study which was undertaken in a congested city environment in a developing country provides a robust approach for the assessment and management of human health risk associated with atmospheric heavy metals. The case study area was Kandy City, which is the second largest city in Sri Lanka and bears the characteristics of a typical city in the developing world such as the urban footprint, high population density and traffic congestion. Atmospheric deposition samples were collected on a weekly basis and analyzed for nine heavy metals common to urban environments, namely, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Health risk was assessed using hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI), while the cancer risk was evaluated based on life time daily cancer risk. Al and Fe were found to be in relatively high concentrations due to the influence of both, natural and anthropogenic sources. High Zn loads were attributed to vehicular emissions and the wide use of Zn coated building materials. Contamination factor and geo-accumulation index showed that currently, Al and Fe are at uncontaminated levels and other metals are in the range of uncontaminated to contaminated levels, but with the potential to exacerbate in the long-term. The health risk assessment showed that the influence of the three exposure pathways were in the order of ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The HQ and HI values for children for the nine heavy metals were higher than that for adults, indicating that children may be subjected to potentially higher health risk than adults. The study methodology and outcomes provide fundamental knowledge to regulatory authorities to determine appropriate mitigation measures in relation to HM pollution in city environments in the developing world, where to-date only very limited research has been undertaken. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. So many, yet few: Human resources for health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Krishna D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, such as India, information on human resources in the health sector is incomplete and unreliable. This prevents effective workforce planning and management. This paper aims to address this deficit by producing a more complete picture of India’s health workforce. Methods Both the Census of India and nationally representative household surveys collect data on self-reported occupations. A representative sample drawn from the 2001 census was used to estimate key workforce indicators. Nationally representative household survey data and official estimates were used to compare and supplement census results. Results India faces a substantial overall deficit of health workers; the density of doctors, nurses and midwifes is a quarter of the 2.3/1000 population World Health Organization benchmark. Importantly, a substantial portion of the doctors (37%, particularly in rural areas (63% appears to be unqualified. The workforce is composed of at least as many doctors as nurses making for an inefficient skill-mix. Women comprise only one-third of the workforce. Most workers are located in urban areas and in the private sector. States with poorer health and service use outcomes have a lower health worker density. Conclusions Among the important human resources challenges that India faces is increasing the presence of qualified health workers in underserved areas and a more efficient skill mix. An important first step is to ensure the availability of reliable and comprehensive workforce information through live workforce registers.

  6. Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care. Ophthalmology. Wound healing. Burn Dressing. Tumor Treatment. Tissue Engineered devices. for cardio-vascular functions; For managing chronic illnesses including diabetic ulcers and foot. Smart shoe.

  7. Human Resource Development for Health in Ethiopia: Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of different documents on human resource for health was undertaken. Particular attention was given to documents from Ethiopia. Generally there is shortage in number of different groups of professionals, mal distribution of professionals between regions, urban and rural setting, and governmental and non ...

  8. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of

  9. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC; Nederlandse organisatie voor; CSR; LEO; TNO-ITV

    1998-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards further harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses the development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. Options are presented

  10. Water Quality Criteria for Human Health and Aquatic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative effort with the Office of Water to provide science in support of the development and implementation of new or revised ambient water quality criteria for microbial and chemical contaminants for human health and aquatic life. The research also addresses implementation...

  11. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Kondo; Jaime Fluehr; Thomas McKeon; Charles. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world's population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This...

  12. Human rights and public health : towards a balanced relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    This contribution attempts to scope the multiple and complex relationships between measures to protect health and the protection of human rights. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning and current understandings of the notion of ‘public health’, after which it explores how ‘public

  13. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the Eastern Himalayas ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) will manage the project and provide support and capacity building to the three teams. The aim is to better understand the links between land use transition and human health in mountain habitats and jointly design a program for better managing the ...

  14. Poverty, Access to Health Care Services and Human Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is aimed at examining the poverty profile of Nigeria and its consequences on access to health care services and human capital development in the country. It is a startling paradox that about two – thirds of Nigerians are poor despite living in a country with vast potential wealth. Apart from looking at the theoretical ...

  15. Department of Health and Human Services Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...-AB58 Specifications, and Certification Criteria for Electronic Health Record Technology (Rulemaking... Electronic Submission of Data From Studies Evaluating Human Drugs and Biologics....... 0910-AC52 137 Over-the... 147 Cigars Subject to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 0910-AG38 Food and Drug...

  16. Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System. N E Udonwa. Abstract. No Abstract Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (4) 2007: pp. 307-311. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v16i4.37327 · AJOL African ...

  17. Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censi, P., E-mail: censi@unipa.it [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Tamburo, E. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); Speziale, S. [Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14473 (Germany); Zuddas, P. [Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Randazzo, L.A. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Punturo, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia, 55 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Cuttitta, A. [I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); Arico, P. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy)

    2011-02-28

    Inhalation of airborne particles can produce crystallization of phosphatic microcrysts in intraaveolar areas of lungs, sometimes degenerating into pulmonary fibrosis. Results of this study indicate that these pathologies are induced by interactions between lung fluids and inhaled atmospheric dust in people exposed to volcanic dust ejected from Mount Etna in 2001. Here, the lung solid-liquid interaction is evaluated by the distribution of yttrium and lanthanides (YLn) in fluid bronchoalveolar lavages on selected individuals according the classical geochemical approaches. We found that shale-normalised patterns of yttrium and lanthanides have a 'V shaped' feature corresponding to the depletion of elements from Nd to Tb when compared to the variable enrichments of heavy lanthanides, Y, La and Ce. These features and concurrent thermodynamic simulations suggest that phosphate precipitation can occur in lungs due to interactions between volcanic particles and fluids. We propose that patterns of yttrium and lanthanides can represent a viable explanation of some pathology observed in patients after prolonged exposure to atmospheric fallout and are suitable to become a diagnostic parameter of chemical environmental stresses.

  18. The characteristics of atmospheric phthalates in Shanghai: A haze case study and human exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjie; Wang, Jiahui; Ren, Bainian; Wang, Hongli; Qiao, Liping; Zhu, Jiping; Li, Li

    2018-04-01

    While phthalates in indoor environments are extensively studied, reports on phthalates in outdoor air, particularly their associations with haze weather events are rare. Phthalates, especially dimethyl phthalate, are known to react with criteria air pollutants contributing to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. This study investigated phthalates levels in the atmosphere in Shanghai with a focus on their associations with different air quality weather events. The air quality during the study period was classified into three levels: non-haze, light pollution and moderate pollution. Phthalates levels were found to be lower in non-haze weather events (236 ng/m3) and higher in moderate pollution weather events (up to 700 ng/m3). Meteorological factors of relative humidity and wind speed had an inverse relationship with phthalates levels. Particulate matter had a positive correlation with phthalates levels. Hydroxyl radical initiated photo-reaction of dimethyl phthalate was evident by its inverse relationship with total atmospheric oxidant (O3 + NO2), indicating that dimethyl phthalate could be one of the precursors of secondary organic aerosol causing haze weather events. Daily intake of phthalates through exposure to outdoor air is estimated to be relatively minor; children intake remains higher on a body weight basis. This is the first study demonstrating the relationship of phthalates and different air quality conditions in haze weather events. The knowledge contributes to our understanding on the cause of haze weather events in China and elsewhere.

  19. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  20. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  1. Trust in health research relationships: accounts of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M; Paterson, Natasha Damiano; Lafrenière, Darquise

    2008-12-01

    TRUST IS FUNDAMENTAL in health research, yet there is little empirical evidence that explores the meaning of trust from the perspective of human subjects. The analysis presented here focuses on how human subjects talked about trust in the in-depth interviews. It emerged from the accounts that trust could not be assumed in the research setting, rather it was portrayed as a dynamic concept, built and easily broken, characterized by reciprocity and negotiation. Human subjects were ambivalent about who, when, what, and how much to trust in the research endeavor. This paper adds a fresh perspective to the literature on trust, and so offers a currently neglected, and little understood dimension to the discourse around health research ethics.

  2. Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of phenol compounds into environment results from human activities.. Moreover plants produce polyphenols as by products of metabolism Their influence on human health is very important. It is observed, that polyphenols found in groceries are the most abundant dietary antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti allergic, antiarteriosclerotic and antitumour factors. Alkylphenols, chlorophenols, nitrophenols or biphenyls can be toxic for body systems and because of their similarity to ligands of steroid receptors they can influence the activity of endocrine system. Their appearance in organisms enhances the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, problems with fertility. Moreover strong genotoxic activities of these compounds is observed. Because they influence human health in many different ways continuous monitoring of phenols content in environment seems to be very important.

  3. Potential of human health in the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that man’s relationship to their health  in each case have varying traits under the influence of sociocultural, psychological and physiological factors  which the world outlook is created from childhood, which implies the appropriate type of behavior that is fixed through the media and social authorities. It is established that scientific knowledge should not be against a man, and should enhance the power of man over nature, but can be transformed into a powerful weapon against humanity. It is noted that science is neutral in terms of values. Will it carry a positive or negative charge to human health depends on the social and cultural markers specific historical era and behavior of the individual. It was found that in addition to the economic crisis, which requires long-term joint economic and political transformations, the most important factor and more accessible to maintaining high adaptive potential health functions at all levels is valeological literacy social subjects and, therefore, imperative the systematic distribution of hygiene recommendations is a significant component of preventive medicine. With the growth of social and technological factors with their aggressive effect on psychophysiological state of man is seen timely more  talk even not about health in general, but should talk about  potential health, which underlines  the  difficulties adaptive and protective processes and susceptibility factors and resistance to pathological changes in the human body. All the more so when we following the formal standards of medicine is unlikely, unfortunately, we be found absolutely healthy people. Under the proposed potential health understood as a set of quantitative and qualitative structural and functional characteristics of the organism, which determine the level of adaptation and protection of human capabilities in adverse conditions, internal and external environment. It is proposed to examine potential

  4. Applying human rights to improve access to reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J

    2012-10-01

    Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. Methods: A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. Results: This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Conclusions: Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH’s strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health. PMID:23552460

  6. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  7. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-04-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance.

  8. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-01-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance. PMID:15868018

  9. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulkrabová, J.; Stupák, M.; Švarcová, A.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Šrám, Radim; Hajslová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 562, aug (2016), s. 640-647 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PAHs * human milk * GC-MS/MS * infants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  10. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  11. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  12. Community Context and Child Health: A Human Capital Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-09-01

    Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.

  13. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms (HABs), microbial and chemical contamination of marine waters and seafood, and marine models and natural products from the seas. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. PMID:16996542

  14. Investigating the Awareness and Knowledge of Secondary School Students about the Effects of Allergic Pollen on Human Health: A Case of Burdur Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzlak, Kadir

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to increase the awareness of secondary school students of the effects of pollen allergy on human health by mapping allergic pollens appearing in Burdur atmosphere. This study is a pre-test and post-test experimental design. Mix method is applied thus. Both qualitative and quantitative data are gathered. The…

  15. Presentation of the health impact evaluation study of atmospheric emissions of a major coal combustion installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnard, R.

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of a working group on the major installations, a study has been realized on a today coal combustion installation. The direct risk by inhalation and the risks bond to indirect exposure of atmospheric releases were analyzed. The calculation method is explained and the uncertainties are discussed to present the results. (A.L.B.)

  16. γ irradiation of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin in atmospheres of air and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchala, M.; Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.; Leyko, W.

    1979-01-01

    In this study, the degrees of destruction of hemoglobin irradiated in atmospheres of air and argon were compared. Hemoglobin preparations were irradiated in the forms: oxyhemoglobin (HbO 2 ) deoxyhemoglobin (Hb 2+ ) and methemoglobin (MetHb) applying doses of 0.5 to 5 Mrad. The degree of hemoglobin destruction was estimate on the basis of changes in the values of the absorption coefficient at the Soret band, the absorption ratio A 505 /A 563 determined after conversion of irradiated preparations into MetHb, absorption coefficinets for pyridine hemochromogen obtained from irradiated preparations, and changes in parameters characterizing the hemoglobin oxygenation reaction (log p/sub 1/2/O 2 and the Hill n coefficient). The calculated oxygen enhancement ratios S were generally higher than 1 for the parameters estimated. This indicates that the presence of oxygen during irradiation enhances hemoglobin destruction

  17. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health.

  18. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  19. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  20. Microbiota and Human Health: characterization techniques and transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo-Moreno, Rosa; Alarcón-Cavero, Teresa; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Delgado-Palacio, Susana; Ferrer-Martínez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The human microbiota comprises all the microorganisms of our body, which can also be categorised as commensals, mutualists and pathogens according to their behaviour. Our knowledge of the human microbiota has considerably increased since the introduction of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (16S rDNA gene). This technological breakthrough has seen a revolution in the knowledge of the microbiota composition and its implications in human health. This article details the different human bacterial ecosystems and the scientific evidence of their involvement in different diseases. The faecal microbiota transplant procedure, particularly used to treat recurrent diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile, and the methodological bases of the new molecular techniques used to characterise microbiota are also described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Health as a basic human need: would this be enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us - states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals - bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely in the fact that the well-being conception of health, as an all-encompassing label, does not properly distinguish between the different realities of health and the different demands of justice, which arise in each case. In addressing responsibilities related to the right to health, we need to work with a more differentiated vocabulary, which can account for these different realities. A crucial distinction to bear in mind, for the purposes of moral deliberation and the crafting of political and legal institutions, is the difference between basic and non-basic health needs. This distinction is crucial because we have presumably more stringent obligations and rights in relation to human needs that are basic, as they justify stronger moral claims, than those grounded on non-basic human needs. It is important to keep this moral distinction in mind because many of the world's problems regarding the right to health relate to basic health needs. By conflating these needs with less essential ones, we risk confusing different types of moral claims and weakening the overall case for establishing duties regarding the right to health. There is, therefore, a practical need to reevaluate the current normative conception of health so that it distinguishes, within the broad scope of well-being, between what is basic and what is not. My aim here is to shed light onto this distinction and to show the need for this differentiation. I do so, first, by providing, on the basis of David Miller

  2. Stimulating collaboration between human and veterinary health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Björn G M; Schaveling, Jaap; Dragt, Maria J; Blomme, Robert Jan

    2017-06-13

    Despite the need to control outbreaks of (emerging) zoonotic diseases and the need for added value in comparative/translational medicine, jointly addressed in the One Health approach [One health Initiative (n.d.a). About the One Health Initiative. http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/about.php . Accessed 13 September 2016], collaboration between human and veterinary health care professionals is limited. This study focuses on the social dilemma experienced by health care professionals and ways in which an interdisciplinary approach could be developed. Based on Gaertner and Dovidio's Common Ingroup Identity Model, a number of questionnaires were designed and tested; with PROGRESS, the relation between collaboration and common goal was assessed, mediated by decategorization, recategorization, mutual differentiation and knowledge sharing. This study confirms the Common Ingroup Identity Model stating that common goals stimulate collaboration. Decategorization and mutual differentiation proved to be significant in this relationship; recategorization and knowledge sharing mediate this relation. It can be concluded that the Common Ingroup Identity Model theory helps us to understand how health care professionals perceive the One Health initiative and how they can intervene in this process. In the One Health approach, professional associations could adopt a facilitating role.

  3. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  4. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  5. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  7. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  8. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  9. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  10. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  11. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  12. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    The current global climate change is determined by changes in the structure of weather conditions, whose impact on the health of various regions of the planet has not been studied sufficiently. To study this effect on the low-altitude mountains resort of Kislovodsk (southern Russia) multi-factor assessment of the impact of the environment on human health is carried out. There were taking in account atmosphere condition, atmospheric aerosol pollution relationship with atmospheric circulation, the level of pollution matching with different types of weather, and, on the base of analysis of meteopathic reactions (MPR), the extent of their biotropism was revealed. Two sides of weather-climatic influences - specific and nonspecific - are interconnected. They manifest themselves differently in humans with different levels of regulation of vital activity and the adaptive capacity of the organism to the complex environmental effects. This complicates the precise physiological basis of quantitative criteria for the prediction of "biotropic" (adverse) weathers. Nevertheless, clinical observations have shown the existence of the "limiting" physiological bound on the size of medical-meteorological modules (MMM). The reactions of the organism to unfavorable weather factors on the results of a questionnaire monitoring surveillance of patients treated in clinics of Federal State Institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Curortology, FMBA of Russia" (PSRIC), in comparison with clinical data, have identified various MPR of the organism, the clinical manifestation of which depends on age, sex of the patient, the availability of principal and attendant pathology, reactivity, etc. Analysis of the results of clinical observation, cases of medical aid appealability to the station an ambulance at the sudden ill health, as well as the uptake of advice of sick people among immigrants during their short stay at the resort, and the local population, allowed the first approximation

  13. Human fascioliasis: a parasitic health problem in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Shazly, A M; Handousa, A E; Youssef, M E; Rizk, H; Hamouda, M M

    1991-08-01

    Fascioliasis has a cosmopolitan distribution and is prevalent in sheep-raising countries. Now, it is an increasingly important parasite of man in the Mediterranean countries. In Dakahlia G., human fascioliasis has imposed itself as a parasitic health problem. In this paper, 23 human cases were selected to throw some light on the signs, symptoms and diagnosis of the disease. It was concluded that painful hepatomegaly, fever, anaemia and marked eosinophilia are tetrad suggesting fascioliasis in patient who has consumed watercress as green salade. Data concerning treatment and follow up will be published later.

  14. Effect of air and water pollutants on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondia, D.

    1973-01-01

    Toxicological and epidemiological studies on the effects of air pollutants on human health are reviewed. The epidemiological approach is based on the study of the human population actually exposed to air pollutants in daily life. Levels of increasing toxicity were established for the commonest air pollutants such as lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and various allergens. The effects of pollution on immunology and adaptation, of carbon monoxide on carboxyhemoglobin levels, of sulfur dioxide on mortality and morbidity in urban areas, of nitrogen oxides on electrolytes and glutathion, of ozone and NO/sub x/ on respiratory diseases, and of pollutants on chronic bronchitis are reviewed.

  15. Health and human services in an age of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, M G

    1986-12-01

    Catholic health care organizations are experiencing a tension between evangelical mission and expanding competition in medical markets. For the voluntary, not-for-profit health and human services system to survive and grow, hospital communities must find new revenue sources that do not create dependence on state and federal monies. The United States entered the Age of Maturity in 1985 as the "baby boomers" born between 1945 and 1957 became 40 years old, requiring health care providers to begin to plan for their care in old age. This large aging population, combined with a longer life span for Americans, will put increased burdens on health care organizations, particularly for chronic care, up to the year 2020 or beyond. Changes in family structure and social networks will be necessary as more people care for older relatives. The ratio of nonworkers to workers will increase, further burdening national and state tax bases, Social Security, and other worker-contributor programs. Investment banks are one option to finance the older population's increased needs for health and human services. Investment banks are funded by donations from the private sector (local and national businesses), the public sector (state, national, and local agencies), and new for-profit ventures for older persons. The contributions themselves remain in a central fund, with only the interest generated being used to fund local organizations committed to financial self-sufficiency and to helping the elderly. Older persons will carry increased economic and political clout in the Age of Maturity and will constitute a large percentage of hospitals' business. Therefore hospitals will have to develop a strong market position among the elderly. They must consider integrating a new service mix of both health and human services. Candidates for new hospital services for the elderly include housing programs, long-term care and continuum of care programs, employment programs, retirement planning, estate

  16. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  17. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Fluehr, Jaime M.; McKeon, Thomas; Branas, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods: Through systematic review of published literature, we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results: We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality, heart rate, and violence, and positive association with attention, mood, and physical activity. Results were mixed, or no association was found, in studies of urban green space exposure and general health, weight status, depression, and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cancer, diabetes, or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations, and meta-analyses, of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers, organizations, and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space. PMID:29510520

  18. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  19. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  20. Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure on human arterial pressure during the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Levi, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We performed a study of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure (AtmP) and the horizontal geomagnetic field component (H). We worked with a sample of 304 healthy normotense volunteers, 152 men and 152 women, with ages between 18 and 84 years in Mexico City during the period 2008-2014, corresponding to the minimum, ascending and maximum phases of the solar cycle 24. The data was divided by gender, age and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: Correlations, bivariate and superposed epochs (within a window of three days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the SBP and DBP and the natural variables (AtmP and H). The correlation analysis indicated correlation between the SBP and DBP and AtmP and H, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analysis showed that the largest correlations are between the SBP and DBP and the AtmP. The superposed epoch analysis found that the largest number of significant SBP and DBP changes occurred for women. Finally, the blood pressure changes are larger during the solar minimum and ascending solar cycle phases than during the solar maximum; the storms of the minimum were more intense than those of the maximum and this could be the reason of behavior of the blood pressure changes along the solar cycle.

  2. Shift of large-scale atmospheric systems over Europe during late MIS 3 and implications for Modern Human dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Zeeden, Christian; Bösken, Janina; Stevens, Thomas; Marković, Slobodan B; Klasen, Nicole; Brill, Dominik; Burow, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region's palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000-27,000 years ago). We demonstrate that during this time interval, the intensification of the Siberian High had a crucial influence on European climate causing the more continental conditions over major parts of Europe, and a southwards shift of the Westerlies. Such a climatic and environmental change, combined with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 volcanic eruption, may have driven the Anatomically Modern Human dispersal towards Central and Western Europe, pointing to a corridor over the Eastern European Plain as an important pathway in their dispersal.

  3. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special...

  4. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; J Cheng, June; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-07-17

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  5. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  6. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  7. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  8. Putative benefits of microalgal astaxanthin on exercise and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASTA is a pinkish-orange carotenoid produced by microalgae, but also commonly found in shrimp, lobster and salmon, which accumulate ASTA from the aquatic food chain. Numerous studies have addressed the benefits of ASTA for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. ASTA is recognized as a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS, especially those involved in lipid peroxidation. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise are closely related to overproduction of ROS in muscle tissue. Post-exercise inflammatory processes can even exacerbate the oxidative stress imposed by exercise. Thus, ASTA is suggested here as a putative nutritional alternative/coadjutant for antioxidant therapy to afford additional protection to muscle tissues against oxidative damage induced by exercise, as well as for an (overall integrative redox re-balance and general human health.

  9. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed...... benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management.......This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions...

  10. A perspective on the history and evolution of an Oceans and Human Health "metadiscipline" in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, Paul A; Trtanj, Juli M; Collier, Tracy K

    2013-05-01

    We review recent history and evolution of Oceans and Human Health programs and related activities in the USA from a perspective within the Federal government. As a result of about a decade of support by the US Congress and through a few Federal agencies, notably the National Science Foundation, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, robust Oceans and Human Health (OHH) research and application activities are now relatively widespread, although still small, in a number of agencies and academic institutions. OHH themes and issues have been incorporated into comprehensive federal ocean research plans and are reflected in the new National Ocean Policy enunciated by Executive Order 13547. In just a decade, OHH has matured into a recognized "metadiscipline," with development of a small, but robust and diverse community of science and practice, incorporation into academic educational programs, regular participation in ocean and coastal science and public health societies, and active engagement with public health decision makers. In addition to substantial increases in scientific information, the OHH community has demonstrated ability to respond rapidly and effectively to emergency situations such as those associated with extreme weather events (e.g., hurricanes, floods) and human-caused disasters (e.g., the Deep Water Horizon oil spill). Among many other things, next steps include development and implementation of agency health strategies and provision of specific services, such as ecological forecasts to provide routine early warnings for ocean health threats and opportunities for prevention and mitigation of these risks.

  11. Stimulation of growth of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori by atmospheric level of oxygen under high carbon dioxide tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a human pathogen that is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, has been considered a microaerophile, but there is no general consensus about its specific O2 requirements. A clear understanding of Hp physiology is needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism(s of Hp infection. Results We cultured Hp under a range of O2 levels with or without 10% CO2 and evaluated growth profiles, morphology, intracellular pH, and energy metabolism. We found that, in the presence of 10% CO2, the normal atmospheric level of O2 inhibited Hp growth at low density but stimulated growth at a higher density. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of Hp cells cultured under 20% O2 tension revealed live spiral-shaped bacteria with outer membrane vesicles on a rugged cell surface, which became smooth during the stationary phase. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, and succinate were detected in cell culture media grown under microaerobic conditions, but not under the aerobic condition. CO2 deprivation for less than 24 h did not markedly change cytoplasmic or periplasmic pH, suggesting that cellular pH homeostasis alone cannot account for the capnophilic nature of Hp. Further, CO2 deprivation significantly increased intracellular levels of ppGpp and ATP but significantly decreased cellular mRNA levels, suggesting induction of the stringent response. Conclusions We conclude, unlike previous reports, that H. pylori may be a capnophilic aerobe whose growth is promoted by atmospheric oxygen levels in the presence of 10% CO2. Our data also suggest that buffering of intracellular pH alone cannot account for the CO2 requirement of H. pylori and that CO2 deprivation initiates the stringent response in H. pylori. Our findings may provide new insight into the physiology of this fastidious human pathogen.

  12. Human Health Assessment of Alcohol To Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Kerosenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    workplace . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Jet fuels, alternative fuels, synthetic kerosene, JP-8, biobased/bio-based, toxicity/toxicology, alcohol-to-jet, toxicity...ATJ fuels alone, or in a blend with petroleum-derived JP-8, is unlikely to increase human health risks in the military workplace . Therefore, the... pregnancy rate, gestation length, or number of pups per litter. The female-only exposure did result in decreased pup weights in the highest dose group

  13. Use of quantitative uncertainty analysis for human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, F.L.W.; Gordon, J.W.; Kelly, M.

    1994-01-01

    Current human health risk assessment method for environmental risks typically use point estimates of risk accompanied by qualitative discussions of uncertainty. Alternatively, Monte Carlo simulations may be used with distributions for input parameters to estimate the resulting risk distribution and descriptive risk percentiles. These two techniques are applied for the ingestion of 1,1=dichloroethene in ground water. The results indicate that Monte Carlo simulations provide significantly more information for risk assessment and risk management than do point estimates

  14. Water use in the tropics and subtropics and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Manoel Gonçalves; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Centro Universitário da Cidade; Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Bahé, Jackeline Maria Cardoso de França; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental degradation and its effects in the human health particularly related to the use of water of the tropics and subtropics areas on Earth. In this conception towards a healthy society a continuous investing in basic and environmental sanitation is very important and simultaneously less expensive than dealing with illnesses. In order to improve a better and friendly society linked to Sustainable Development with a good population life ...

  15. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  16. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered as a system in the design of any deep space exploration mission. The addition of many potential near asteroid (NEA) destinations to the existing multiple mission architecture for Lunar and Mars missions increases the complexity of human health and performance issues that are anticipated for exploration of space. We suggest that risks to human health and performance be analyzed in terms of the 4 major parameters related to multiple mission architecture: destination, duration, distance and vehicle design. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of exploration tasks related to sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in mission architecture and exploration task design. Key mission parameters are strongly impacted by duration and distance. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) limits mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age, gender and stage of the solar cycle. Duration also impacts mission architectures including countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; and behavioral and psychological issues resulting from isolation and confinement. Distance affects communications and limits abort and return options for a NEA mission. These factors are anticipated to have important effects on crew function and autonomous operations, as well as influence medical capability, supplies and training requirements of the crew. The design of a habitat volume that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from earth will require an

  17. Environmental impacts of polluted effluents on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems confronting Pakistan is water pollution. Human health is being affected by water pollution. The major sources of pollution for surface and groundwater resources are municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. The indiscriminate discharges of untreated sewage and industrial effluents into the water bodies have affected not only the water quality but also human health. Groundwater is also being contaminated by the discharge of untreated sewage into land. Water pollution is responsible for water borne diseases such as hepatitis, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid fever etc. This paper presents a general overview of the wastewater pollution in Pakistan, an evaluation and a specific reference to Lahore city and the effects on human health. Finally, sustainable treatment methods have been proposed to mitigate the water pollution problem. The analysis of water bodies at wastewater discharge points shows depletion of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and high levels of E. Coli. There is an evidence of groundwater pollution in many areas due to the discharge of wastewater on open land. To protect the water sources from contamination, appropriate treatment methods/treatment technologies have also been discussed in this paper. In the end conclusion and recommendations are given. (author)

  18. Environmental impacts of polluted effluents on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M S [NESPAK, Lahore (Pakistan). Geo-Environmental Engineering Div.

    2005-07-15

    One of the major environmental problems confronting Pakistan is water pollution. Human health is being affected by water pollution. The major sources of pollution for surface and groundwater resources are municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. The indiscriminate discharges of untreated sewage and industrial effluents into the water bodies have affected not only the water quality but also human health. Groundwater is also being contaminated by the discharge of untreated sewage into land. Water pollution is responsible for water borne diseases such as hepatitis, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid fever etc. This paper presents a general overview of the wastewater pollution in Pakistan, an evaluation and a specific reference to Lahore city and the effects on human health. Finally, sustainable treatment methods have been proposed to mitigate the water pollution problem. The analysis of water bodies at wastewater discharge points shows depletion of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and high levels of E. Coli. There is an evidence of groundwater pollution in many areas due to the discharge of wastewater on open land. To protect the water sources from contamination, appropriate treatment methods/treatment technologies have also been discussed in this paper. In the end conclusion and recommendations are given. (author)

  19. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-12-10

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools. Copyright © 2015 Davis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  20. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants.

  1. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  2. Anaerobic Probiotics: The Key Microbes for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Malik, Khairuddin; Malek, Roslinda Abd; Othman, Nor Zalina; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Wadaan, Mohammad

    Human gastrointestinal microbiota (HGIM) incorporate a large number of microbes from different species. Anaerobic bacteria are the dominant organisms in this microbial consortium and play a crucial role in human health. In addition to their functional role as the main source of many essential metabolites for human health, they are considered as biotherapeutic agents in the regulation of different human metabolites. They are also important in the prevention and in the treatment of different physical and mental diseases. Bifidobacteria are the dominant anaerobic bacteria in HGIM and are widely used in the development of probiotic products for infants, children and adults. To develop bifidobacteria-based bioproducts, therefore, it is necessary to develop a large-scale biomass production platform based on a good understanding of the ideal medium and bioprocessing parameters for their growth and viability. In addition, high cell viability should be maintained during downstream processing and storage of probiotic cell powder or the final formulated product. In this work we review the latest information about the biology, therapeutic activities, cultivation and industrial production of bifidobacteria.

  3. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meng; Zhang, Lun; Lei, Jianjun; Zong, Liang; Li, Jiahui; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants. PMID:26713315

  4. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. PMID:28914794

  5. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2017-09-15

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented.

  6. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  7. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem (±2.4) to 0.04 mrem (±0.13) and translate to less than 1 x 10 -6 detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 x 10 -6 detriments to about 1 x 10 -3 detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site

  8. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, M.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013?2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disa...

  9. Analytical interconnection of energy processes of the human body with the surrounding atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Валеріївна Ходаріна

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research, described by the author in this article addresses the important scientific and practical issues of social ecological safety of life, which is to stabilize the performance of the RT for the passengers and crew РMV by the regulatory impact on air quality computer equipment. The problem of habitability sea and river transport vehicles associated with the creation of the microclimate in the passenger cabin, crew, production and office space remains unresolved and is located at 50 years old due to a lack of new technical means for climate control air pollution. Using the theoretical basis for the creation of the ship microclimate for the formation of algorithms for control and management of indoor air, the author carried out a study to establish the relationship between patterns of complex refractive thermal sensation human PMV and complex refractive energy state ambient air by RT multifactor experiment and mathematical description in the form of the regression equation. The results of mathematical modeling showed non-linear relationship between PMV and PT and yielded quite correct empirical formula. Nonlinear coefficients of the regression equation has a physical confirmation, since metabolism (M and the work (W of the human body are united by the - heart rate. Establishing the analytical relationship between the parameters of the control object in the court system and microclimate integral indicator of the environment allows to proceed to further improvement of the management systems, which is aimed at the development of optimal controllers comfortable microclimate

  10. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...

  11. Health Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation on Human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah-Alatas; Yanti Lusiyanti

    2001-01-01

    Increases of development and use of equipment that procedures non-ionizing radiant energy such as laser, radar, microwave ovens, power lines and hand phones, bring about public concern about the possible health effects owing to the non-ionizing radiation exposure. Non ionizing electromagnetic radiation compared to ionizing radiation, has longer wavelength, lower frequency, and lower photon energy in its interaction with body tissues. The term on non-ionizing radiation refers to the groups of electromagnetic radiations with energies less than about 10 eV corresponding to wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible, infra red microwave and radiofrequency spectral regions. This paper describes the current state of knowledge about types of non-ionizing radiation and the health effects at molecular and cellular levels as well as its effects on human health. (author)

  12. The influence of several changes in atmospheric states over semi-arid areas on the incidence of mental health disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-05-01

    The incidence of suicide attempts [Deliberate Self Harm (DSH); ICD-10: X60-X84] and psychotic attacks (PsA; ICD-10, F20-F29) in association with atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, was analyzed. A retrospective study is based on the 4,325 cases of DSH and PsA registered in the Mental Health Center (MHC) of Ben-Gurion University (Be'er-Sheva, Israel) during 2001-2003. Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p 0.1). Correlation coefficients between N SU and N PS and speed WS of westerly wind reaches 0.3 ( p 0.09). Variations in easterly wind direction WD influence N SU and N PS values ( p 0.3). Obviously ,in transition areas located between different regions ,the main role of air streams in meteorological-biological impact can scarcely be exaggerated. An unstable balance in the internal state of a weather-sensitive person is disturbed when the atmospheric state is changed by specific desert winds, which can provoke significant perturbations in meteorological parameters. Results indicate the importance of wind direction, defining mainly the atmospheric situation in semi-arid areas: changes in direction of the easterly wind influence N SU and N PS , while changes in WS are important for mental health under westerly air streams. Obviously, N SU and N PS are more affected by the disturbance of weather from its normal state, for a given season, to which the local population is accustomed, than by absolute values of meteorological parameters.

  13. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: November 19...

  14. Influences of air and controlled atmosphere storage on the concentration of potentially healthful phenolics in apples and other fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awad, M.A.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    A diverse array of fruit and vegetable constituents including vitamins such as C, E and A, phytochemicals such as folates, glucosinolates, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids, lycopene, selenium and dietary fibres form an antioxidant network that is essential in maintaining human health. In

  15. Working atmosphere, job satisfaction and individual characteristics of community mental health professionals in integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Kleine-Budde, Katja; Bramesfeld, Anke; Stegbauer, Constance

    2018-03-01

    Working requirements of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care are complex. There is a lack of research concerning the relation of job satisfaction, working atmosphere and individual characteristics. For the current study, a survey evaluating job satisfaction and working atmosphere of mental healthcare professionals in integrated care was performed. About 321 community mental healthcare professionals were included in the survey; the response rate was 59.5%. The professional background of community mental healthcare professionals included nursing, social work and psychology. Community mental healthcare professionals reported the highest satisfaction with colleagues and the lowest satisfaction with income. Moreover, it could be shown that more responsibility, more recognition and more variety in job tasks lead to an increase of overall job satisfaction. Healthcare for mentally ill patients in the community setting is complex and requires well-structured care with appropriate responsibilities within the team. A co-operative relationship among colleagues as well as clearly defined responsibilities seem to be the key for the job satisfaction of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Proteomic approach in human health and disease: Preventive and cure studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled MM Koriem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic is a branch of science that deals with various numbers of proteins where proteins are essential human constituents. Proteomic has a lot of functions inside the human and animal living organisms. This review helps to make a thought on the importance of proteomic application in human health and disease with special reference to preventive and cure studies. The human health can be divided into physical and mental health. The physical health relates to keeping human body state in a good health and to nutritional type and environmental factors. The mental health correlates to human psychological state. The main factors that affect the status of human health are human diet, exercise and sleep. The healthy diet is very important and needs to maintain the human health. The training program exercise improves human fitness and overall health and wellness. The sleep is a vital factor to sustain the human health. The human disease indicates abnormal human condition which influences the specific human part or the whole human body. There are external and internal factors which induce human disease. The external factors include pathogens while internal factors include allergies and autoimmunity. There are 4 principle types of human diseases: (1 infectious disease, (2 deficiency disease, (3 genetic disease and (4 physiological disease. There are many and various external microbes' factors that induce human infectious disease and these agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The lack of necessary and vital dietary rudiments such as vitamins and minerals is the main cause of human deficiency disease. The genetic disease is initiated by hereditary disturbances that occur in the human genetic map. The physiological disease occurs when the normal human function body is affected due to human organs become malfunction. In conclusion, proteomic plays a vital and significant role in human health and disease.

  17. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  18. A synopsis of the Joint Environment and Human Health Programme in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael N; Kempton, Pamela D

    2009-12-21

    The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environmental, social and economic factors that influence health, particularly focusing on naturally occurring toxins, man-made pollutants, nanoparticles and pathogens to see:* how they spread within the environment* how their properties change as they interact with other substances or organisms* how we become exposed to them, and* their impact on human health.The Programme has not only succeeded in bringing together scientists from a broad range of environmental, social and biomedical backgrounds, but also fostered new relationships with end users and policy makers. This new community is helping to provide the multidisciplinary capacity able to respond in an interdisciplinary way to resolve problems that are intrinsically interfacial in character. Many of these questions relate to complex issues such as the environmental biology and geochemistry of soils and how these influence the transport, accessibility and bioavailability of chemical pollutants and infectivity of pathogens. The dispersion of harmful particles in the atmosphere is another area of major concern where the E&HH Programme has broken new ground by showing how the chemical and physical properties of such particles influence their environmental behaviour and may govern their toxicity and resultant pathological reactions induced following inhalation. Working groups and networks have identified potential health problems concerning the transport and emergence of human pathogens associated with food, soil, air and water. The consequence(s) of global and regional climate change for the environmental behaviours of pollutants and pathogens have been considered by a number of the projects supported by the E&HH programme.The selection of articles in this supplement reflect the broad scope of the E&HH programme

  19. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  20. 75 FR 64734 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... 64735

  1. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore important that Tanzania prepares itself to appropriately address CC impact on human health. It is equally important that policy makers and other stakeholders are engaged in a process to update and adapt priorities, mobilize resources and build interdisciplinary research and implementation capacity on climate ...

  2. Music and health. Phenomenological investigation of a medical humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Lucy; McLachlan, Emma; Perkins, Laurence; Dornan, Tim

    2013-05-01

    In response to the tendency for music to be under-represented in the discourse of medical humanities, we framed the question 'how can music heal?' We answered it by exploring the lived experiences of musicians with lay or professional interests in health. Two medical students and a medically qualified educationalist, all musicians, conducted a co-operative inquiry with a professional musician interested in health. All researchers and six respondents kept audio or written diaries. Three respondents were interviewed in depth. A medical school head (and experienced musician) critiqued the phenomenological analysis of respondents' accounts of music, health, and its relationship with undergraduate medical education. Respondents experienced music as promoting health, even in seriously diseased people. Music affected people's identity and emotions. Through the medium of structure and harmony, it provided a means of self-expression that adapted to whatever condition people were in. Music was a communication medium, which could make people feel less isolated. Immersion in music could change negative states of mind to more positive ones. A transport metaphor was commonly used; music 'taking people to better places'. Exercising control by becoming physically involved in music enhanced diseased people's self-esteem. Music was able to bring the spiritual, mental, and physical elements of their lives into balance, to the benefit of their wellbeing. Music could help medical students appreciate holistically that the state of health of people who are either well or diseased can be enhanced by a 'non-technical' intervention.

  3. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E.; Herring, Stephanie C.; Jantarasami, Lesley; Adrianopoli, Carl; Benedict, Kaitlin; Conlon, Kathryn; Escobar, Vanessa; Hess, Jeremy; Luvall, Jeffrey; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; hide

    2016-01-01

    Increased Exposure to Extreme Events Key Finding 1: Health impacts associated with climate-related changes in exposure to extreme events include death, injury, or illness; exacerbation of underlying medical conditions; and adverse effects on mental health[High Confidence]. Climate change will increase exposure risk in some regions of the United States due to projected increases in the frequency and/or intensity of drought, wildfires, and flooding related to extreme precipitation and hurricanes [Medium Confidence].Disruption of Essential Infrastructure Key Finding 2: Many types of extreme events related to climate change cause disruption of infrastructure, including power, water, transportation, and communication systems, that are essential to maintaining access to health care and emergency response services and safeguarding human health [High Confidence].Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding Key Finding 3: Coastal populations with greater vulnerability to health impacts from coastal flooding include persons with disabilities or other access and functional needs, certain populations of color, older adults, pregnant women and children, low-income populations, and some occupational groups [High Confidence].Climate change will increase exposure risk to coastal flooding due to increases in extreme precipitation and in hurricane intensity and rainfall rates, as well as sea level rise and the resulting increases in storm surge.

  5. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  7. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver” and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.

  8. EDCs Mixtures: A Stealthy Hazard for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ribeiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are exogenous chemicals that may occur naturally (e.g., phytoestrogens, while others are industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide to which human exposure, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs can interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones and, consequently, can simultaneously trigger diverse signaling pathways which result in diverse and divergent biological responses. Additionally, EDCs can also bioaccumulate in lipid compartments of the organism forming a mixed “body burden” of contaminants. Although the independent action of chemicals has been considered the main principle in EDCs mixture toxicity, recent studies have demonstrated that numerous effects cannot be predicted when analyzing single compounds independently. Co-exposure to these agents, particularly in critical windows of exposure, may induce hazardous health effects potentially associated with a complex “body burden” of different origins. Here, we performed an exhaustive review of the available literature regarding EDCs mixtures exposure, toxicity mechanisms and effects, particularly at the most vulnerable human life stages. Although the assessment of potential risks to human health due to exposure to EDCs mixtures is a major topic for consumer safety, information regarding effective mixtures effects is still scarce.

  9. International financial institutions and human rights: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas; Kentikelenis, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Serving as lender of last resort to countries experiencing unsustainable levels of public debt, international financial institutions have attracted intense controversy over the past decades, exemplified most recently by the popular discontent expressed in Eurozone countries following several rounds of austerity measures. In exchange for access to financial assistance, borrowing countries must settle on a list of often painful policy reforms that are aimed at balancing the budget. This practice has afforded international financial institutions substantial policy influence on governments throughout the world and in a wide array of policy areas of direct bearing on human rights. This article reviews the consequences of policy reforms mandated by international financial institutions on the enjoyment of human rights, focusing on the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. It finds that these reforms undermine the enjoyment of health rights, labour rights, and civil and political rights, all of which have deleterious implications for public health. The evidence suggests that for human rights commitments to be met, a fundamental reorientation of international financial institutions' activities will be necessary.

  10. Human capital flight challenges within an equitable health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udonwa, N E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of human capital flight has been discussed at different forums with a consensus opinion that it has its merits and demerits to equitable health system. Most often one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of talent, leaving the provider nation at risk of depleting its natural supply of talent. This paper looks into the historical perspective of human capital flight or "brain drain", and its burden. It attempts to elucidate the various causes and suggested solutions. The paper's objective is to educate colleagues on the conceptual and contextual imperatives of the issue. Using a convenient sample of key informants who were medical colleagues in Nigeria relevant information was sourced from these colleagues, documents from the postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the internet on maters relating to human capital flight and brain drain. Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, and other professionals leave Nigeria tempted by significantly higher wages, brighter prospects for employment and education, stability, food security. It appears that the potential exposure to different working conditions, resources and professional environments can be of advantage to the country, should Nigeria be able to recall these professionals. It also appears that necessary economic reforms that make staying at home rewarding, that is--good leadership, and policy planning that seriously looks into rural development, among other issues, are keys ingredients to reversing the trend in order to ensure a more equitable health system.

  11. Eco-Health Linkages: evidence base and socio-economic considerations for linking ecosystem goods and services to human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are thought to play a role in protecting human health, but the empirical evidence directly linking EGS to human health outcomes is limited, and our ability to detect Eco-Health linkages is confounded by socio-economic factors. These limitations ...

  12. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  13. Human rights, health, and capital accumulation in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossudovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between human rights and the pattern of capital accumulation in the Third World. The repressive authoritarian State increasingly constitutes the means for enforcing the intensive exploitation of labor in Third World industrial enclaves and commercial agriculture. While the development of center capitalism has evolved toward "the Welfare State" and a framework of liberal sociodemocracy, the "peripheral State" is generally characterized by nondemocratic forms of government. This bipolarity in the state structure between center and periphery is functionally related to the international division of labor and the unity of production and circulation on a world level. The programs and policies of the center Welfare State (health, education, social security, etc.) constitute an input of "human capital" into the high-technology center labor process. Moreover, welfare programs in center countries activate the process of circulation by sustaining high levels of consumer demand. In underdeveloped countries, the underlying vacuum in the social sectors and the important allocations to military expenditure support the requirements of the peripheral labor process. Programs in health in the center and periphery are related to the bipolarity (qualification/dequalification) in the international division of labor. The social and economic functions of health programs are intimately related to the organic structure of the State and the mechanics whereby the State allocates its financial surplus in support of both capitalist production and circulation.

  14. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  15. Gut bifidobacteria populations in human health and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arboleya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from the childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium bifidum are generally dominant in infants whereas Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more dominant in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effect of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria can be associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria composition changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence in commonly known disease states.

  16. Effects of wind turbines on human health and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanan, G [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Pandian, A; Gowda, G; Raghunandan, A [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    The impact of climate change through global warming has been a concern for some time now. Targets are being set for ratifying countries to reduce their CO{sup 2} emissions. In order to achieve reduction in CO{sup 2} emissions, there must be sustained move in the production of electricity from renewable sources other than fossil fuel combustion. Of the renewable energy sources, the most realistic and economic is Wind Power. The Asian continent is developing into one of the main powerhouses of Wind Energy. The strongest market leader in Wind Energy in the continent is India. On the flip side, there are some effects of Wind Turbines which are hazardous to human health like noise generated. Such hazards are also likely and known to affect the migratory birds during transition. This paper will address the effects of Wind Turbine on Human Health and Environment. The paper will focus on the following questions: (1)What are the potential health and environmental impacts of Wind Turbines? (2)How is exposure to Wind Turbine Noise assessed? (3)What consultation process with the community is required before Wind Farms are constructed? (Author)

  17. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  18. Human rights abuses and concerns about women's health and human rights in southern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Kim, Glen; Reis, Chen; Asher, Jana L; Iacopino, Vincent

    2004-03-24

    Although human rights abuses have been reported in Iraq, the full scope of these abuses has not been well documented. To assess the prevalence of human rights abuses since 1991 in southern Iraq, along with attitudes about women's health and human rights and women's rights and roles in society, to inform reconstruction and humanitarian assistance efforts in Iraq. Cross-sectional, randomized survey of Iraqi men and women conducted in July 2003 using structured questionnaires. Three major cities in 3 of the 9 governorates in southern Iraq. A total of 1991 respondents representing 16 520 household members. Respondent demographics, information on human rights abuses that occurred among household members since 1991, women's health and human rights, opinions regarding women's rights and roles in society, and conditions for community health and development. Respondents were a mean age of 38 years and were mostly of Arab ethnicity (99.7% [1976/1982]) and Muslim Shi'a (96.7% [1906/1971]). Overall, 47% of those interviewed reported 1 or more of the following abuses among themselves and household members since 1991: torture, killings, disappearance, forced conscription, beating, gunshot wounds, kidnappings, being held hostage, and ear amputation, among others. Seventy percent of abuses (408/586) were reputed to have occurred in homes. Baath party regime-affiliated groups were identified most often (95% [449/475]) as the perpetrators of the abuses; 53% of the abuses occurred between 1991 and 1993, following the Shi'a uprising, and another 30% between 2000 and the first 6 months of 2003. While the majority of men and women expressed support for women's equal opportunities for education, freedom of expression, access to health care, equality in deciding marriage and the number and spacing of children, and participation in community development decisions, there was less support among both men and women for women's freedom of movement, association with people of their choosing, and

  19. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-H MR 1. Date: April 23... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  1. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  2. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Topics in Development, Signaling... Review, OD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  3. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; PMTCT. Date: July 17-18, 2012. Time... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  4. 77 FR 33473 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-W 90. Date: June 26, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  5. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Developmental... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  6. 75 FR 49500 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  7. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July..., Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  8. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  9. 76 FR 61719 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435...

  10. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 30, 2012. Time: 3:00 p... Institute Of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  11. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  12. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  13. 76 FR 61720 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, PAR-10-194, PAR10-203, PAR-11- 183... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  14. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular and Cellular Controls of... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  15. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Alexander Disease; Mechanisms... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100...

  16. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Training in Executive... Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD...

  17. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  18. 77 FR 37422 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z 41 2. Date: July 19, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  19. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  20. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Neuroplasticity and the Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  1. 77 FR 61421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  2. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Social-Cognitive Skill Intervention..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  3. 78 FR 19498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral Sciences... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  4. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Academic-Community Partnership... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  5. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. NICHD T32 Teleconference Review... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  6. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  7. 77 FR 61420 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  8. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Risk Genes and Environment... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  9. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Y 41 1. Date: November 15... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  10. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  11. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Prenatal Events-Postnatal... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  12. 78 FR 12765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: March... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of, Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  13. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z. Date: November 13, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  14. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee Date: June 14..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  15. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Congenital Defects Topics. Date: May..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  16. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Environmental and Biological..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  17. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Pregnancy Adaptation and Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  18. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Children in Rural Poverty. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  19. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is requesting public comment on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH...

  20. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is extending the public comment period on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a...