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Sample records for human head brain

  1. BrainK for Structural Image Processing: Creating Electrical Models of the Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BrainK is a set of automated procedures for characterizing the tissues of the human head from MRI, CT, and photogrammetry images. The tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction support the primary goal of modeling the propagation of electrical currents through head tissues with a finite difference model (FDM or finite element model (FEM created from the BrainK geometries. The electrical head model is necessary for accurate source localization of dense array electroencephalographic (dEEG measures from head surface electrodes. It is also necessary for accurate targeting of cerebral structures with transcranial current injection from those surface electrodes. BrainK must achieve five major tasks: image segmentation, registration of the MRI, CT, and sensor photogrammetry images, cortical surface reconstruction, dipole tessellation of the cortical surface, and Talairach transformation. We describe the approach to each task, and we compare the accuracies for the key tasks of tissue segmentation and cortical surface extraction in relation to existing research tools (FreeSurfer, FSL, SPM, and BrainVisa. BrainK achieves good accuracy with minimal or no user intervention, it deals well with poor quality MR images and tissue abnormalities, and it provides improved computational efficiency over existing research packages.

  2. Toward the holistic, reference, and extendable atlas of the human brain, head, and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L

    2015-06-01

    Despite numerous efforts, a fairly complete (holistic) anatomical model of the whole, normal, adult human brain, which is required as the reference in brain studies and clinical applications, has not yet been constructed. Our ultimate objective is to build this kind of atlas from advanced in vivo imaging. This work presents the taxonomy of our currently developed brain atlases and addresses the design, content, functionality, and current results in the holistic atlas development as well as atlas usefulness and future directions. We have developed to date 35 commercial brain atlases (along with numerous research prototypes), licensed to 63 companies and institutions, and made available to medical societies, organizations, medical schools, and individuals. These atlases have been applied in education, research, and clinical applications. Hundreds of thousands of patients have been treated by using our atlases. Based on this experience, the first version of the holistic and reference atlas of the brain, head, and neck has been developed and made available. The atlas has been created from multispectral 3 and 7 Tesla and high-resolution CT in vivo scans. It is fully 3D, scalable, interactive, and highly detailed with about 3,000 labeled components. This atlas forms a foundation for the development of a multi-level molecular, cellular, anatomical, physiological, and behavioral brain atlas platform.

  3. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying eZhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a signature injury in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH, a finite element (FE study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP in the head ranged from 0.68-1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44% was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%. The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves

  4. BabyMEG: A whole-head pediatric magnetoencephalography system for human brain development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti; Pratt, Kevin; Mascarenas, Anthony; Miller, Paul; Han, Menglai; Robles, Jose; Cavallini, Anders; Power, Bill; Sieng, Kosal; Sun, Limin; Lew, Seok; Doshi, Chiran; Ahtam, Banu; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Grant, Ellen; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Paulson, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a 375-channel, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system ("BabyMEG") for studying the electrophysiological development of human brain during the first years of life. The helmet accommodates heads up to 95% of 36-month old boys in the USA. The unique two-layer sensor array consists of: (1) 270 magnetometers (10 mm diameter, ˜15 mm coil-to-coil spacing) in the inner layer, (2) thirty-five three-axis magnetometers (20 mm × 20 mm) in the outer layer 4 cm away from the inner layer. Additionally, there are three three-axis reference magnetometers. With the help of a remotely operated position adjustment mechanism, the sensor array can be positioned to provide a uniform short spacing (mean 8.5 mm) between the sensor array and room temperature surface of the dewar. The sensors are connected to superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) operating at 4.2 K with median sensitivity levels of 7.5 fT/√Hz for the inner and 4 fT/√Hz for the outer layer sensors. SQUID outputs are digitized by a 24-bit acquisition system. A closed-cycle helium recycler provides maintenance-free continuous operation, eliminating the need for helium, with no interruption needed during MEG measurements. BabyMEG with the recycler has been fully operational from March, 2015. Ongoing spontaneous brain activity can be monitored in real time without interference from external magnetic noise sources including the recycler, using a combination of a lightly shielded two-layer magnetically shielded room, an external active shielding, a signal-space projection method, and a synthetic gradiometer approach. Evoked responses in the cortex can be clearly detected without averaging. These new design features and capabilities represent several advances in MEG, increasing the utility of this technique in basic neuroscience as well as in clinical research and patient studies.

  5. Integration of visual and non-visual self-motion cues during voluntary head movements in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2018-05-15

    Our phenomenological experience of the stable world is maintained by continuous integration of visual self-motion with extra-retinal signals. However, due to conventional constraints of fMRI acquisition in humans, neural responses to visuo-vestibular integration have only been studied using artificial stimuli, in the absence of voluntary head-motion. We here circumvented these limitations and let participants to move their heads during scanning. The slow dynamics of the BOLD signal allowed us to acquire neural signal related to head motion after the observer's head was stabilized by inflatable aircushions. Visual stimuli were presented on head-fixed display goggles and updated in real time as a function of head-motion that was tracked using an external camera. Two conditions simulated forward translation of the participant. During physical head rotation, the congruent condition simulated a stable world, whereas the incongruent condition added arbitrary lateral motion. Importantly, both conditions were precisely matched in visual properties and head-rotation. By comparing congruent with incongruent conditions we found evidence consistent with the multi-modal integration of visual cues with head motion into a coherent "stable world" percept in the parietal operculum and in an anterior part of parieto-insular cortex (aPIC). In the visual motion network, human regions MST, a dorsal part of VIP, the cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) and a region in precuneus (Pc) showed differential responses to the same contrast. The results demonstrate for the first time neural multimodal interactions between precisely matched congruent versus incongruent visual and non-visual cues during physical head-movement in the human brain. The methodological approach opens the path to a new class of fMRI studies with unprecedented temporal and spatial control over visuo-vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the head part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Atsuo [Yongo National Collage of Technology (Japan); Isaka, Katsuo [University of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has rarely been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distribution of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the asymmetrical human model have been made clear. (author)

  7. Development of Realistic Head Models for Electromagnetic Source Imaging of the Human Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akalin, Z

    2001-01-01

    In this work, a methodology is developed to solve the forward problem of electromagnetic source imaging using realistic head models, For this purpose, first segmentation of the 3 dimensional MR head...

  8. Development of Realistic Head Models for Electromagnetic Source Imaging of the Human Brain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akalin, Z

    2001-01-01

    ... images is performed Then triangular, quadratic meshes are formed for the interfaces of the tissues, Thus, realistic meshes, representing scalp, skull, CSF, brain and eye tissues, are formed, At least...

  9. Development of a human head FE model for the impact analysis using VOXEL approach and simulation for the assessment on the focal brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Dai; Yuge, Kohei; Nishimoto, Tetsuya; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Takao, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional digital human-head model was developed and several dynamic analyses on the head trauma were conducted. This model was built up by the VOXEL approach using 433 slice CT images (512 x 512 pixels) and made of 1.22 million parallelepiped finite elements with 10 anatomical tissue properties such as scalp, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), skull, brain, dura mater and so on. The numerical analyses were conducted using a finite element code the authors have developed. The main features of the code are it is based on the explicit time integration method and it uses the one point integration method to evaluate the equivalent nodal forces with the hourglass control proposed by Flanagan and Belythcko and it utilizes the parallel computation with the Massage Passing Interface (MPI). In order to verify the developed model, the head impact experiment for a cadaver by Nahum et al. was simulated. The calculated results showed good agreement with experimental ones. A front and rear impact analyses were also performed investigate the relation between the impact direction and the positions of the high measurement of pressure and stresses in brain. The obtained results represent that brain injury has a closer relation with the Mises equivalent stress rather than the pressure. At this time, the large deformation of a frontal cranial base was observed in both frontal and occipital impact analyses. We expect that it induces the brain injury in a frontal lobe regardless of the impact positions. (author)

  10. Simulated self-motion in a visual gravity field: sensitivity to vertical and horizontal heading in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Iole; Maffei, Vincenzo; Pauwels, Karl; Macaluso, Emiliano; Orban, Guy A; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Multiple visual signals are relevant to perception of heading direction. While the role of optic flow and depth cues has been studied extensively, little is known about the visual effects of gravity on heading perception. We used fMRI to investigate the contribution of gravity-related visual cues on the processing of vertical versus horizontal apparent self-motion. Participants experienced virtual roller-coaster rides in different scenarios, at constant speed or 1g-acceleration/deceleration. Imaging results showed that vertical self-motion coherent with gravity engaged the posterior insula and other brain regions that have been previously associated with vertical object motion under gravity. This selective pattern of activation was also found in a second experiment that included rectilinear motion in tunnels, whose direction was cued by the preceding open-air curves only. We argue that the posterior insula might perform high-order computations on visual motion patterns, combining different sensory cues and prior information about the effects of gravity. Medial-temporal regions including para-hippocampus and hippocampus were more activated by horizontal motion, preferably at constant speed, consistent with a role in inertial navigation. Overall, the results suggest partially distinct neural representations of the cardinal axes of self-motion (horizontal and vertical). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting brain acceleration during heading of soccer ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Hasnun Arif Hassan, Mohd; Azri Aris, Mohd; Anuar, Zulfika

    2013-12-01

    There has been a long debate whether purposeful heading could cause harm to the brain. Studies have shown that repetitive heading could lead to degeneration of brain cells, which is similarly found in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. A two-degree of freedom linear mathematical model was developed to study the impact of soccer ball to the brain during ball-to-head impact in soccer. From the model, the acceleration of the brain upon impact can be obtained. The model is a mass-spring-damper system, in which the skull is modelled as a mass and the neck is modelled as a spring-damper system. The brain is a mass with suspension characteristics that are also defined by a spring and a damper. The model was validated by experiment, in which a ball was dropped from different heights onto an instrumented dummy skull. The validation shows that the results obtained from the model are in a good agreement with the brain acceleration measured from the experiment. This findings show that a simple linear mathematical model can be useful in giving a preliminary insight on what human brain endures during a ball-to-head impact.

  12. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, new radiopharmaceutical have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have been only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. For example, the brain within the phantom of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is modeled simply as a single ellipsoid of tissue With no differentiation of its internal structures. To address this need, the MIRD Committee established a Task Group in 1992 to construct a more detailed brain model to include the cerebral cortex, the white matter, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, the cerebral spinal fluid, the lateral ventricles, and the third ventricle. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. This model has been incorporated into the radiation transport code EGS4 so as to calculate photon and electron absorbed fractions in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV for each of thirteen sources in the brain. Furthermore, explicit positron transport have been considered, separating the contribution by the positron itself and its associated annihilations photons. No differences are found between the electron and positron absorbed fractions; however, for initial energies of positrons greater than ∼0.5 MeV, significant differences are found between absorbed fractions from explicit transport of annihilation photons and those from an assumed uniform distribution of 0.511-MeV photons. Subsequently, S values were calculated for a variety of beta-particle and positron emitters brain imaging agents. Moreover, pediatric head and brain dosimetric models are currently being developed based on this adult head model

  13. Tolerances of the human brain to concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-01

    The report reviews the pertinent literature and adds additional evidence indicating that the human brain may be able to tolerate head impact forces in the range of 300 to 400 g's without evidence of concussion or other detectable neurologic sequelae,...

  14. Brain SPECT in severs traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, F.; Eder, V.; Pottier, J.M.; Baulieu, J.L.; Fournier, P.; Legros, B.; Chiaroni, P.; Dalonneau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of the early brain scintigraphy in traumatic brain injury to the long term neuropsychological behavior. Twenty four patients had an ECD-Tc99m SPECT, within one month after the trauma; scintigraphic abnormalities were evaluated according to a semi-quantitative analysis. The neuropsychological clinical investigation was interpreted by a synthetic approach to evaluate abnormalities related to residual motor deficit, frontal behavior, memory and language disorders. Fourteen patients (58%) had sequela symptoms. SPECT revealed 80 abnormalities and CT scan only 31. Statistical analysis of uptake values showed significantly lower uptake in left basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with sequela memory disorders. We conclude that the brain perfusion scintigraphy is able to detect more lesions than CT and that it could really help to predict the neuropsychological behavior after severe head injury. Traumatology could become in the future a widely accepted indication of perfusion SPECT. (authors)

  15. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Kishi, Toshiaki; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Endo, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient. (author)

  17. Production of a faithful realistic phantom to human head and thermal neutron flux measurement on the brain surface. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, K; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, T

    2002-01-01

    Thermal neutron flux is determined using the gold wires in current BNCT irradiation, so evaluation of arbitrary points after the irradiation is limited in the quantity of these detectors. In order to make up for the weakness, dose estimation of a patient is simulated by a computational dose calculation supporting system. In another way without computer simulation, a medical irradiation condition can be replicate experimentally using of realistic phantom which was produced from CT images by rapid prototyping technique. This phantom was irradiated at a same JRR-4 neutron beam as clinical irradiation condition of the patient and the thermal neutron distribution on the brain surface was measured in detail. This experimental evaluation technique using a realistic phantom is applicable to in vitro cell irradiation experiments for radiation biological effects as well as in-phantom experiments for dosimetry under the nearly medical irradiation condition of patient.

  18. Ionising radiation and the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of radiation exposure of the developing human brain. Much of the evidence has come from the prenatally exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The effects on development age, mental retardation, head size, neuromuscular performance, intelligence tests, school performance and the occurrence of convulsions are discussed. Other topics covered include the biological nature of the damage to the brain, risk estimates in human and problems in radiation protection. (UK)

  19. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  20. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  1. Shining light on the head: Photobiomodulation for brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Hamblin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia, degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder. There is some evidence that all these seemingly diverse conditions can be beneficially affected by applying light to the head. There is even the possibility that PBM could be used for cognitive enhancement in normal healthy people. In this transcranial PBM (tPBM application, near-infrared (NIR light is often applied to the forehead because of the better penetration (no hair, longer wavelength. Some workers have used lasers, but recently the introduction of inexpensive light emitting diode (LED arrays has allowed the development of light emitting helmets or “brain caps”. This review will cover the mechanisms of action of photobiomodulation to the brain, and summarize some of the key pre-clinical studies and clinical trials that have been undertaken for diverse brain disorders.

  2. Radiological symmetry of brain and head images: comparison and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Most existing image-based approaches neglect the difference in radiological symmetry between the human brain and head. Thus, it is important to analyze and quantify the spatial relationship between the brain symmetry plane (BSP) and the head symmetry plane (HSP) on radiological images. The HSP and BSP were calculated through maximizing local symmetry within the head or cerebrum followed by outlier removal. The HSPs and BSPs for 145 diversified MRI datasets (80 normal, 23 pathological, and 42 synthesized) were extracted and compared. The average angular and distance deviations between the HSP and BSP were 0.49 and 1.65 mm, respectively. These deviations are dependent upon ethnicity and gender, being: (1) (0.56 , 1.85 mm) and (0.42 , 0.91 mm) for Caucasians and Asians, respectively; and (2) (0.33 , 1.17 mm) and (0.51 , 1.58 mm) for males and females, respectively. The HSP is generally different from the BSP on MR images. Statistically, they can be used interchangeably if accuracy of (0.49 , 1.65 mm) is acceptable. The BSP is preferred for a high accuracy Talairach transformation and localization of the anterior and posterior commissures. Either BSP or HSP can be used for medium accuracy Talairach transform. The HSP is preferred for detecting intracranial pathology. (orig.)

  3. Radiological symmetry of brain and head images: comparison and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qingmao; Nowinski, W.L. [Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore (Singapore). Biomedical Imaging Lab.

    2006-08-15

    Most existing image-based approaches neglect the difference in radiological symmetry between the human brain and head. Thus, it is important to analyze and quantify the spatial relationship between the brain symmetry plane (BSP) and the head symmetry plane (HSP) on radiological images. The HSP and BSP were calculated through maximizing local symmetry within the head or cerebrum followed by outlier removal. The HSPs and BSPs for 145 diversified MRI datasets (80 normal, 23 pathological, and 42 synthesized) were extracted and compared. The average angular and distance deviations between the HSP and BSP were 0.49 and 1.65 mm, respectively. These deviations are dependent upon ethnicity and gender, being: (1) (0.56 , 1.85 mm) and (0.42 , 0.91 mm) for Caucasians and Asians, respectively; and (2) (0.33 , 1.17 mm) and (0.51 , 1.58 mm) for males and females, respectively. The HSP is generally different from the BSP on MR images. Statistically, they can be used interchangeably if accuracy of (0.49 , 1.65 mm) is acceptable. The BSP is preferred for a high accuracy Talairach transformation and localization of the anterior and posterior commissures. Either BSP or HSP can be used for medium accuracy Talairach transform. The HSP is preferred for detecting intracranial pathology. (orig.)

  4. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  5. Absorbed dose estimates to structures of the brain and head using a high-resolution voxel-based head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jeffrey F.; Blue, Thomas E.; Gupta, Nilendu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the viability of using a high-resolution 3-D head phantom in Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) structure dosimetry. This work describes a high-resolution voxel-based model of a human head and its use for calculating absorbed doses to the structures of the brain. The Zubal head phantom is a 3-D model of a human head that can be displayed and manipulated on a computer. Several changes were made to the original head phantom which now contains over 29 critical structures of the brain and head. The modified phantom is a 85x109x120 lattice of voxels, where each voxel is 2.2x2.2x1.4 mm 3 . This model was translated into MCNP lattice format. As a proof of principle study, two MCNP absorbed dose calculations were made (left and right lateral irradiations) using a uniformly distributed neutron disk source with an 1/E energy spectrum. Additionally, the results of these two calculations were combined to estimate the absorbed doses from a bilateral irradiation. Radiobiologically equivalent (RBE) doses were calculated for all structures and were normalized to 12.8 Gy-Eq. For a left lateral irradiation, the left motor cortex receives the limiting RBE dose. For a bilateral irradiation, the insula cortices receive the limiting dose. Among the nonencephalic structures, the parotid glands receive RBE doses that were within 15% of the limiting dose

  6. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Akaizawa, Takashi; Koyama, Masamichi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  7. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  8. Relative brain displacement and deformation during constrained mild frontal head impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Abney, T M; Okamoto, R J; Pless, R B; Genin, G M; Bayly, P V

    2010-12-06

    This study describes the measurement of fields of relative displacement between the brain and the skull in vivo by tagged magnetic resonance imaging and digital image analysis. Motion of the brain relative to the skull occurs during normal activity, but if the head undergoes high accelerations, the resulting large and rapid deformation of neuronal and axonal tissue can lead to long-term disability or death. Mathematical modelling and computer simulation of acceleration-induced traumatic brain injury promise to illuminate the mechanisms of axonal and neuronal pathology, but numerical studies require knowledge of boundary conditions at the brain-skull interface, material properties and experimental data for validation. The current study provides a dense set of displacement measurements in the human brain during mild frontal skull impact constrained to the sagittal plane. Although head motion is dominated by translation, these data show that the brain rotates relative to the skull. For these mild events, characterized by linear decelerations near 1.5g (g = 9.81 m s⁻²) and angular accelerations of 120-140 rad s⁻², relative brain-skull displacements of 2-3 mm are typical; regions of smaller displacements reflect the tethering effects of brain-skull connections. Strain fields exhibit significant areas with maximal principal strains of 5 per cent or greater. These displacement and strain fields illuminate the skull-brain boundary conditions, and can be used to validate simulations of brain biomechanics.

  9. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  10. Role of infectious agents in the carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibek Kenneth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review concentrates on tumours that are anatomically localised in head and neck regions. Brain cancers and head and neck cancers together account for more than 873,000 cases annually worldwide, with an increasing incidence each year. With poor survival rates at late stages, brain and head and neck cancers represent serious conditions. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process and the role of infectious agents in this progression has not been fully identified. A major problem with such research is that the role of many infectious agents may be underestimated due to the lack of or inconsistency in experimental data obtained globally. In the case of brain cancer, no infection has been accepted as directly oncogenic, although a number of viruses and parasites are associated with the malignancy. Our analysis of the literature showed the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV in distinct types of brain tumour, namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and medulloblastoma. In particular, there are reports of viral protein in up to 100% of GBM specimens. Several epidemiological studies reported associations of brain cancer and toxoplasmosis seropositivity. In head and neck cancers, there is a distinct correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Considering that almost every undifferentiated NPC is EBV-positive, virus titer levels can be measured to screen high-risk populations. In addition there is an apparent association between human papilloma virus (HPV and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC; specifically, 26% of HNSCCs are positive for HPV. HPV type 16 was the most common type detected in HNSCCs (90% and its dominance is even greater than that reported in cervical carcinoma. Although there are many studies showing an association of infectious agents with cancer, with various levels of involvement and either a direct or indirect causative effect, there is a scarcity of articles covering the role of

  11. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  12. Phosphatidylserine and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Michael J; Smith, Kyl

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the roles and importance of phosphatidylserine (PS), an endogenous phospholipid and dietary nutrient, in human brain biochemistry, physiology, and function. A scientific literature search was conducted on MEDLINE for relevant articles regarding PS and the human brain published before June 2014. Additional publications were identified from references provided in original papers; 127 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. A large body of scientific evidence describes the interactions among PS, cognitive activity, cognitive aging, and retention of cognitive functioning ability. Phosphatidylserine is required for healthy nerve cell membranes and myelin. Aging of the human brain is associated with biochemical alterations and structural deterioration that impair neurotransmission. Exogenous PS (300-800 mg/d) is absorbed efficiently in humans, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and safely slows, halts, or reverses biochemical alterations and structural deterioration in nerve cells. It supports human cognitive functions, including the formation of short-term memory, the consolidation of long-term memory, the ability to create new memories, the ability to retrieve memories, the ability to learn and recall information, the ability to focus attention and concentrate, the ability to reason and solve problems, language skills, and the ability to communicate. It also supports locomotor functions, especially rapid reactions and reflexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EVALUATION OF EMF EXPOSURE OF MOBILE PHONES ON HUMAN HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Vtornikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mobile phones are worldwide spread nowadays. Smartphones penetration is growing year after year. Numerous studies indicate the negative effect of EMF exposure of these devices on humans. Therefore, it is important to study the peculiarities of their influence on the target organ-the brain. It is important for solving this problem to find out the real situation of the distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure near the front panel of the apparatus.The aim of the study is to determine and compare EMF exposure from smartphones and classic mobile phones on human head.Material and methods. The original method patented in the Russian Federation was used in this study. The used original measuring setup is also patented, developed and assembled by the authors of the study. The object of the study was classical mobile phones and smartphones widespread at the time of work.Results. We got the graphic of matrices of distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel of 10 apparatus corresponding to the topography of a human head. The study revealed peculiarities of this distribution in smartphones and the classic mobile phones and got the values of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the investigated devices acting primarily on the brain.Conclusions. The design of smartphones and mobile phones determines the overall picture of distribution of EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel for devices of a particular type. This picture must be taken into account when planning epidemiological and experimental studies to obtain comparable results. Progress in the development of mobile communication technologies has led to an increase in the electromagnetic load on users of modern devices.

  14. Measurement of P-31 MR relaxation times and concentrations in human brain and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, K.; Naruse, S.; Hubesch, B.; Gober, I.; Lawry, T.; Boska, M.; Matson, G.B.; Weiner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of high-energy phosphates and pH were made in human brain and brain tumors using P-31 MR imaging. Using a Philips Gyroscan 1.5-T MRMRS, MR images were used to select a cuboidal volume of interest and P-31 MR spectra were obtained from that volume using the ISIS technique. An external quantitation standard was used. T 1 s were measured by inversion recovery. Quantitative values for metabolites were calculated using B 1 field plot of the head coil. The results for normal brain phosphates are as follows; adenosine triphosphate, 2.2 mM; phosphocreatin, 5.3 mM; inorganic phosphate, 1.6 mM. Preliminary studies with human brain tumors show a decrease of all phosphate compounds. These experiments are the first to quantitate metabolites in human brain

  15. Functional brain study of chronic traumatic head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos Alonso, Concepcion; Pelegrin Valero, Carmelo; Cordoba Diaz de Laspra, Elena

    2000-01-01

    Explosive aggressive behaviour is a significant clinical and medico-legal problem in patients suffering from head injury. However, experts in neuropsychiatry have proposed a specific category for this disorder: the o rganic aggressive syndrome: . The basic reason for proposing this diagnosis is that it describes the specificity of the violent conduct secondary to 'brain damage' with greater precision. Early diagnosis and treatment of the injury is critical. The impact of hnetium-99m-hexamethylpropuleneamine oxime (HMPAO) was examined for measuring brain damage in correlation to neuropsychological performance in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We thus report the case of a twelve-year-old child with a history of CET, who presents with serious episodes of heteroaggressiveness and suggest the usefulness of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) to establish the validity of this psychiatric diagnosis. The appearance of modern functional neuro-image techniques (SPECT) may help to increase the validity of clinical diagnoses in the field of psychiatry in general and of forensic psychiatry in particularly, as the related findings may be used as demarcation criteria to establish syndromic diagnoses (Au)

  16. A structurally detailed finite element human head model for simulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Mogul, David Jeffery

    2009-04-30

    Computational studies of the head utilizing finite element models (FEMs) have been used to investigate a wide variety of brain-electromagnetic (EM) field interaction phenomena including magnetic stimulation of the head using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), direct electric stimulation of the brain for electroconvulsive therapy, and electroencephalography source localization. However, no human head model of sufficient complexity for studying the biophysics under these circumstances has been developed which utilizes structures at both the regional and cellular levels and provides well-defined smooth boundaries between tissues of different conductivities and orientations. The main barrier for building such accurate head models is the complex modeling procedures that include 3D object reconstruction and optimized meshing. In this study, a structurally detailed finite element model of the human head was generated that includes details to the level of cerebral gyri and sulci by combining computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Furthermore, cortical columns that contain conductive processes of pyramidal neurons traversing the neocortical layers were included in the head model thus providing structure at or near the cellular level. These refinements provide a much more realistic model to investigate the effects of TMS on brain electrophysiology in the neocortex.

  17. Sexual differences of human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades there has been an increasing interest in studying the differences between males and females. These differences extend from behavioral to cognitive to micro- and macro- neuro-anatomical aspects of human biology. There have been many methods to evaluate these differences and explain their determinants. The most studied cause of this dimorphism is the prenatal sex hormones and their organizational effect on brain and behavior. However, there have been new and recent attentions to hormone's activational influences in puberty and also the effects of genomic imprinting. In this paper, we reviewed the sex differences of brain, the evidences for possible determinants of these differences and also the methods that have been used to discover them. We reviewed the most conspicuous findings with specific attention to macro-anatomical differences based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data. We finally reviewed the findings and the many opportunities for future studies.

  18. A Novel Instrumented Human Head Surrogate for the Impact Evaluation of Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Petrone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel Human Head Surrogate was obtained from available MRI scans of a 50th percentile male human head. Addictive manufacturing was used to produce the skull, the brain and the skin. All original MRI geometries were partially smoothed and adjusted to provide the best biofidelity compatible with printing and molding technology. The skull was 3D-printed in ABS and ten pressure sensors were placed into it. The brain surrogate was cast from silicon rubber in the 3D-printed plastic molds. Nine tri-axial accelerometers (placed at the tops of the lobes, at the sides of the lobes, in the cerebellum and in the center of mass and a three-axis gyroscope (at the center of mass were inserted into the silicon brain during casting. The cranium, after assembly with brain, was filled with silicon oil mimicking the cerebral fluid. Silicon rubber was cast in additional 3D-printed molds to form the skin surrounding the cranium. The skull base was adapted to be compatible with the Hybrid-III neck and allow the exit of brain sensors cabling. Preliminary experiments were carried out proving the functionality of the surrogate. Results showed how multiple accelerometers and pressure sensors allowed a better comprehension of the head complex motion during impacts.

  19. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  20. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  1. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  2. Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Anne-Sylvie Catherin has been appointed Head of the Human Resources Department with effect from 1 August 2009. Mrs Catherin is a lawyer specialized in International Administration and joined CERN in 1996 as legal advisor within the Office of the HR Department Head. After having been promoted to the position of Group Leader responsible for social and statutory conditions in 2000, Mrs Catherin was appointed Deputy of the Head of the Human Resources Department and Group Leader responsible for Strategy, Management and Development from 2005 to date. Since 2005, she has also served as a member of CCP and TREF. In the execution of her mandate as Deputy HR Department Head, Mrs Catherin closely assisted the HR Department Head in the organization of the Department and in devising new HR policies and strategies. She played an instrumental role in the last five-yearly review and in the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations.

  3. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  4. Magnetic resonance elastography in normal human brain: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lei; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan; Han Jiancheng; Xi Zhinong; Shen Hao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in the human brain. Methods: An external force actuator was developed. The actuator was fixed to the head coil. During MRE scan, one side of the actuator was attached to the volunteers' head. Low frequency oscillation was produced by the actuator and generated shear waves propagating into brain tissue. The pulse sequence of MRE was designed. A modified gradient echo sequence was developed with motion sensitizing gradient (MSG) imposed along X, Y or Z direction. Cyclic displacement within brain tissue induced by shear waves caused a measurable phase shift in the received MR signal. From the measured phase shift, the displacement at each voxel could be calculated, and the shear waves within the brain were directly imaged. By adjusting the phase offset, the dynamic propagation of shear waves in a wave cycle was obtained. Phase images were processed with local frequency estimation (LFE) technique to obtain the elasticity images. Shear waves at 100 Hz, 150 Hz, and 200 Hz were applied. Results: The phase images of MRE directly imaged the propagating shear waves within the brain. The direction of the propagation was from surface of the brain to the center. The wavelength of shear waves varied with the change of actuating frequency. The change of wavelength of shear waves in gray and white matter of the brain was identified. The wavelength of shear waves in gray matter was shorter than that in white matter. The elasticity image of the brain revealed that the shear modulus of the white matter was higher than that of gray matter. Conclusion: The phase images of MRE can directly visualize the propagation of shear waves in the brain tissue. The elasticity image of the brain can demonstrate the change of elasticity between gray and white matter. (authors)

  5. Lipid transport and human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsholtz, Christer

    2015-07-01

    How the human brain rapidly builds up its lipid content during brain growth and maintains its lipids in adulthood has remained elusive. Two new studies show that inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, known to be expressed specifically at the blood-brain barrier, lead to microcephaly, thereby offering a simple and surprising solution to an old enigma.

  6. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  7. A simple rapid process for semi-automated brain extraction from magnetic resonance images of the whole mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delora, Adam; Gonzales, Aaron; Medina, Christopher S; Mitchell, Adam; Mohed, Abdul Faheem; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-developed technique in neuroscience. Limitations in applying MRI to rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders include the large number of animals required to achieve statistical significance, and the paucity of automation tools for the critical early step in processing, brain extraction, which prepares brain images for alignment and voxel-wise statistics. This novel timesaving automation of template-based brain extraction ("skull-stripping") is capable of quickly and reliably extracting the brain from large numbers of whole head images in a single step. The method is simple to install and requires minimal user interaction. This method is equally applicable to different types of MR images. Results were evaluated with Dice and Jacquard similarity indices and compared in 3D surface projections with other stripping approaches. Statistical comparisons demonstrate that individual variation of brain volumes are preserved. A downloadable software package not otherwise available for extraction of brains from whole head images is included here. This software tool increases speed, can be used with an atlas or a template from within the dataset, and produces masks that need little further refinement. Our new automation can be applied to any MR dataset, since the starting point is a template mask generated specifically for that dataset. The method reliably and rapidly extracts brain images from whole head images, rendering them useable for subsequent analytical processing. This software tool will accelerate the exploitation of mouse models for the investigation of human brain disorders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibzadeh, F; Verhaart, R F; Rijnen, Z; Franckena, M; Van Rhoon, G C; Paulides, M M; Verduijn, G M; Fortunati, V

    2015-01-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H and N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H and N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR 10g ) in the brains of 16 selected H and N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR 10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF. (paper)

  9. Brain anatomical networks in early human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Shi, Feng; Smith, Jeffrey Keith; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-02-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human brain networks have economic small-world topology and modular organization, enabling efficient information transfer among brain regions. However, it remains largely unknown how the small-world topology and modular organization of human brain networks emerge and develop. Using longitudinal MRI data of 28 healthy pediatric subjects, collected at their ages of 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years, we analyzed development patterns of brain anatomical networks derived from morphological correlations of brain regional volumes. The results show that the brain network of 1-month-olds has the characteristically economic small-world topology and nonrandom modular organization. The network's cost efficiency increases with the brain development to 1 year and 2 years, so does the modularity, providing supportive evidence for the hypothesis that the small-world topology and the modular organization of brain networks are established during early brain development to support rapid synchronization and information transfer with minimal rewiring cost, as well as to balance between local processing and global integration of information. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  11. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Utility of '99mTc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo

    1992-01-01

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using 99m Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  13. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  14. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  15. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  16. Mobile phone types and SAR characteristics of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Hong, Seon-Eui; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Hyung-Do; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Mobile phones differ in terms of their operating frequency, outer shape, and form and location of the antennae, all of which affect the spatial distributions of their electromagnetic field and the level of electromagnetic absorption in the human head or brain. For this paper, the specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated for four anatomical head models at different ages using 11 numerical phone models of different shapes and antenna configurations. The 11 models represent phone types accounting for around 86% of the approximately 1400 commercial phone models released into the Korean market since 2002. Seven of the phone models selected have an internal dual-band antenna, and the remaining four possess an external antenna. Each model was intended to generate an average absorption level equivalent to that of the same type of commercial phone model operating at the maximum available output power. The 1 g peak spatial SAR and ipsilateral and contralateral brain-averaged SARs were reported for all 11 phone models. The effects of the phone type, phone position, operating frequency, and age of head models on the brain SAR were comprehensively determined.

  17. Influence of impact speed on head and brain injury outcome in vulnerable road user impacts to the car hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Rikard; Zhang, Liying; Boström, Ola; Yang, King

    2007-10-01

    EuroNCAP and regulations in Europe and Japan evaluate the pedestrian protection performance of cars. The test methods are similar and they all have requirements for the passive protection of the hood area at a pedestrian to car impact speed of 40 km/h. In Europe, a proposal for a second phase of the regulation mandates a brake-assist system along with passive requirements. The system assists the driver in optimizing the braking performance during panic braking, resulting in activation only when the driver brakes sufficiently. In a European study this was estimated to occur in about 50% of pedestrian accidents. A future system for brake assistance will likely include automatic braking, in response to a pre-crash sensor, to avoid or mitigate injuries of vulnerable road users. An important question is whether these systems will provide sufficient protection, or if a parallel, passive pedestrian protection system will be necessary. This study investigated the influence of impact speed on head and brain injury risk, in impacts to the carhood. One car model was chosen and a rigid adjustable plate was mounted under the hood. Free-flying headform impacts were carried out at 20 and 30 km/h head impact velocities at different under-hood distances, 20 to 100 mm; and were compared to earlier tests at 40 km/h. The EEVC WG17 adult pedestrian headform was used for non-rotating tests and a Hybrid III adult 50th percentile head was used for rotational tests where linear and rotational acceleration was measured. Data from the rotational tests was used as input to a validated finite element model of the human head, the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM). The model was utilized to assess brain injury risk and potential injury mechanism in a pedestrian-hood impact. Although this study showed that it was not necessarily true that a lower HIC value reduced the risk for brain injury, it appeared, for the tested car model, under-hood distances of 60 mm in 20 km/h and 80 mm

  18. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  20. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  1. Blood flow and microdialysis in the human femoral head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgehøj, Morten; Emmeluth, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If it would be possible to detect lack of flow and/or the development of ischemia in bone, we might have a way of predicting whether a broken bone will heal. We established microdialysis (MD) and laser Doppler (LD) flow measurement in the human femoral head in order to be able to detect...

  2. An experience of detection brain disease by roentgenographic CT on head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, Daikichi

    1996-01-01

    MRI and MRA are recommended today from the standpoint of sensitivity for the detraction of asymptomatic brain disease, and roentgenographic CT on head is not recommended. Under certain circumstances, however, having recently been given an opportunity of detecting brain disease by means of roentgenographic CT on head, we make a report of the diagnostic results. The examinees were the staff members of a non-profit organization consisting of 62 men and 56 women whose age was 48.6 years on the average. Asymptomatic brain disease was found in 6 cases including 1 case of cerebral infarction, 1 case of calcification of cerebral vascular wall and 1 case of cranial osteoma with a suspicion of Gardner syndrome. Incidentally, there were 31 cases with a complaint of headache, 20 cases of hypertension and 3 cases with a past history of head trauma. After such findings were obtained, guidance was provided to each of them. (author)

  3. Enrico Chiaveri, new Head of the Human Resources Department

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Enrico Chiaveri has been appointed Head of the Human Resources Department of with effect from 1st April 2005. A senior physicist, Dr Chiaveri joined CERN in 1973. During his career, he has performed various management roles, including that of Deputy Leader of the SPS/LEP Division, and has acquired extensive experience in human resources matters. Over the transition period up to 1st August 2005 he will gradually relinquish his current functions as Group Leader within the AB Department.

  4. Analysis of two colliding fractionally damped spherical shells in modelling blunt human head impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossikhin, Yury A.; Shitikova, Marina V.

    2013-06-01

    The collision of two elastic or viscoelastic spherical shells is investigated as a model for the dynamic response of a human head impacted by another head or by some spherical object. Determination of the impact force that is actually being transmitted to bone will require the model for the shock interaction of the impactor and human head. This model is indended to be used in simulating crash scenarios in frontal impacts, and provide an effective tool to estimate the severity of effect on the human head and to estimate brain injury risks. The model developed here suggests that after the moment of impact quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse shock waves are generated, which then propagate along the spherical shells. The solution behind the wave fronts is constructed with the help of the theory of discontinuities. It is assumed that the viscoelastic features of the shells are exhibited only in the contact domain, while the remaining parts retain their elastic properties. In this case, the contact spot is assumed to be a plane disk with constant radius, and the viscoelastic features of the shells are described by the fractional derivative standard linear solid model. In the case under consideration, the governing differential equations are solved analytically by the Laplace transform technique. It is shown that the fractional parameter of the fractional derivative model plays very important role, since its variation allows one to take into account the age-related changes in the mechanical properties of bone.

  5. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  6. Systematic review of wireless phone use and brain cancer and other head tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repacholi, Michael H; Lerchl, Alexander; Röösli, Martin; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Auvinen, Anssi; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; d'Inzeo, Guglielmo; Elliott, Paul; Frei, Patrizia; Heinrich, Sabine; Lagroye, Isabelle; Lahkola, Anna; McCormick, David L; Thomas, Silke; Vecchia, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of scientific studies to evaluate whether the use of wireless phones is linked to an increased incidence of the brain cancer glioma or other tumors of the head (meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland), originating in the areas of the head that most absorb radiofrequency (RF) energy from wireless phones. Epidemiology and in vivo studies were evaluated according to an agreed protocol; quality criteria were used to evaluate the studies for narrative synthesis but not for meta-analyses or pooling of results. The epidemiology study results were heterogeneous, with sparse data on long-term use (≥ 10 years). Meta-analyses of the epidemiology studies showed no statistically significant increase in risk (defined as P brain cancer or other head tumors from wireless phone use. Analyses of the in vivo oncogenicity, tumor promotion, and genotoxicity studies also showed no statistically significant relationship between exposure to RF fields and genotoxic damage to brain cells, or the incidence of brain cancers or other tumors of the head. Assessment of the review results using the Hill criteria did not support a causal relationship between wireless phone use and the incidence of adult cancers in the areas of the head that most absorb RF energy from the use of wireless phones. There are insufficient data to make any determinations about longer-term use (≥ 10 years). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  8. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  9. The evolution of modern human brain shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils ( N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in early H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared modern and paralleled the emergence of behavioral modernity as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting early brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral modernity.

  10. The evolution of modern human brain shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Simon; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Gunz, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    Modern humans have large and globular brains that distinguish them from their extinct Homo relatives. The characteristic globularity develops during a prenatal and early postnatal period of rapid brain growth critical for neural wiring and cognitive development. However, it remains unknown when and how brain globularity evolved and how it relates to evolutionary brain size increase. On the basis of computed tomographic scans and geometric morphometric analyses, we analyzed endocranial casts of Homo sapiens fossils (N = 20) from different time periods. Our data show that, 300,000 years ago, brain size in early H. sapiens already fell within the range of present-day humans. Brain shape, however, evolved gradually within the H. sapiens lineage, reaching present-day human variation between about 100,000 and 35,000 years ago. This process started only after other key features of craniofacial morphology appeared modern and paralleled the emergence of behavioral modernity as seen from the archeological record. Our findings are consistent with important genetic changes affecting early brain development within the H. sapiens lineage since the origin of the species and before the transition to the Later Stone Age and the Upper Paleolithic that mark full behavioral modernity. PMID:29376123

  11. Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming

    2011-04-01

    Using the visible Chinese human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy, we visualize the light propagation in the head in detail based on Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation is verified to agree with published experimental results in terms of a differential path-length factor. The spatial sensitivity profile turns out to seem like a fat tropical fish with strong distortion along the folding cerebral surface. The sensitive brain region covers the gray matter and extends to the superficial white matter, leading to a large penetration depth (>3 cm). Finally, the optimal source-detector separation is suggested to be narrowed down to 3-3.5 cm, while the sensitivity of the detected signal to brain activation reaches the peak of 8%. These results indicate that the cerebral cortex folding geometry actually has substantial effects on light propagation, which should be necessarily considered for applications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Brain CT findings in head injury with skull fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Tae; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chung, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Kim, Ki Jeong

    1982-01-01

    CT has revolutionized the evaluation and management of patients with head injuries. CT in non-invasion and rapidly provides accurate information regarding the presence, extent and nature of intracranial lesions resulting from trauma. We have reviewed the CT scans of 114 patients, who got head injury with confirmed to skull fracture in plain films. The results were as follows: 1. Of all cases, traffic accident was the most frequent cause and in children fall down was more than 50%. 2. Compound linear fracture was the most frequent type fractures in plain skull film.3. Of all 114 cases, epidural hematoma was 16%, subdural hematoma was 18.4%, intracerebral hematoma was 14.4%, subdural hygroma was 2.4%, normal finding was 50%. 4. Mortality rate was 13.2%. 5. Fracture was detected by CT about 28.9%, depression fracture was more easily detected in CT. 6. Incidence rate of counter coup lesion was 14.9% and mortality rate was higher than same site lesion. 7. The shape of epidural hematoma was biconvex in 75%, planoconvex in 25%. 8. The shape of subdural hematoma was cresentic shape 82.6%, biconvex shape 8.7%, planoconvex shape 8.7%

  13. Multi-scale mechanics of traumatic brain injury : predicting axonal strains from head loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloots, R.J.H.; Dommelen, van J.A.W.; Kleiven, S.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The length scales involved in the development of diffuse axonal injury typically range from the head level (i.e., mechanical loading) to the cellular level. The parts of the brain that are vulnerable to this type of injury are mainly the brainstem and the corpus callosum, which are regions with

  14. Predicting brain mechanics during closed head impact : numerical and constitutive aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Annually, motor vehicle crashes world wide cause over a million fatalities and over a hundred million injuries. Of all body parts, the head is identified as the body region most frequently involved in life-threatening injury. To understand how the brain gets injured during an accident, the

  15. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  16. The outcome after head injury in patients with radiologically demonstrated brain contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, P.K.; Tysnes, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    The early and late outcome was evaluated in head injury patients who presented brain contusion(s) on the cranial CT scan and in patients hospitalized for concussion. There was a high degree of concurrence between mortality and CT findings. Late complaints were common among cases of concussion of the brain. However, the frequency of impaired memory and concentration, speech problems, paresis and epileptic seizures was increased in cases where the CT scan showed brain contusion. Adaptive and social functioning was most impaired in cases with multifocal contusions in both hemispheres. 16 refs., 5 tabs

  17. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up......)] from a resting value of 6 to exercise, cerebral activation associated with mental activity, or exposure to a stressful situation. The CMR decrease is prevented with combined beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor...

  19. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  20. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  1. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.; Newman-Norlund, S.E.; Ruiter, J.P.A. de; Hagoort, P.; Levinson, S.C.; Toni, I.

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  2. Brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Anosmic Subjects Ater Closed Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Banan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anosmia following head trauma is relatively common and in many cases is persistent and irreversible. The ability to objectively measure such a decline in smelling, for both clinical and medicolegal goals, is very important. The aim of this study was to find results of brain Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT in anosmic subjects after closed head trauma. This case-control cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral University Hospital. The brain perfusion state of nineteen anosmic patients and thirteen normal controls was evaluated by means of the SPECT with 99mtc- ECD infusion- before and after olfactory stimulation. The orbitofrontal lobe of the brain was assumed as the region of interest and changes in perfusion of this area before and after the stimulations were compared in two groups. The mean of brain perfusion in controls before and after the stimulation was 8.26% ± 0.19% and 9.89% ± 0.54%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Among patients group, these quantities were 7.97% ± 1.05% and 8.49% ± 1.5%, respectively (P < 0.004. The difference between all the measures in cases and controls were statistically significant (P < 0.0001. There were no differences in age and sex between two groups. The brain SPECT is an objective technique suitable for evaluating anosmia following the head trauma and it may be used with other diagnostic modalities

  3. Combined multi-kernel head computed tomography images optimized for depicting both brain parenchyma and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Satoshi; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kita, Tamotsu; Hayashi, Katsumi; Sanada, Shigeru; Koike, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid convolution kernel technique for computed tomography (CT) is known to enable the depiction of an image set using different window settings. Our purpose was to decrease the number of artifacts in the hybrid convolution kernel technique for head CT and to determine whether our improved combined multi-kernel head CT images enabled diagnosis as a substitute for both brain (low-pass kernel-reconstructed) and bone (high-pass kernel-reconstructed) images. Forty-four patients with nondisplaced skull fractures were included. Our improved multi-kernel images were generated so that pixels of >100 Hounsfield unit in both brain and bone images were composed of CT values of bone images and other pixels were composed of CT values of brain images. Three radiologists compared the improved multi-kernel images with bone images. The improved multi-kernel images and brain images were identically displayed on the brain window settings. All three radiologists agreed that the improved multi-kernel images on the bone window settings were sufficient for diagnosing skull fractures in all patients. This improved multi-kernel technique has a simple algorithm and is practical for clinical use. Thus, simplified head CT examinations and fewer images that need to be stored can be expected.

  4. Hot heads and cold brains. Aristotle, Galen and the "radiator theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, O

    1996-01-01

    The Author examines two similar theories about the functioning of human brain as a refrigerator: Falk's and Fialkowski's (1990) and Aristotle's (IVth century b.C.). There are surprising, although fortuitous, convergences between the two, with the remarkable difference, however, that Artistotle's doctrine (later severely criticized by Galen) thinks of the brain merely as an organ for the cooling of the body's (the heart's) heat, while according to the modern radiator theory the human brain developed starting as a refrigerator of itself.

  5. High-resolution brain SPECT imaging by combination of parallel and tilted detector heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Wataru; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Morimoto, Yuichi; Kobashi, Keiji; Ueno, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To improve the spatial resolution of brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we propose a new brain SPECT system in which the detector heads are tilted towards the rotation axis so that they are closer to the brain. In addition, parallel detector heads are used to obtain the complete projection data set. We evaluated this parallel and tilted detector head system (PT-SPECT) in simulations. In the simulation study, the tilt angle of the detector heads relative to the axis was 45°. The distance from the collimator surface of the parallel detector heads to the axis was 130 mm. The distance from the collimator surface of the tilted detector heads to the origin on the axis was 110 mm. A CdTe semiconductor panel with a 1.4 mm detector pitch and a parallel-hole collimator were employed in both types of detector head. A line source phantom, cold-rod brain-shaped phantom, and cerebral blood flow phantom were evaluated. The projection data were generated by forward-projection of the phantom images using physics models, and Poisson noise at clinical levels was applied to the projection data. The ordered-subsets expectation maximization algorithm with physics models was used. We also evaluated conventional SPECT using four parallel detector heads for the sake of comparison. The evaluation of the line source phantom showed that the transaxial FWHM in the central slice for conventional SPECT ranged from 6.1 to 8.5 mm, while that for PT-SPECT ranged from 5.3 to 6.9 mm. The cold-rod brain-shaped phantom image showed that conventional SPECT could visualize up to 8-mm-diameter rods. By contrast, PT-SPECT could visualize up to 6-mm-diameter rods in upper slices of a cerebrum. The cerebral blood flow phantom image showed that the PT-SPECT system provided higher resolution at the thalamus and caudate nucleus as well as at the longitudinal fissure of the cerebrum compared with conventional SPECT. PT-SPECT provides improved image resolution at not only upper but also at

  6. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  7. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  8. Revisiting Glycogen Content in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Gülin; DiNuzzo, Mauro; Kumar, Anjali; Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Glycogen provides an important glucose reservoir in the brain since the concentration of glucosyl units stored in glycogen is several fold higher than free glucose available in brain tissue. We have previously reported 3-4 µmol/g brain glycogen content using in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with [1-(13)C]glucose administration in healthy humans, while higher levels were reported in the rodent brain. Due to the slow turnover of bulk brain glycogen in humans, complete turnover of the glycogen pool, estimated to take 3-5 days, was not observed in these prior studies. In an attempt to reach complete turnover and thereby steady state (13)C labeling in glycogen, here we administered [1-(13)C]glucose to healthy volunteers for 80 h. To eliminate any net glycogen synthesis during this period and thereby achieve an accurate estimate of glycogen concentration, volunteers were maintained at euglycemic blood glucose levels during [1-(13)C]glucose administration and (13)C-glycogen levels in the occipital lobe were measured by (13)C MRS approximately every 12 h. Finally, we fitted the data with a biophysical model that was recently developed to take into account the tiered structure of the glycogen molecule and additionally incorporated blood glucose levels and isotopic enrichments as input function in the model. We obtained excellent fits of the model to the (13)C-glycogen data, and glycogen content in the healthy human brain tissue was found to be 7.8 ± 0.3 µmol/g, a value substantially higher than previous estimates of glycogen content in the human brain.

  9. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  10. Sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy of the human brain at 3 Tesla.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, D.W.J.; Renema, W.K.J.; Graaf, M. de; Galan, B.E. de; Kentgens, A.P.M.; Heerschap, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new coil design for sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain is presented. The design includes a quadrature transmit/receive head coil optimized for 13C MR sensitivity. Loss-less blocking circuits inside the coil conductors allow this coil to be used inside a homogeneous

  11. Sensitivity-enhanced C-13 MR spectroscopy of the human brain at 3 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, D.W.J.; Renema, W.K.J.; Graaf, M. van der; Galan, B.E. de; Kentgens, A.P.M.; Heerschap, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new coil design for sensitivity-enhanced C-13 MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain is presented. The design includes a quadrature transmit/receive head coil optimized for C-13 MR sensitivity. Loss-less blocking circuits inside the coil conductors allow this coil to be used inside a homogeneous

  12. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  13. Detecting Large-Scale Brain Networks Using EEG: Impact of Electrode Density, Head Modeling and Source Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanying; Ganzetti, Marco; Wenderoth, Nicole; Mantini, Dante

    2018-01-01

    Resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain were recently detected using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG). This was done by using an advanced analysis workflow to estimate neural signals in the cortex and to assess functional connectivity (FC) between distant cortical regions. FC analyses were conducted either using temporal (tICA) or spatial independent component analysis (sICA). Notably, EEG-RSNs obtained with sICA were very similar to RSNs retrieved with sICA from functional magnetic resonance imaging data. It still remains to be clarified, however, what technological aspects of hdEEG acquisition and analysis primarily influence this correspondence. Here we examined to what extent the detection of EEG-RSN maps by sICA depends on the electrode density, the accuracy of the head model, and the source localization algorithm employed. Our analyses revealed that the collection of EEG data using a high-density montage is crucial for RSN detection by sICA, but also the use of appropriate methods for head modeling and source localization have a substantial effect on RSN reconstruction. Overall, our results confirm the potential of hdEEG for mapping the functional architecture of the human brain, and highlight at the same time the interplay between acquisition technology and innovative solutions in data analysis. PMID:29551969

  14. Field Distribution of Transcranial Static Magnetic Stimulation in Realistic Human Head Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Joseph J; Goetz, Stefan M; Bernabei, John M; Peterchev, Angel V

    2017-10-10

    The objective of this work was to characterize the magnetic field (B-field) that arises in a human brain model from the application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS). The spatial distribution of the B-field magnitude and gradient of a cylindrical, 5.08 cm × 2.54 cm NdFeB magnet were simulated in air and in a human head model using the finite element method and calibrated with measurements in air. The B-field was simulated for magnet placements over prefrontal, motor, sensory, and visual cortex targets. The impact of magnetic susceptibility of head tissues on the B-field was quantified. Peak B-field magnitude and gradient respectively ranged from 179-245 mT and from 13.3-19.0 T/m across the cortical targets. B-field magnitude, focality, and gradient decreased with magnet-cortex distance. The variation in B-field strength and gradient across the anatomical targets largely arose from the magnet-cortex distance. Head magnetic susceptibilities had negligible impact on the B-field characteristics. The half-maximum focality of the tSMS B-field ranged from 7-12 cm 3 . This is the first presentation and characterization of the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the B-field generated in a human brain model by tSMS. These data can provide quantitative dosing guidance for tSMS applications across various cortical targets and subjects. The finding that the B-field gradient is high near the magnet edges should be considered in studies where neural tissue is placed close to the magnet. The observation that susceptibility has negligible effects confirms assumptions in the literature. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Imaging visual function of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marg, E.

    1988-01-01

    Imaging of human brain structure and activity with particular reference to visual function is reviewed along with methods of obtaining the data including computed tomographic (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET). The literature is reviewed and the potential for a new understanding of brain visual function is discussed. PET is reviewed from basic physical principles to the most recent visual brain findings with oxygen-15. It is shown that there is a potential for submillimeter localization of visual functions with sequentially different visual stimuli designed for the temporal separation of the responses. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a less expensive substitute for PET, is also discussed. MRS is covered from basic physical principles to the current state of the art of in vivo biochemical analysis. Future possible clinical applications are discussed. Improved understanding of the functional neural organization of vision and brain will open a window to maps and circuits of human brain function.119 references

  16. [Evolution of human brain and intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Janka, Zoltán

    2008-07-30

    The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are

  17. Human papilloma virus infection in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribius, Silke; Hoffmann, Markus

    2013-03-01

    The causal link between cervical cancer and human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known. It is now becoming clear that some types of squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck, particularly oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC), are also linked to HPV infection. The development of vaccines against certain HPV genotypes has changed the management strategy for HPV-associated diseases of the uterine cervix. An analogous approach is now being considered for the prevention of HPV-associated diseases of the head and neck. We review pertinent articles retrieved by a selective search of the literature for phase II and III trials providing evidence about a possible effect of HPV status on the survival rates of patients with OPC. Seven trials fulfilled our search criteria: four phase III trials with retrospective HPV analysis and three phase II trials with retrospective and prospective HPV analysis. Patients with HPV-positive OPC survive significantly longer than those with HPV-negative OPC. Tobacco smoking has been identified as a negative prognostic factor in patients with either HPV-negative or HPV-positive disease. The established treatment strategy for OPC in patients with and without the traditional risk factors (tobacco and alcohol consumption) is now being reconsidered in the light of what we have learned about the role of HPV infection. Ongoing and projected clinical trials with risk-factor stratification may soon lead to changes in treatment. Further study is needed to answer the question whether HPV infection in the head and neck region is carcinogenic.

  18. ALFY-Controlled DVL3 Autophagy Regulates Wnt Signaling, Determining Human Brain Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Kadir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly is a congenital neurodevelopmental disorder of reduced head circumference and brain volume, with fewer neurons in the cortex of the developing brain due to premature transition between symmetrical and asymmetrical cellular division of the neuronal stem cell layer during neurogenesis. We now show through linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing, that a dominant mutation in ALFY, encoding an autophagy scaffold protein, causes human primary microcephaly. We demonstrate the dominant effect of the mutation in drosophila: transgenic flies harboring the human mutant allele display small brain volume, recapitulating the disease phenotype. Moreover, eye-specific expression of human mutant ALFY causes rough eye phenotype. In molecular terms, we demonstrate that normally ALFY attenuates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway via autophagy-dependent removal specifically of aggregates of DVL3 and not of Dvl1 or Dvl2. Thus, autophagic attenuation of Wnt signaling through removal of Dvl3 aggregates by ALFY acts in determining human brain size.

  19. Puberty and structural brain development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period of physical and behavioral development between childhood and adulthood. Puberty is a distinct period of sexual maturation that occurs during adolescence. Since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), human studies have largely examined neurodevelopment in the context of age. A breadth of animal findings suggest that sex hormones continue to influence the brain beyond the prenatal period, with both organizational and activational effects occurring during puberty. Given the animal evidence, human MRI research has also set out to determine how puberty may influence otherwise known patterns of age-related neurodevelopment. Here we review structural-based MRI studies and show that pubertal maturation is a key variable to consider in elucidating sex- and individual- based differences in patterns of human brain development. We also highlight the continuing challenges faced, as well as future considerations, for this vital avenue of research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Connectome imaging for mapping human brain pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Toga, A W

    2017-09-01

    With the fast advance of connectome imaging techniques, we have the opportunity of mapping the human brain pathways in vivo at unprecedented resolution. In this article we review the current developments of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the reconstruction of anatomical pathways in connectome studies. We first introduce the background of diffusion MRI with an emphasis on the technical advances and challenges in state-of-the-art multi-shell acquisition schemes used in the Human Connectome Project. Characterization of the microstructural environment in the human brain is discussed from the tensor model to the general fiber orientation distribution (FOD) models that can resolve crossing fibers in each voxel of the image. Using FOD-based tractography, we describe novel methods for fiber bundle reconstruction and graph-based connectivity analysis. Building upon these novel developments, there have already been successful applications of connectome imaging techniques in reconstructing challenging brain pathways. Examples including retinofugal and brainstem pathways will be reviewed. Finally, we discuss future directions in connectome imaging and its interaction with other aspects of brain imaging research.

  1. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  2. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase BB as index of brain damage after head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Jones, H M; Hitchcock, R; Adams, N; Thompson, R J [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-09-20

    Brain-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 54 patients with head injuries. CK-BB was not detectable in 476 out of 1006 controls, the remaining 530 normal samples containing a mean of 1.5 +- SDO.75 ..mu..g/l. The mean CK-BB concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, and fatal head injuries were all significantly higher than the control value (p<0.01 in each instance). Patients with serious head injury had serum concentrations many times the normal value, in two cases within 30 minutes after impact. Fatally injured patients continued to have high serum concentrations several days after injury. In less serious cases values approached normal within two or three days. Every patient with evidence of cerebral laceration, bruising, or swelling had a serum CK-BB concentration above normal. Raised concentrations were found in 14 out of 22 patients with concussion only. Thus the serum CK-BB concentration appears to be a sensitive index of brain damage and may prove useful in the management and follow-up of head-injured patients.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of serum creatine kinase BB as index of brain damage after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.P.; Jones, H.M.; Hitchcock, R.; Adams, N.; Thompson, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Brain-type creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 54 patients with head injuries. CK-BB was not detectable in 476 out of 1006 controls, the remaining 530 normal samples containing a mean of 1.5 +- SDO.75 μg/l. The mean CK-BB concentrations in patients with mild, moderate, and fatal head injuries were all significantly higher than the control value (p<0.01 in each instance). Patients with serious head injury had serum concentrations many times the normal value, in two cases within 30 minutes after impact. Fatally injured patients continued to have high serum concentrations several days after injury. In less serious cases values approached normal within two or three days. Every patient with evidence of cerebral laceration, bruising, or swelling had a serum CK-BB concentration above normal. Raised concentrations were found in 14 out of 22 patients with concussion only. Thus the serum CK-BB concentration appears to be a sensitive index of brain damage and may prove useful in the management and follow-up of head-injured patients. (author)

  4. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Varsier, Nadege; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  5. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  6. Four cases with localized brain-stem lesion on CT scan following closed head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Naokatsu; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo; Takase, Manabu; Ono, Junichi.

    1981-01-01

    Cases of primary brain-stem injury following closed head injury, verified by a CT scan, have been increasingly reported. However, most of them have other intracranial lesions in addition to the brain stem, resulting in a poor outcome. The CT scan of 200 cases with severe head injury-Araki's classification of types 3 and 4 - were analysed. Four cases out of them had localized brain-stem lesion without any other significant intracranial injury on a CT scan at the acute stage and had a better outcome than had previously been reported. In this analysis, these 4 cases were studied, and the CT findings, prognosis, and pathogenesis of the localized brain-stem injury were discussed. Follow-up CT of three cases, and taken one month or more later, showed diffuse cortical atrophy. This may indicate the presence of diffuse cerebral injury which could not be seen on CT scans at the acute stage. This atrophic change may also be related with the mechanism of posttraumatic conscious impairment and posttraumatic neurological deficits, such as mental symptoms and impairment of the higher cortical function. Shearing injury is a probable pathogenesis for this diffuse cortical injury. On the other hand, one case did not have any cortical atrophy on a follow-up CT scan. Therefore, this is a case with a localized primary brain-stem injury. Coup injury against the brain stem by a tentorial margin in a case with a small tentorial opening is a possible mechanism producing the localized brain-stem injury. (J.P.N.)

  7. Brain tissue strains vary with head impact location: A possible explanation for increased concussion risk in struck versus striking football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Benjamin S; Gabler, Lee F; Panzer, Matthew B; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-03-29

    On-field football helmet impacts over a large range of severities have caused concussions in some players but not in other players. One possible explanation for this variability is the struck player's helmet impact location. We examined the effect of impact location on regional brain tissue strain when input energy was held constant. Laboratory impacts were performed at 12 locations distributed over the helmet and the resulting head kinematics were simulated in two finite element models of the brain: the Simulated Injury Monitor and the Global Human Body Model Consortium brain model. Peak kinematics, injury metrics and brain strain varied significantly with impact location. Differences in impact location explained 33 to 37% of the total variance in brain strain for the whole brain and cerebrum, considerably more than the variance explained by impact location for the peak resultant head kinematics (8 to 23%) and slightly more than half of the variance explained by the difference in closing speed (57 to 61%). Both finite element models generated similar strain results, with minor variations for impacts that generated multi-axial rotations, larger variations in brainstem strains for some impact locations and a small bias for the cerebellum. Based on this experimental and computational simulation study, impact location on the football helmet has a large effect on regional brain tissue strain. We also found that the lowest strains consistently occurred in impacts to the crown and forehead, helmet locations commonly associated with the striking player. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  9. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  10. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  11. Penetrating Bihemispheric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Collective Review of Gunshot Wounds to the Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Lauren; Cornell, David L; Phillips, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Head injuries that cross midline structures of the brain are bihemispheric. Other terms have been used to describe such injuries, but bihemispheric is the most accurate and should be standard nomenclature. Bihemispheric head injuries are associated with greater mortality and morbidity than other penetrating traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Currently, there is a tendency to manage severe gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head nonoperatively, despite reports of improved outcome in military patients treated aggressively. Thus, controversy exists in the management of civilian TBI. PubMed was searched for query terms, and PRISMA guidelines were used. Studies were selected by relevance and inclusion of data regarding etiology, diagnosis, and management of bihemispheric TBI. Case reports, studies not in English, and records lacking information on mechanism or bihemispheric injuries were excluded. Thirteen studies were included and most contained level IV evidence. The mean mortality rate of all head GSWs was 62% in adults and 32% in children. Bihemispheric GSWs had greater mortality rates of 82% in adults and 60% in children. There was a larger proportion of self-inflicted injury in studies with greater rates of bihemispheric injuries. Bihemispheric injuries have greater mortality rates than other penetrating TBI. Violation of midline brain structures such as the diencephalon and mesencephalon, increased rate of self-inflicted wounds, and lack of a standard management algorithm may increase the lethality of these injuries. Although bihemispheric injuries historically have been considered nonsalvageable, an aggressive surgical approach has been shown to improve outcomes, particularly in the military population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation effects on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The developing human brain has been shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. Mental retardation has been observed in the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan exposed in utero during sensitive periods, and clinical studies of pelvically irradiated pregnant women have demonstrated damaging effects on the fetus. In this annex the emphasis is on reviewing the results of the study of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan, although the results of other human epidemiological investigations and of pertinent experimental studies are also considered. Refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eCao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  14. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental

  15. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental

  16. Brain structures in the sciences and humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-11-01

    The areas of academic interest (sciences or humanities) and area of study have been known to be associated with a number of factors associated with autistic traits. However, despite the vast amount of literature on the psychological and physiological characteristics associated with faculty membership, brain structural characteristics associated with faculty membership have never been investigated directly. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate differences in regional gray matter volume (rGMV)/regional white matter volume (rWMV) between science and humanities students to test our hypotheses that brain structures previously robustly shown to be altered in autistic subjects are related to differences in faculty membership. We examined 312 science students (225 males and 87 females) and 179 humanities students (105 males and 74 females). Whole-brain analyses of covariance revealed that after controlling for age, sex, and total intracranial volume, the science students had significantly larger rGMV in an anatomical cluster around the medial prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar area, whereas the humanities students had significantly larger rWMV in an anatomical cluster mainly concentrated around the right hippocampus. These anatomical structures have been linked to autism in previous studies and may mediate cognitive functions that characterize differences in faculty membership. The present results may support the ideas that autistic traits and characteristics of the science students compared with the humanities students share certain characteristics from neuroimaging perspectives. This study improves our understanding of differences in faculty membership which is the link among cognition, biological factors, disorders, and education (academia).

  17. Diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement on brain MRI: spontaneous intracranial hypotension and head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Chang Woo; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Young A; Kim, Hee Jin; Ko, Young Sik

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the MRI finding of pachymeningeal enhancement in patients with intracranial hypotension and head trauma with particular attention to differential findings and change in follow-up study, and in order to support the knowledge about the pathophysiology of dural enhancement. The findings of enhanced brain MRI of fifteen patients who showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement were retrospectively examined. Seven of fifteen patients were finally diagnosed as spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Eight of fifteen patients had a recent history of head trauma. We analyzed the shape, thickness, continuity and extent of dural enhancement, and the others concerned with positive MR findings. We also analyzed findings suggested displacement of brain parenchyma-displacement of the iter and cerebellar tonsil, and flattening of the anterior aspect of the pons-. Four of seven patients with SIH and four of eight patients with head trauma, underwent follow-up MRI. In the follow-up study, the presence of resolving pachymeningeal enhancement and symptom improvement was investigated. In all cases of SIH, the dura showed diffuse, even 3(1mm thick, global and contiguous enhancement along both cerebral convexities, both tentoria, and the falx. Displacement of the iter was noted in six cases and flattening of the anterior aspect of the pons in five. Displacement of the cerebellar tonsil was noted in one case. Five of seven cases showed small amount of subdural fluid collection. In all cases of head trauma, the dura was enhanced diffusely and asymmetrically, and showed no contiguity. Its distribution was consistent with the locations of traumatic lesions. Displacement of the iter was noted in one case. In four cases of SIH, clinical symptoms had improved, and three showed complete resolution of dural enhancement, in one patient continuously showed partial dural enhancement. Four cases of head trauma showed complete resolution of dural enhancement. Reversible diffuse

  18. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-10-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give.

  19. Segmentation and Visualisation of Human Brain Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Roger

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give

  20. Repurposing the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for external head motion tracking for brain PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, P J; Gunn, R N; Howard, J; Hallett, W A

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging systems such as those used in positron emission tomography (PET) are capable of spatial resolutions that enable the imaging of small, functionally important brain structures. However, the quality of data from PET brain studies is often limited by subject motion during acquisition. This is particularly challenging for patients with neurological disorders or with dynamic research studies that can last 90 min or more. Restraining head movement during the scan does not eliminate motion entirely and can be unpleasant for the subject. Head motion can be detected and measured using a variety of techniques that either use the PET data itself or an external tracking system. Advances in computer vision arising from the video gaming industry could offer significant benefits when re-purposed for medical applications. A method for measuring rigid body type head motion using the Microsoft Kinect v2 is described with results presenting  ⩽0.5 mm spatial accuracy. Motion data is measured in real-time at 30 Hz using the KinectFusion algorithm. Non-rigid motion is detected using the residual alignment energy data of the KinectFusion algorithm allowing for unreliable motion to be discarded. Motion data is aligned to PET listmode data using injected pulse sequences into the PET/CT gantry allowing for correction of rigid body motion. Pilot data from a clinical dynamic PET/CT examination is shown. (paper)

  1. Attention to affective pictures in closed head injury: event-related brain potentials and cardiac responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Reinvang, Ivar; Svebak, Sven; Nielsen, Christopher S; Sundet, Kjetil

    2005-02-01

    We examined whether closed head injury patients show altered patterns of selective attention to stimulus categories that naturally evoke differential responses in healthy people. Self-reported rating and electrophysiological (event-related potentials [ERPs], heart rate [HR]) responses to affective pictures were studied in patients with mild head injury (n = 20; CT/MRI negative), in patients with predominantly frontal brain lesions (n = 12; CT/MRI confirmed), and in healthy controls (n = 20). Affective valence similarly modulated HR and ERP responses in all groups, but group differences occurred that were independent of picture valence. The attenuation of P3-slow wave amplitudes in the mild head injury group indicates a reduction in the engagement of attentional resources to the task. In contrast, the general enhancement of ERP amplitudes at occipital sites in the group with primarily frontal brain injury may reflect disinhibition of input at sensory receptive areas, possibly due to a deficit in top-down modulation performed by anterior control systems.

  2. Repurposing the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for external head motion tracking for brain PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, P. J.; Howard, J.; Hallett, W. A.; Gunn, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging systems such as those used in positron emission tomography (PET) are capable of spatial resolutions that enable the imaging of small, functionally important brain structures. However, the quality of data from PET brain studies is often limited by subject motion during acquisition. This is particularly challenging for patients with neurological disorders or with dynamic research studies that can last 90 min or more. Restraining head movement during the scan does not eliminate motion entirely and can be unpleasant for the subject. Head motion can be detected and measured using a variety of techniques that either use the PET data itself or an external tracking system. Advances in computer vision arising from the video gaming industry could offer significant benefits when re-purposed for medical applications. A method for measuring rigid body type head motion using the Microsoft Kinect v2 is described with results presenting  ⩽0.5 mm spatial accuracy. Motion data is measured in real-time at 30 Hz using the KinectFusion algorithm. Non-rigid motion is detected using the residual alignment energy data of the KinectFusion algorithm allowing for unreliable motion to be discarded. Motion data is aligned to PET listmode data using injected pulse sequences into the PET/CT gantry allowing for correction of rigid body motion. Pilot data from a clinical dynamic PET/CT examination is shown.

  3. Hemodynamic measurements in deep brain tissues of humans by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Oda, Motoki; Yamaki, Etsuko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Homma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), we measured the human head in transmittance mode to obtain the optical properties, tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamics of deep brain tissues in 50 healthy adult volunteers. The right ear canal was irradiated with 3-wavelengths of pulsed light (760, 795, and 835nm), and the photons passing through the human head were collected at the left ear canal. Optical signals with sufficient intensity could be obtained from 46 of the 50 volunteers. By analyzing the temporal profiles based on the photon diffusion theory, we successfully obtained absorption coefficients for each wavelength. The levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) were then determined by referring to the hemoglobin spectroscopic data. Compared with the SO2 values for the forehead measurements in reflectance mode, the SO2 values of the transmittance measurements of the human head were approximately 10% lower, and tHb values of the transmittance measurements were always lower than those of the forehead reflectance measurements. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and the SO2 were strongly correlated between the human head measurements in transmittance mode and the forehead measurements in the reflectance mode, respectively. These results demonstrated a potential application of this TRS system in examining deep brain tissues of humans.

  4. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  5. Deconstructing Anger in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilam, Gadi; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Anger may be caused by a wide variety of triggers, and though it has negative consequences on health and well-being, it is also crucial in motivating to take action and approach rather than avoid a confrontation. While anger is considered a survival response inherent in all living creatures, humans are endowed with the mental flexibility that enables them to control and regulate their anger, and adapt it to socially accepted norms. Indeed, a profound interpersonal nature is apparent in most events which evoke anger among humans. Since anger consists of physiological, cognitive, subjective, and behavioral components, it is a contextualized multidimensional construct that poses theoretical and operational difficulties in defining it as a single psychobiological phenomenon. Although most neuroimaging studies have neglected the multidimensionality of anger and thus resulted in brain activations dispersed across the entire brain, there seems to be several reoccurring neural circuits subserving the subjective experience of human anger. Nevertheless, to capture the large variety in the forms and fashions in which anger is experienced, expressed, and regulated, and thus to better portray the related underlying neural substrates, neurobehavioral investigations of human anger should aim to further embed realistic social interactions within their anger induction paradigms.

  6. Clinical Utility of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT Findings in Chronic Head Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin ll; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Chang Yoon; Kim, Young Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Minima deterioration of cerebral perfusion or microanatomical changes were undetectable on conventional Brain CT or MRI. So evaluation of focal functional changes of the brain parenchyme is essential in chronic head injury patients, who did not show focal anatomical changes on these radiological studies. However, the patients who had longstanding neurologic sequelae following head injury, there had been no available imaging modalities for evaluating these patients precisely. Therefore we tried to detect the focal functional changes on the brain parenchyme using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT on the patients of chronic head injuries. Twenty three patients who had suffered from headache, memory dysfunction, personality change and insomnia lasting more than six months following head injury were included in our cases, which showed no anatomical abnormalities on Brain CT or MRI. At first they underwent psychological test whether the symptoms were organic or not. Also we were able to evaluate the cerebral perfusion changes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in 22 patients among the 23, which five patients were focal and 17 patients were nonfocally diffuse perfusion changes. Thus we can predict the perfusion changes such as local vascular deterioration or functional defects using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO Brain SPECT in the patients who had suffered from post-traumatic sequelae, which changes were undetectable on Brain CT or MRI.

  7. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  8. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  9. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  10. Mechanistic Insights into Human Brain Impact Dynamics through Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksari, Kaveh; Kurt, Mehmet; Babaee, Hessam; Kleiven, Svein; Camarillo, David

    2018-03-01

    Although concussion is one of the greatest health challenges today, our physical understanding of the cause of injury is limited. In this Letter, we simulated football head impacts in a finite element model and extracted the most dominant modal behavior of the brain's deformation. We showed that the brain's deformation is most sensitive in low frequency regimes close to 30 Hz, and discovered that for most subconcussive head impacts, the dynamics of brain deformation is dominated by a single global mode. In this Letter, we show the existence of localized modes and multimodal behavior in the brain as a hyperviscoelastic medium. This dynamical phenomenon leads to strain concentration patterns, particularly in deep brain regions, which is consistent with reported concussion pathology.

  11. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  12. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  13. Head First PMP A Brain-Friendly Guide to Passing the Project Management Professional Exam

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Learn the latest principles and certification objectives in The PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition, in a unique and inspiring way with Head First PMP . The second edition of this book helps you prepare for the PMP certification exam using a visually rich format designed for the way your brain works. You'll find a full-length sample exam included inside the book. More than just proof of passing a test, a PMP certification means that you have the knowledge to solve most common project problems. But studying for a difficult four-hour exam on project management isn't easy, even for experienced project

  14. Loss of Brain Aerobic Glycolysis in Normal Human Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Blazey, Tyler M; Su, Yi; Couture, Lars E; Durbin, Tony J; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L-S; Morris, John C; Raichle, Marcus E

    2017-08-01

    The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly. Brain regions with high AG in young adults show the greatest change, as do regions with prolonged developmental transcriptional features (i.e., neoteny). The normal aging human brain thus undergoes characteristic metabolic changes, largely driven by global loss and topographic changes in brain AG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SAR analysis of a needle type applicator made from a shape memory alloy using 3-D anatomical human head model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsunori; Mimoto, Naoki; Hirashima, Taku; Morita, Emi; Shindo, Yasuhiro; Kato, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Uzuka, Takeo; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of a new heating method with a needle applicator made of a shape memory alloy (SMA) to expand the heating area for interstitial brain tumor hyperthermia treatments. The purpose of the study described here is to show the capability of the method to expand a defined heating region with the developed three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical human head model using the finite element method (FEM). One major disadvantage of radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia treatment is that this heating method has a small heating area. To overcome this problem, a new type of needle made of a SMA was developed. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of this proposed method, when applied to the 3-D anatomical human head model reconstructed from two-dimensional (2-D) MRI and X-ray CT images, were calculated with computer simulations. The calculated SAR distributions showed no unexpected hot spots within the model. The heated area was localized around the tumor. These results suggest that the proposed heating method using the SMA needle applicator and the developed method for reconstructing a 3-D anatomical human head model are capable of being used for invasive brain tumor hyperthermia treatments. (author)

  16. Markerless 3D Head Tracking for Motion Correction in High Resolution PET Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter

    relying on markers. Data-driven motion correction is problematic due to the physiological dynamics. Marker-based tracking is potentially unreliable, and it is extremely hard to validate when the tracking information is correct. The motion estimation is essential for proper motion correction of the PET......This thesis concerns application specific 3D head tracking. The purpose is to improve motion correction in position emission tomography (PET) brain imaging through development of markerless tracking. Currently, motion correction strategies are based on either the PET data itself or tracking devices...... images. Incorrect motion correction can in the worst cases result in wrong diagnosis or treatment. The evolution of a markerless custom-made structured light 3D surface tracking system is presented. The system is targeted at state-of-the-art high resolution dedicated brain PET scanners with a resolution...

  17. Brain state-dependence of electrically evoked potentials monitored with head-mounted electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew G; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2012-11-01

    Inferring changes in brain connectivity is critical to studies of learning-related plasticity and stimulus-induced conditioning of neural circuits. In addition, monitoring spontaneous fluctuations in connectivity can provide insight into information processing during different brain states. Here, we quantified state-dependent connectivity changes throughout the 24-h sleep-wake cycle in freely behaving monkeys. A novel, head-mounted electronic device was used to electrically stimulate at one site and record evoked potentials at other sites. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) revealed the connectivity pattern between several cortical sites and the basal forebrain. We quantified state-dependent changes in the EEPs. Cortico-cortical EEP amplitude increased during slow-wave sleep, compared to wakefulness, while basal-cortical EEP amplitude decreased. The results demonstrate the utility of using portable electronics to document state-dependent connectivity changes in freely behaving primates.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Genome Integration and Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinatti, L M; Walline, H M; Carey, T E

    2018-06-01

    We conducted a critical review of human papillomavirus (HPV) integration into the host genome in oral/oropharyngeal cancer, reviewed the literature for HPV-induced cancers, and obtained current data for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, we performed studies to identify HPV integration sites and the relationship of integration to viral-host fusion transcripts and whether integration is required for HPV-associated oncogenesis. Viral integration of HPV into the host genome is not required for the viral life cycle and might not be necessary for cellular transformation, yet HPV integration is frequently reported in cervical and head and neck cancer specimens. Studies of large numbers of early cervical lesions revealed frequent viral integration into gene-poor regions of the host genome with comparatively rare integration into cellular genes, suggesting that integration is a stochastic event and that site of integration may be largely a function of chance. However, more recent studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) suggest that integration may represent an additional oncogenic mechanism through direct effects on cancer-related gene expression and generation of hybrid viral-host fusion transcripts. In HNSCC cell lines as well as primary tumors, integration into cancer-related genes leading to gene disruption has been reported. The studies have shown that integration-induced altered gene expression may be associated with tumor recurrence. Evidence from several studies indicates that viral integration into genic regions is accompanied by local amplification, increased expression in some cases, interruption of gene expression, and likely additional oncogenic effects. Similarly, reported examples of viral integration near microRNAs suggest that altered expression of these regulatory molecules may also contribute to oncogenesis. Future work is indicated to identify the mechanisms of these events on cancer cell behavior.

  19. Analysis of SAR distribution in human head of antenna used in wireless power transform based on magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feixiang; Wei, Zhiqiang; Cong, Yanping; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Sun, Mingui

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer antenna system was designed for human head implantable devices. The antenna system used the structure of three plates and four coils and operated at low frequencies to transfer power via near field. In order to verify the electromagnetic radiation safety on the human head, the electromagnetic intensity and specific absorption rate (SAR) were studied by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. A three-layer model of human head including skin, bone and brain tissues was constructed. The transmitting and receiving antenna were set outside and inside the model. The local and average SAR were simulated at the resonance frequency of 18.67 MHz in two situations, in one scenario both transmitting and receiving coil worked, while in the other scenario only the transmitting coil worked. The results showed that the maximum of 10 g SAR average value of human thoracic were 0.142 W/kg and 0.148 W/kg, respectively, both were lower than the international safety standards for human body of the ICNIRP and FCC, which verified the safety of the human body in wireless power transmission based on magnetic coupling resonance.

  20. Why infest the loved ones--inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter

    2012-05-01

    Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies.

  1. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  2. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  3. A survey of head movement during clinical brain SPECT using an optical tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandos, G.; Barnden, L.; Lineage, H.; Smith, T.; Unger, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to survey patient motion during clinical brain SPECT using a commercial motion detection system called Polaris. Polaris is an optical tracker that remotely tracks head position and orientation via a small target attached to the patient. Its accuracy for position measurement is 1mm or 1 degree (deg), 33% moved > 2mm or 2deg and 10% moved > 4mm or 4deg. 65% of subjects moved 3 or more times. Motion in the D and P groups was equally likely to be small (<3mm or <3deg) or large and equally likely to occur early or late during acquisition. Motion in the N, F and C groups was less likely to be large and for N and F more likely to occur late in the acquisition suggesting fatigue was the main cause. The most common large movements were anterior-posterior translations and axial (Z) rotations. Significant head movement is common in brain SPECT, particularly in dementia and psychiatric subjects, and accurate motion correction is desirable to maintain image quality. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  5. Improved frame-based estimation of head motion in PET brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J. M.; Lindsay, C.; King, M. A.; Licho, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Olivier, P.; Shao, L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Head motion during PET brain imaging can cause significant degradation of image quality. Several authors have proposed ways to compensate for PET brain motion to restore image quality and improve quantitation. Head restraints can reduce movement but are unreliable; thus the need for alternative strategies such as data-driven motion estimation or external motion tracking. Herein, the authors present a data-driven motion estimation method using a preprocessing technique that allows the usage of very short duration frames, thus reducing the intraframe motion problem commonly observed in the multiple frame acquisition method. Methods: The list mode data for PET acquisition is uniformly divided into 5-s frames and images are reconstructed without attenuation correction. Interframe motion is estimated using a 3D multiresolution registration algorithm and subsequently compensated for. For this study, the authors used 8 PET brain studies that used F-18 FDG as the tracer and contained minor or no initial motion. After reconstruction and prior to motion estimation, known motion was introduced to each frame to simulate head motion during a PET acquisition. To investigate the trade-off in motion estimation and compensation with respect to frames of different length, the authors summed 5-s frames accordingly to produce 10 and 60 s frames. Summed images generated from the motion-compensated reconstructed frames were then compared to the original PET image reconstruction without motion compensation. Results: The authors found that our method is able to compensate for both gradual and step-like motions using frame times as short as 5 s with a spatial accuracy of 0.2 mm on average. Complex volunteer motion involving all six degrees of freedom was estimated with lower accuracy (0.3 mm on average) than the other types investigated. Preprocessing of 5-s images was necessary for successful image registration. Since their method utilizes nonattenuation corrected frames, it is

  6. Improved frame-based estimation of head motion in PET brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, J. M., E-mail: joyeeta.mitra@umassmed.edu; Lindsay, C.; King, M. A.; Licho, R. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Mukherjee, A. [Aware, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States); Olivier, P. [Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Shao, L. [ViewRay, Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Head motion during PET brain imaging can cause significant degradation of image quality. Several authors have proposed ways to compensate for PET brain motion to restore image quality and improve quantitation. Head restraints can reduce movement but are unreliable; thus the need for alternative strategies such as data-driven motion estimation or external motion tracking. Herein, the authors present a data-driven motion estimation method using a preprocessing technique that allows the usage of very short duration frames, thus reducing the intraframe motion problem commonly observed in the multiple frame acquisition method. Methods: The list mode data for PET acquisition is uniformly divided into 5-s frames and images are reconstructed without attenuation correction. Interframe motion is estimated using a 3D multiresolution registration algorithm and subsequently compensated for. For this study, the authors used 8 PET brain studies that used F-18 FDG as the tracer and contained minor or no initial motion. After reconstruction and prior to motion estimation, known motion was introduced to each frame to simulate head motion during a PET acquisition. To investigate the trade-off in motion estimation and compensation with respect to frames of different length, the authors summed 5-s frames accordingly to produce 10 and 60 s frames. Summed images generated from the motion-compensated reconstructed frames were then compared to the original PET image reconstruction without motion compensation. Results: The authors found that our method is able to compensate for both gradual and step-like motions using frame times as short as 5 s with a spatial accuracy of 0.2 mm on average. Complex volunteer motion involving all six degrees of freedom was estimated with lower accuracy (0.3 mm on average) than the other types investigated. Preprocessing of 5-s images was necessary for successful image registration. Since their method utilizes nonattenuation corrected frames, it is

  7. Human Papilloma Virus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvadi Kermani, I; Seifi, SH; Dolatkhah, R; Sakhinia, E; Dastgiri, S; Ebrahimi, A; Lotfy, A; Esmaeili, HA; G, Mohammadi; M, Naderpour; SH, Hajalipour; Haggi A, Asghari; M, Nadri

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic and molecular evidences have established a strong link between high risk types of Human Papilloma Virus and a subgroup of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCC). We evaluated the frequency of HPV positivity in HNSCC and its relationship to demographic and some risk factor variables in an open case- control study. Methods Fourteen recently diagnosed patients with squamous cell cancer of oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx aged 18-50 years were examined from 2008-2010 in Tabriz, Iran. HPV DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded blocks of each patient's sample for PCR evaluation. Saliva samples of 94 control cancer-free subjects were collected for DNA analysis. Multivariable logistic regression method was used to calculate odds ratio for case-control comparisons. Results High risk HPV was detected in 6(42.8%) patients, and 6(5.3%) control subjects which was statistically significant (p<0.0001). HPV-18 was the most frequent type both in the cases and controls. HPV-16 DNA was detected in two patients of the case group, but it was not detected in any of the controls. The relation between demographic and risk factor variables was not statistically significant. Conclusion HPV infection has a significant impact on HNSCC. Despite HPV-16 stronger impact, HPV-18 is more likely to cause malignant degeneration in such cancers amongst some communities. It is vital to introduce and conduct immunization schedules in health care systems to protect communities to some extent. PMID:25780535

  8. Usefulness of MRI detection of cervical spine and brain injuries in the evaluation of abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Khademian, Zarir; Vezina, Gilbert; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rice, Amy [Independent Consultant (Biostatistics), Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Hinds, Tanya [Children' s National Medical Center, Child and Adolescent Protection Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-07-15

    In the evaluation of children younger than 3 years with intracranial hemorrhage it can be difficult to determine whether the cause of hemorrhage was traumatic, and if so, whether abusive head trauma (AHT) is a possibility. Cervical spine MRI is not a routine part of the nationally recommended imaging workup for children with suspected abusive head trauma. There is increasing evidence that spinal injuries are found at autopsy or MRI in abused children. However the prevalence of cervical spine injuries in children evaluated for abusive head trauma is unknown. We sought to determine both the incidence and the spectrum of cervical spine and brain injuries in children being evaluated for possible abusive head trauma. We also examined the relationship between cervical and brain MRI findings and selected study outcome categories. This study is a 3-year retrospective review of children evaluated for abusive head trauma. Inclusion criteria were: children with head trauma seen at our institution between 2008 and 2010, age younger than 36 months, availability of diagnostic-quality brain and cervical spine MRI, and child abuse team involvement because abusive head trauma was a possibility. A child abuse pediatrician and pediatric radiologists, all with board certification, were involved in data collection, image interpretation and data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata v12.1. The study included 74 children (43 boys, 31 girls) with a mean age of 164 days (range, 20-679 days). Study outcomes were categorized as: n = 26 children with accidental head trauma, n = 38 with abusive head trauma (n = 18 presumptive AHT, n = 20 suspicious for AHT), and n = 10 with undefined head trauma. We found cervical spine injuries in 27/74 (36%) children. Most cervical spine injuries were ligamentous injuries. One child had intrathecal spinal blood and two had spinal cord edema; all three of these children had ligamentous injury. MRI signs of cervical injury did not show a

  9. Usefulness of MRI detection of cervical spine and brain injuries in the evaluation of abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Khademian, Zarir; Vezina, Gilbert; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Rice, Amy; Hinds, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    In the evaluation of children younger than 3 years with intracranial hemorrhage it can be difficult to determine whether the cause of hemorrhage was traumatic, and if so, whether abusive head trauma (AHT) is a possibility. Cervical spine MRI is not a routine part of the nationally recommended imaging workup for children with suspected abusive head trauma. There is increasing evidence that spinal injuries are found at autopsy or MRI in abused children. However the prevalence of cervical spine injuries in children evaluated for abusive head trauma is unknown. We sought to determine both the incidence and the spectrum of cervical spine and brain injuries in children being evaluated for possible abusive head trauma. We also examined the relationship between cervical and brain MRI findings and selected study outcome categories. This study is a 3-year retrospective review of children evaluated for abusive head trauma. Inclusion criteria were: children with head trauma seen at our institution between 2008 and 2010, age younger than 36 months, availability of diagnostic-quality brain and cervical spine MRI, and child abuse team involvement because abusive head trauma was a possibility. A child abuse pediatrician and pediatric radiologists, all with board certification, were involved in data collection, image interpretation and data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata v12.1. The study included 74 children (43 boys, 31 girls) with a mean age of 164 days (range, 20-679 days). Study outcomes were categorized as: n = 26 children with accidental head trauma, n = 38 with abusive head trauma (n = 18 presumptive AHT, n = 20 suspicious for AHT), and n = 10 with undefined head trauma. We found cervical spine injuries in 27/74 (36%) children. Most cervical spine injuries were ligamentous injuries. One child had intrathecal spinal blood and two had spinal cord edema; all three of these children had ligamentous injury. MRI signs of cervical injury did not show a

  10. Characterization of Noise Signatures of Involuntary Head Motion in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Carla; Mistry, Sejal; Vero, Joe; Torres, Elizabeth B

    2018-01-01

    The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls. Further, statistical analyses of groups from different diagnoses and demographics may be challenging, owing to the disparate number of participants across different clinical subgroups. In this paper, we examine the noise signatures of head motion data extracted from resting state fMRI data harnessed under different sampling resolutions. We characterize the quality of the noise in the variability of the raw linear and angular speeds for different clinical phenotypes in relation to age-matched controls. Further, we use bootstrapping methods to ensure compatible group sizes for statistical comparison and report the ranges of physical involuntary head excursions of these groups. We conclude that different sampling rates do affect the quality of noise in the variability of head motion data and, consequently, the type of random process appropriate to characterize the time series data. Further, given a qualitative range of noise, from pink to brown noise, it is possible to characterize different clinical subtypes and distinguish them in relation to ranges of neurotypical controls. These results may be of relevance to the pre-processing stages of the pipeline of analyses of resting state fMRI data, whereby head motion enters the criteria to clean imaging data from motion artifacts. PMID:29556179

  11. Characterization of Noise Signatures of Involuntary Head Motion in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caballero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls. Further, statistical analyses of groups from different diagnoses and demographics may be challenging, owing to the disparate number of participants across different clinical subgroups. In this paper, we examine the noise signatures of head motion data extracted from resting state fMRI data harnessed under different sampling resolutions. We characterize the quality of the noise in the variability of the raw linear and angular speeds for different clinical phenotypes in relation to age-matched controls. Further, we use bootstrapping methods to ensure compatible group sizes for statistical comparison and report the ranges of physical involuntary head excursions of these groups. We conclude that different sampling rates do affect the quality of noise in the variability of head motion data and, consequently, the type of random process appropriate to characterize the time series data. Further, given a qualitative range of noise, from pink to brown noise, it is possible to characterize different clinical subtypes and distinguish them in relation to ranges of neurotypical controls. These results may be of relevance to the pre-processing stages of the pipeline of analyses of resting state fMRI data, whereby head motion enters the criteria to clean imaging data from motion artifacts.

  12. Global brain metabolic quantification with whole-head proton MRS at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Ivan I; Wu, William E; Soher, Brian J; Davitz, Matthew S; Huang, Jeffrey H; Babb, James S; Lazar, Mariana; Fatterpekar, Girish; Gonen, Oded

    2017-10-01

    Total N-acetyl-aspartate + N-acetyl-aspartate-glutamate (NAA), total creatine (Cr) and total choline (Cho) proton MRS ( 1 H-MRS) signals are often used as surrogate markers in diffuse neurological pathologies, but spatial coverage of this methodology is limited to 1%-65% of the brain. Here we wish to demonstrate that non-localized, whole-head (WH) 1 H-MRS captures just the brain's contribution to the Cho and Cr signals, ignoring all other compartments. Towards this end, 27 young healthy adults (18 men, 9 women), 29.9 ± 8.5 years old, were recruited and underwent T 1 -weighted MRI for tissue segmentation, non-localizing, approximately 3 min WH 1 H-MRS (T E /T R /T I  = 5/10/940 ms) and 30 min 1 H-MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) (T E /T R  = 35/2100 ms) in a 360 cm 3 volume of interest (VOI) at the brain's center. The VOI absolute NAA, Cr and Cho concentrations, 7.7 ± 0.5, 5.5 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.2 mM, were all within 10% of the WH: 8.6 ± 1.1, 6.0 ± 1.0 and 1.3 ± 0.2 mM. The mean NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios in the WH were only slightly higher than the "brain-only" VOI: 1.5 versus 1.4 (7%) and 6.6 versus 5.9 (11%); Cho/Cr were not different. The brain/WH volume ratio was 0.31 ± 0.03 (brain ≈ 30% of WH volume). Air-tissue susceptibility-driven local magnetic field changes going from the brain outwards showed sharp gradients of more than 100 Hz/cm (1 ppm/cm), explaining the skull's Cr and Cho signal losses through resonance shifts, line broadening and destructive interference. The similarity of non-localized WH and localized VOI NAA, Cr and Cho concentrations and their ratios suggests that their signals originate predominantly from the brain. Therefore, the fast, comprehensive WH- 1 H-MRS method may facilitate quantification of these metabolites, which are common surrogate markers in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Left Brain to Right Brain: Notes from the Human Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumli, Francis

    1982-01-01

    Examines the implications of the left brain-right brain theory on communications styles in male-female relationships. The author contends that women tend to use the vagueness of their emotional responses manipulatively. Men need to apply rational approaches to increase clarity in communication. (AM)

  14. Measurement and Finite Element Model Validation of Immature Porcine Brain-Skull Displacement during Rapid Sagittal Head Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquesi, Stephanie A; Margulies, Susan S

    2018-01-01

    Computational models are valuable tools for studying tissue-level mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, but to produce more accurate estimates of tissue deformation, these models must be validated against experimental data. In this study, we present in situ measurements of brain-skull displacement in the neonatal piglet head ( n  = 3) at the sagittal midline during six rapid non-impact rotations (two rotations per specimen) with peak angular velocities averaging 51.7 ± 1.4 rad/s. Marks on the sagittally cut brain and skull/rigid potting surfaces were tracked, and peak values of relative brain-skull displacement were extracted and found to be significantly less than values extracted from a previous axial plane model. In a finite element model of the sagittally transected neonatal porcine head, the brain-skull boundary condition was matched to the measured physical experiment data. Despite smaller sagittal plane displacements at the brain-skull boundary, the corresponding finite element boundary condition optimized for sagittal plane rotations is far less stiff than its axial counterpart, likely due to the prominent role of the boundary geometry in restricting interface movement. Finally, bridging veins were included in the finite element model. Varying the bridging vein mechanical behavior over a previously reported range had no influence on the brain-skull boundary displacements. This direction-specific sagittal plane boundary condition can be employed in finite element models of rapid sagittal head rotations.

  15. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  16. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  17. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  18. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Induced Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishat, Roquaiya; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Kumar, Harish; Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath

    2015-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma accounts for the sixth most common malignancy occurring worldwide with tobacco and alcohol being the two well established risk factors. In the recent years, substantial evidence has been obtained that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers are on the rise. This article provides an insight into the structure of HPV genome, molecular pathogenesis, detection methods and clinical implications of HPV positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PMID:26266234

  19. Fast and Accurate Rat Head Motion Tracking With Point Sources for Awake Brain PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    To avoid the confounding effects of anesthesia and immobilization stress in rat brain positron emission tomography (PET), motion tracking-based unrestrained awake rat brain imaging is being developed. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate rat headmotion tracking method based on small PET point sources. PET point sources (3-4) attached to the rat's head are tracked in image space using 15-32-ms time frames. Our point source tracking (PST) method was validated using a manually moved microDerenzo phantom that was simultaneously tracked with an optical tracker (OT) for comparison. The PST method was further validated in three awake [ 18 F]FDG rat brain scans. Compared with the OT, the PST-based correction at the same frame rate (31.2 Hz) reduced the reconstructed FWHM by 0.39-0.66 mm for the different tested rod sizes of the microDerenzo phantom. The FWHM could be further reduced by another 0.07-0.13 mm when increasing the PST frame rate (66.7 Hz). Regional brain [ 18 F]FDG uptake in the motion corrected scan was strongly correlated ( ) with that of the anesthetized reference scan for all three cases ( ). The proposed PST method allowed excellent and reproducible motion correction in awake in vivo experiments. In addition, there is no need of specialized tracking equipment or additional calibrations to be performed, the point sources are practically imperceptible to the rat, and PST is ideally suitable for small bore scanners, where optical tracking might be challenging.

  20. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  1. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B

    2008-11-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.

  3. Adaptation of vacuum-assisted mouthpiece head immobilization system for precision infant brain radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth; Cheng, Justine; Bowlin, Kristine; Olch, Arthur

    Our purpose was to describe an adaptation of a commercially available mouthpiece for vacuum-assisted mouthpiece immobilization for radiation therapy in infants. An infant diagnosed with a brain tumor required radiation therapy. After reviewing dental literature about obturators, we designed a modification for the smallest commercially available mouthpiece tray. The patient was simulated with the adapted mouthpiece tray. We achieved excellent immobilization and had small daily image guided treatment position shifts. Our patient tolerated treatment well without injury to oral cavity or mucosa. Head immobilization with a vacuum-assisted modified mouthpiece has not been described in infants. Our modification is a novel and safe and permits effective and accurate immobilization for infants for radiation therapy. New manufacturing technologies may allow creation of individualized mouthpieces. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A simple non-invasive method for measuring gross brain size in small live fish with semi-transparent heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Näslund

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive method for estimating gross brain size in small fish with semi-transparent heads, using system camera equipment. Macro-photographs were taken from above on backlit free-swimming fish undergoing light anaesthesia. From the photographs, the width of the optic tectum was measured. This measure (TeO-measure correlates well with the width of the optic tectum as measured from out-dissected brains in both brown trout fry and zebrafish (Pearson r > 0.90. The TeO-measure also correlates well with overall brain wet weight in brown trout fry (r = 0.90, but less well for zebrafish (r = 0.79. A non-invasive measure makes it possible to quickly assess brain size from a large number of individuals, as well as repeatedly measuring brain size of live individuals allowing calculation of brain growth.

  5. Does head CT scan pathology predict outcome after mild traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, M; Backheden, M; Johansson, U; Af Geijerstam, J L; Borg, J

    2013-01-01

    More evidence is needed to forward our understanding of the key determinants of poor outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). A large, prospective, national cohort of patients was studied to analyse the effect of head CT scan pathology on the outcome. One-thousand two-hundred and sixty-two patients with MTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score 15) at 39 emergency departments completed a study protocol including acute head CT scan examination and follow-up by the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) at 3 months after MTBI. Binary logistic regression was used for the assessment of prediction ability. In 751 men (60%) and 511 women (40%), with a mean age of 30 years (median 21, range 6-94), we observed relevant or suspect relevant pathologic findings on acute CT scan in 52 patients (4%). Patients aged below 30 years reported better outcome both with respect to symptoms and GOSE as compared to patients in older age groups. Men reported better outcome than women as regards symptoms (OR 0.64, CI 0.49-0.85 for ≥3 symptoms) and global function (OR 0.60, CI 0.39-0.92 for GOSE 1-6). Pathology on acute CT scan examination had no effect on self-reported symptoms or global function at 3 months after MTBI. Female gender and older age predicted a less favourable outcome. The findings support the view that other factors than brain injury deserve attention to minimize long-term complaints after MTBI. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  6. Nonhemorrhagic brain lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging in closed head injured patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Hiraide, Atsushi; Yoshioka, Toshiji; Sugimoto, Tadashi; Ichimura, Teruhisa; Saito, Akira; Ohno, Yoshioki.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 83 closed head injured patients in whom CT failed to detect focal intra or extraaxial hematoma and/or apparent brain contusion. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of unconsciousness duration: Group 1 comprised 50 patients diagnosed as having classical cerebral concussion; group 2 comprised 19 patients who presented to the hospital with 6-hr unconsciousness and was recovered within a week; and group 3 comprised 14 patients whose unconsciousness persisted for a week or more. There was no CT evidence of abnormal findings for group 1; and intraventricular hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage were visualized on CT in 26% and 16%, respectively, for group 2 and 71% and 14% for group 3. Intraaxial nonhemorrhagic lesions were detected on T2-weighted MRI. According to high signal intensity, diffuse axonal injury and cortical contusion could be distinguished; i.e., in the former the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, or brain stem showed a high signal intensity, and in the latter the frontal, temporal, or parietal lobe adjacent to the skull showed a low signal intensity. T2-weighted MRI revealed cortical contusion in 6% for group 1, 37% for group 2, and 14% for group 3; and diffuse axonal injury in 42% for group 2 and 79% for group 3. For 62 patients with normal CT findings, diffuse axonal injury was detected in 88%. There was a good correlation between intraventricular hemorrhage on CT and diffuse axonal injury on MRI. In conclusion, T2-weighted MRI was significantly superior to CT in detecting nonhemorrhagic lesions, and it was of great help for predicting neurologic recovery in closed head injured patients without apparent focal lesions on CT. (N.K.)

  7. The point spread function of the human head and its implications for transcranial current stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2012-01-01

    Rational development of transcranial current stimulation (tCS) requires solving the ‘forward problem’: the computation of the electric field distribution in the head resulting from the application of scalp currents. Derivation of forward models has represented a major effort in brain stimulation research, with model complexity ranging from spherical shells to individualized head models based on magnetic resonance imagery. Despite such effort, an easily accessible benchmark head model is greatly needed when individualized modeling is either undesired (to observe general population trends as opposed to individual differences) or unfeasible. Here, we derive a closed-form linear system which relates the applied current to the induced electric potential. It is shown that in the spherical harmonic (Fourier) domain, a simple scalar multiplication relates the current density on the scalp to the electric potential in the brain. Equivalently, the current density in the head follows as the spherical convolution between the scalp current distribution and the point spread function of the head, which we derive. Thus, if one knows the spherical harmonic representation of the scalp current (i.e. the electrode locations and current intensity to be employed), one can easily compute the resulting electric field at any point inside the head. Conversely, one may also readily determine the scalp current distribution required to generate an arbitrary electric field in the brain (the ‘backward problem’ in tCS). We demonstrate the simplicity and utility of the model with a series of characteristic curves which sweep across a variety of stimulation parameters: electrode size, depth of stimulation, head size and anode–cathode separation. Finally, theoretically optimal montages for targeting an infinitesimal point in the brain are shown. (paper)

  8. A technique for accurate planning of stereotactic brain implants prior to head ring fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, Kenneth; Bornstein, Linda E.; Ling, Marilyn N.; Saris, Stephen; Wu, Julian K.; Curran, Bruce H.; Wazer, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A two-step procedure is described for accurate planning of stereotactic brain implants prior to head-ring fixation. Methods and Materials: Approximately 2 weeks prior to implant a CT scan without the head ring is performed for treatment-planning purposes. An entry point and a reference point, both marked with barium and later tattooed, facilitate planning and permit correlation of the images with a later CT scan. A plan is generated using a conventional treatment-planning system to determine the number and activity of I-125 seeds required and the position of each catheter. I-125 seed anisotropy is taken into account by means of a modification to the treatment planning program. On the day of the implant a second CT scan is performed with the head ring affixed to the skull and with the same points marked as in the previous scan. The planned catheter coordinates are then mapped into the coordinate system of the second CT scan by means of a manual translational correction and a computer-calculated rotational correction derived from the reference point coordinates in the two scans. Results: The rotational correction algorithm was verified experimentally in a Rando phantom before it was used clinically. For analysis of the results with individual patients a third CT scan is performed 1 day following the implant and is used for calculating the final dosimetry. Conclusion: The technique that is described has two important advantages: 1) the number and activity of seeds required can be accurately determined in advance; and 2) sufficient time is allowed to derive the best possible plan

  9. Effects of neurofeedback training on the brain wave of adults with forward head posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were significant effects within and between groups in terms of the Delta wave, the Theta wave, the Alpha wave, the Beta wave, or the sensory motor rhythm. Especially, the Delta wave, Beta wave, and the sensory motor rhythm were showed significant effects between the groups. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and relaxation without stress, as well as an increase in attention, memory, and verbal cognitive performance. Therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities. PMID:27821966

  10. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage segmentation from clinical head CT of patients with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; Wilkes, Sean; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Butman, John A.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-03-01

    Quantification of hemorrhages in head computed tomography (CT) images from patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has potential applications in monitoring disease progression and better understanding of the patho-physiology of TBI. Although manual segmentations can provide accurate measures of hemorrhages, the processing time and inter-rater variability make it infeasible for large studies. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic novel pipeline for segmenting intraparenchymal hemorrhages (IPH) from clinical head CT images. Unlike previous methods of model based segmentation or active contour techniques, we rely on relevant and matching examples from already segmented images by trained raters. The CT images are first skull-stripped. Then example patches from an "atlas" CT and its manual segmentation are used to learn a two-class sparse dictionary for hemorrhage and normal tissue. Next, for a given "subject" CT, a subject patch is modeled as a sparse convex combination of a few atlas patches from the dictionary. The same convex combination is applied to the atlas segmentation patches to generate a membership for the hemorrhages at each voxel. Hemorrhages are segmented from 25 subjects with various degrees of TBI. Results are compared with segmentations obtained from an expert rater. A median Dice coefficient of 0.85 between automated and manual segmentations is achieved. A linear fit between automated and manual volumes show a slope of 1.0047, indicating a negligible bias in volume estimation.

  11. Macroscopic networks in the human brain: mapping connectivity in healthy and damaged brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain contains a network of interconnected neurons. Recent advances in functional and structural in-vivo magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) techniques have provided opportunities to model the networks of the human brain on a macroscopic scale. This dissertation investigates the

  12. An investigation of head movement with a view to minimising motion artefact during SPECT and PET imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.; Clarke, G.H.; Guy, R.; McKay, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Motion artefact has long been recognised as a major cause of image degradation. Single Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the brain are playing an important role in the diagnosis and management of several neurological disorders. If these imaging modalities are to contribute fully to medical imaging it is essential that the improved spatial resolution of these systems is not compromised by patient movement. Thirty volunteer subjects have been examined using a simple video technique and the video images were used to classify and measure head movements which may occur during brain imaging. All subjects demonstrated angular movement within the transverse plane or rotation of the head. Angular movement within the sagittal plane or flexion/extension of the neck occurred in 69% of subjects and 72% of subjects exhibited translational movement of the sagittal plane. There was no movement of the coronal plane; nor was there any translational movement of the sagittal plane. These results suggest that when positioning the patient's head for brain imaging a system of head restraint which minimises rotation of the head should be used if image quality is to be maintained

  13. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated, non-linear registration between 3-dimensional brain map and medical head image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Shinobu; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Zoroofi, R.A.; Uyama, Chikao

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated, non-linear registration method between 3-dimensional medical head image and brain map in order to efficiently extract the regions of interest. In our method, input 3-dimensional image is registered into a reference image extracted from a brain map. The problems to be solved are automated, non-linear image matching procedure, and cost function which represents the similarity between two images. Non-linear matching is carried out by dividing the input image into connected partial regions, transforming the partial regions preserving connectivity among the adjacent images, evaluating the image similarity between the transformed regions of the input image and the correspondent regions of the reference image, and iteratively searching the optimal transformation of the partial regions. In order to measure the voxelwise similarity of multi-modal images, a cost function is introduced, which is based on the mutual information. Some experiments using MR images presented the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  15. Head Pose Estimation Using Multilinear Subspace Analysis for Robot Human Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav; Matthies, Larry; Vasilescu, M. Alex O.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile robots, operating in unconstrained indoor and outdoor environments, would benefit in many ways from perception of the human awareness around them. Knowledge of people's head pose and gaze directions would enable the robot to deduce which people are aware of the its presence, and to predict future motions of the people for better path planning. To make such inferences, requires estimating head pose on facial images that are combination of multiple varying factors, such as identity, appearance, head pose, and illumination. By applying multilinear algebra, the algebra of higher-order tensors, we can separate these factors and estimate head pose regardless of subject's identity or image conditions. Furthermore, we can automatically handle uncertainty in the size of the face and its location. We demonstrate a pipeline of on-the-move detection of pedestrians with a robot stereo vision system, segmentation of the head, and head pose estimation in cluttered urban street scenes.

  16. Oncogenic impact of human papilloma virus in head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heffernan, C B

    2012-02-01

    There is considerable debate within the literature about the significance of human papilloma virus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and its potential influence on the prevention, diagnosis, grading, treatment and prognosis of these cancers. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have traditionally been cited as the main risk factors for head and neck cancers. However, human papilloma virus, normally associated with cervical and other genital carcinomas, has emerged as a possible key aetiological factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, especially oropharyngeal cancers. These cancers pose a significant financial burden on health resources and are increasing in incidence. The recent introduction of vaccines targeted against human papilloma virus types 16 and 18, to prevent cervical cancer, has highlighted the need for ongoing research into the importance of human papilloma virus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  18. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  19. Analysis of brain CT on 120 patients of human cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; To, R.; Ri, T.; Ra, S.; Inomata, Taiten; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Tomoo.

    1990-01-01

    A study on brain CT was made in 120 patients of human cysticercosis, which is a rare disease in Japan and clinical symptoms and laboratory data for the diagnosis were also discussed. From the point of therapeutic view, we proposed a new differentiation on brain CT of human cysticercosis, which is divided into two groups according to the alve or dead parasite. Furthermore, we proposed a new type named multiple large and small cysts type on brain CT. The idea of diagnostic standard was made integrating brain CT image, clinical symptoms and labolatory data. (author)

  20. The progress of radiosensitive genes of human brain glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Liu Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Human gliomas are one of the most aggressive tumors in brain which grow infiltrativly. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. But as the tumor could not be entirely cut off, it is easy to relapse. Radiotherapy plays an important role for patients with gliomas after surgery. The efficacy of radiotherapy is associated with radio sensitivity of human gliomas. This paper makes a summary of current situation and progress for radiosensitive genes of human brain gliomas. (authors)

  1. No evidence that polymorphisms of brain regulator genes Microcephalin and ASPM are associated with general mental ability, head circumference or altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Vernon, Philip A; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2007-04-22

    We test the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the brain regulator genes MCPH1 and ASPM contribute to variations in human brain size and its correlates. We measured general mental ability, head circumference and social intelligence in 644 Canadian adults (496 Caucasians, 36 Orientals, 84 Mixed Race/Other and 28 Blacks; 257 men and 387 women). The gene polymorphisms were assessed from buccal DNA; mental ability by Wonderlic Personnel Test and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery; head circumference by stretchless tape; and social intelligence by prosocial attitude questionnaires. Although all measures were construct valid and the allele frequencies showed expected population differences, no relationship was found between the genes and any of the criteria. Among Caucasian 18-25 year olds, for example, the two mental ability tests correlated with each other (r=0.78, N=476, p<0.001), with head circumference (r=0.17, N=182, p<0.05) and with prosocial attitudes (r=0.23, N=182, p<0.001).

  2. From Brain-Environment Connections to Temporal Dynamics and Social Interaction: Principles of Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta

    2017-06-07

    Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THREE DIMENSIONAL DIGITIZATION OF HUMAN HEAD BY FUSING STRUCTURED LIGHT AND CONTOURS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gang; Li Dehua; Hu Hanping; Hu Bing

    2002-01-01

    Three dimensional digitization of human head is desired in many applications. In this paper, an information fusion based scheme is presented to obtain 3-D information of human head. Structured light technology is employed to measure depth. For the special reflection areas,in which the structured light stripe can not be detected directly, the shape of the structured light stripe can be calculated from the corresponding contour. By fusing the information of structured light and the contours, the problem of reflectance influence is solved, and the whole shape of head,including hair area, can be obtained. Some good results are obtained.

  4. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Genetic polymorphisms in some DNA repair proteins are associated with a number of malignant transformations like head and ... Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the ... low survival and high morbidity when diagnosed in advanced ...... racial and/or ethnic cohort.

  5. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/....

  6. Astrocyte calcium signal and gliotransmission in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Marta; Perea, Gertrudis; Maglio, Laura; Pastor, Jesús; García de Sola, Rafael; Araque, Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    Brain function is recognized to rely on neuronal activity and signaling processes between neurons, whereas astrocytes are generally considered to play supportive roles for proper neuronal function. However, accumulating evidence indicates that astrocytes sense and control neuronal and synaptic activity, indicating that neuron and astrocytes reciprocally communicate. While this evidence has been obtained in experimental animal models, whether this bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons occurs in human brain remains unknown. We have investigated the existence of astrocyte-neuron communication in human brain tissue, using electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging techniques in slices of the cortex and hippocampus obtained from biopsies from epileptic patients. Cortical and hippocampal human astrocytes displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) elevations that were independent of neuronal activity. Local application of transmitter receptor agonists or nerve electrical stimulation transiently elevated Ca(2+) in astrocytes, indicating that human astrocytes detect synaptic activity and respond to synaptically released neurotransmitters, suggesting the existence of neuron-to-astrocyte communication in human brain tissue. Electrophysiological recordings in neurons revealed the presence of slow inward currents (SICs) mediated by NMDA receptor activation. The frequency of SICs increased after local application of ATP that elevated astrocyte Ca(2+). Therefore, human astrocytes are able to release the gliotransmitter glutamate, which affect neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors in neurons. These results reveal the existence of reciprocal signaling between neurons and astrocytes in human brain tissue, indicating that astrocytes are relevant in human neurophysiology and are involved in human brain function.

  7. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  8. Human papilloma virus: a new risk factor in a subset of head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Manisha; Bist, Sampan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two well known behavioral risk factors associated with head and neck cancer. Recently, evidence is mounting that infection with human papilloma virus, most commonly human papilloma virus-16 is responsible for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma especially tumors of tonsillar origin. The molecular pathway used by human papilloma virus to trigger malignant transformation of tissue is different from that of other well known risk factors, i.e. smoking and alcohol, associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Apparently, these subsets of patients with human papilloma virus positive tumor are more likely to have a better prognosis than human papilloma virus negative tumor. Considering this fact, the human papilloma virus infection should be determined in all oropharyngeal cancers since it can have a major impact on the decision making process of the treatment.

  9. Magnetic resonance elastography of the brain: A comparison between pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kurt, Mehmet; Ozkaya, Efe; Wintermark, Max; Pauly, Kim Butts; Kuhl, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography holds promise as a non-invasive, easy-to-use, in vivo biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. Throughout the past decade, pigs have gained increased popularity as large animal models for human neurodegeneration. However, the volume of a pig brain is an order of magnitude smaller than the human brain, its skull is 40% thicker, and its head is about twice as big. This raises the question to which extent established vibration devices, actuation frequencies, and analysis tools for humans translate to large animal studies in pigs. Here we explored the feasibility of using human brain magnetic resonance elastography to characterize the dynamic properties of the porcine brain. In contrast to humans, where vibration devices induce an anterior-posterior displacement recorded in transverse sections, the porcine anatomy requires a dorsal-ventral displacement recorded in coronal sections. Within these settings, we applied a wide range of actuation frequencies, from 40Hz to 90Hz, and recorded the storage and loss moduli for human and porcine brains. Strikingly, we found that optimal actuation frequencies for humans translate one-to-one to pigs and reliably generate shear waves for elastographic post-processing. In a direct comparison, human and porcine storage and loss moduli followed similar trends and increased with increasing frequency. When translating these frequency-dependent storage and loss moduli into the frequency-independent stiffnesses and viscosities of a standard linear solid model, we found human values of μ 1 =1.3kPa, μ 2 =2.1kPa, and η=0.025kPas and porcine values of μ 1 =2.0kPa, μ 2 =4.9kPa, and η=0.046kPas. These results suggest that living human brain is softer and less viscous than dead porcine brain. Our study compares, for the first time, magnetic resonance elastography in human and porcine brains, and paves the way towards systematic interspecies comparison studies and ex vivo validation of magnetic resonance

  10. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  11. A Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Approach for Measuring Weak Electric Currents Inside the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan

    of individual ohmic conductivity values may open up the possibility of creating more realistic and accurate head models, which may ameliorate the simulations and practical use of NIBS techniques. Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT......Knowing the electrical conductivity and current density distribution inside the human brain will be useful in various biomedical applications, i.e. for improving the efficiency of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, the accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG......) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, or localization of pathological tissues. For example, the accuracy of electric field simulations for NIBS techniques is currently reduced by assigning inaccurate ohmic conductivity values taken from literature to different brain tissues. Therefore, the knowledge...

  12. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder...

  13. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Miao eCao; Hao eHuang; Hao eHuang; Yun ePeng; Qi eDong; Yong eHe

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders...

  14. The Complex Functioning of the Human Brain: The Two Hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Cristina Timofti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals just a glimpse of the possible functions and reactions that the human brain can have. I considered as good examples different situations characteristic both of a normal person and a split-brain one. These situations prove that the brain, although divided in two, works as a unit, as an amazing computer that has data processing as a main goal.

  15. Adherence to Head Computed Tomography Guidelines for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon A. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a significant health concern. While 70-90% of TBI cases are considered mild, decision-making regarding imaging can be difficult. This survey aimed to assess whether clinicians’ decision-making was consistent with the most recent American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP clinical recommendations regarding indications for a non-contrast head computed tomography (CT in patients with mild TBI. Methods: We surveyed 2 academic emergency medicine departments. Six realistic clinical vignettes were created. The survey software randomly varied 2 factors: age (30, 59, or 61 years old and presence or absence of visible trauma above the clavicles. A single important question was asked: “Would you perform a non-contrast head CT on this patient?” Results: Physician decision-making was consistent with the guidelines in only 62.8% of total vignettes. By age group (30, 59, and 61, decision-making was consistent with the guidelines in 66.7%, 47.4%, and 72.7% of cases, respectively. This was a statistically-significant difference when comparing the 59- and 61-year-old age groups. In the setting of presence/absence of trauma above the clavicles, respondents were consistent with the guidelines in 57.1% of cases. Decision-making consistent with the guidelines was significantly better in the absence of trauma above the clavicles. Conclusion: Respondents poorly differentiated the “older” patients from one another, suggesting that respondents either inappropriately apply the guidelines or are unaware of the recommendations in this setting. No particular cause for inconsistency could be determined, and respondents similarly under-scanned and over-scanned in incorrect vignettes. Improved dissemination of the ACEP clinical policy and recommendations is a potential solution to this problem.

  16. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin are new members of the heme-globin family. Both globins are primarily expressed in neurons of the brain and retina. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin have been suggested as novel therapeutic targets in various neurodegenerative diseases based on their oxygen binding and cell...... protecting properties. However, findings in Neuroglobin-deficient mice question the endogenous neuroprotective properties. The expression pattern of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the rodent brain is also in contradiction to a major role of neuronal protection. In a recent study, Neuroglobin was ubiquitously...... expressed and up-regulated following stroke in the human brain. The present study aimed at confirming our previous observations in rodents using two post-mortem human brains. The anatomical localization of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the human brain is much like what has been described for the rodent...

  17. Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

    2009-01-01

    ) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting......ADAM12/meltrin alpha is a type I transmembrane multidomain protein involved in tumor progression and other severe diseases, including osteoarthritis, and as such could be considered as a potential drug target. In addition to protease activity, ADAM12 possesses cell binding and cell signaling...... properties. This functional trinity is reflected in the structure of ADAM12, which can be divided into head, body, and tail. The head of the protein (consisting of the pro and catalytic domains) mediates processing of growth factors and cytokines and has been implicated in epidermal growth factor (EGF...

  18. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Desrivières, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Biks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.K.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; den Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santiañez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Sämann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J.; van Eijk, K.R.; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Welan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.H.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.G.A.M.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.M.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.A.M.; Reese McKay, D.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Pütz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; van der Marel, S.S.L.; van Hulzen, K.J.E.; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; de Zubicaray, G.I.; Dillman, A.; Duggirala, R.; Dyer, T.D.; Erk, S.; Fedko, I.O.; Ferrucci, L.; Foroud, T.M.; Fox, P.T.; Fukunaga, M.; Gibbs, J.R.; Göring, H.H.H.; Green, R.C.; Guelfi, S.; Hansell, N.K.; Hartman, C.A.; Hegenscheid, K.; Heinz, A.; Hernandez, D.G.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Holsboer, F.; Homuth, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Ikeda, M.; Jack, C.R., Jr.; Jenkinson, M.; Johnson, R.; Kanai, R.; Keil, M.; Kent, J.W. Jr.; Kochunov, P.; Kwok, J.B.; Lawrie, S.M.; Liu, X.; Longo, D.L.; McMahon, K.L.; Meisenzahl, E.; Melle, I.; Mohnke, S.; Montgomery, G.W.; Mostert, J.C.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Nalls, M.A.; Nichols, T.E.; Nilsson, L.G.; Nöthen, M.M.; Ohi, K.; Olvera, R.L.; Perez-Iglesias, R.; Pike, G.B.; Potkin, S.G.; Reinvang, I.; Reppermund, S.; Rietschel, M.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N.; Rosen, G.D.; Rujescu, D.; Schnell, K.; Schofield, P.R.; Smith, C.; Steen, V.M.; Sussmann, J.E.; Thalamuthu, A.; Toga, A.W.; Traynor, B.J.; Troncoso, J.; Turner, J.A.; Valdés Hernández, M.C.; van t Ent, D.; van der Brug, M.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; van Tol, M.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Wassink, T.H.; Westmann, E.; Zielke, R.H.; Zonderman, A.B.; Ashbrook, D.G.; Hager, R.; Lu, L.; McMahon, F.J.; Morris, D.W.; Williams, R.W.; Brunner, H.G.; Buckner, R.L.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cahn, W.; Calhoun, V.D.; Cavalleri, G.L.; Crespo-Facorro, B.; Dale, A.M.; Davies, G.E.; Delanty, N.; Depondt, C.; Djurovic, S.; Drevets, W.C.; Espeseth, T.; Gollub, R.L.; Ho, B.C.; Hoffmann, W.; Hosten, N.; Kahn, R.S.; Le Hellard, S.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Nauck, M.; Nyberg, L.; Pandolfo, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Roffman, J.L.; Sisodiya, SM; Smoller, J.W.; van Bokhoven, H.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Völzke, H.; Walter, H.; Weiner, M.W.; Wen, W.; White, T.; Agartz, I.; Andreassen, O.A.; Blangero, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Brouwer, R.M.; Cannon, D.M.; Cookson, M.R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Deary, I.J.; Donohoe, G.; Fernandez, G.; Fisher, S.E.; Francks, C.; Glahn, D.C.; Grabe, H.J.; Gruber, O.; Hardy, J.; Hashimoto, R.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Jönsson, E.G.; Kloszewska, I.; Lovestone, S.; Mattay, V.S.; Mecocci, P.; McDonald, C.; McIntosh, A.M.; Ophoff, R.A.; Paus, T.; Pausova, Z.; Ryten, M.; Sachdev, P.S.; Saykin, A.J.; Simmons, A.; Singleton, A.; Soininen, H.; Wardlaw, J.M.; Weale, M.E.; Weinberger, D.R.; Adams, H.H.H.; Launer, L.J.; Seiler, S.; Schmidt, R.; Chauhan, G.; Satizabal, C.L.; Becker, J.T.; Yanek, L.; van der Lee, S.J.; Ebling, M.; Fischl, B.; Longstreth, Jr. W.T.; Greve, D.; Schmidt, H.; Nyquist, P.; Vinke, L.N.; van Duijn, C.M.; Xue, L.; Mazoyer, B.; Bis, J.C.; Gudnason, V.; Seshadri, S.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Martin, N.G.; Wright, M.J.; Schumann, G.; Franke, B.; Thompson, P.M.; Medland, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  19. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); L.T. Strike (Lachlan); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn (René); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  20. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  1. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Balesar, Rawien A.; Baaijen, Johannes C.; de Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F.

    2015-01-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by

  2. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the

  3. Microstructural brain injury in post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Lugt, Aad van der; Houston, Gavin C.; Dippel, Diederik W.J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    After minor head injury (MHI), post-concussive symptoms commonly occur. The purpose of this study was to correlate the severity of post-concussive symptoms in MHI patients with MRI measures of microstructural brain injury, namely mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as the presence of microhaemorrhages. Twenty MHI patients and 12 healthy controls were scanned at 3 T using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-resolution gradient recalled echo (HRGRE) T2*-weighted sequences. One patient was excluded from the analysis because of bilateral subdural haematomas. DTI data were preprocessed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics. The resulting MD and FA images were correlated with the severity of post-concussive symptoms evaluated with the Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire. The number and location of microhaemorrhages were assessed on the HRGRE T2*-weighted images. Comparing patients with controls, there were no differences in MD. FA was decreased in the right temporal subcortical white matter. MD was increased in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. FA was reduced in association with the severity of post-concussive symptoms in the uncinate fasciculus, the IFO, the internal capsule and the corpus callosum, as well as in the parietal and frontal subcortical white matter. Microhaemorrhages were observed in one patient only. The severity of post-concussive symptoms after MHI was significantly correlated with a reduction of white matter integrity, providing evidence of microstructural brain injury as a neuropathological substrate of the post-concussion syndrome. (orig.)

  4. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...

  5. Anatomy and metabolism of the normal human brain studied by magnetic resonance at 1.5 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, P.A.; Hart, H.R. Jr.; Edelstein, W.A.; Schenck, J.F.; Smith, L.S.; Leue, W.M.; Mueller, O.M.; Redington, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the human head in magnetic fields as high as 1.5 Tesla (T) using slotted resonator high radio-frequency (RF) detection coils. The images showed no RF field penetration problems and exhibited an 11 (+/-1)-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over a .12-T imaging system. The first localized phosphorus 31, carbon 13, and proton MR chemical shift spectra recorded with surface coils from the head and body in the same instrument showed relative concentrations of phosphorus metabolites, triglycerides, and, when correlated with proton images, negligible lipid (-CH 2 -) signal from brain tissue on the time scale of the imaging experiment. Sugar phosphate and phosphodiester concentrations were significantly elevated in the head compared with muscle. This method should allow the combined assessment of anatomy, metabolism, and biochemistry in both the normal and diseased brain

  6. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains (“female brain” or “male brain”). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only “male” or only “female” features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the “maleness-femaleness” continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique “mosaics” of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705

  7. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  8. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  9. Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, I V; Baken, L; Groenenberg, I A L; Husen, S C; Dudink, J; Willemsen, S P; Gijtenbeek, M; Koning, A H J; Reiss, I K M; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-05-01

    Can growth trajectories of the human embryonic head be created using 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and virtual reality (VR) technology, and be associated with second trimester fetal head size and periconceptional maternal conditions? Serial first trimester head circumference (HC) and head volume (HV) measurements were used to create reliable growth trajectories of the embryonic head, which were significantly associated with fetal head size and periconceptional maternal smoking, age and ITALIC! in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fetal growth is influenced by periconceptional maternal conditions. We selected 149 singleton pregnancies with a live born non-malformed fetus from the Rotterdam periconception cohort. Bi-parietal diameter and occipital frontal diameter to calculate HC, HV and crown-rump length (CRL) were measured weekly between 9 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks gestational age (GA) using 3D-US and VR. Fetal HC was obtained from second trimester structural anomaly scans. Growth trajectories of the embryonic head were created with general additive models and linear mixed models were used to estimate associations with maternal periconceptional conditions as a function of GA and CRL, respectively. A total of 303 3D-US images of 149 pregnancies were eligible for embryonic head measurements (intra-class correlation coefficients >0.99). Associations were found between embryonic HC and fetal HC ( ITALIC! ρ = 0.617, ITALIC! P head measured by HC and HV (All ITALIC! P head may be of benefit in future early antenatal care. This study was funded by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre and Sophia Foundation for Medical Research, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (SSWO grant number 644). No competing interests are declared. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  10. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  11. Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0491 TITLE: Default, Cognitive, and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jennifer R...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Default, Cognitive and Affective Brain Networks in Human Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Tinnitus is a major health problem among those currently and formerly in military

  12. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images...

  13. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  14. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  16. Vestibular brain changes within 70 days of head down bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; De Dios, Yiri; Gadd, Nichole; Wood, Scott; Riascos, Roy; Kofman, Igor; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2018-03-12

    Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) is frequently utilized as a spaceflight analog research environment to study the effects of axial body unloading and fluid shifts that are associated with spaceflight in the absence of gravitational modifications. HDBR has been shown to result in balance changes, presumably due to sensory reweighting and adaptation processes. Here, we examined whether HDBR results in changes in the neural correlates of vestibular processing. Thirteen men participated in a 70-day HDBR intervention; we measured balance, functional mobility, and functional brain activity in response to vestibular stimulation at 7 time points before, during, and after HDBR. Vestibular stimulation was administered by means of skull taps, resulting in activation of the vestibular cortex and deactivation of the cerebellar, motor, and somatosensory cortices. Activation in the bilateral insular cortex, part of the vestibular network, gradually increased across the course of HDBR, suggesting an upregulation of vestibular inputs in response to the reduced somatosensory inputs experienced during bed rest. Furthermore, greater increase of activation in multiple frontal, parietal, and occipital regions in response to vestibular stimulation during HDBR was associated with greater decrements in balance and mobility from before to after HDBR, suggesting reduced neural efficiency. These findings shed light on neuroplastic changes occurring with conditions of altered sensory inputs, and reveal the potential for central vestibular-somatosensory convergence and reweighting with bed rest. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The role of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Christel Braemer; Buchwald, Christian von

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing awareness of a subset of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC), i.e. HPV-positive HNSCC. These cancers seem to differ somewhat from HPV-negative HNSCC. Patients with HPV-positive HNSCC tend to be younger and have a lower intake of ......-negative HNSCC, and this seems to be related to the immune system. Whether the new vaccines for HPV will protect not only against cervical cancer but also against HPV-positive HNSCC remains unknown....

  18. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on Human Brain Gray Matter and White Matter--Evidence from MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available There is limited and inconclusive evidence that space environment, especially microgravity condition, may affect microstructure of human brain. This experiment hypothesized that there would be modifications in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM of the brain due to microgravity.Eighteen male volunteers were recruited and fourteen volunteers underwent -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR for 30 days simulated microgravity. High-resolution brain anatomical imaging data and diffusion tensor imaging images were collected on a 3T MR system before and after HDBR. We applied voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics analysis to investigate the structural changes in GM and WM of brain.We observed significant decreases of GM volume in the bilateral frontal lobes, temporal poles, parahippocampal gyrus, insula and right hippocampus, and increases of GM volume in the vermis, bilateral paracentral lobule, right precuneus gyrus, left precentral gyrus and left postcentral gyrus after HDBR. Fractional anisotropy (FA changes were also observed in multiple WM tracts.These regions showing GM changes are closely associated with the functional domains of performance, locomotion, learning, memory and coordination. Regional WM alterations may be related to brain function decline and adaption. Our findings provide the neuroanatomical evidence of brain dysfunction or plasticity in microgravity condition and a deeper insight into the cerebral mechanisms in microgravity condition.

  19. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Ustinin, Mikhail N.; Rykunov, Stanislav D.; Boyko, Anna I.; Sychev, Vyacheslav V.; Walton, Kerry D.; Rabello, Guilherme M.; Garcia, John

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in 10 healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in 10 healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject's head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space. PMID:26528119

  20. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans....... This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. METHODS: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general...... anesthesia were included. Prior to surgery (baseline), at postoperative days 3 to 4, and after 3 months, patients were examined using [11C]PBR28 brain PET imaging to assess brain immune cell activation. Concurrently, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, ex vivo blood tests on immunoreactivity...

  1. Eyewear Computing – Augmenting the Human with Head-mounted Wearable Assistants (Dagstuhl Seminar 16042)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulling, Andreas; Cakmakci, Ozan; Kunze, Kai; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The seminar was composed of workshops and tutorials on head-mounted eye tracking, egocentric vision, optics, and head-mounted displays. The seminar welcomed 30 academic and industry researchers from Europe, the US, and Asia with a diverse background, including wearable and ubiquitous computing, computer vision, developmental psychology, optics, and human-computer interaction. In contrast to several previous Dagstuhl seminars, we used an ignite talk format to reduce the time of talks to...

  2. Human Papilloma Virus Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Ajila, Vidya; Shetty, Harish; Babu, Subhas; Shetty, Veena; Hegde, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the commonest causes for mortality and morbidity with squamous cell carcinoma being the sixth most frequent malignant tumour worldwide. In addition to tobacco and alcohol, human papilloma virus (HPV) is associated with a proportion of head and neck cancers. As in cervical cancers, HPV types 16 and 18 are the cause of malignant transformation. HPV-positive cancers of head and neck have unique characteristics such as occurrence in a younger age group, distinct clinical and...

  3. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 13C NMR for the assessment of human brain glucose metabolism in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, N.; Seelig, J.; Turkalj, I.; Keller, U.

    1991-01-01

    Proton-decoupled 13 C NMR spectra of the human head were obtained during hyperglycemic glucose clamping using intravenous infusions of [1- 13 C]glucose in normal volunteers. In addition to 13 C signals of mobile lipids, a variety of new metabolite resonances could be resolved for the first time in the human brain. At an enrichment level of 20% [1- 13 C]glucose, the signals of α- and β-glucose at 92.7 and 96.6 ppm, respectively, could be detected in the human brain after only an infusion period of 15 minutes. The spatial localization of the different regions of interest was confirmed by 13 C NMR spectroscopic imaging with a time resolution of 9 minutes. Increasing the enrichment level to 99% [1- 13 C]glucose not only improved the time resolution but allowed the detection of metabolic breakdown products of [1- 13 C]glucose. The time course of 13 C label incorporation into the C 2 , C 3 , and C 4 resonances of glutamate/glutamine and into lactate could be recorded in the human brain. These results suggest the possibility of obtaining time-resolved, spatially selective, and chemically specific information on the human body

  5. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  6. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  7. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  8. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  9. CO2 reactivity and brain oxygen pressure monitoring in severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona Suazo, J A; Maas, A I; van den Brink, W A; van Santbrink, H; Steyerberg, E W; Avezaat, C J

    2000-09-01

    To investigate the effect of hyperventilation on cerebral oxygenation after severe head injury. A prospective, observational study. Neurointensive care unit at a university hospital. A total of 90 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbrO2) was performed as a measure of cerebral oxygenation. Arterial PCO2 was decreased each day over a 5-day period for 15 mins by increasing minute volume on the ventilator setting to 20% above baseline. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed before and after changing ventilator settings. Multimodality monitoring, including PbrO2, was performed in all patients. Absolute and relative PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity was calculated. Outcome at 6 months was evaluated according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Effective hyperventilation, defined by a decrease of PaCO2 > or =2 torr (0.27 kPa), was obtained in 218 (84%) of 272 tests performed. Baseline PaCO2 averaged 32.3 +/- 4.5 torr (4.31 +/- 0.60 kPa). Average reduction in PaCO2 was 3.8 +/- 1.7 torr (0.51 +/- 0.23 kPa). PbrO2 decreased by 2.8 +/- 3.7 torr (0.37 +/- 0.49 kPa; p < .001) from a baseline value of 26.5 +/- 11.6 torr (3.53 +/- 1.55 kPa). PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity was low on day 1 (0.8 +/- 2.3 torr [0.11 +/- 0.31 kPa]), increasing on subsequent days to 6.1 +/- 4.4 torr (0.81 +/- 0.59 kPa) on day 5. PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity on days 1 and 2 was not related to outcome. In later phases in patients with unfavorable outcome, relative reactivity was increased more markedly, reaching statistical significance on day 5. Increased hyperventilation causes a significant reduction in PbrO2, providing further evidence for possible increased risk of secondary ischemic damage during hyperventilation. The low PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity on day 1 indicates the decreased responsiveness of cerebral microvascular vessels to PaCO2 changes, caused by generalized vascular narrowing. The increasing PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity from days 2 to 5 suggests that the risk of

  10. The role of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Christel Braemer; Buchwald, Christian von

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing awareness of a subset of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC), i.e. HPV-positive HNSCC. These cancers seem to differ somewhat from HPV-negative HNSCC. Patients with HPV-positive HNSCC tend to be younger and have a lower intake...... of tobacco and alcohol. Distinct molecular profiles separate them from HPV-negative cancers and show similarities with HPV-positive cervical SCC. There is evidence that HPV-positive HNSCC is a sexually transmitted disease. Patients with HPV-positive HNSCC are often diagnosed at a late stage with large cystic......-negative HNSCC, and this seems to be related to the immune system. Whether the new vaccines for HPV will protect not only against cervical cancer but also against HPV-positive HNSCC remains unknown....

  11. Cyto- and receptor architectonic mapping of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of the human brain is more than the generation of an atlas-based parcellation of brain regions using histologic or histochemical criteria. It is the attempt to provide a topographically informed model of the structural and functional organization of the brain. To achieve this goal a multimodal atlas of the detailed microscopic and neurochemical structure of the brain must be registered to a stereotaxic reference space or brain, which also serves as reference for topographic assignment of functional data, e.g., functional magnet resonance imaging, electroencephalography, or magnetoencephalography, as well as metabolic imaging, e.g., positron emission tomography. Although classic maps remain pioneering steps, they do not match recent concepts of the functional organization in many regions, and suffer from methodic drawbacks. This chapter provides a summary of the recent status of human brain mapping, which is based on multimodal approaches integrating results of quantitative cyto- and receptor architectonic studies with focus on the cerebral cortex in a widely used reference brain. Descriptions of the methods for observer-independent and statistically testable cytoarchitectonic parcellations, quantitative multireceptor mapping, and registration to the reference brain, including the concept of probability maps and a toolbox for using the maps in functional neuroimaging studies, are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Allen Q; Ajilore, Olusola A; Conte, Giorgio; GadElkarim, Johnson; Thomas-Ramos, Galen; Zhan, Liang; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Magin, Richard L; G Forbes, Angus; Leow, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome data acquired from a sample of healthy subjects. Results supported the nonlinearity of brain connectivity data, as linear reduction techniques such as the multidimensional scaling yielded inferior lower-dimensional embeddings. To further validate our results, we demonstrated that for tractography-derived structural connectome more influential regions such as rich-club members of the brain are more centrally mapped or embedded. Further, abnormal brain connectivity can be visually understood by inspecting the altered geometry of these three-dimensional (3D) embeddings that represent the topology of the human brain, as illustrated using simulated lesion studies of both targeted and random removal. Last, in order to visualize brain's intrinsic topology we have developed software that is compatible with virtual reality technologies, thus allowing researchers to collaboratively and interactively explore and manipulate brain connectome data.

  13. Ecology of the aging human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnen, Joshua A; Santa Cruz, Karen; Hemmy, Laura S; Woltjer, Randall; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Kathleen S; Jack, Clifford R; Kaye, Jeffrey; Lim, Kelvin; Larson, Eric B; White, Lon; Montine, Thomas J

    2011-08-01

    Alzheimer disease, cerebral vascular brain injury, and isocortical Lewy body disease (LBD) are the major contributors to dementia in community- and population-based studies. To estimate the prevalence of clinically silent forms of these diseases in cognitively normal (CN) adults. Autopsy study. Community- and population based. A total of 1672 brain autopsies from the Adult Changes in Thought study, Honolulu-Asia Aging Study, Nun Study, and Oregon Brain Aging Study, of which 424 met the criteria for CN. Of these, 336 cases had a comprehensive neuropathologic examination of neuritic plaque density, Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles, LB distribution, and number of cerebral microinfarcts. Forty-seven percent of CN cases had moderate or frequent neuritic plaque density; of these, 6% also had Braak stage V or VI for neurofibrillary tangles. Fifteen percent of CN cases had medullary LBD; 8% also had nigral and 4% isocortical LBD. The presence of any cerebral microinfarcts was identified in 33% and of high-level cerebral microinfarcts in 10% of CN individuals. Overall, the burden of lesions in each individual and their comorbidity varied widely within each study but were similar across studies. These data show an individually varying complex convergence of subclinical diseases in the brain of older CN adults. Appreciating this ecology should help guide future biomarker and neuroimaging studies and clinical trials that focus on community- and population-based cohorts.

  14. Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Clark E; DeLapp, Scott; Jacques, Steven; Anders, Juanita

    2015-04-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level light therapy has been used successfully for the treatment of injury and disease of the nervous system. The use of PBM to treat injury and diseases of the brain requires an in-depth understanding of light propagation through tissues including scalp, skull, meninges, and brain. This study investigated the light penetration gradients in the human cadaver brain using a Transcranial Laser System with a 30 mm diameter beam of 808 nm wavelength light. In addition, the wavelength-dependence of light scatter and absorbance in intraparenchymal brain tissue using 660, 808, and 940 nm wavelengths was investigated. Intact human cadaver heads (n = 8) were obtained for measurement of light propagation through the scalp/skull/meninges and into brain tissue. The cadaver heads were sectioned in either the transverse or mid-sagittal. The sectioned head was mounted into a cranial fixture with an 808 nm wavelength laser system illuminating the head from beneath with either pulsed-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW) laser light. A linear array of nine isotropic optical fibers on a 5 mm pitch was inserted into the brain tissue along the optical axis of the beam. Light collected from each fiber was delivered to a multichannel power meter. As the array was lowered into the tissue, the power from each probe was recorded at 5 mm increments until the inner aspect of the dura mater was reached. Intraparenchymal light penetration measurements were made by delivering a series of wavelengths (660, 808, and 940 nm) through a separate optical fiber within the array, which was offset from the array line by 5 mm. Local light penetration was determined and compared across the selected wavelengths. Unfixed cadaver brains provide good anatomical localization and reliable measurements of light scatter and penetration in the CNS tissues. Transcranial application of 808 nm wavelength light penetrated the scalp, skull, meninges, and brain

  15. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  16. Cognitive genomics: Linking genes to behavior in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Konopka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.

  17. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  18. Does 'black' brain mean doom? - computed tomography in the prediction of outcome in children with severe head injuries: 'benign' vs 'malignant' brain swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, K.M.; Pascoe, M.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective review of initial and subsequent Computed Tomography (CT) scans of 179 children who had suffered severe head injury requiring admission to intensive care was performed. The aim was to define the CT appearance which was always associated with a poor outcome. The children whose brain showed poor definition of basal ganglia and grey-white differentiation overall, together with sufficient swelling to obliterate the ambient cistern and third ventricle always died or remained in a vegetative state. Over half of these had reduced brain density, and several had small focal high densities consistent with contusions or petechial haemorrhages. A typical appearance showed homogeneous scans at the levels of the ambient cistern and thalami with no normal internal brain detail. Conversely obliteration of the ambient cistern associated with a large surface collection was compatible with complete recovery if grey-white definition remained normal and treatment was prompt

  19. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  1. Gene expression in the aging human brain: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Adith; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-03-01

    The review aims to provide a summary of recent developments in the study of gene expression in the aging human brain. Profiling differentially expressed genes or 'transcripts' in the human brain over the course of normal aging has provided valuable insights into the biological pathways that appear activated or suppressed in late life. Genes mediating neuroinflammation and immune system activation in particular, show significant age-related upregulation creating a state of vulnerability to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease in the aging brain. Cellular ionic dyshomeostasis and age-related decline in a host of molecular influences on synaptic efficacy may underlie neurocognitive decline in later life. Critically, these investigations have also shed light on the mobilization of protective genetic responses within the aging human brain that help determine health and disease trajectories in older age. There is growing interest in the study of pre and posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, and the role of noncoding RNAs in particular, as mediators of the phenotypic diversity that characterizes human brain aging. Gene expression studies in healthy brain aging offer an opportunity to unravel the intricately regulated cellular underpinnings of neurocognitive aging as well as disease risk and resiliency in late life. In doing so, new avenues for early intervention in age-related neurodegenerative disease could be investigated with potentially significant implications for the development of disease-modifying therapies.

  2. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Development of Human Brain Structural Networks Through Infancy and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. PMID:24335033

  4. Original Research Human papillomavirus in head and neck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 The College of Medicine and the Medical Association of Malawi. This work is ... Original Research. Human ... simultaneous evaluation of other risk factors including HIV ..... increased HNSCC compared to HIV-negative people.18,19.

  5. Metaproteomic analysis of human gut microbiota: where are we heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pey Yee; Chin, Siok-Fong; Neoh, Hui-Min; Jamal, Rahman

    2017-06-12

    The human gut is home to complex microbial populations that change dynamically in response to various internal and external stimuli. The gut microbiota provides numerous functional benefits that are crucial for human health but in the setting of a disturbed equilibrium, the microbial community can cause deleterious outcomes such as diseases and cancers. Characterization of the functional activities of human gut microbiota is fundamental to understand their roles in human health and disease. Metaproteomics, which refers to the study of the entire protein collection of the microbial community in a given sample is an emerging area of research that provides informative details concerning functional aspects of the microbiota. In this mini review, we present a summary of the progress of metaproteomic analysis for studying the functional role of gut microbiota. This is followed by an overview of the experimental approaches focusing on fecal specimen for metaproteomics and is concluded by a discussion on the challenges and future directions of metaproteomic research.

  6. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT in children with minor head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Alharthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. Results: No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, ′fall′ as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA, more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Conclusion: Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings.

  7. BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mingrui; Wang, Jinhui; He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI), we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/).

  8. BrainNet Viewer: a network visualization tool for human brain connectomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui Xia

    Full Text Available The human brain is a complex system whose topological organization can be represented using connectomics. Recent studies have shown that human connectomes can be constructed using various neuroimaging technologies and further characterized using sophisticated analytic strategies, such as graph theory. These methods reveal the intriguing topological architectures of human brain networks in healthy populations and explore the changes throughout normal development and aging and under various pathological conditions. However, given the huge complexity of this methodology, toolboxes for graph-based network visualization are still lacking. Here, using MATLAB with a graphical user interface (GUI, we developed a graph-theoretical network visualization toolbox, called BrainNet Viewer, to illustrate human connectomes as ball-and-stick models. Within this toolbox, several combinations of defined files with connectome information can be loaded to display different combinations of brain surface, nodes and edges. In addition, display properties, such as the color and size of network elements or the layout of the figure, can be adjusted within a comprehensive but easy-to-use settings panel. Moreover, BrainNet Viewer draws the brain surface, nodes and edges in sequence and displays brain networks in multiple views, as required by the user. The figure can be manipulated with certain interaction functions to display more detailed information. Furthermore, the figures can be exported as commonly used image file formats or demonstration video for further use. BrainNet Viewer helps researchers to visualize brain networks in an easy, flexible and quick manner, and this software is freely available on the NITRC website (www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/.

  9. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice, to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in

  10. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  11. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  12. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  13. The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Strathearn, Lane; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Early mother-infant relationships play important roles in infants’ optimal development. New mothers undergo neurobiological changes that support developing mother-infant relationships regardless of great individual differences in those relationships. In this article, we review the neural plasticity in human mothers’ brains based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. First, we review the neural circuits that are involved in establishing and maintaining mother-infant relationships. Second, we discuss early postpartum factors (e.g., birth and feeding methods, hormones, and parental sensitivity) that are associated with individual differences in maternal brain neuroplasticity. Third, we discuss abnormal changes in the maternal brain related to psychopathology (i.e., postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and potential brain remodeling associated with interventions. Last, we highlight potentially important future research directions to better understand normative changes in the maternal brain and risks for abnormal changes that may disrupt early mother-infant relationships. PMID:26268151

  14. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  15. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  16. Addiction Circuitry in the Human Brain*

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S.; Tomasi, Dardo

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person’s risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circ...

  17. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  18. Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-09-01

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  20. Fundamental Dynamical Modes Underlying Human Brain Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Alvarado-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term dynamics of widely interacting cortical and subcortical networks during the wake-sleep cycle. Using large-scale intracranial recordings of epileptic patients during seizure-free periods, we investigated local- and long-range synchronization between multiple brain regions over several days. For such high-dimensional data, summary information is required for understanding and modelling the underlying dynamics. Here, we suggest that a compact yet useful representation is given by a state space based on the first principal components. Using this representation, we report, with a remarkable similarity across the patients with different locations of electrode placement, that the seemingly complex patterns of brain synchrony during the wake-sleep cycle can be represented by a small number of characteristic dynamic modes. In this space, transitions between behavioral states occur through specific trajectories from one mode to another. These findings suggest that, at a coarse level of temporal resolution, the different brain states are correlated with several dominant synchrony patterns which are successively activated across wake-sleep states.

  1. Functional organization of the transcriptome in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael C; Konopka, Genevieve; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Langfelder, Peter; Kato, Tadafumi; Horvath, Steve; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    The enormous complexity of the human brain ultimately derives from a finite set of molecular instructions encoded in the human genome. These instructions can be directly studied by exploring the organization of the brain’s transcriptome through systematic analysis of gene coexpression relationships. We analyzed gene coexpression relationships in microarray data generated from specific human brain regions and identified modules of coexpressed genes that correspond to neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. These modules provide an initial description of the transcriptional programs that distinguish the major cell classes of the human brain and indicate that cell type–specific information can be obtained from whole brain tissue without isolating homogeneous populations of cells. Other modules corresponded to additional cell types, organelles, synaptic function, gender differences and the subventricular neurogenic niche. We found that subventricular zone astrocytes, which are thought to function as neural stem cells in adults, have a distinct gene expression pattern relative to protoplasmic astrocytes. Our findings provide a new foundation for neurogenetic inquiries by revealing a robust and previously unrecognized organization to the human brain transcriptome. PMID:18849986

  2. Small-world human brain networks: Perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; He, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance. Moreover, the small-world organization undergoes continuous changes during normal development and ageing and exhibits dramatic alterations in neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we survey recent advances regarding the small-world architecture in human brain networks and highlight the potential implications and applications in multidisciplinary fields, including cognitive neuroscience, medicine and engineering. Finally, we highlight several challenging issues and areas for future research in this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simplified realistic human head model for simulating Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Cornelia; Bomzon, Ze'ev; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J; Miranda, Pedro C

    2016-08-01

    Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are alternating electric fields in the intermediate frequency range (100-300 kHz) of low-intensity (1-3 V/cm). TTFields are an anti-mitotic treatment against solid tumors, which are approved for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) patients. These electric fields are induced non-invasively by transducer arrays placed directly on the patient's scalp. Cell culture experiments showed that treatment efficacy is dependent on the induced field intensity. In clinical practice, a software called NovoTalTM uses head measurements to estimate the optimal array placement to maximize the electric field delivery to the tumor. Computational studies predict an increase in the tumor's electric field strength when adapting transducer arrays to its location. Ideally, a personalized head model could be created for each patient, to calculate the electric field distribution for the specific situation. Thus, the optimal transducer layout could be inferred from field calculation rather than distance measurements. Nonetheless, creating realistic head models of patients is time-consuming and often needs user interaction, because automated image segmentation is prone to failure. This study presents a first approach to creating simplified head models consisting of convex hulls of the tissue layers. The model is able to account for anisotropic conductivity in the cortical tissues by using a tensor representation estimated from Diffusion Tensor Imaging. The induced electric field distribution is compared in the simplified and realistic head models. The average field intensities in the brain and tumor are generally slightly higher in the realistic head model, with a maximal ratio of 114% for a simplified model with reasonable layer thicknesses. Thus, the present pipeline is a fast and efficient means towards personalized head models with less complexity involved in characterizing tissue interfaces, while enabling accurate predictions of electric field distribution.

  4. Brain Injury After Proton Therapy or Carbon Ion Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer and Skull Base Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Daisuke; Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Sasaki, Ryohei; Niwa, Yasue; Terashima, Kazuki; Nishimura, Hideki; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of early delayed or late morbidity of Brain after particle therapy for skull base tumors and head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Between May 2001 and December 2005, 59 patients with cancerous invasion of the skull base were treated with proton or carbon ion therapy at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. Adverse events were assessed according to the magnetic resonance imaging findings (late effects of normal tissue-subjective, objective, management, analytic [LENT-SOMA]) and symptoms (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version 3.0). Dose-volume histograms were used to analyze the relationship between the dose and volume of the irradiated brain and the occurrence of brain injury. The median follow-up time was 33 months. Results: Of the 48 patients treated with proton therapy and 11 patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy, 8 (17%) and 7 (64%), respectively, developed radiation-induced brain changes (RIBCs) on magnetic resonance imaging (LENT-SOMA Grade 1-3). Four patients (7%) had some clinical symptoms, such as vertigo and headache (CTCAE Grade 2) or epilepsy (CTCAE Grade 3). The actuarial occurrence rate of RIBCs at 2 and 3 years was 20% and 39%, respectively, with a significant difference in the incidence between the proton and carbon ion radiotherapy groups. The dose-volume histogram analyses revealed significant differences between Brain lobes with and without RIBCs in the actuarial volume of brain lobes receiving high doses. Conclusion: Particle therapies produced minimal symptomatic brain toxicities, but sequential evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging detected a greater incidence of RIBCs. Significant differences were observed in the irradiated brain volume between Brain lobes with and without RIBCs.

  5. NMR relaxation times in human brain tumors (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, L.; Certaines, J. de; Chatel, M.; Menault, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early work of Damadian in 1971, proton NMR studies of tumors has been well documented. Present study concerns the spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times of normal dog brain according to the histological differentiation and of 35 human benignant or malignant tumors. The results principally show T 2 important variations between white and gray substance in normal brain but no discrimination between malignant and benignant tumors [fr

  6. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  7. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  8. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  9. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Stephen J.; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Chang Lijan; Tong Junchao; Ginovart, Nathalie; Wilson, Alan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met

  10. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  11. SU-E-T-589: Optimization of Patient Head Angle Position to Spare Hippocampus During the Brain Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, G; Kang, Y [Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S; Kim, T; Kim, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Hippocampus is one of the important organs which controls emotions, behaviors, movements the memorizing and learning ability. In the conventional head & neck therapy position, it is difficult to perform the hippocampal-sparing brain radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate optimal head angle which can save the hippocampal-sparing and organ at risk (OAR) in conformal radiation therapy (CRT), Intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods: Three types of radiation treatment plans, CRT, IMRT and Tomotherapy plans, were performed for 10 brain tumor patients. The image fusion between CT and MRI data were used in the contour due to the limited delineation of the target and OAR in the CT scan. The optimal condition plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the each plan with the use of various parameters which include three different techniques (CRT, IMRT, HT) and 4 angle (0, 15, 30, 40 degree). The each treatment plans of three different techniques were compared with the following parameters: conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage, dose in the OARs, monitor units (MU), beam on time and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: HI, CI and target coverage was most excellent in head angle 30 degree among all angle. When compared by modality, target coverage and CI showed good results in IMRT and TOMO than compared to the CRT. HI at the head angle 0 degrees is 1.137±0.17 (CRT), 1.085±0.09 (IMRT) and 1.077±0.06 (HT). HI at the head angle 30 degrees is 1.056±0.08 (CRT), 1.020±0.05 (IMRT) and 1.022±0.07 (HT). Conclusion: The results of our study show that when head angle tilted at 30 degree, target coverage, HI, CI were improved, and the dose delivered to OAR was reduced compared with conventional supine position in brain radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid

  12. SU-E-T-589: Optimization of Patient Head Angle Position to Spare Hippocampus During the Brain Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, G; Kang, Y; Kang, S; Kim, T; Kim, D; Suh, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hippocampus is one of the important organs which controls emotions, behaviors, movements the memorizing and learning ability. In the conventional head & neck therapy position, it is difficult to perform the hippocampal-sparing brain radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate optimal head angle which can save the hippocampal-sparing and organ at risk (OAR) in conformal radiation therapy (CRT), Intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods: Three types of radiation treatment plans, CRT, IMRT and Tomotherapy plans, were performed for 10 brain tumor patients. The image fusion between CT and MRI data were used in the contour due to the limited delineation of the target and OAR in the CT scan. The optimal condition plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the each plan with the use of various parameters which include three different techniques (CRT, IMRT, HT) and 4 angle (0, 15, 30, 40 degree). The each treatment plans of three different techniques were compared with the following parameters: conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage, dose in the OARs, monitor units (MU), beam on time and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: HI, CI and target coverage was most excellent in head angle 30 degree among all angle. When compared by modality, target coverage and CI showed good results in IMRT and TOMO than compared to the CRT. HI at the head angle 0 degrees is 1.137±0.17 (CRT), 1.085±0.09 (IMRT) and 1.077±0.06 (HT). HI at the head angle 30 degrees is 1.056±0.08 (CRT), 1.020±0.05 (IMRT) and 1.022±0.07 (HT). Conclusion: The results of our study show that when head angle tilted at 30 degree, target coverage, HI, CI were improved, and the dose delivered to OAR was reduced compared with conventional supine position in brain radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid

  13. Multilayer modeling and analysis of human brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding how the human brain is structured, and how its architecture is related to function, is of paramount importance for a variety of applications, including but not limited to new ways to prevent, deal with, and cure brain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. The recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, together with the increasing attitude toward interdisciplinary approaches involving computer science, mathematics, and physics, are fostering interesting results from computational neuroscience that are quite often based on the analysis of complex network representation of the human brain. In recent years, this representation experienced a theoretical and computational revolution that is breaching neuroscience, allowing us to cope with the increasing complexity of the human brain across multiple scales and in multiple dimensions and to model structural and functional connectivity from new perspectives, often combined with each other. In this work, we will review the main achievements obtained from interdisciplinary research based on magnetic resonance imaging and establish de facto, the birth of multilayer network analysis and modeling of the human brain. PMID:28327916

  14. Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; Kuijpers, Maaike; Kerkhofs, Amber; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-07-31

    Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca's area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsiveness in these brain regions. Human infants already show left-sided dominance in their brain activation when exposed to speech. Moreover, a memory-specific left-sided dominance in Wernicke's area for speech perception has been demonstrated in 2.5-mo-old babies. It is possible that auditory-vocal learning is associated with hemispheric dominance and that this association arose in songbirds and humans through convergent evolution. Therefore, we investigated whether there is similar song memory-related lateralization in the songbird brain. We exposed male zebra finches to tutor or unfamiliar song. We found left-sided dominance of neuronal activation in a Broca-like brain region (HVC, a letter-based name) of juvenile and adult zebra finch males, independent of the song stimulus presented. In addition, juvenile males showed left-sided dominance for tutor song but not for unfamiliar song in a Wernicke-like brain region (the caudomedial nidopallium). Thus, left-sided dominance in the caudomedial nidopallium was specific for the song-learning phase and was memory-related. These findings demonstrate a remarkable neural parallel between birdsong and human spoken language, and they have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of auditory-vocal learning and its neural mechanisms.

  15. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain shape in human microcephalics and Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wayhu; Imhof, Herwig; Seidler, Horst; Prior, Fred

    2007-02-13

    Because the cranial capacity of LB1 (Homo floresiensis) is only 417 cm(3), some workers propose that it represents a microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species. This hypothesis is difficult to assess, however, without a clear understanding of how brain shape of microcephalics compares with that of normal humans. We compare three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions of the internal braincases (virtual endocasts that reproduce details of external brain morphology, including cranial capacities and shape) from a sample of 9 microcephalic humans and 10 normal humans. Discriminant and canonical analyses are used to identify two variables that classify normal and microcephalic humans with 100% success. The classification functions classify the virtual endocast from LB1 with normal humans rather than microcephalics. On the other hand, our classification functions classify a pathological H. sapiens specimen that, like LB1, represents an approximately 3-foot-tall adult female and an adult Basuto microcephalic woman that is alleged to have an endocast similar to LB1's with the microcephalic humans. Although microcephaly is genetically and clinically variable, virtual endocasts from our highly heterogeneous sample share similarities in protruding and proportionately large cerebella and relatively narrow, flattened orbital surfaces compared with normal humans. These findings have relevance for hypotheses regarding the genetic substrates of hominin brain evolution and may have medical diagnostic value. Despite LB1's having brain shape features that sort it with normal humans rather than microcephalics, other shape features and its small brain size are consistent with its assignment to a separate species.

  17. Proposed link rates in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Michael J A M

    2003-07-15

    There is increasing experimental evidence that neuronal synchronization is necessary for the large-scale integration of distributed neuronal activity to realize various time-dependent coherent neuronal assemblies in the brain. Phase synchronization seems a promising candidate to quantify the time-dependent, frequency specific, synchrony between simultaneously recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that may partially reflect this former process. We introduce a link rate (LR) as a measure of the spatial-temporal incidence of phase synchronization and phase de-synchronization. The concept is exemplified in its application to the analysis of spontaneous phase synchronization. To this end, three scalp EEG recordings are used: a normal control, a patient suffering from epileptic seizures and a patient with diffuse brain damage due to anoxia, showing a burst-suppression EEG. In addition, the method is applied to surrogate data (white noise). We find in the normal control that LR(control)=13.90+/-0.04 (mean+/-S.E.M.), which is different from the surrogate data, where we find that LR(surr)=15.36+/-0.05. In the two pathological conditions, the LR is significantly and strongly reduced to LR(burst)=4.52+/-0.05 and LR(seizure)=5.40+/-0.08. The derived LR seems a sensitive measure to relevant changes in synchronization, as these occur in the dynamic process of generating different spatial-temporal networks, both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. Message processing in the human brain. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, P

    1983-10-07

    For pt.II see ibid., no.19, p.95-100 (1983). The general problem of the possibly achievable super brain is discussed, and subtle differences between various linkages leading to selective processes, creativity decision making and speculative assessments are pointed out and translated into possible approaches to the making of machine intelligence. Generally, associative sequences for processing of large data flows cannot be attempted without the provision of generally valid linkage rules. Such coordination steps are considered first, the brain-machine simulation being built-up vertically on 6 levels and horizontally as recognition stages in an event. These six levels are: repertoire (i.e. vocabulary); definition; scene; happenings; spatial linkages; temporal linkages. Event simulation proceeds from the descriptive to the cognitive situation. Speculative discussions continue with the gradual introduction of computer hardware and software concepts to be adapted for intelligence simulation; thus, the simplest associative process could start with an adder network and proceed to a virtual expert system, which would include teaching by example, autonomous control, non-procedural language, all these governed by schedules.

  19. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.; Jenkinson, M.; Valabregue, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beckmann, C.F.; Smith, S.

    2014-01-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI

  20. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  1. Children and youth with 'unspecified injury to the head': implications for traumatic brain injury research and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincy; Mann, Robert E; Pole, Jason D; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The case definition for traumatic brain injury (TBI) often includes 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes. However, research has shown that the inclusion of these codes leads to false positives. As such, it is important to determine the degree to which inclusion of these codes affect the overall numbers and profiles of the TBI population. The objective of this paper was to profile and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, intention and mechanism of injury, and discharge disposition of hospitalized children and youth aged 19 years and under using (1) an inclusive TBI case definition that included 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes, (2) a restricted TBI case definition that excluded 'unspecified injury to the head 'diagnostic codes, and (3) the 'unspecified injury to the head' only case definition. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and the Discharge Abstract Database from Ontario, Canada, were used to identify cases between fiscal years 2003/04 and 2009/10. The rate of TBI episodes of care using the inclusive case definition for TBI (2,667.2 per 100,000) was 1.65 times higher than that of the restricted case definition (1,613.3 per 100,000). 'Unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic codes made up of 39.5 % of all cases identified with the inclusive case definition. Exclusion of 'unspecified injury to the head' diagnostic code in the TBI case definition resulted in a significantly higher proportion of patients in the intensive care units (p definition of TBI for the children and youth population is important, as it has implications for the numbers used for policy, resource allocation, prevention, and planning of healthcare services. This paper can inform future work on reaching consensus on the diagnostic codes for defining TBI in children and youth.

  2. A Study Of EMR And SAR Distribution In Human Head Phantom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power of 0.32W for both simulations were well below the limit of 1.6 W/kg of ICNIRP standard and FCC/IEEE standard of 2W/kg. Keywords: Electromagnetic radiation (EMR), Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), Electromagnetic simulation software (FEKO emss), Radio frequency field, human head, mobile phone, mobile phone ...

  3. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  4. Increased Brain Activation for Foot Movement During 70-Day 6 Deg Head-Down Bed Rest (HDBR): Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, P.; Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been widely used as a simulation of weightlessness in studying the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology and cognition. Changes in muscle function and functional mobility have been reported to be associated with bed rest. Understanding the effect of bed rest on neural control of movement would provide helpful information for spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how the brain activation for foot movement changed as a function of bed rest. Eighteen healthy men (aged 25 to 39 years) participated in this HDBR study. They remained continuously in the 6deg head-down tilt position for 70 days. Functional MRI was acquired during 1-Hz right foot tapping, and repeated at 7 time points: 12 days pre-, 8 days pre-, 7 days in-, 50 days in-, 70 days in-, 8 days post-, and 12 days post- HDBR. In all 7 sessions, we observed increased activation in the left motor cortex, right cerebellum and right occipital cortex during foot movement blocks compared to rest. Compared to the pre-HDBR baseline (1st and 2nd sessions), foot movement-induced activation in the left hippocampus increased during HDBR. This increase emerged in the 4th session, enlarged in the 5th session, and remained significant in the 6th and 7th sessions. Furthermore, increased activation relative to the baseline in left precuneus was observed in the 5th, 6th and 7th sessions. In addition, in comparison with baseline, increased activation in the left cerebellum was found in the 4th and 5th sessions, whereas increased activation in the right cerebellum was observed in the 4th, 6th and 7th sessions. No brain region exhibited decreased activation during bed rest compared to baseline. The increase of foot movement related brain activation during HDBR suggests that in a long-term head-down position, more neural control is needed to accomplish foot movements. This change required a couple of weeks to develop in HDBR (between 3rd and 4th sessions), and did not return to baseline even 12

  5. Thrombin binding to human brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, M.; Snider, R.M.; Richelson, E.

    1983-01-01

    Thrombin, a serine protease that regulates hemostasis, has been shown to stimulate the formation of cGMP in murine neuroblastoma cells. The nervous system in vivo thus may be postulated to respond to this blood-borne factor after it breaches the blood-brain barrier, as in trauma. Human alpha-thrombin was radiolabeled with 125I and shown to bind rapidly, reversibly, and with high affinity to human brain and spinal cord. These findings indicate the presence of specific thrombin-binding sites in nervous tissue and may have important clinical implications

  6. Simplified detection system for neuroreceptor studies in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Frost, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive dual-detector system has been developed for measurement of positronemitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of [11C]carfentanil, a high affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist indicates the potential utility of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor occupation in the human brain

  7. Mu opioid receptor binding sites in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilapil, C.; Welner, S.; Magnan, J.; Zamir, N.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Our experiments focused on the examination of the distribution of mu opioid receptor binding sites in normal human brain using the highly selective ligand [ 3 H]DAGO, in both membrane binding assay and in vitro receptor autoradiography. Mu opioid binding sites are very discretely distributed in human brain with high densities of sites found in the posterior amygdala, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus and certain cortical areas. Moreover the autoradiographic distribution of [ 3 H]DAGO binding sites clearly reveals the discrete lamination (layers I and III-IV) of mu sites in cortical areas

  8. Glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaria, R.N.; Gravina, S.A.; Schmidley, J.W.; Perry, G.; Harik, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    We identified and characterized the glucose transporter in the human cerebral cortex, cerebral microvessels, and choroid plexus by specific D-glucose-displaceable [3H]cytochalasin B binding. The binding was saturable, with a dissociation constant less than 1 microM. Maximal binding capacity was approximately 7 pmol/mg protein in the cerebral cortex, approximately 42 pmol/mg protein in brain microvessels, and approximately 27 pmol/mg protein in the choroid plexus. Several hexoses displaced specific [3H]cytochalasin B binding to microvessels in a rank-order that correlated well with their known ability to cross the blood-brain barrier; the only exception was 2-deoxy-D-glucose, which had much higher affinity for the glucose transporter than the natural substrate, D-glucose. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the glucose transporter of microvessels with [3H]cytochalasin B, followed by solubilization and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, labeled a protein band with an average molecular weight of approximately 55,000. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific to the human erythrocyte glucose transporter immunocytochemically stained brain blood vessels and the few trapped erythrocytes in situ, with minimal staining of the neuropil. In the choroid plexus, blood vessels did not stain, but the epithelium reacted positively. We conclude that human brain microvessels are richly endowed with a glucose transport moiety similar in molecular weight and antigenic characteristics to that of human erythrocytes and brain microvessels of other mammalian species

  9. Preventive sparing of spinal cord and brain stem in the initial irradiation of locally advanced head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Piras, Sara; Porru, Sergio; Massazza, Federica; Fadda, Giuseppina; Solla, Ignazio; Piras, Denise; Deidda, Maria Assunta; Amichetti, Maurizio; Possanzini, Marco

    2014-01-06

    Since reirradiation in recurrent head and neck patients is limited by previous treatment, a marked reduction of maximum doses to spinal cord and brain stem was investigated in the initial irradiation of stage III/IV head and neck cancers. Eighteen patients were planned by simultaneous integrated boost, prescribing 69.3 Gy to PTV1 and 56.1 Gy to PTV2. Nine 6 MV coplanar photon beams at equispaced gantry angles were chosen for each patient. Step-and-shoot IMRT was calculated by direct machine parameter optimization, with the maximum number of segments limited to 80. In the standard plan, optimization considered organs at risk (OAR), dose conformity, maximum dose < 45 Gy to spinal cord and < 50 Gy to brain stem. In the sparing plans, a marked reduction to spinal cord and brain stem were investigated, with/without changes in dose conformity. In the sparing plans, the maximum doses to spinal cord and brain stem were reduced from the initial values (43.5 ± 2.2 Gy and 36.7 ± 14.0 Gy), without significant changes on the other OARs. A marked difference (-15.9 ± 1.9 Gy and -10.1 ± 5.7 Gy) was obtained at the expense of a small difference (-1.3% ± 0.9%) from initial PTV195% coverage (96.6% ± 0.9%). Similar difference (-15.7 ± 2.2 Gy and -10.2 ± 6.1 Gy) was obtained compromising dose conformity, but unaffecting PTV195% and with negligible decrease in PTV295% (-0.3% ± 0.3% from the initial 98.3% ± 0.8%). A marked spinal cord and brain stem preventive sparing was feasible at the expense of a decrease in dose conformity or slightly compromising target coverage. A sparing should be recommended in highly recurrent tumors, to make potential reirradiation safer.

  10. Improvement of brain single photon emission tomography (SPET) using transmission data acquisition in a four-head SPET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Tanada, Shuji; Inoue, Takeshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1993-01-01

    Attenuation coefficient maps (μ-maps) are a useful way to compensate for non-uniform attenuation when performing single photon emission tomography (SPET). A new method was developed to record single photon transmission data and a μ-map for the brain was produced using a four-head SPET scanner. Transmission data were acquired by a gamma camera of opposite to a flood radioactive source attached to one of four gamma cameras in the four-head SPET scanner. Attenuation correction was performed using the iterative expectation maximization algorithm and the μ-map. Phantom studies demonstrated that this method could reconstruct the distribution of radioactivity more accurately than conventional methods, even for a severely non-uniform μ-map, and could improve the quality of SPET images. Clinical application to technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPET also demonstrated the usefulness of this method. Thus, this method appears to be promising for improvement in the image quality and quantitative accuracy of brain SPET. (orig.)

  11. Measuring and Reconstructing the Brain at the Synaptic Scale: Towards a Biofidelic Human Brain in silico

    OpenAIRE

    NeuroData; CE, Priebe; Burns, R.; RJ, Vogelstein

    2015-01-01

    Vogelstein JT, Priebe CE, Burns R, Vogelstein RJ, Lichtman J. Measuring and Reconstructing the Brain at the Synaptic Scale: Towards a Biofidelic Human Brain in silico. DARPA Neural Engineering, Science and Technology Forum, 2010

  12. Neurospin Seminar: From the Proton to the Human Brain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From the Proton to the Human Brain Speaker: Prof Denis Le Bihan Abstract: The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched a program to conceive and build a “human brain explorer”, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious Iseult project, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI. In this seminar a summary of the main features of this magnet, and the neuroscience and medical targets of NeuroSpin where this outstanding instrument will be installed in 2017 will be surveyed. The unprecedented resolution and the new contrasts allowed by such UHF magnets, in combination with innovative concepts in physics and neurobiology, will allow to explore the human brain at a mesoscale at which everything remains to d...

  13. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Adams, Hieab H H; Launer, Lenore J; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L; Becker, James T; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W T; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Medland, Sarah E

    2015-04-09

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  14. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

  15. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Friedrich

    Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  16. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  17. Motor, visual and emotional deficits in mice after closed-head mild traumatic brain injury are alleviated by the novel CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton; Heldt, Scott A; Presley, Chaela S; Guley, Natalie H; Elberger, Andrea J; Deng, Yunping; D'Surney, Lauren; Rogers, Joshua T; Ferrell, Jessica; Bu, Wei; Del Mar, Nobel; Honig, Marcia G; Gurley, Steven N; Moore, Bob M

    2014-12-31

    We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50-60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2), we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50-60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI.

  18. Motor, Visual and Emotional Deficits in Mice after Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Are Alleviated by the Novel CB2 Inverse Agonist SMM-189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Reiner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50–60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2, we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50–60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI.

  19. Muecas: A Multi-Sensor Robotic Head for Affective Human Robot Interaction and Imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, including eyes, eyebrows, mouth and neck, and has been designed and built entirely by IADeX (Engineering, Automation and Design of Extremadura and RoboLab. A detailed description of its kinematics is provided along with the design of the most complex controllers. Muecas can be directly controlled by FACS (Facial Action Coding System, the de facto standard for facial expression recognition and synthesis. This feature facilitates its use by third party platforms and encourages the development of imitation and of goal-based systems. Imitation systems learn from the user, while goal-based ones use planning techniques to drive the user towards a final desired state. To show the flexibility and reliability of the robotic head, the paper presents a software architecture that is able to detect, recognize, classify and generate facial expressions in real time using FACS. This system has been implemented using the robotics framework, RoboComp, which provides hardware-independent access to the sensors in the head. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the real-time functioning of the whole system, including recognition and imitation of human facial expressions.

  20. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  1. Short echo time proton spectroscopy of the brain in healthy volunteers using an insert gradient head coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Danielsen, E R; Schneider, M

    1995-01-01

    An insert gradient head coil with built-in X, Y, and Z gradients was used for localized proton spectroscopy in the brain of healthy volunteers, using short echo time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequences. Volume of interest size was 3.4 ml, repetition time was 6.0 s, and echo times...... were 10 and 20 ms, respectively. Good quality proton spectra with practically no eddy current artefacts were acquired allowing observation of strongly coupled compounds, and compounds with short T2 relaxation times. The gradient head coil thus permits further studies of compounds such as glutamine....../glutamate and myo-inositols. These compounds were more prominent within grey matter than within white matter. Rough estimations of metabolite concentrations using water as an internal standard were in good agreement with previous reports....

  2. Quantifying anisotropy and fiber orientation in human brain histological sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Budde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI has provided unparalleled insight into the microscopic structure and organization of the central nervous system. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and other models of the diffusion MRI signal extract microstructural properties of tissues with relevance to the normal and injured brain. Despite the prevalence of such techniques and applications, accurate and large-scale validation has proven difficult, particularly in the human brain. In this report, human brain sections obtained from a digital public brain bank were employed to quantify anisotropy and fiber orientation using structure tensor analysis. The derived maps depict the intricate complexity of white matter fibers at a resolution not attainable with current DWI experiments. Moreover, the effects of multiple fiber bundles (i.e. crossing fibers and intravoxel fiber dispersion were demonstrated. Examination of the cortex and hippocampal regions validated specific features of previous in vivo and ex vivo DTI studies of the human brain. Despite the limitation to two dimensions, the resulting images provide a unique depiction of white matter organization at resolutions currently unattainable with DWI. The method of analysis may be used to validate tissue properties derived from DTI and alternative models of the diffusion signal.

  3. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N; Wall, Matthew B; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J; Clarke, Sophie A; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M; Jayasena, Channa N; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C; Thomas, Sarah A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2017-02-01

    Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin's enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC).

  4. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  5. The role of Human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer and the impact on radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    The profound influence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) on the epidemiological pattern and clinical course of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) has led to a change in the traditional understanding of this disease entity. Separate therapeutic strategies based on tumour HPV status are under consideration and in this light provision of knowledge concerning the influence of tumour HPV on the radiation response in HNSCC appears highly relevant. This review provides a summary of the current understanding of the role of HPV in head and neck cancer with specific focus on the viral impact on radiotherapy outcome of HNSCC.

  6. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  7. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the heat part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field; Denryoku shuhasu no denkai ni yori jintai model tobu nonai ni yudosareru denryu mitsudo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A. [Yonago National College of Technology, Tottori (Japan); Isaka, K. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Kaune, W.

    1998-06-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has little been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distributions of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the bead part of the axisymmetrical human model have been made clear. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Main-, minor- and trace elements distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Roschger, P.; Bohic, S.; Osterode, W.

    2004-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to induce adverse health effects in humans. In fact, cognitive deficits are repeatedly described with Pb exposure, but little is known about the distribution of lead in brain. Measurements of the distribution of Pb in human brain and to study if Pb is associated with the distribution of other chemical elements such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) is of great interest and could reveal some hints about the metabolism of Pb in brain. To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out at ID-22, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The installed microprobe setup provides a monochromatic beam (17 keV) from an undulator station focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray optics to a spot size of 5 μm x 3μm. Brain slices (20 μm thickness, imbedded in paraffin and mounted on Kapton foils) from areas of the frontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus have been investigated. Generally no significant increase in fluorescence intensities could be detected in one of the investigated brain compartments. However Pb and other (trace) elements (e.g. S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) could be detected in all samples and showed strong inhomogeneities across the analyzed areas. While S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br could be clearly assigned to the investigated brain structures (vessels, etc.) Pb showed a very different behavior. In some cases (e.g. plexus choroidei) Pb was located at the walls of the vessel, whereas with other structures (e.g. blood vessel) this correlation was not found. Moreover, the detected Pb in different brain areas was individually correlated with various elements. The local distribution of the detected elements in various brain structures will be discussed in this work. (author)

  9. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  10. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    , and the impacts of anti-oxidant activities in neuroprotection. These elements have the capacity to help in the defense of human cognitive disorders, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, bipolar diseases, and adverse conditions characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Psychological benefits...

  11. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  12. Simple instrument for biochemical studies of the living human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, A.N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Lee, M.C.; Frost, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, relatively inexpensive radiation detection system was developed for measurement of positron-emitting receptor-binding drugs in the human brain. This high-efficiency coincidence counting system requires that only a few hundred microcuries of labeled drug be administered to the subject, thereby allowing for multiple studies without an excessive radiation dose. Measurement of the binding of [ 11 C]-carfentanil, a high-affinity synthetic opiate, to opiate receptors in the presence and in the absence of a competitive opiate antagonist exemplifies the use of this system for estimating different degrees of receptor binding of drugs in the human brain. The instrument has also been used for measurement of the transport into the brain of other positron-emitting radiotracers, such as large neutral amino acids

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  14. Direct hits to the head during amateur boxing is associated with a rise in serum biomarkers for brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M R; Myers, T; Evans, P; Davies, B; Cooper, S M; Bhattacharya, K; Grace, F M; Baker, J S

    2011-01-01

    Boxing exposes participants to the physiological response to high intensity exercise and also to direct body and brain trauma. Amateur boxing is increasing and females have also been included in the Olympics. The aim of this study is to assess the stress response and possible brain injury incurred during a match by measuring serum biomarkers associated with stress and cellular brain injury before and after combat. Sixteen male amateur boxers were studied retrospectively. The study population was divided into two groups: (a) a group that received predominantly punches to the head (PTH) and (b) a group that received predominantly punches to the body (PTB). Blood samples were taken before and five minutes after each contest. They were analysed for S-100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol. The PTH group received direct contacts to the head (not blocked, parried or avoided) and to the body (n=8, age: 17.6 ± 5.3, years; height: 1.68 ± 0.13, meters; mass: 65.4 ± 20.3, kg). The PTB group received punches to the body including blocked and parried punches, but received no direct punches to the head, (n=8, mean ± SD, age: 19.1 ± 3.2 years; height: 1.70 ± 0.75, meters; mass: 68.5 ± 15 kg). Significant increases (P<0.05) were observed between pre- and post-combat serum concentrations in serum concentrations in PTH of S-100B (0.35 ± 0.61 vs. 0.54 ± 0.73, μg.L-1) NSE (19.7 ± 14 vs.31.1 ± 26.6, ng.ml-1) and cortisol (373 ± 202 vs. 756 ± 93, nmol.L-1). Significant increases (P<0.05) of creatine kinase were recorded in both groups. This study demonstrates significant elevations in neurochemical biomarkers in boxers who received direct blows to the head. However, further work is required to quantify this volumetric brain damage and long term clinical sequelae.

  15. Head movement during CT brain perfusion acquisition of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, F.; Beenen, L.F.M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Janssen, N.Y.; Jong, H.W. de; Riordan, A.; Roos, Y.B.; Majoie, C.B.; Bavel, E. van; Marquering, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) is a promising tool to support treatment decision for acute ischemic stroke patients. However, head movement during acquisition may limit its applicability. Information of the extent of head motion is currently lacking. Our purpose is to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the extent of head movement during acquisition. Methods: From 103 consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute ischemic stroke, head movement in 220 CTP datasets was qualitatively categorized by experts as none, minimal, moderate, or severe. The movement was quantified using 3D registration of CTP volume data with non-contrast CT of the same patient; yielding 6 movement parameters for each time frame. The movement categorization was correlated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and baseline characteristic using multinomial logistic regression and student's t-test respectively. Results: Moderate and severe head movement occurred in almost 25% (25/103) of all patients with acute ischemic stroke. The registration technique quantified head movement with mean rotation angle up to 3.6° and 14°, and mean translation up to 9.1 mm and 22.6 mm for datasets classified as moderate and severe respectively. The rotation was predominantly in the axial plane (yaw) and the main translation was in the scan direction. There was no statistically significant association between movement classification and NIHSS score and baseline characteristics. Conclusions: Moderate or severe head movement during CTP acquisition of acute stroke patients is quite common. The presented registration technique can be used to automatically quantify the movement during acquisition, which can assist identification of CTP datasets with excessive head movement

  16. Head movement during CT brain perfusion acquisition of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, F., E-mail: f.fahmi@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beenen, L.F.M., E-mail: l.f.beenen@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Streekstra, G.J., E-mail: g.j.streekstra@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, N.Y., E-mail: n.n.janssen@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, H.W. de, E-mail: H.W.A.M.deJong@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiology, UMC Utrecht, 3584CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Riordan, A., E-mail: alan.riordan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, UMC Utrecht, 3584CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roos, Y.B., E-mail: y.b.roos@amc.uva.nl [Department of Neurology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Majoie, C.B., E-mail: c.b.majoie@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bavel, E. van, E-mail: e.vanbavel@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marquering, H.A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) is a promising tool to support treatment decision for acute ischemic stroke patients. However, head movement during acquisition may limit its applicability. Information of the extent of head motion is currently lacking. Our purpose is to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the extent of head movement during acquisition. Methods: From 103 consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute ischemic stroke, head movement in 220 CTP datasets was qualitatively categorized by experts as none, minimal, moderate, or severe. The movement was quantified using 3D registration of CTP volume data with non-contrast CT of the same patient; yielding 6 movement parameters for each time frame. The movement categorization was correlated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and baseline characteristic using multinomial logistic regression and student's t-test respectively. Results: Moderate and severe head movement occurred in almost 25% (25/103) of all patients with acute ischemic stroke. The registration technique quantified head movement with mean rotation angle up to 3.6° and 14°, and mean translation up to 9.1 mm and 22.6 mm for datasets classified as moderate and severe respectively. The rotation was predominantly in the axial plane (yaw) and the main translation was in the scan direction. There was no statistically significant association between movement classification and NIHSS score and baseline characteristics. Conclusions: Moderate or severe head movement during CTP acquisition of acute stroke patients is quite common. The presented registration technique can be used to automatically quantify the movement during acquisition, which can assist identification of CTP datasets with excessive head movement.

  17. Sodium MR imaging of human brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Takakura, Kintomo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    We reported the experience of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging of 5 patients with brain tumors (4 astrocytomas and 1 craniopharyngioma), using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla superconductive magnet. We used two-dimensional Fourier imaging with a spin-echo scanning sequence (and with the repetition time of 140 msec and the echo time of 11 - 14 msec). The radiofrequency was maintained at 17 MHz. Sodium MR imaging was achieved with a 64 x 64 data acquisition (30 mm slice thickness) in 19.1 min. On the sodium MRI, all four astrocytomas, along with the eye balls and the cerebrospinal fluid spaces, appeared as high-intensity areas. Peritumoral edema is also visualized as highly intense, so that it is difficult to discriminate tumor extent from the surrounding edema. Our comparative studies with malignant glioma cases using the same equipment are needed to clarify the relationship between sodium signal intensities and the malignancy of gliomas, and to evaluate the potential clinical utility of sodium MRI. A craniopharyngioma than contained a yellowish cystic fluid with a sodium concentration as high as CSF was shown on sodium MRI as a mass with highly intense signals. The ability to differentiate extracellular from intracellular sodium, that has been studied by several investigators, would greatly augment the clinical specificity of MR imaging. (author)

  18. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain | Baichoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain.

  19. Development of BOLD signal hemodynamic responses in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arichi, T.; Varela, M.; Melendez-Calderon, A.; Allievi, A.; Merchant, N.; Tusor, N.; Counsell, S.J.; Burdet, E.; Beckmann, Christian; Edwards, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the rodent brain the hemodynamic response to a brief external stimulus changes significantly during development. Analogous changes in human infants would complicate the determination and use of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in developing

  20. Using human brain activity to guide machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ruth C; Scheirer, Walter J; Cox, David D

    2018-03-29

    Machine learning is a field of computer science that builds algorithms that learn. In many cases, machine learning algorithms are used to recreate a human ability like adding a caption to a photo, driving a car, or playing a game. While the human brain has long served as a source of inspiration for machine learning, little effort has been made to directly use data collected from working brains as a guide for machine learning algorithms. Here we demonstrate a new paradigm of "neurally-weighted" machine learning, which takes fMRI measurements of human brain activity from subjects viewing images, and infuses these data into the training process of an object recognition learning algorithm to make it more consistent with the human brain. After training, these neurally-weighted classifiers are able to classify images without requiring any additional neural data. We show that our neural-weighting approach can lead to large performance gains when used with traditional machine vision features, as well as to significant improvements with already high-performing convolutional neural network features. The effectiveness of this approach points to a path forward for a new class of hybrid machine learning algorithms which take both inspiration and direct constraints from neuronal data.

  1. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 3. Human brain evolution, theories of innovation, and lessons from the history of technology. Alfred Gierer. Perspectives Volume 29 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 235-244. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Insights into Brain Glycogen Metabolism: THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN BRAIN GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Ines; Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Cocaign, Angélique; Léger, Thibaut; Woffendin, Gary; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Etchebest, Catherine; Haouz, Ahmed; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2016-08-26

    Brain glycogen metabolism plays a critical role in major brain functions such as learning or memory consolidation. However, alteration of glycogen metabolism and glycogen accumulation in the brain contributes to neurodegeneration as observed in Lafora disease. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism, catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glycogen mobilization. Moreover, the allosteric regulation of the three GP isozymes (muscle, liver, and brain) by metabolites and phosphorylation, in response to hormonal signaling, fine-tunes glycogenolysis to fulfill energetic and metabolic requirements. Whereas the structures of muscle and liver GPs have been known for decades, the structure of brain GP (bGP) has remained elusive despite its critical role in brain glycogen metabolism. Here, we report the crystal structure of human bGP in complex with PEG 400 (2.5 Å) and in complex with its allosteric activator AMP (3.4 Å). These structures demonstrate that bGP has a closer structural relationship with muscle GP, which is also activated by AMP, contrary to liver GP, which is not. Importantly, despite the structural similarities between human bGP and the two other mammalian isozymes, the bGP structures reveal molecular features unique to the brain isozyme that provide a deeper understanding of the differences in the activation properties of these allosteric enzymes by the allosteric effector AMP. Overall, our study further supports that the distinct structural and regulatory properties of GP isozymes contribute to the different functions of muscle, liver, and brain glycogen. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Human astrocytes: structure and functions in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Flora; Dossi, Elena; Rouach, Nathalie

    2017-07-01

    Data collected on astrocytes' physiology in the rodent have placed them as key regulators of synaptic, neuronal, network, and cognitive functions. While these findings proved highly valuable for our awareness and appreciation of non-neuronal cell significance in brain physiology, early structural and phylogenic investigations of human astrocytes hinted at potentially different astrocytic properties. This idea sparked interest to replicate rodent-based studies on human samples, which have revealed an analogous but enhanced involvement of astrocytes in neuronal function of the human brain. Such evidence pointed to a central role of human astrocytes in sustaining more complex information processing. Here, we review the current state of our knowledge of human astrocytes regarding their structure, gene profile, and functions, highlighting the differences with rodent astrocytes. This recent insight is essential for assessment of the relevance of findings using animal models and for comprehending the functional significance of species-specific properties of astrocytes. Moreover, since dysfunctional astrocytes have been described in many brain disorders, a more thorough understanding of human-specific astrocytic properties is crucial for better-adapted translational applications.

  4. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and its potential role in evaluating the effect of head movement in PET of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.; Clarke, G.H.; Lombardo, P.; McKay, W.J.; Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We outline an example of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in the assessment of image quality. ROC analysis is a measure of image quality that accounts for the consequences of the decision and the role of the observer. Kim and Haynie (Nuclear Diagnostic Imaging: Practical Clinical Applications. Melbourne: Macmillan, 1987) describe ROC analysis as an 'objective approach to the evaluation of diagnostic decision making'. ROC analysis is an ideal technique for evaluating images of a Hoffman brain phantom obtained using positron emission tomography. Images have been acquired with the phantom in different positions. The position of the phantom and the time the phantom remained in each position was based on the measurements of head movement during simulated brain imaging (Patterson et al., Technologists Symposium, ANZSNM, 1998). This study was undertaken to explore the potential of ROC analysis in determining the effect of movement on the ability to detect lesions of various sizes

  5. ‘Studying Injured Minds’ - The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 years of brain injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eRaymont

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established.

  6. Channel heads in mountain catchments subject to human impact - The Skrzyczne range in Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska-Wałach, Dominika; Żelazny, Mirosław; Małek, Stanisław; Krakowian, Katarzyna; Dąbek, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    Channel heads in mountain catchments are increasingly influenced by human activity. The disturbance of mountain headwater areas in moderate latitudes by the clearing of trees and the associated logging, road building and hydrotechnical constructions contribute to changes in the water cycle and consequently may induce a change in channel head development. Here we examine channel heads in the Beskid Śląski Mts., one of the areas most affected by ecological disaster in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. An ecological disaster associated with the decline of spruce trees in the 1980s and 1990s caused a substantial decrease (of about 50%) in the land area occupied by spruce forest in the Beskid Śląski Mts. As a result, headwater areas were subject to multidirectional changes in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to determine the detailed characteristics of channel heads currently developing in the analyzed headwater areas, as well as to identify independent factors that affect the evolution of channel heads. Geomorphological mapping was conducted in 2012 in the vicinity of springs in the study area. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between mean values calculated for groups identified based on: i) geomorphologic processes (hollows with rock veneer - h, spring niches - sn, gullies - g), ii) location vs. transformation of channel heads (forested areas vs., deforested areas with road constructions). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the structure and general patterns associated with relationships between the parameters of a channel head and its contribution area, as well as to identify and interpret new (orthogonal) spaces defined using distinct factors. As far as we know, this kind of approach has been never applied before. A total of 80 channel heads surrounding 104 springs were surveyed close to the main ridge in the study area. A total of 14 morphometric parameters were taken into account in this study

  7. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  8. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Allie K.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed

  9. Visualization of specific binding sites of benzodiazepine in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, H.; Yamasaki, T.; Inoue, O.; Itoh, T.; Suzuki, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Tateno, Y.; Ikehira, H.

    1986-01-01

    Using 11C-labeled Ro15-1788 and positron emission tomography, studies of benzodiazepine binding sites in the human brain were performed on four normal volunteers. Rapid and high accumulation of 11C activity was observed in the brain after i.v. injection of [11C]Ro15-1788, the maximum of which was within 12 min. Initial distribution of 11C activity in the brain was similar to the distribution of the normal cerebral blood flow. Ten minutes after injection, however, a high uptake of 11C activity was observed in the cerebral cortex and moderate uptake was seen in the cerebellar cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus. The accumulation of 11C activity was low in the brain stem. This distribution of 11C activity was approximately parallel to the known distribution of benzodiazepine receptors. Saturation experiments were performed on four volunteers with oral administration of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg of cold Ro15-1788 prior to injection. Initial distribution of 11C activity following injection peaked within 2 min and then the accumulation of 11C activity decreased rapidly and remarkably throughout the brain. The results indicated that [11C] Ro15-1788 associates and dissociates to specific and nonspecific binding sites rapidly and has a high ratio of specific receptor binding to nonspecific binding in vivo. Carbon-11 Ro15-1788 is a suitable radioligand for the study of benzodiazepine receptors in vivo in humans

  10. Complex Trajectories of Brain Development in the Healthy Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andescavage, Nickie N; du Plessis, Adre; McCarter, Robert; Serag, Ahmed; Evangelou, Iordanis; Vezina, Gilbert; Robertson, Richard; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    This study characterizes global and hemispheric brain growth in healthy human fetuses during the second half of pregnancy using three-dimensional MRI techniques. We studied 166 healthy fetuses that underwent MRI between 18 and 39 completed weeks gestation. We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the brain and calculated volumes for left and right cortical gray matter (CGM), fetal white matter (FWM), deep subcortical structures (DSS), and the cerebellum. We calculated the rate of growth for each tissue class according to gestational age and described patterns of hemispheric growth. Each brain region demonstrated major increases in volume during the second half of gestation, the most pronounced being the cerebellum (34-fold), followed by FWM (22-fold), CGM (21-fold), and DSS (10-fold). The left cerebellar hemisphere, CGM, and DSS had larger volumes early in gestation, but these equalized by term. It has been increasingly recognized that brain asymmetry evolves throughout the human life span. Advanced quantitative MRI provides noninvasive measurements of early structural asymmetry between the left and right fetal brain that may inform functional and behavioral laterality differences seen in children and young adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  13. Ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Dawe, Robert J; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to (a) develop an approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, (b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and (c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in vivo and ex vivo. An approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex vivo was assessed. The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both antemortem and postmortem. This approach for ex vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than intersubject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements. Regional brain volumes measured with this approach for ex vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in vivo and ex vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that this approach captures information linked to antemortem macrostructural brain characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Modelling and validation of diffuse reflectance of the adult human head for fNIRS: scalp sub-layers definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Montero-Hernández, Samuel; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-11-01

    Accurate estimation of brain haemodynamics parameters such as cerebral blood flow and volume as well as oxygen consumption i.e. metabolic rate of oxygen, with funcional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) requires precise characterization of light propagation through head tissues. An anatomically realistic forward model of the human adult head with unprecedented detailed specification of the 5 scalp sublayers to account for blood irrigation in the connective tissue layer is introduced. The full model consists of 9 layers, accounts for optical properties ranging from 750nm to 950nm and has a voxel size of 0.5mm. The whole model is validated comparing the predicted remitted spectra, using Monte Carlo simulations of radiation propagation with 108 photons, against continuous wave (CW) broadband fNIRS experimental data. As the true oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during acquisition are unknown, a genetic algorithm searched for the vector of parameters that generates a modelled spectrum that optimally fits the experimental spectrum. Differences between experimental and model predicted spectra was quantified using the Root mean square error (RMSE). RMSE was 0.071 +/- 0.004, 0.108 +/- 0.018 and 0.235+/-0.015 at 1, 2 and 3cm interoptode distance respectively. The parameter vector of absolute concentrations of haemoglobin species in scalp and cortex retrieved with the genetic algorithm was within histologically plausible ranges. The new model capability to estimate the contribution of the scalp blood flow shall permit incorporating this information to the regularization of the inverse problem for a cleaner reconstruction of brain hemodynamics.

  15. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  16. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Vértes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the timeseries of 90 stocks from the New York Stock Exchange over a three-year period, and the fMRI-derived timeseries acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10 min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimised for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph theoretically-mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  17. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Nicol, Ruth M; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W; Robertson, Duncan A; Bullmore, Edward T

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the time series of 90 stocks from the New York stock exchange over a 3-year period, and the fMRI-derived time series acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10-min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimized for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph-theoretically mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  18. Reconstruction of human brain spontaneous activity based on frequency-pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the analysis and localization of brain activity has been developed, based on multichannel magnetic field recordings, over minutes, superimposed on the MRI of the individual. Here, a high resolution Fourier Transform is obtained over the entire recording period, leading to a detailed multi-frequency spectrum. Further analysis implements a total decomposition of the frequency components into functionally invariant entities, each having an invariant field pattern localizable in recording space. The method, addressed as functional tomography, makes it possible to find the distribution of magnetic field sources in space. Here, the method is applied to the analysis of simulated data, to oscillating signals activating a physical current dipoles phantom, and to recordings of spontaneous brain activity in ten healthy adults. In the analysis of simulated data, 61 dipoles are localized with 0.7 mm precision. Concerning the physical phantom the method is able to localize three simultaneously activated current dipoles with 1 mm precision. Spatial resolution 3 mm was attained when localizing spontaneous alpha rhythm activity in ten healthy adults, where the alpha peak was specified for each subject individually. Co-registration of the functional tomograms with each subject’s head MRI localized alpha range activity to the occipital and/or posterior parietal brain region. This is the first application of this new functional tomography to human brain activity. The method successfully provides an overall view of brain electrical activity, a detailed spectral description and, combined with MRI, the localization of sources in anatomical brain space.

  19. SAR in human head model due to resonant wireless power transfer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guoqiang; Li, Yanhong; Song, Xianjin

    2016-04-29

    Efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between transmitter and the receiver has been achieved based on the magnetic resonant coupling method. The influence of electromagnetic field on the human body due to resonant wireless power transfer system (RWPT) should be taken into account during the design process of the system. To analyze the transfer performance of the RWPT system and the change rules of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head model due to the RWPT system. The circuit-field coupling method for a RWPT system with consideration of the displacement current was presented. The relationship between the spiral coil parameters and transfer performance was studied. The SAR in the human head model was calculated under two different exposure conditions. A system with output power higher than 10 W at 0.2 m distance operating at a frequency of approximately 1 MHz was designed. The FEM simulation results show the peak SAR value is below the safety limit which appeared when the human head model is in front of the transmitter. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results, which verified the validity of the analysis and design.

  20. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  1. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  2. Cross-hemispheric functional connectivity in the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Dassanayake, Maya T; Shen, Stephen; Katkuri, Yashwanth; Alexis, Mitchell; Anderson, Amy L; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Studholme, Colin; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Romero, Roberto

    2013-02-20

    Compelling evidence indicates that psychiatric and developmental disorders are generally caused by disruptions in the functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks. Events occurring during development, and in particular during fetal life, have been implicated in the genesis of such disorders. However, the developmental timetable for the emergence of neural FC during human fetal life is unknown. We present the results of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging performed in 25 healthy human fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (24 to 38 weeks of gestation). We report the presence of bilateral fetal brain FC and regional and age-related variation in FC. Significant bilateral connectivity was evident in half of the 42 areas tested, and the strength of FC between homologous cortical brain regions increased with advancing gestational age. We also observed medial to lateral gradients in fetal functional brain connectivity. These findings improve understanding of human fetal central nervous system development and provide a basis for examining the role of insults during fetal life in the subsequent development of disorders in neural FC.

  3. Dystrophic microglia in the aging human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Sammons, Nicole W; Kuhns, Amanda J; Sparks, D Larry

    2004-01-15

    We have studied microglial morphology in the human cerebral cortex of two nondemented subjects using high-resolution LN-3 immunohistochemistry. Several abnormalities in microglial cytoplasmic structure, including deramification, spheroid formation, gnarling, and fragmentation of processes, were identified. These changes were determined to be different from the morphological changes that occur during microglial activation and they were designated collectively as microglial dystrophy. Quantitative evaluation of dystrophic changes in microglia revealed that these were much more prevalent in the older subject (68-year-old) than in the younger one (38-year-old). Thus, we conclude that microglial dystrophy is a sign of microglial cell senescence. We hypothesize that microglial senescence could be important for understanding age-related declines in cognitive function. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...... receptors (AMY) are a heterodimer formed by the coexpression of CTR with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CTR with RAMP1 responds potently to both amylin and CGRP. The brain stem is a major site of action for circulating amylin and is a rich site of CGRP binding. This study aimed to enhance our...

  5. Successful renal transplantation from a brain-dead deceased donor with head injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation and deranged renal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Ghuge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased donors (DDs with the brain death due to head injury are the major source of organs for transplantation. The incidence of post-head injury disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC ranges from 24% to 50%. Many centers do not accept organs from donors with DIC due to increased risk of primary graft non-function and/or high chances of morbidity/mortality. We performed two successful renal transplants from a DD with head injury with DIC and deranged renal function. One of the recipients developed transient thrombocytopenia, but there was no evidence of DIC or delayed graft functions in either of the recipients. Over a follow-up of 1 month, both are doing well with stable graft function and hematological profile. Thus, a carefully selected DD with severe DIC even with deranged renal function is not a contraindication for organ donation if other risk factors for primary non-function are excluded. This approach will also help in overcoming organ shortage.

  6. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  7. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...... in contrast recovery of small structures....

  8. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study.

  9. Cells in human postmortem brain tissue slices remain alive for several weeks in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, Ronald W. H.; Hermens, Wim T. J. M. C.; Dijkhuizen, PaulaA; ter Brake, Olivier; Baker, Robert E.; Salehi, Ahmad; Sluiter, Arja A.; Kok, Marloes J. M.; Muller, Linda J.; Verhaagen, Joost; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for human neurological and psychiatric diseases only partially mimic the underlying pathogenic processes. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of cultured postmortem brain tissue from adult neurological patients and controls. The present study shows that human brain tissue

  10. Whole-head functional brain imaging of neonates at cot-side using time-resolved diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura A.; Cooper, Robert J.; Powell, Samuel; Edwards, Andrea; Lee, Chuen-Wai; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Everdell, Nick; Arridge, Simon; Gibson, Adam P.; Austin, Topun; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2015-07-01

    We present a method for acquiring whole-head images of changes in blood volume and oxygenation from the infant brain at cot-side using time-resolved diffuse optical tomography (TR-DOT). At UCL, we have built a portable TR-DOT device, known as MONSTIR II, which is capable of obtaining a whole-head (1024 channels) image sequence in 75 seconds. Datatypes extracted from the temporal point spread functions acquired by the system allow us to determine changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients within the interrogated tissue. This information can then be used to define clinically relevant measures, such as oxygen saturation, as well as to reconstruct images of relative changes in tissue chromophore concentration, notably those of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. Additionally, the effective temporal resolution of our system is improved with spatio-temporal regularisation implemented through a Kalman filtering approach, allowing us to image transient haemodynamic changes. By using this filtering technique with intensity and mean time-of-flight datatypes, we have reconstructed images of changes in absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in a dynamic 2D phantom. These results demonstrate that MONSTIR II is capable of resolving slow changes in tissue optical properties within volumes that are comparable to the preterm head. Following this verification study, we are progressing to imaging a 3D dynamic phantom as well as the neonatal brain at cot-side. Our current study involves scanning healthy babies to demonstrate the quality of recordings we are able to achieve in this challenging patient population, with the eventual goal of imaging functional activation and seizures.

  11. The neural encoding of guesses in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Bogler, Carsten; Soon, Chun Siong; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-01-16

    Human perception depends heavily on the quality of sensory information. When objects are hard to see we often believe ourselves to be purely guessing. Here we investigated whether such guesses use brain networks involved in perceptual decision making or independent networks. We used a combination of fMRI and pattern classification to test how visibility affects the signals, which determine choices. We found that decisions regarding clearly visible objects are predicted by signals in sensory brain regions, whereas different regions in parietal cortex became predictive when subjects were shown invisible objects and believed themselves to be purely guessing. This parietal network was highly overlapping with regions, which have previously been shown to encode free decisions. Thus, the brain might use a dedicated network for determining choices when insufficient sensory information is available. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Listening to humans walking together activates the social brain circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.

  13. Brain-Computer Interfaces Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) establishes a direct output channel between the human brain and external devices. BCIs infer user intent via direct measures of brain activity and thus enable communication and control without movement. This book, authored by experts in the field, provides an accessible introduction to the neurophysiological and signal-processing background required for BCI, presents state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive approaches, gives an overview of current hardware and software solutions, and reviews the most interesting as well as new, emerging BCI applications. The book is intended not only for students and young researchers, but also for newcomers and other readers from diverse backgrounds keen to learn about this vital scientific endeavour.

  14. Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 m...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....... in the brain at rest or after 15 min of exercise, but a small release of IL-6 was observed after 60 min of exercise in the first bout (0.06 +/- 0.03 ng min(-1)). This release of IL-6 from the brain was five-fold greater at the end of the second bout (0.30 +/- 0.08 ng min(-1); P

  15. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  16. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  17. Controversies surrounding Human Papilloma Virus infection, head & neck vs oral cancer, implications for prophylaxis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Campisi, G.; Giovannelli, L.

    2009-01-01

    Head & Neck Cancer (HNC) represents the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and it is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors, i.e., tobacco smoking and/or the alcohol consumption. Recently, substantial evidence has been mounting that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is playing an increasing important role in oral cancer. Because of the attention and clamor surrounding oral HPV infection and related cancers, as well as the use of HPV prophylactic vaccines, in this in...

  18. Midsagittal Brain Variation among Non-Human Primates: Insights into Evolutionary Expansion of the Human Precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Rilling, James K; Chen, Xu; Preuss, Todd M; Bruner, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    The precuneus is a major element of the superior parietal lobule, positioned on the medial side of the hemisphere and reaching the dorsal surface of the brain. It is a crucial functional region for visuospatial integration, visual imagery, and body coordination. Previously, we argued that the precuneus expanded in recent human evolution, based on a combination of paleontological, comparative, and intraspecific evidence from fossil and modern human endocasts as well as from human and chimpanzee brains. The longitudinal proportions of this region are a major source of anatomical variation among adult humans and, being much larger in Homo sapiens, is the main characteristic differentiating human midsagittal brain morphology from that of our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee. In the current shape analysis, we examine precuneus variation in non-human primates through landmark-based models, to evaluate the general pattern of variability in non-human primates, and to test whether precuneus proportions are influenced by allometric effects of brain size. Results show that precuneus proportions do not covary with brain size, and that the main difference between monkeys and apes involves a vertical expansion of the frontal and occipital regions in apes. Such differences might reflect differences in brain proportions or differences in cranial architecture. In this sample, precuneus variation is apparently not influenced by phylogenetic or allometric factors, but does vary consistently within species, at least in chimpanzees and macaques. This result further supports the hypothesis that precuneus expansion in modern humans is not merely a consequence of increasing brain size or of allometric scaling, but rather represents a species-specific morphological change in our lineage. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Sigma and opioid receptors in human brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.; Szuecs, M.; Mamone, J.Y.; Bem, W.T.; Rush, M.D.; Johnson, F.E.; Coscia, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Human brain tumors and nude mouse-borne human neuroblastomas and gliomas were analyzed for sigma and opioid receptor content. Sigma binding was assessed using [ 3 H] 1, 3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), whereas opioid receptor subtypes were measured with tritiated forms of the following: μ, [D-ala 2 , mePhe 4 , gly-ol 5 ] enkephalin (DAMGE); κ, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) or U69,593; δ, [D-pen 2 , D-pen 5 ] enkephalin (DPDPE) or [D-ala 2 , D-leu 5 ] enkephalin (DADLE) with μ suppressor present. Binding parameters were estimated by homologous displacement assays followed by analysis using the LIGAND program. Sigma binding was detected in 15 of 16 tumors examined with very high levels found in a brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of lung and a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) passaged in nude mice. κ opioid receptor binding was detected in 4 of 4 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and 2 of 2 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but not in the other brain tumors analyzed

  20. Sigma and opioid receptors in human brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.E.; Szuecs, M.; Mamone, J.Y.; Bem, W.T.; Rush, M.D.; Johnson, F.E.; Coscia, C.J. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Human brain tumors and nude mouse-borne human neuroblastomas and gliomas were analyzed for sigma and opioid receptor content. Sigma binding was assessed using ({sup 3}H) 1, 3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), whereas opioid receptor subtypes were measured with tritiated forms of the following: {mu}, (D-ala{sup 2}, mePhe{sup 4}, gly-ol{sup 5}) enkephalin (DAMGE); {kappa}, ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) or U69,593; {delta}, (D-pen{sup 2}, D-pen{sup 5}) enkephalin (DPDPE) or (D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5}) enkephalin (DADLE) with {mu} suppressor present. Binding parameters were estimated by homologous displacement assays followed by analysis using the LIGAND program. Sigma binding was detected in 15 of 16 tumors examined with very high levels found in a brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of lung and a human neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC) passaged in nude mice. {kappa} opioid receptor binding was detected in 4 of 4 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and 2 of 2 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but not in the other brain tumors analyzed.

  1. Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, Richard; Haas, Juergen G

    2017-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. We investigated the expression of these receptor molecules in different areas of the adult and developing human brain using online transcriptome databases. Whereas all HSV-1 receptors showed distinct expression patterns in different brain areas, the Allan Brain Atlas (ABA) reported increased expression of both gD and gB receptors in the hippocampus. Specifically, for PVRL1, TNFRFS14, and MYH9, the differential z scores for hippocampal expression, a measure of relative levels of increased expression, rose to 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, comparable to the z score for the archetypical hippocampus-enriched mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, z = 3.1). These data were confirmed at the Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database, but HBT data indicate that MAG expression is also enriched in hippocampus. The HBT database allowed the developmental pattern of expression to be investigated; we report that all HSV1 receptors markedly increase in expression levels between gestation and the postnatal/adult periods. These results suggest that differential receptor expression levels of several HSV-1 gD and gB receptors in the adult hippocampus are likely to underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to HSV-1 infection.

  2. Tribological changes in the articular cartilage of a human femoral head with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Min; Shrestha, Suman K; Duong, Cong-Truyen; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Kim, Tae-Woo; Vijayachandra, Ayyappan; Thompson, Mark S; Cho, Myung Guk; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Kwanghoon; Park, Seonghun; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2015-06-29

    The present study evaluated the tribological properties of the articular cartilage surface of the human femoral head with postcollapse stage avascular necrosis (AVN) using atomic force microscopy. The cartilage surface in the postcollapse stage AVN of the femoral head was reported to resemble those of disuse conditions, which suggests that the damage could be reversible and offers the possibilities of success of head-sparing surgeries. By comparing the tribological properties of articular cartilage in AVN with that of osteoarthritis, the authors intended to understand the cartilage degeneration mechanism and reversibility of AVN. Human femoral heads with AVN were explanted from the hip replacement surgery of four patients (60-83 years old). Nine cylindrical cartilage samples (diameter, 5 mm and height, 0.5 mm) were sectioned from the weight-bearing areas of the femoral head with AVN, and the cartilage surface was classified according to the Outerbridge Classification System (AVN0, normal; AVN1, softening and swelling; and AVN2, partial thickness defect and fissuring). Tribological properties including surface roughness and frictional coefficients and histochemistry including Safranin O and lubricin staining were compared among the three groups. The mean surface roughness Rq values of AVN cartilage increased significantly with increasing Outerbridge stages: Rq = 137 ± 26 nm in AVN0, Rq = 274 ± 49 nm in AVN1, and Rq = 452 ± 77 nm in AVN2. Significant differences in Rq were observed among different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN0, μ = 0.143 ± 0.025 in AVN1, and μ = 0.171 ± 0.039 in AVN2. Similarly to the statistical analysis of surface roughness, significant statistical differences were detected between different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN. The underlying mechanism of these results can be related to proteoglycan loss within the articular cartilage that is also observed in osteoarthritis. With regard to the tribological properties, the

  3. Is the social brain theory applicable to human individual differences? Relationship between sociability personality dimension and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Klára; Martos, János; Mihalik, Béla; Bódizs, Róbert

    2011-06-17

    Our study intends to examine whether the social brain theory is applicable to human individual differences. According to the social brain theory primates have larger brains as it could be expected from their body sizes due to the adaptation to a more complex social life. Regarding humans there were few studies about the relationship between theory of mind and frontal and temporal brain lobes. We hypothesized that these brain lobes, as well as the whole cerebrum and neocortex are in connection with the Sociability personality dimension that is associated with individuals' social lives. Our findings support this hypothesis as Sociability correlated positively with the examined brain structures if we control the effects of body size differences and age. These results suggest that the social brain theory can be extended to human interindividual differences and they have some implications to personality psychology too.

  4. A novel device for head gesture measurement system in combination with eye-controlled human machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Ho, Chien-Wa; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Hung, San-Shan; Shei, Hung-Jung; Yeh, Mau-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    This study describes the design and combination of an eye-controlled and a head-controlled human-machine interface system. This system is a highly effective human-machine interface, detecting head movement by changing positions and numbers of light sources on the head. When the users utilize the head-mounted display to browse a computer screen, the system will catch the images of the user's eyes with CCD cameras, which can also measure the angle and position of the light sources. In the eye-tracking system, the program in the computer will locate each center point of the pupils in the images, and record the information on moving traces and pupil diameters. In the head gesture measurement system, the user wears a double-source eyeglass frame, so the system catches images of the user's head by using a CCD camera in front of the user. The computer program will locate the center point of the head, transferring it to the screen coordinates, and then the user can control the cursor by head motions. We combine the eye-controlled and head-controlled human-machine interface system for the virtual reality applications.

  5. Correlating Whole Brain Neural Activity with Behavior in Head-Fixed Larval Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol to combine behavioral recording and imaging using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy in head-fixed larval zebrafish that express a genetically encoded calcium indicator. The steps involve restraining the larva in agarose, setting up optics that allow projection of a visual stimulus and infrared illumination to monitor behavior, and analysis of the neuronal and behavioral data.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of human brain structural network construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Network neuroscience leverages diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and tractography to quantify structural connectivity of the human brain. However, scientists and practitioners lack a clear understanding of the effects of varying tractography parameters on the constructed structural networks. With diffusion images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP, we characterize how structural networks are impacted by the spatial resolution of brain atlases, total number of tractography streamlines, and grey matter dilation with various graph metrics. We demonstrate how injudicious combinations of highly refined brain parcellations and low numbers of streamlines may inadvertently lead to disconnected network models with isolated nodes. Furthermore, we provide solutions to significantly reduce the likelihood of generating disconnected networks. In addition, for different tractography parameters, we investigate the distributions of values taken by various graph metrics across the population of HCP subjects. Analyzing the ranks of individual subjects within the graph metric distributions, we find that the ranks of individuals are affected differently by atlas scale changes. Our work serves as a guideline for researchers to optimize the selection of tractography parameters and illustrates how biological characteristics of the brain derived in network neuroscience studies can be affected by the choice of atlas parcellation schemes. Diffusion tractography has been proven to be a promising noninvasive technique to study the network properties of the human brain. However, how various tractography and network construction parameters affect network properties has not been studied using a large cohort of high-quality data. We utilize data provided by the Human Connectome Project to characterize the changes to network properties induced by varying the brain parcellation atlas scales, the number of reconstructed tractography tracks, and the degree of grey

  7. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  9. Multiscale neural connectivity during human sensory processing in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Vladimir A.; Runnova, Anastasia E.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Makarov, Vladimir V.; Nedaivozov, Vladimir; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Pisarchik, Alexander; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2018-05-01

    Stimulus-related brain activity is considered using wavelet-based analysis of neural interactions between occipital and parietal brain areas in alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands. We show that human sensory processing related to the visual stimuli perception induces brain response resulted in different ways of parieto-occipital interactions in these bands. In the alpha frequency band the parieto-occipital neuronal network is characterized by homogeneous increase of the interaction between all interconnected areas both within occipital and parietal lobes and between them. In the beta frequency band the occipital lobe starts to play a leading role in the dynamics of the occipital-parietal network: The perception of visual stimuli excites the visual center in the occipital area and then, due to the increase of parieto-occipital interactions, such excitation is transferred to the parietal area, where the attentional center takes place. In the case when stimuli are characterized by a high degree of ambiguity, we find greater increase of the interaction between interconnected areas in the parietal lobe due to the increase of human attention. Based on revealed mechanisms, we describe the complex response of the parieto-occipital brain neuronal network during the perception and primary processing of the visual stimuli. The results can serve as an essential complement to the existing theory of neural aspects of visual stimuli processing.

  10. In Vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Bo Young; Suh, Tae Suk; Choi, Kyo Ho; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the spatial distribution of various proton metabolites in the human brain with use of water-suppressed in vivo H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) technique. All of water-suppressed in vivo H MRSI were performed on 1.5 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using Stimulated Echo Acquisition Method (STEAM) Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) pulse sequence. T1-weighted MR images were used for CSI field of view (FOV; 24 cm). Voxel size of 1.5 cm 3 was designated from the periphery of the brain which was divided by 1024 X 16 X 16 data points. Metabolite images of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine/ phosphocreatine (Cr) + choline/phosphocholine (Cho), and complex of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) + glutamate (Glu) were obtained on the human brain. Our preliminary study suggests that in vivo H MRSI could provide the metabolite imaging to compensate for hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans on the basis of the metabolic informations on brain tissues. The unique ability of in vivo H MRSI to offer noninvasive information about tissue biochemistry in disease states will stimulate on clinical research and disease diagnosis

  11. Drug delivery to the human brain via the cerebrospinal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, L.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Material, Manufacturing Engineering and Managements, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxljh@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queens Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This Study investigates the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside the human ventricular system with particular emphasis on drug path flow for the purpose of medical drug injections. The investigation is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The role of the ventricular system is very important in protecting the brain from injury by cushioning it against the cranium during sudden movements. If for any reason the passage of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked (usually by stenosis) then a condition known as Hydrocephalus occurs, where by the blocked CSF causes the Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) inside the brain to rise. If this is not treated then severe brain damage and death can occur. Previous work conducted by the authors on this subject has focused on the technique of ventriculostomy to treat hydrocephalus. The present study carries on from the previous work but focuses on delivering medical drugs to treat brain tumors that are conventionally not accessible and which require complicated surgical procedures to remove them. The study focuses on the possible paths for delivering drugs to tumors in the human nervous system through conventionally accessible locations without major surgery. The results of the investigation have shown that it is possible to reach over 95% of the ventricular system by injection of drugs however the results also show that there are many factors that can affect the drug flow paths through the ventricular system and thus the areas reachable, by these drugs. (author)

  12. Drug delivery to the human brain via the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, L.; Aroussi, A.; Vloeberghs, M.

    2003-01-01

    This Study investigates the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) inside the human ventricular system with particular emphasis on drug path flow for the purpose of medical drug injections. The investigation is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics package FLUENT. The role of the ventricular system is very important in protecting the brain from injury by cushioning it against the cranium during sudden movements. If for any reason the passage of CSF through the ventricular system is blocked (usually by stenosis) then a condition known as Hydrocephalus occurs, where by the blocked CSF causes the Intra Cranial Pressure (ICP) inside the brain to rise. If this is not treated then severe brain damage and death can occur. Previous work conducted by the authors on this subject has focused on the technique of ventriculostomy to treat hydrocephalus. The present study carries on from the previous work but focuses on delivering medical drugs to treat brain tumors that are conventionally not accessible and which require complicated surgical procedures to remove them. The study focuses on the possible paths for delivering drugs to tumors in the human nervous system through conventionally accessible locations without major surgery. The results of the investigation have shown that it is possible to reach over 95% of the ventricular system by injection of drugs however the results also show that there are many factors that can affect the drug flow paths through the ventricular system and thus the areas reachable, by these drugs. (author)

  13. The Speculative Neuroscience of the Future Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dielenberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of our species is our ability to hybridize symbolic thinking with behavioral output. We began with the symmetrical hand axe around 1.7 mya and have progressed, slowly at first, then with greater rapidity, to producing increasingly more complex hybridized products. We now live in the age where our drive to hybridize has pushed us to the brink of a neuroscientific revolution, where for the first time we are in a position to willfully alter the brain and hence, our behavior and evolution. Nootropics, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, deep brain stimulation (DBS and invasive brain mind interface (BMI technology are allowing humans to treat previously inaccessible diseases as well as open up potential vistas for cognitive enhancement. In the future, the possibility exists for humans to hybridize with BMIs and mobile architectures. The notion of self is becoming increasingly extended. All of this to say: are we in control of our brains, or are they in control of us?

  14. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  15. Multi-element determination in cancellous bone of human femoral head by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanxun Zhang; Yongping Zhang; Yongpeng Tong; Shijing Qiu; Xiaotao Wu; Kerong Dai

    1996-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in cancellous bone of human femoral head from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck broken. The specimen preparation and experimental procedure are described in detail. Using the t test, the results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in control group are higher than those in patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The physiological functions of metallic elements in human bone are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study alters our fundamental understanding of the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain by establishing that the left and right hemispheres have qualitatively different biases in how they dynamically interact with one another. Left-hemisphere regions are biased to interact more strongly within the same hemisphere, whereas right-hemisphere regions interact more strongly with both hemispheres. These two different patterns of interaction are associated ...

  17. John Bingham Roberts and the first American monograph on human brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J L

    2001-10-01

    JOHN BINGHAM ROBERTS (1852-1924) of Philadelphia was an active general surgeon in the latter 19th and early 20th centuries. He made pioneering contributions to a number of areas of surgery. From 1880 until the end of his career, he was one of the few American surgeons to advocate an aggressive exploratory approach to cranial fractures in an effort to avoid consequences such as infection, delayed seizures, and insanity. In his 1885 article in the Transactions of the American Surgical Association titled "The Field and Limitation of the Operative Surgery of the Human Brain," he predicted that with antiseptic precautions and the growing knowledge of cerebral localization, operations on the brain would become commonplace. This work predated that of Horsley, Keen, and many others. Roberts had a continuing interest in head injuries, cranial fractures, and the development of trephines and burrs for reconstructive cranial work, but his active enthusiasm for brain surgery diminished in the 1890s. Nevertheless, Roberts was a very prolific teacher and leader in American surgery who is perhaps best remembered for his monographs and textbooks on general, orthopedic, plastic, and reconstructive surgery.

  18. Investigation of G72 (DAOA expression in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsch Steven

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO, supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala, spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed

  19. “Messing with the mind”: evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understa...

  20. Heads of household programme in Argentina: a human rights-based policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Jorge; Giordano, Osvaldo; Torres, Alejandra; Cárdenas, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the consultative councils (CC) of the Argentinian conditional cash transfer heads of household programme as an institutional innovation directed to put into practice some of the principles of the human rights' approach for eradicating poverty. Since the main responsibilities assigned to the CCs coincided with some of the main principles of the human rights' approach, the research is focused on how CCs responded in practice. Using a case study methodology we show that even when, in theory, the CCs incorporate some of the principles of the human rights' approach to the programme, they deviated from this purpose due to a persistent phenomenon in the social policy arena in developing countries: political clientelism. Policy recommendations are formulated in order to deal with clientelism in the framework of the human rights' approach.

  1. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. In this paper the software "COMSOL Multiphysics" was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. The second generation (2G) Global System for Mobile (GSM) phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G) GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G) UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz) radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear), and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head's surface. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR) and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user's ear.

  2. Ultra high resolution imaging of the human head at 8 tesla: 2K x 2K for Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, P M; Abduljalil, A M; Kangarlu, A

    2000-01-01

    To acquire ultra high resolution MRI images of the human brain at 8 Tesla within a clinically acceptable time frame. Gradient echo images were acquired from the human head of normal subjects using a transverse electromagnetic resonator operating in quadrature and tuned to 340 MHz. In each study, a group of six images was obtained containing a total of 208 MB of unprocessed information. Typical acquisition parameters were as follows: matrix = 2,000 x 2,000, field of view = 20 cm, slice thickness = 2 mm, number of excitations (NEX) = 1, flip angle = 45 degrees, TR = 750 ms, TE = 17 ms, receiver bandwidth = 69.4 kHz. This resulted in a total scan time of 23 minutes, an in-plane resolution of 100 microm, and a pixel volume of 0.02 mm3. The ultra high resolution images acquired in this study represent more than a 50-fold increase in in-plane resolution relative to conventional 256 x 256 images obtained with a 20 cm field of view and a 5 mm slice thickness. Nonetheless, the ultra high resolution images could be acquired both with adequate image quality and signal to noise. They revealed numerous small venous structures throughout the image plane and provided reasonable delineation between gray and white matter. The elevated signal-to-noise ratio observed in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized to acquire images with a level of resolution approaching the histological level under in vivo conditions. However, brain motion is likely to degrade the useful resolution. This situation may be remedied in part with cardiac gating. Nonetheless, these images represent a significant advance in our ability to examine small anatomical features with noninvasive imaging methods.

  3. Finite Element Model of the human head validated by the reconstruction of a real child sport accident

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brichtová, E.; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Gál, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2009), s. 175-180 ISSN 1211-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP103/07/P483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : paediatric brain injury * finite element models * head trauma * injury models Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  4. Human Papilloma Virus Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, Vidya; Shetty, Harish; Babu, Subhas; Shetty, Veena; Hegde, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the commonest causes for mortality and morbidity with squamous cell carcinoma being the sixth most frequent malignant tumour worldwide. In addition to tobacco and alcohol, human papilloma virus (HPV) is associated with a proportion of head and neck cancers. As in cervical cancers, HPV types 16 and 18 are the cause of malignant transformation. HPV-positive cancers of head and neck have unique characteristics such as occurrence in a younger age group, distinct clinical and molecular features, and better prognosis as compared to HPV-negative carcinomas. They also possess the potential for prevention by using vaccination. The present review describes in detail the salient features of HPV associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), its differences from HPV-negative OSCC, diagnostic features, and recent strategies in prevention and management. PMID:26483987

  5. Human Papilloma Virus Associated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, Vidya; Shetty, Harish; Babu, Subhas; Shetty, Veena; Hegde, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the commonest causes for mortality and morbidity with squamous cell carcinoma being the sixth most frequent malignant tumour worldwide. In addition to tobacco and alcohol, human papilloma virus (HPV) is associated with a proportion of head and neck cancers. As in cervical cancers, HPV types 16 and 18 are the cause of malignant transformation. HPV-positive cancers of head and neck have unique characteristics such as occurrence in a younger age group, distinct clinical and molecular features, and better prognosis as compared to HPV-negative carcinomas. They also possess the potential for prevention by using vaccination. The present review describes in detail the salient features of HPV associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), its differences from HPV-negative OSCC, diagnostic features, and recent strategies in prevention and management.

  6. Web-based visualisation of head pose and facial expressions changes: monitoring human activity using depth data

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant recent advances in the field of head pose estimation and facial expression recognition, raising the cognitive level when analysing human activity presents serious challenges to current concepts. Motivated by the need of generating comprehensible visual representations from different sets of data, we introduce a system capable of monitoring human activity through head pose and facial expression changes, utilising an affordable 3D sensing technology (Microsoft Kinect sensor)...

  7. Human midsagittal brain shape variation: patterns, allometry and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Colom, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Midsagittal cerebral morphology provides a homologous geometrical reference for brain shape and cortical vs. subcortical spatial relationships. In this study, midsagittal brain shape variation is investigated in a sample of 102 humans, in order to describe and quantify the major patterns of correlation between morphological features, the effect of size and sex on general anatomy, and the degree of integration between different cortical and subcortical areas. The only evident pattern of covariation was associated with fronto-parietal cortical bulging. The allometric component was weak for the cortical profile, but more robust for the posterior subcortical areas. Apparent sex differences were evidenced in size but not in brain shape. Cortical and subcortical elements displayed scarcely integrated changes, suggesting a modular separation between these two areas. However, a certain correlation was found between posterior subcortical and parietal cortical variations. These results should be directly integrated with information ranging from functional craniology to wiring organization, and with hypotheses linking brain shape and the mechanical properties of neurons during morphogenesis. PMID:20345859

  8. A new microcontroller-based human brain hypothermia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapidere, Metin; Ahiska, Raşit; Güler, Inan

    2005-10-01

    Many studies show that artificial hypothermia of brain in conditions of anesthesia with the rectal temperature lowered down to 33 degrees C produces pronounced prophylactic effect protecting the brain from anoxia. Out of the methods employed now in clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). It is finding even more extensive application in cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, neurorenimatology and many other fields of medical practice. In this study, a microcontroller-based designed human brain hypothermia system (HBHS) is designed and constructed. The system is intended for cooling and heating the brain. HBHS consists of a thermoelectric hypothermic helmet, a control and a power unit. Helmet temperature is controlled by 8-bit PIC16F877 microcontroller which is programmed using MPLAB editor. Temperature is converted to 10-bit digital and is controlled automatically by the preset values which have been already entered in the microcontroller. Calibration is controlled and the working range is tested. Temperature of helmet is controlled between -5 and +46 degrees C by microcontroller, with the accuracy of +/-0.5 degrees C.

  9. Comparative dosimetric analysis of IMRT and VMAT (RapidArc in brain, head and neck, breast and prostate malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Athar Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in the recent past has established itself as a gold standard for organs at risk (OAR sparing, target coverage and dose conformity. With the advent of a rotational treatment technology such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT, an inter-comparison is warranted to address the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Methods: Twenty patients were selected retrospectively from our patient database. Sites included were brain, head and neck, chest wall, and prostate, with five patients for each site. For all the selected patients, both the IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated. Plan comparison was done in terms of OAR dose, dose homogeneity index (HI, dose conformity index (CI, target coverage, low isodose volumes, monitor units (MUs, and treatment time.Results: The VMAT showed better sparing of “parotids minus planning target volume (PTV”, spinal cord and head of femur as compared to the IMRT. The lung V40 for VMAT was lower, whereas the lung V10, contralateral lung mean dose, contralateral breast mean dose and mean body dose were lower with IMRT for chest wall cases. Both the VMAT and IMRT achieved comparable HI except for the brain site, where IMRT scored over VMAT. The CI achieved by the IMRT and VMAT were similar except for chest wall cases, whereas the VMAT achieved better dose conformity. The target coverage was comparable with both the plans. The VMAT clearly scored over IMRT in terms of average MUs (486 versus 812 respectively and average treatment time (2.54 minutes versus 5.54 minutes per treatment session. Conclusion: The VMAT (RapidArc has a potential to generate treatment plans for various anatomical sites which are comparable with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of OAR sparing and plan quality parameters. The VMAT significantly reduces treatment time as compared to the IMRT, thus VMAT can increase the throughput of a busy radiotherapy department.

  10. Evaluation of tissue-equivalent materials to be used as human brain tissue substitute in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.C., E-mail: cassio.c.ferreira@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Ximenes Filho, R.E.M., E-mail: raimundoximenes@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Vieira, J.W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 500 Curado, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Rua Benfica, 455, Madalena, CEP 50720-001, Recife (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: alessandratomal@pg.ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.b [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP 14040-90 (Brazil); Garcia, C.A.B., E-mail: cgarcia@ufs.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil); Maia, A.F., E-mail: afmaia@ufs.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Postal Code 353, Sergipe-SE 49100-000 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Tissue-equivalent materials to be used as substitutes for human brain tissue in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology have been investigated in terms of calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), calculated mass energy-absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and absorbed dose. Measured linear attenuation coefficients ({mu}) have been used for benchmarking the calculated total mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}). The materials examined were bolus, nylon (registered) , orange articulation wax, red articulation wax, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), bees wax, paraffin I, paraffin II, pitch and water. The results show that water is the best substitute for brain among the materials investigated. The average percentage differences between the calculated {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} coefficients for water and those for brain were 1.0% and 2.5%, respectively. Absorbed doses determined by Monte Carlo methods confirm water as being the best brain substitute to be used in dosimetry for diagnostic radiology, showing maximum difference of 0.01%. Additionally this study showed that PMMA, a material often used for the manufacturing of head phantoms for computed tomography, cannot be considered to be a suitable substitute for human brain tissue in dosimetry.

  11. Head First PMP A Brain-Friendly Guide to Passing the Project Management Professional Exam

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Media Reviews "I have been doing project management for over 30 years and am considered a subject matter expert in the PMBOK(r) Guide -Third Edition primarily because I am the Project Manager who led the team that developed this edition. As a consultant I was hired to review and evaluate eight of the top selling PMP Exam Preparation books for their accuracy in following the PMBOK® Guide - Third Edition. I have developed and taught a PMP Exam Prep course for a leading R.E.P., and taught PMP Exam preparation classes for PMI Chapters. I can honestly say that Head First PMP is by far the best P

  12. Insulin and C-peptide in human brain neurons (insulin/C-peptide/brain peptides/immunohistochemistry/radioimmunoassay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, A.; Bernstein, H.G.; Rinne, A.; Hahn, H.J.; Ziegler, M.

    1983-01-01

    The regional distribution and cellular localization of insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivities were studied in human cadaver brains using the indirect immunofluorescence method, the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and radioimmunoassay. Products of the immune reactions to both polypeptides were observed in most nerve cells in all areas of the brain examined. Immunostaining was mainly restricted to the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Radioimmunoassay revealed that human brain contains insulin and C-peptide in concentrations much higher than the blood, the highest being in the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that the 'brain insulin' is - at least in part - produced in the CNS. (author)

  13. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  15. Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurtell, M J; Black, R A; Halmagyi, G M; Curthoys, I S; Aw, S T

    1999-05-01

    Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations. The effect of vertical eye-in-head position on the compensatory eye rotation response to passive and active high acceleration yaw head rotations was examined in eight normal human subjects. The stimuli consisted of brief, low amplitude (15-25 degrees ), high acceleration (4,000-6,000 degrees /s2) yaw head rotations with respect to the trunk (peak velocity was 150-350 degrees /s). Eye and head rotations were recorded in three-dimensional space using the magnetic search coil technique. The input-output kinematics of the three-dimensional vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) were assessed by finding the difference between the inverted eye velocity vector and the head velocity vector (both referenced to a head-fixed coordinate system) as a time series. During passive head impulses, the head and eye velocity axes aligned well with each other for the first 47 ms after the onset of the stimulus, regardless of vertical eye-in-head position. After the initial 47-ms period, the degree of alignment of the eye and head velocity axes was modulated by vertical eye-in-head position. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye and head velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. However, when fixation was on targets at 0 and 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward relative to the head velocity axis. During active head impulses, the axis tilt became apparent within 5 ms of the onset of the stimulus. When fixation was on a target at 0 degrees, the velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye velocity axis tilted backward, when fixation was on a target 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward. The findings show that the VOR compensates very well for head motion in the early part of the response to unpredictable high acceleration stimuli-the eye position- dependence of the

  16. "Brain drain, brain gain. . . Brain sustain?" : Challenges in building Portuguese human research capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasanefendic, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic but essentially descriptive account of the policy measure of stimulating human research capacity development under the policy program "Commitment to Science" in Portugal in the period 2006-2009. It explores the conditions that contributed to the development of the

  17. [Isolation and identification of brain tumor stem cells from human brain neuroepithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Yong-wen; Li, Ming-chu; Chen, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yan-jin; Lu, Ming; Fang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Zhuan-yi; Zhou, Xang-yang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Cheng

    2007-01-30

    To establish a simplified culture system for the isolation of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) from the tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue, to observe the growth and differentiation pattern of BTSCs, and to investigate their expression of the specific markers. Twenty-six patients with brain neuroepithelial tumors underwent tumor resection. Two pieces of tumor tissues were taken from each tumor to be dissociated, triturated into single cells in sterile DMEM-F12 medium, and then filtered. The tumor cells were seeded at a concentration of 200,000 viable cells per mL into serum-free DMEM-F12 medium simply supplemented with B27, human basic fibroblast growth factor (20 microg/L), human epidermal growth factor (20 microg /L), insulin (4 U/L), L-glutamine, penicillin and streptomycin. After the primary brain tumor spheres (BTSs) were generated, they were triturated again and passed in fresh medium. Limiting dilution assay was performed to observe the monoclone formation. 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation test was performed to observe the proliferation of the BTS. The BTSCs were cultured in mitogen-free DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum to observe their differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of CD133 and nestin, specific markers of BTSC, and the rate of CD133 positive cells. Only a minority of subsets of cells from the tumors of neuroepithelial tissue had the capacity to survive, proliferate, and generate free-floating neurosphere-like BTSs in the simplified serum-free medium. These cells attached to the poly-L-lysine coated coverslips in the serum-supplemented medium and differentiated. The BTSCs were CD133 and nestin positive. The rate of CD133 positive cells in the tumor specimens was (21 +/- 6.2)% - (38 +/- 7.0)%. A new simplified culture system for the isolation of BTSCs is established. The tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue contain CD133 and nestin positive tumor stem cells which can be isolated

  18. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-08-01

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Classification of brain compartments and head injury lesions by neural networks applied to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kischell, E.R.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Hillman, G.R.; Levin, H.; Lilly, M.; Kent, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    An automatic, neural network-based approach was applied to segment normal brain compartments and lesions on MR images. Two supervised networks, backpropagation (BPN) and counterpropagation, and two unsupervised networks, Kohonen learning vector quantizer and analog adaptive resonance theory, were trained on registered T2-weighted and proton density images. The classes of interest were background, gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, macrocystic encephalomalacia, gliosis, and 'unknown'. A comprehensive feature vector was chosen to discriminate these classes. The BPN combined with feature conditioning, multiple discriminant analysis followed by Hotelling transform, produced the most accurate and consistent classification results. Classifications of normal brain compartments were generally in agreement with expert interpretation of the images. Macrocystic encephalomalacia and gliosis were recognized and, except around the periphery, classified in agreement with the clinician's report used to train the neural network. (orig.)

  20. Classification of brain compartments and head injury lesions by neural networks applied to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kischell, E R [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kehtarnavaz, N [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Hillman, G R [Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Levin, H [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Lilly, M [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Kent, T A [Dept. of Neurology and Psychiatry, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    An automatic, neural network-based approach was applied to segment normal brain compartments and lesions on MR images. Two supervised networks, backpropagation (BPN) and counterpropagation, and two unsupervised networks, Kohonen learning vector quantizer and analog adaptive resonance theory, were trained on registered T2-weighted and proton density images. The classes of interest were background, gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, macrocystic encephalomalacia, gliosis, and `unknown`. A comprehensive feature vector was chosen to discriminate these classes. The BPN combined with feature conditioning, multiple discriminant analysis followed by Hotelling transform, produced the most accurate and consistent classification results. Classifications of normal brain compartments were generally in agreement with expert interpretation of the images. Macrocystic encephalomalacia and gliosis were recognized and, except around the periphery, classified in agreement with the clinician`s report used to train the neural network. (orig.)

  1. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcendor Donald J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV, microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC. However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited

  2. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  3. Diagnostics of femoral head status in humans using laser spectroscopy - In vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huiying; Li, Wansha; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Peng; Chen, Delong; He, Wei; Svanberg, Sune; Svanberg, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), a recalcitrant and disabling disease, is caused by inadequate or fully disrupted blood supply to the affected segment of the subchondral bone. Theoretically, there will develop gas-filled pores during the bone decay process due to lacking blood supply. Unfortunately, the relationship between the gas-filled pores and ONFH is still unclear. Here, we have introduced diode laser absorption spectroscopy to detect oxygen and water vapor signals in the femoral heads from hip replacement in 19 patients. Five samples are affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and the others are related to ONFH. Oxygen and water vapor signals could be obtained, demonstrating the presence of gas-filled pores in both the OA and ONFH groups while the measurement results showed no significant difference. A study of gas exchange was also performed on one excised bone sample to study how these gas pores communicate with the ambient air. The results suggested that the obtained oxygen signals inside the bone samples originate from the invasion of ambient air, which is not expected in vivo. In conclusion, the ability to detect the gas signal of laser absorption spectroscopy shows the potential for the medical application of assessing the human femoral head in vivo. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Novel Method for Intraoral Access to the Superior Head of the Human Lateral Pterygoid Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleli Tôrres Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The uncoordinated activity of the superior and inferior parts of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM has been suggested to be one of the causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement. A therapy for this muscle disorder is the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX, of the LPM. However, there is a potential risk of side effects with the injection guide methods currently available. In addition, they do not permit appropriate differentiation between the two bellies of the muscle. Herein, a novel method is presented to provide intraoral access to the superior head of the human LPM with maximal control and minimal hazards. Methods. Computational tomography along with digital imaging software programs and rapid prototyping techniques were used to create a rapid prototyped guide to orient BTX injections in the superior LPM. Results. The method proved to be feasible and reliable. Furthermore, when tested in one volunteer it allowed precise access to the upper head of LPM, without producing side effects. Conclusions. The prototyped guide presented in this paper is a novel tool that provides intraoral access to the superior head of the LPM. Further studies will be necessary to test the efficacy and validate this method in a larger cohort of subjects.

  5. Radio frequency-induced temperature elevations in the human head considering small anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Ueberbacher, R.; Samaras, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed numerical radio frequency (RF) dosimetry and the computations of RF-induced temperature elevations, high-resolution (0.1 mm) numerical models of the human eye, the inner ear organs and the pineal gland were developed and inserted into a commercially available head model. As radiation sources, generic models of handsets at 400, 900 and 1850 MHz operating in close proximity to the head were considered. The results, obtained by finite-difference time domain-based computations, showed a highly heterogeneous specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution and SAR-peaks inside the inner ear structures; however, the corresponding RF-induced temperature elevations were well below 0.1 deg. C, when considering typical output power values of hand-held devices. In case of frontal exposure, with the radiation sources ∼2.5 cm in front of the closed eye, maximum temperature elevations in the eye in the range of ∼0.2-0.6 deg. C were found for typical device output powers. A reduction in tissue perfusion mainly affected the maximum RF-induced temperature elevation of tissues deep inside the head. Similarly, worst-case considerations regarding pulsed irradiation affected temperature elevations in deep tissue significantly more than in superficial tissues. (authors)

  6. International Case-Control Study of Adult Brain, Head and Neck Tumours: Results of the Feasibility Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Kilkenny, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the feasibility study were to collect and analyse the information necessary to assess the feasibility of a multi-centric study of adult head and neck tumours (including brain tumours) and mobile telephones. Information was obtained on the availability and accessibility of records from companies, the prevalence of mobile telephone use over time and the expected number of tumour cases in the proposed study regions. The conclusion is that it is feasible to develop a study of the relation between mobile telephone use and brain cancer risk. The feasibility of a study of the relation between radiofrequency exposure and cancer risk is, however, unclear at present. It is unknown whether a sufficiently accurate and precise RF exposure gradient can be derived to classify adequately each subject in the proposed study. A study of the relation between mobile telephone use and risk of salivary gland tumours and acoustic neurinomas is probably feasible, but more information is required about the logistic difficulties of ascertaining these cases in the study regions. Two subcommittees have been formed to develop the exposure measurement and epidemiological aspect of the study. (author)

  7. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  8. Association of a Guardian's Report of a Child Acting Abnormally With Traumatic Brain Injury After Minor Blunt Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Holmes, James F; Dayan, Peter S; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in children is concerning owing to the cancer risk from ionizing radiation, particularly in children younger than 2 years. A guardian report that a child is acting abnormally is a risk factor for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and may be a driving factor for CT use in the emergency department. To determine the prevalence of ciTBIs and TBIs in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings or (2) other concerning findings for TBI. Secondary analysis of a large, prospective, multicenter cohort study that included 43 399 children younger than 18 years with minor blunt head trauma evaluated in 25 emergency departments. The study was conducted on data obtained between June 2004 and September 2006. Data analysis was performed between August 21, 2014, and March 9, 2015. A guardian report that the child was acting abnormally after minor blunt head trauma. The prevalence of ciTBI (defined as death, neurosurgery, intubation for >24 hours, or hospitalization for ≥2 nights in association with TBI on CT imaging) and TBI on CT imaging in children with a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings and (2) other concerning findings for TBI. Of 43 399 children in the cohort study, a total of 1297 children had reports of acting abnormally, of whom 411 (31.7%) had this report as their only finding. Reported as percentage (95% CI), 1 of 411 (0.2% [0-1.3%]) had a ciTBI, and 4 TBIs were noted on the CT scans in 185 children who underwent imaging (2.2% [0.6%-5.4%]). In children with reports of acting abnormally and other concerning findings for TBI, 29 of 886 (3.3% [2.2%-4.7%]) had ciTBIs and 66 of 674 (9.8% [7.7%-12.3%]) had TBIs on CT. Clinically important TBIs are very uncommon, and TBIs noted on CT are uncommon in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and guardian reports of the child acting

  9. Why our brains cherish humanity: Mirror neurons and colamus humanitatem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Skoyles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, as it were, its perceived “refl ection,” when that same thing happens or is done by another individual. Thus, mirror neurons are both activated when an individual does a particular action, and when that individual perceives that same action done by another. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests we need to radically revise our notions of human nature since they offer a means by which we may not be so separated as we think. Humans unlike other apes are adapted to mirror interact nonverbally when together. Notably, our faces have been evolved to display agile and nimble movements. While this is usually explained as enabling nonverbal communication, a better description would be nonverbal commune based upon mirror neurons. I argue we cherish humanity, colamus humanitatem, because mirror neurons and our adapted mirror interpersonal interface blur the physical boundaries that separate us.

  10. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. Methods. In this paper the software “COMSOL Multiphysics” was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. Results. The second generation (2G Global System for Mobile (GSM phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear, and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head’s surface. Conclusion. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user ear.

  11. Methods for high-resolution anisotropic finite element modeling of the human head: automatic MR white matter anisotropy-adaptive mesh generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an advanced finite element (FE) head modeling technique through which high-resolution FE meshes adaptive to the degree of tissue anisotropy can be generated. Our adaptive meshing scheme (called wMesh) uses MRI structural information and fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensors in the FE mesh generation process, optimally reflecting electrical properties of the human brain. We examined the characteristics of the wMeshes through various qualitative and quantitative comparisons to the conventional FE regular-sized meshes that are non-adaptive to the degree of white matter anisotropy. We investigated numerical differences in the FE forward solutions that include the electrical potential and current density generated by current sources in the brain. The quantitative difference was calculated by two statistical measures of relative difference measure (RDM) and magnification factor (MAG). The results show that the wMeshes are adaptive to the anisotropic density of the WM anisotropy, and they better reflect the density and directionality of tissue conductivity anisotropy. Our comparison results between various anisotropic regular mesh and wMesh models show that there are substantial differences in the EEG forward solutions in the brain (up to RDM=0.48 and MAG=0.63 in the electrical potential, and RDM=0.65 and MAG=0.52 in the current density). Our analysis results indicate that the wMeshes produce different forward solutions that are different from the conventional regular meshes. We present some results that the wMesh head modeling approach enhances the sensitivity and accuracy of the FE solutions at the interfaces or in the regions where the anisotropic conductivities change sharply or their directional changes are complex. The fully automatic wMesh generation technique should be useful for modeling an individual-specific and high-resolution anisotropic FE head model incorporating realistic anisotropic conductivity distributions

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  14. Imaging neuroreceptors in the human brain in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Frost, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    For nearly a century it has been known that chemical activity accompanies mental activity, but only recently has it been possible to begin to examine its exact nature. Positron-emitting radioactive tracers have made it possible to study the chemistry of the human brain in health and disease, using chiefly cyclotron-produced radionuclides, carbon-11, fluorine-18 and oxygen-15. It is now well established that measurable increases in regional cerebral blood flow, and glucose and oxygen metabolism accompany the mental functions of perception, cognition, emotion and motion. On 25 May 1983 the first imaging of a neuroreceptor in the human brain was accomplished with carbon-11 N-methyl spiperone, a ligand that binds preferentially to dopamine-2 receptors, 80% of which are located in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Quantitative imaging of serotonin-2, opiate, benzodiazapine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors has subsequently been accomplished. In studies of normal men and women, it has been found that dopamine and serotonin receptor activity decreases dramatically with age, such a decrease being more pronounced in men than in women and greater in the case of dopamine-2 receptors than in serotonin-2 receptors. Preliminary studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders suggest that dopamine-2 receptor activity is diminished in the caudate nucleus of patients with Huntington's disease. Positron tomography permits a quantitative assay of picomolar quantities of neuroreceptors within the living human brain. Studies of patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, acute and chronic pain states and drug addiction are now in progress. (author)

  15. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.; Vaughan, T.A.; Bartels, C.F.; Kott, M.; Rosenberry, T.L.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase

  16. The Lifespan and Turnover of Microglia in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Réu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hematopoietic system seeds the CNS with microglial progenitor cells during the fetal period, but the subsequent cell generation dynamics and maintenance of this population have been poorly understood. We report that microglia, unlike most other hematopoietic lineages, renew slowly at a median rate of 28% per year, and some microglia last for more than two decades. Furthermore, we find no evidence for the existence of a substantial population of quiescent long-lived cells, meaning that the microglia population in the human brain is sustained by continuous slow turnover throughout adult life.

  17. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  18. Neuroimmune mechanisms of behavioral alterations in a syngeneic murine model of human papilloma virus-related head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Vermeer, Daniel W; Christian, Diana L; Molkentine, Jessica M; Mason, Kathy A; Lee, John H; Dantzer, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Patients with cancer often experience a high symptom burden prior to the start of treatment. As disease- and treatment-related neurotoxicities appear to be additive, targeting disease-related symptoms may attenuate overall symptom burden for cancer patients and improve the tolerability of treatment. It has been hypothesized that disease-related symptoms are a consequence of tumor-induced inflammation. We tested this hypothesis using a syngeneic heterotopic murine model of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. This model has the advantage of being mildly aggressive and not causing cachexia or weight loss. We previously showed that this tumor leads to increased IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression in the liver and increased IL-1β expression in the brain. The current study confirmed these features and demonstrated that the tumor itself exhibits high inflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) compared to healthy tissue. While there is a clear relationship between cytokine levels and behavioral deficits in this model, the behavioral changes are surprisingly mild. Therefore, we sought to confirm the relationship between behavior and inflammation by amplifying the effect using a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg). In tumor-bearing mice LPS induced deficits in nest building, tail suspension, and locomotor activity approximately 24h after LPS. However, these mice did not display an exacerbation of LPS-induced weight loss, anorexia, or anhedonia. Further, while heightened serum IL-6 was observed there was minimal priming of liver or brain cytokine expression. Next we sought to inhibit tumor-induced burrowing deficits by reducing inflammation using minocycline. Minocycline (∼50mg/kg/day in drinking water) was able to attenuate tumor-induced inflammation and burrowing deficits. These data provide evidence in favor of an inflammatory-like mechanism for the behavioral alterations associated with tumor growth in a syngeneic

  19. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  20. Unmasking Language Lateralization in Human Brain Intrinsic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Mark; Mitra, Anish; Coalson, Rebecca S.; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Keidel, James L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization of function is a fundamental feature of the human brain as exemplified by the left hemisphere dominance of language. Despite the prominence of lateralization in the lesion, split-brain and task-based fMRI literature, surprisingly little asymmetry has been revealed in the increasingly popular functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI BOLD signal (so-called resting-state fMRI). Here, we show the global signal, an often discarded component of the BOLD signal in resting-state studies, reveals a leftward asymmetry that maps onto regions preferential for semantic processing in left frontal and temporal cortex and the right cerebellum and a rightward asymmetry that maps onto putative attention-related regions in right frontal, temporoparietal, and parietal cortex. Hemispheric asymmetries in the global signal resulted from amplitude modulation of the spontaneous fluctuations. To confirm these findings obtained from normal, healthy, right-handed subjects in the resting-state, we had them perform 2 semantic processing tasks: synonym and numerical magnitude judgment and sentence comprehension. In addition to establishing a new technique for studying lateralization through functional imaging of the resting-state, our findings shed new light on the physiology of the global brain signal. PMID:25636911

  1. The structure of creative cognition in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Eugene Jung

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiry – perhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR. Behaviorally, one can limit the blind variation component to idea generation tests as manifested by measures of divergent thinking. The selective retention component can be represented by measures of convergent thinking, as represented by measures of remote associates. We summarize results from measures of creative cognition, correlated with structural neuroimaging measures including structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, and proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRS. We also review lesion studies, considered to be the gold standard of brain-behavioral studies. What emerges is a picture consistent with theories of disinhibitory brain features subserving creative cognition, as described previously (Martindale, 1981. We provide a perspective, involving aspects of the default mode network, which might provide a first approximation regarding how creative cognition might map on to the human brain.

  2. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees,...

  3. DLP technology application: 3D head tracking and motion correction in medical brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Wilm, Jakob; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel sensing system, robust Near-infrared Structured Light Scanning (NIRSL) for three-dimensional human model scanning application. Human model scanning due to its nature of various hair and dress appearance and body motion has long been a challenging task. Previous...... surfaces, such as hair, dark jeans and black shoes under visible illumination. Moreover, successful structured light scan relies on the assumption that the subject is static during scanning. Due to the nature of body motion, it is very time sensitive to keep this assumption in the case of human model scan....... The proposed sensing system, by utilizing the new near-infrared capable high speed LightCrafter DLP projector, is robust to motion, provides accurate and high resolution three-dimensional point cloud, making our system more efficient and robust for human model reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate...

  4. Telomere length modulation in human astroglial brain tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico La Torre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres alteration during carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been described in several cancer types. Telomeres length is stabilized by telomerase (h-TERT and controlled by several proteins that protect telomere integrity, such as the Telomere Repeat-binding Factor (TRF 1 and 2 and the tankyrase-poli-ADP-ribose polymerase (TANKs-PARP complex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate telomere dysfunction in astroglial brain tumors we analyzed telomeres length, telomerase activity and the expression of a panel of genes controlling the length and structure of telomeres in tissue samples obtained in vivo from astroglial brain tumors with different grade of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA, 11 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA and 11 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT were used as controls. Telomeres length was assessed through Southern Blotting. Telomerase activity was evaluated by a telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay. The expression levels of TRF1, TRF2, h-TERT and TANKs-PARP complex were determined through Immunoblotting and RT-PCR. RESULTS: LGA were featured by an up-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and by shorter telomeres. Conversely, AA and GBM were featured by a down-regulation of TRF1 and 2 and an up-regulation of both telomerase and TANKs-PARP complex. CONCLUSIONS: In human astroglial brain tumours, up-regulation of TRF1 and TRF2 occurs in the early stages of carcinogenesis determining telomeres shortening and genomic instability. In a later stage, up-regulation of PARP-TANKs and telomerase activation may occur together with an ADP-ribosylation of TRF1, causing a reduced ability to bind telomeric DNA, telomeres elongation and tumor malignant progression.

  5. The brain's silent messenger: using selective attention to decode human thought for brain-based communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Lorina; Cusack, Rhodri; Jia, Vivian Z; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-05-29

    The interpretation of human thought from brain activity, without recourse to speech or action, is one of the most provoking and challenging frontiers of modern neuroscience. In particular, patients who are fully conscious and awake, yet, due to brain damage, are unable to show any behavioral responsivity, expose the limits of the neuromuscular system and the necessity for alternate forms of communication. Although it is well established that selective attention can significantly enhance the neural representation of attended sounds, it remains, thus far, untested as a response modality for brain-based communication. We asked whether its effect could be reliably used to decode answers to binary (yes/no) questions. Fifteen healthy volunteers answered questions (e.g., "Do you have brothers or sisters?") in the fMRI scanner, by selectively attending to the appropriate word ("yes" or "no"). Ninety percent of the answers were decoded correctly based on activity changes within the attention network. The majority of volunteers conveyed their answers with less than 3 min of scanning, suggesting that this technique is suited for communication in a reasonable amount of time. Formal comparison with the current best-established fMRI technique for binary communication revealed improved individual success rates and scanning times required to detect responses. This novel fMRI technique is intuitive, easy to use in untrained participants, and reliably robust within brief scanning times. Possible applications include communication with behaviorally nonresponsive patients.

  6. Selectively altering belief formation in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharot, Tali; Kanai, Ryota; Marston, David; Korn, Christoph W.; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans form beliefs asymmetrically; we tend to discount bad news but embrace good news. This reduced impact of unfavorable information on belief updating may have important societal implications, including the generation of financial market bubbles, ill preparedness in the face of natural disasters, and overly aggressive medical decisions. Here, we selectively improved people’s tendency to incorporate bad news into their beliefs by disrupting the function of the left (but not right) inferior frontal gyrus using transcranial magnetic stimulation, thereby eliminating the engrained “good news/bad news effect.” Our results provide an instance of how selective disruption of regional human brain function paradoxically enhances the ability to incorporate unfavorable information into beliefs of vulnerability. PMID:23011798

  7. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Pankaj, Pankaj; Patton, James T; Howie, Colin R; Goffin, Jérôme M; Merwe, Andrew van der; Wallace, Robert J; Porter, Daniel E; Simpson, A Hamish

    2013-10-01

    The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing.

  8. Hypnosis and imaging of the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Mathieu; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over more than two decades, studies using imaging techniques of the living human brain have begun to explore the neural correlates of hypnosis. The collective findings provide a gripping, albeit preliminary, account of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in hypnotic phenomena. While substantial advances lend support to different hypotheses pertaining to hypnotic modulation of attention, control, and monitoring processes, the complex interactions among the many mediating variables largely hinder our ability to isolate robust commonalities across studies. The present account presents a critical integrative synthesis of neuroimaging studies targeting hypnosis as a function of suggestion. Specifically, hypnotic induction without task-specific suggestion is examined, as well as suggestions concerning sensation and perception, memory, and ideomotor response. The importance of carefully designed experiments is highlighted to better tease apart the neural correlates that subserve hypnotic phenomena. Moreover, converging findings intimate that hypnotic suggestions seem to induce specific neural patterns. These observations propose that suggestions may have the ability to target focal brain networks. Drawing on evidence spanning several technological modalities, neuroimaging studies of hypnosis pave the road to a more scientific understanding of a dramatic, yet largely evasive, domain of human behavior.

  9. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  10. Endogenous neurogenesis in the human brain following cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Stephen L; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Carta, Eloisa M; Chinoy, Amish; Perry, Robert H; Ballard, Clive G

    2007-01-01

    Increased endogenous neurogenesis has a significant regenerative role in many experimental models of cerebrovascular diseases, but there have been very few studies in humans. We therefore examined whether there was evidence of altered endogenous neurogenesis in an 84-year-old patient who suffered a cerebrovascular accident 1 week prior to death. Using antibodies that specifically label neural stem/neural progenitor cells, we examined the presence of immunopositive cells around and distant from the infarcted area, and compared this with a control, age-matched individual. Interestingly, a large number of neural stem cells, vascular endothelial growth factor-immunopositive cells and new blood vessels were observed only around the region of infarction, and none in the corresponding brain areas of the healthy control. In addition, an increased number of neural stem cells was observed in the neurogenic region of the lateral ventricle wall. Our results suggest increased endogenous neurogenesis associated with neovascularization and migration of newly-formed cells towards a region of cerebrovascular damage in the adult human brain and highlight possible mechanisms underlying this process.

  11. Flow distributions and spatial correlations in human brain capillary networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Peyrounette, Myriam; Larue, Anne; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-11-01

    The vascular system of the human brain cortex is composed of a space filling mesh-like capillary network connected upstream and downstream to branched quasi-fractal arterioles and venules. The distribution of blood flow rates in these networks may affect the efficiency of oxygen transfer processes. Here, we investigate the distribution and correlation properties of blood flow velocities from numerical simulations in large 3D human intra-cortical vascular network (10000 segments) obtained from an anatomical database. In each segment, flow is solved from a 1D non-linear model taking account of the complex rheological properties of blood flow in microcirculation to deduce blood pressure, blood flow and red blood cell volume fraction distributions throughout the network. The network structural complexity is found to impart broad and spatially correlated Lagrangian velocity distributions, leading to power law transit time distributions. The origins of this behavior (existence of velocity correlations in capillary networks, influence of the coupling with the feeding arterioles and draining veins, topological disorder, complex blood rheology) are studied by comparison with results obtained in various model capillary networks of controlled disorder. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA615102, ERC ReactiveFronts GA648377.

  12. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  13. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  14. Traumatic brain injuries in illustrated literature: experience from a series of over 700 head injuries in the Asterix comic books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Marcel A; Slotty, Philipp; Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the epidemiology and specific risk factors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Asterix illustrated comic books. Among the illustrated literature, TBI is a predominating injury pattern. A retrospective analysis of TBI in all 34 Asterix comic books was performed by examining the initial neurological status and signs of TBI. Clinical data were correlated to information regarding the trauma mechanism, the sociocultural background of victims and offenders, and the circumstances of the traumata, to identify specific risk factors. Seven hundred and four TBIs were identified. The majority of persons involved were adult and male. The major cause of trauma was assault (98.8%). Traumata were classified to be severe in over 50% (GCS 3-8). Different neurological deficits and signs of basal skull fractures were identified. Although over half of head-injury victims had a severe initial impairment of consciousness, no case of death or permanent neurological deficit was found. The largest group of head-injured characters was constituted by Romans (63.9%), while Gauls caused nearly 90% of the TBIs. A helmet had been worn by 70.5% of victims but had been lost in the vast majority of cases (87.7%). In 83% of cases, TBIs were caused under the influence of a doping agent called "the magic potion". Although over half of patients had an initially severe impairment of consciousness after TBI, no permanent deficit could be found. Roman nationality, hypoglossal paresis, lost helmet, and ingestion of the magic potion were significantly correlated with severe initial impairment of consciousness (p ≤ 0.05).

  15. Long distance communication in the human brain: timing constraints for inter-hemispheric synchrony and the origin of brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of corpus callosum fiber composition reveals that inter-hemispheric transmission time may put constraints on the development of inter-hemispheric synchronic ensembles, especially in species with large brains like humans. In order to overcome this limitation, a subset of large-diameter callosal fibers are specialized for fast inter-hemispheric transmission, particularly in large-brained species. Nevertheless, the constraints on fast inter-hemispheric communication in large-brained species can somehow contribute to the development of ipsilateral, intrahemispheric networks, which might promote the development of brain lateralization.

  16. The role of positron emission tomography in neuropharmacology in the living human brain and drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a powerful and innovative tool for studying the pathology of psychiatric and neurological diseases and, more recently, for studying the drugs used in their treatment. Technological advances in imaging have made it possible to noninvasively extract information from the human brain regarding a drug's mechanism and site of action. Until now, our understanding of human brain pharmacology has depended primarily on indirect assessments or models derived from animal studies. However, the advent of multiple techniques for human brain imaging allows researchers to focus directly on human pharmacology and brain function. In this review article, our PET studies on the histaminergic neuron system were presented as an example. We have developed and used the PET techniques for 10 years in order to examine the H 1 receptors in the living human brain. This review outlines available PET techniques and examine how these various methods have already been applied to the drug development process and neuropharmacology in the living human brain. (author)

  17. Differences in distribution and regulation of astrocytic aquaporin-4 in human and rat hydrocephalic brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Anders Daehli; Holst, Anders Vedel; Broholm, Helle

    2013-01-01

    findings to human pathophysiology. This study compares expression of aquaporin-4 in hydrocephalic human brain with human controls and hydrocephalic rat brain. Methods:  Cortical biopsies from patients with chronic hydrocephalus (n=29) were sampled secondary to planned surgical intervention. Aquaporin-4...

  18. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  19. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  20. Activation analysis study on subcellular distribution of trace elements in human brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jian; Zhuan Guisun; Wang Yongji; Dong Mo; Zhang Fulin

    1992-01-01

    The concentrations of up to 11 elements in subcellular fractions of human brain (normal and malignant tumor) have been determined by a combination of gradient centrifugation and INAA methods. Samples of human brain were homogenized in a glass homogenizer tube, the homogenate was separated into nuclei, mitochondrial, myelin, synaptosome fractions, and these fractions were then analyzed using the INAA method. The discussions of elemental subcelleular distributions in human brain malignant tumor are presented in this paper. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Mild closed head traumatic brain injury-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmitters in the trigeminal subnuclei of a rat model: mechanisms underlying orofacial allodynias and headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our recent findings have demonstrated that rodent models of closed head traumatic brain injury exhibit comprehensive evidence of progressive and enduring orofacial allodynias, a hypersensitive pain response induced by non-painful stimulation. These allodynias, tested using thermal hyperalgesia, correlated with changes in several known pain signaling receptors and molecules along the trigeminal pain pathway, especially in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. This study focused to extend our previous work to investigate the changes in monoamine neurotransmitter immunoreactivity changes in spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis, pars interpolaris and nucleus tractus solitaries following mild to moderate closed head traumatic brain injury, which are related to tactile allodynia, touch-pressure sensitivity, and visceral pain. Our results exhibited significant alterations in the excitatory monoamine, serotonin, in spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis and pars interpolaris which usually modulate tactile and mechanical sensitivity in addition to the thermal sensitivity. Moreover, we also detected a robust alteration in the expression of serotonin, and inhibitory molecule norepinephrine in the nucleus tractus solitaries, which might indicate the possibility of an alteration in visceral pain, and existence of other morbidities related to solitary nucleus dysfunction in this rodent model of mild to moderate closed head traumatic brain injury. Collectively, widespread changes in monoamine neurotransmitter may be related to orofacial allodynhias and headache after traumatic brain injury.

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  3. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  4. Deep brain stimulation, brain maps and personalized medicine: lessons from the human genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2014-01-01

    Although the appellation of personalized medicine is generally attributed to advanced therapeutics in molecular medicine, deep brain stimulation (DBS) can also be so categorized. Like its medical counterpart, DBS is a highly personalized intervention that needs to be tailored to a patient's individual anatomy. And because of this, DBS like more conventional personalized medicine, can be highly specific where the object of care is an N = 1. But that is where the similarities end. Besides their differing medical and surgical provenances, these two varieties of personalized medicine have had strikingly different impacts. The molecular variant, though of a more recent vintage has thrived and is experiencing explosive growth, while DBS still struggles to find a sustainable therapeutic niche. Despite its promise, and success as a vetted treatment for drug resistant Parkinson's Disease, DBS has lagged in broadening its development, often encountering regulatory hurdles and financial barriers necessary to mount an adequate number of quality trials. In this paper we will consider why DBS-or better yet neuromodulation-has encountered these challenges and contrast this experience with the more successful advance of personalized medicine. We will suggest that personalized medicine and DBS's differential performance can be explained as a matter of timing and complexity. We believe that DBS has struggled because it has been a journey of scientific exploration conducted without a map. In contrast to molecular personalized medicine which followed the mapping of the human genome and the Human Genome Project, DBS preceded plans for the mapping of the human brain. We believe that this sequence has given personalized medicine a distinct advantage and that the fullest potential of DBS will be realized both as a cartographical or electrophysiological probe and as a modality of personalized medicine.

  5. Exploratory study on the methodology of fast imaging of unilateral stroke lesions by electrical impedance asymmetry in human heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jieshi; Xu, Canhua; Dai, Meng; You, Fusheng; Shi, Xuetao; Dong, Xiuzhen; Fu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Stroke has a high mortality and disability rate and should be rapidly diagnosed to improve prognosis. Diagnosing stroke is not a problem for hospitals with CT, MRI, and other imaging devices but is difficult for community hospitals without these devices. Based on the mechanism that the electrical impedance of the two hemispheres of a normal human head is basically symmetrical and a stroke can alter this symmetry, a fast electrical impedance imaging method called symmetrical electrical impedance tomography (SEIT) is proposed. In this technique, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data measured from the undamaged craniocerebral hemisphere (CCH) is regarded as reference data for the remaining EIT data measured from the other CCH for difference imaging to identify the differences in resistivity distribution between the two CCHs. The results of SEIT imaging based on simulation data from the 2D human head finite element model and that from the physical phantom of human head verified this method in detection of unilateral stroke.

  6. Clinical and scientific impact of human papillomavirus on head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jeffrey M; Stavas, Mark J; Cmelak, Anthony J

    2014-10-10

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) arises from the skull base to the clavicles and is the fifth most common cancer in the world by incidence. Historically, in the developed world HNC was associated with tobacco use and alcohol consumption, and the combination of the two produced a synergistic increase in risk. However, beginning in 1983, investigators have found a significant and growing proportion of HNC patients with human papillomavirus-positive (HPV) tumors who neither drank nor used tobacco. Since that time, there has been increased interest in the molecular biology of HPV-positive HNC. Multiple studies now show that HPV has shifted the epidemiological landscape and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These studies provide strong evidence for improved survival outcomes in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC compared to those with HPV-negative HNSCC. In many reports, HPV status is the strongest predictor of locoregional control, disease specific survival and overall survival. In response to these findings, there has been significant interest in the best management of HPV-positive disease. Discussions within major cooperative groups consider new trials designed to maintain the current strong survival outcomes while reducing the long-term treatment-related toxicities. This review will highlight the epidemiological, clinical and molecular discoveries surrounding HPV-related HNSCC over the recent decades and we conclude by suggesting how these findings may guide future treatment approaches.

  7. Productivity Losses Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Using the Human Capital and Friction Cost Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison M; Hanly, Paul; Timmons, Aileen; Walsh, Paul M; O'Neill, Ciaran; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Gallagher, Pamela; Sharp, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that productivity losses associated with head and neck cancer (HNC) are higher than in other cancers. These studies have only assessed a single aspect of productivity loss, such as temporary absenteeism or premature mortality, and have only used the Human Capital Approach (HCA). The Friction Cost Approach (FCA) is increasingly recommended, although has not previously been used to assess lost production from HNC. The aim of this study was to estimate the lost productivity associated with HNC due to different types of absenteeism and premature mortality, using both the HCA and FCA. Survey data on employment status were collected from 251 HNC survivors in Ireland and combined with population-level survival estimates and national wage data. The cost of temporary and permanent time off work, reduced working hours and premature mortality using both the HCA and FCA were calculated. Estimated total productivity losses per employed person of working age were EUR253,800 using HCA and EUR6800 using FCA. The main driver of HCA costs was premature mortality (38% of total) while for FCA it was temporary time off (73% of total). The productivity losses associated with head and neck cancer are substantial, and return to work assistance could form an important part of rehabilitation. Use of both the HCA and FCA approaches allowed different drivers of productivity losses to be identified, due to the different assumptions of the two methods. For future estimates of productivity losses, the use of both approaches may be pragmatic.

  8. Abstract representations of associated emotions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Schultz, Johannes; Rohe, Tim; Wallraven, Christian; Lee, Seong-Whan; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2015-04-08

    Emotions can be aroused by various kinds of stimulus modalities. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that several brain regions represent emotions at an abstract level, i.e., independently from the sensory cues from which they are perceived (e.g., face, body, or voice stimuli). If emotions are indeed represented at such an abstract level, then these abstract representations should also be activated by the memory of an emotional event. We tested this hypothesis by asking human participants to learn associations between emotional stimuli (videos of faces or bodies) and non-emotional stimuli (fractals). After successful learning, fMRI signals were recorded during the presentations of emotional stimuli and emotion-associated fractals. We tested whether emotions could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by the fractal stimuli using a classifier trained on the responses to the emotional stimuli (and vice versa). This was implemented as a whole-brain searchlight, multivoxel activation pattern analysis, which revealed successful emotion decoding in four brain regions: posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, MPFC, and angular gyrus. The same analysis run only on responses to emotional stimuli revealed clusters in PCC, precuneus, and MPFC. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the activation patterns revealed clear clustering of responses by emotion across stimulus types. Our results suggest that PCC, precuneus, and MPFC contain representations of emotions that can be evoked by stimuli that carry emotional information themselves or by stimuli that evoke memories of emotional stimuli, while angular gyrus is more likely to take part in emotional memory retrieval. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355655-09$15.00/0.

  9. Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor

    consideration decreased by a factor of two or more, including the zero coherence function value. The similar result was obtained for another basic low-frequency electro-neurophysiological rhythm delta (f = 0.5 - 3.9 Hz, A = 20 μV). The usual coherence function values from the interval [0.3, 0.8] were being registered, typically, about 48 hours after the magnetic storm end. The result about decreasing of the coherence of the brain low frequency bioelectric oscillations under a magnetic storm influence was obtained by two methods: 1) comparison of the time series of bioelectric oscillations of a given person without a magnetic storm and under its influence; 2) comparison of two sets of time series of oscillations: a) the set A of time series measured without a magnetic storm and b) the set B of time series measured under its influence, regardless to an individual. Surely, the total number of the EEGs available for the investigation by the set’s approach, i.e. without personification, is more than the number of the EEGs available by the individual approach because there were ones investigated without a magnetic storm only as well as ones investigated under its influence only. By the EEG measurements with closed or open eyes, but without a functional load on the brain in the form of the proof-reading test, a distinctive decrease of the coherence function was not observed during a magnetic storm as well as for pairs of points from other parts of the head (see above) or other rhythms.

  10. Expression of S100A6 in Rat Hippocampus after Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Lateral Head Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI, we investigated changes in cognitive function and S100A6 expression in the hippocampus. TBI-associated changes in this protein have not previously been reported. Rat S100A6 was studied via immunohistochemical staining, Western blot, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR after either lateral head acceleration or sham. Reduced levels of S100A6 protein and mRNA were observed 1 h after TBI, followed by gradual increases over 6, 12, 24, and 72 h, and then a return to sham level at 14 day. Morris water maze (MWM test was used to evaluate animal spatial cognition. TBI- and sham-rats showed an apparent learning curve, expressed as escape latency. Although TBI-rats displayed a relatively poorer cognitive ability than sham-rats, the disparity was not significant early post-injury. Marked cognitive deficits in TBI-rats were observed at 72 h post-injury compared with sham animals. TBI-rats showed decreased times in platform crossing in the daily MWM test; the performance at 72 h post-injury was the worst. In conclusion, a reduction in S100A6 may be one of the early events that lead to secondary cognitive decline after TBI, and its subsequent elevation is tightly linked with cognitive improvement. S100A6 may play important roles in neuronal degeneration and regeneration in TBI.

  11. Quantifying global-brain metabolite level changes with whole-head proton MR spectroscopy at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitz, Matthew S; Wu, William E; Soher, Brian J; Babb, James S; Kirov, Ivan I; Huang, Jeffrey; Fatterpekar, Girish; Gonen, Oded

    2017-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of non-localized, whole-head 1 H-MRS to an individual's serial changes in total-brain NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho concentrations - metabolite metrics often used as surrogate markers in neurological pathologies. In this prospective study, four back-to-back (single imaging session) and three serial (successive sessions) non-localizing, ~3min 1 H-MRS (TE/TR/TI=5/10 4 /940ms) scans were performed on 18 healthy young volunteers: 9 women, 9 men: 29.9±7.6 [mean±standard deviation (SD)] years old. These were analyzed by calculating a within-subject coefficient of variation (CV=SD/mean) to assess intra- and inter-scan repeatability and prediction intervals. This study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. All subjects gave institutional review board-approved written, informed consent. The intra-scan CVs for the NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho were: 3.9±1.8%, 7.3±4.6%, 4.0±3.4% and 2.5±1.6%, and the corresponding inter-scan (longitudinal) values were: 7.0±3.1%, 10.6±5.6%, 7.6±3.5% and 7.0±3.9%. This method is shown to have 80% power to detect changes of 14%, 27%, 26% and 19% between two serial measurements in a given individual. Subject to the assumption that in neurological disorders NAA, Glx, Cr and Cho changes represent brain-only pathology and not muscles, bone marrow, adipose tissue or epithelial cells, this approach enables us to quantify them, thereby adding specificity to the assessment of the total disease load. This will facilitate monitoring diffuse pathologies with faster measurement, more extensive (~90% of the brain) spatial coverage and sensitivity than localized 1 H-MRS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The science of shrinking human heads: tribal warfare and revenge among the South American Jivaro-Shuar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandial, Rahul; Hughes, Samuel A; Aryan, Henry E; Marshall, Lawrence F; Levy, Michael L

    2004-11-01

    THE PRACTICE OF "head-shrinking" has been the proper domain not of Africa but rather of the denizens of South America. Specifically, in the post-Columbian period, it has been most famously the practice of a tribe of indigenous people commonly called the Jivaro or Jivaro-Shuar. The evidence suggests that the Jivaro-Shuar are merely the last group to retain a custom widespread in northwestern South America. In both ceramic and textile art of the pre-Columbian residents of Peru, the motif of trophy heads smaller than normal life-size heads commonly recurs; the motif is seen even in surviving carvings in stone and shell. Moreover, although not true shrunken heads, trophy heads found in late pre-Columbian and even post-Columbian graves of the region demonstrate techniques of display very similar to those used by the Jivaro-Shuar, at least some of which are best understood in the context of head-shrinking. Regardless, the Jivaro-Shuar and their practices provide an illustrative counterexample to popular myth regarding the culture and science of the shrinking of human heads.

  13. The functional connectivity landscape of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Mišić

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment.

  14. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834.

  15. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    the focal GM and WM densities of each twin are correlated with the psychometric intelligence quotient of his/her cotwin. Genes influenced individual differences in left and right superior occipitofrontal fascicle (heritability up to 0.79 and 0.77), corpus callosum (0.82, 0.80), optic radiation (0.69, 0.......79), corticospinal tract (0.78, 0.79), medial frontal cortex (0.78, 0.83), superior frontal cortex (0.76, 0.80), superior temporal cortex (0.80, 0.77), left occipital cortex (0.85), left postcentral cortex (0.83), left posterior cingulate cortex (0.83), right parahippocampal cortex (0.69), and amygdala (0.80, 0......Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...

  16. Brain Imaging of Human Sexual Response : Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruesink, Gerben B; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the experimental brain study of human sexuality, focusing on brain connectivity during the sexual response. Recent Findings: Stable patterns of brain activation have been established for

  17. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain

  18. Wireless Performance of a Fully Passive Neurorecording Microsystem Embedded in Dispersive Human Head Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Helen N.; Chae, Junseok; Miranda, Felix A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the wireless performance of a biocompatible fully passive microsystem implanted in phantom media simulating the dispersive dielectric properties of the human head, for potential application in recording cortical neuropotentials. Fully passive wireless operation is achieved by means of backscattering electromagnetic (EM) waves carrying 3rd order harmonic mixing products (2f(sub 0) plus or minus f(sub m)=4.4-4.9 GHZ) containing targeted neuropotential signals (fm approximately equal to 1-1000 Hz). The microsystem is enclosed in 4 micrometer thick parylene-C for biocompatibility and has a footprint of 4 millimeters x 12 millimeters x 500 micrometers. Preliminary testing of the microsystem implanted in the lossy biological simulating media results in signal-to-noise ratio's (SNR) near 22 (SNR approximately equal to 38 in free space) for millivolt level neuropotentials, demonstrating the potential for fully passive wireless microsystems in implantable medical applications.

  19. Temperature elevation in the eye of anatomically based human head models for plane-wave exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, A; Watanabe, S; Fujiwara, O; Kojima, M; Sasaki, K; Shiozawa, T

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the temperature elevation in the eye of anatomically based human head models for plane-wave exposures. The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation. The eyes in the anatomic models have average dimensions and weight. Computational results show that the ratio of maximum temperature in the lens to the eye-average SAR (named 'heating factor for the lens') is almost uniform (0.112-0.147 deg. C kg W -1 ) in the frequency region below 3 GHz. Above 3 GHz, this ratio increases gradually with an increase of frequency, which is attributed to the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave. Particular attention is paid to the difference in the heating factor for the lens between this study and earlier works. Considering causes clarified in this study, compensated heating factors in all these studies are found to be in good agreement

  20. The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2004-01-01

    Imaging studies have provided evidence of how the human brain changes as an individual becomes addicted. Here, we integrate the findings from imaging studies to propose a model of drug addiction. The process of addiction is initiated in part by the fast and high increases in DA induced by drugs of abuse. We hypothesize that this supraphysiological effect of drugs trigger a series of adaptations in neuronal circuits involved in saliency/reward, motivation/drive, memory/conditioning, and control/disinhibition, resulting in an enhanced (and long lasting) saliency value for the drug and its associated cues at the expense of decreased sensitivity for salient events of everyday life (including natural reinforcers). Although acute drug intake increases DA neurotransmission, chronic drug consumption results in a marked decrease in DA activity, associated with, among others, dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex (region involved with salience attribution) and cingulate gyrus (region involved with inhibitory control). The ensuing increase in motivational drive for the drug, strengthened by conditioned responses and the decrease in inhibitory control favors emergence of compulsive drug taking. This view of how drugs of abuse affect the brain suggests strategies for intervention, which might include: (a) those that will decrease the reward value of the drug of choice; (b) interventions to increase the saliency value of non-drug reinforcers; (c) approaches to weaken conditioned drug behaviors; and (d) methods to strengthen frontal inhibitory and executive control. Though this model focuses mostly on findings from PET studies of the brain DA system it is evident that other neurotransmitters are involved and that a better understanding of their roles in addiction would expand the options for therapeutic targets.

  1. Brain-to-brain hyperclassification reveals action-specific motor mapping of observed actions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Lachat, Fanny; Peltola, Tomi; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Koistinen, Olli-Pekka; Glerean, Enrico; Vehtari, Aki; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The actions were videotaped and shown to 15 "observers" during a second fMRI experiment. Eleven observers saw the videos of one actor, and the remaining four observers saw the videos of the other actor. In a control fMRI experiment, one of the actors performed actions with closed eyes, and five new observers viewed these actions. Bayesian canonical correlation analysis was applied to functionally realign observers' and actors' fMRI data. Hyperclassification of the seen actions was performed with Bayesian logistic regression trained on actors' data and tested with observers' data. Without the functional realignment, between-subjects accuracy was at chance level. With the realignment, the accuracy increased on average by 15 percentage points, exceeding both the chance level and the accuracy without functional realignment. The highest accuracies were observed in occipital, parietal and premotor cortices. Hyperclassification exceeded chance level also when the actor did not see her own actions. We conclude that the functional brain activation signatures underlying action execution and observation are partly shared, yet these activation signatures may be anatomically misaligned across individuals.

  2. The power of love on the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Grafton, Scott T; Ortigue, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Romantic love has been the source for some of the greatest achievements of mankind throughout the ages. The recent localization of romantic love within subcortico-cortical reward, motivation and emotion systems in the human brain has suggested that love is a goal-directed drive with predictable facilitation effects on cognitive behavior, rather than a pure emotion. Here we show that the subliminal exposure of a beloved's name (romantic prime) during a lexical decision task dramatically improves performance in women in love (Experiment 1), as the subliminal presentation of a passion's descriptive noun does (Experiment 2). The parallel between love and passion allows us to interpret these facilitation effects as corresponding to cognitive top-down processes within a motivation-enhanced neural network.

  3. Adrenergic receptors in frontal cortex in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, R; Raisman, R; Ruberg, M; Agid, Y

    1985-02-05

    The binding of three adrenergic ligands ([3H]prazosin, [3H]clonidine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol) was studied in the frontal cortex of human brain. alpha 1-Receptors, labeled by [3H]prazosin, predominated. [3H]Clonidine bound to two classes of sites, one of high affinity and one of low affinity. Guanosine triphosphate appeared to lower the affinity of [3H]clonidine for its receptor. [3H]Dihydroalprenolol bound to three classes of sites: the beta 1-receptor, the beta 2-receptor and a receptor with low affinity which represented about 40% of the total binding, but which was probably a non-specific site; the beta 1/beta 2 ratio was 1/2.

  4. Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bagó, Attila G

    2015-01-01

    associated with SUCLA2 mutations, the precise localization of SUCLA2 protein has never been investigated. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of A-SUCL-β in surgical human cortical tissue samples was present exclusively in neurons, identified by their morphology and visualized by double labeling...... was absent in glial cells, identified by antibodies directed against the glial markers GFAP and S100. Furthermore, in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated that SUCLA2 mRNA was present in Nissl-labeled neurons but not glial cells labeled with S100. Immunoreactivity of the GTP-forming β subunit (G......-SUCL-β) encoded by SUCLG2, or in situ hybridization histochemistry for SUCLG2 mRNA could not be demonstrated in either neurons or astrocytes. Western blotting of post mortem brain samples revealed minor G-SUCL-β immunoreactivity that was, however, not upregulated in samples obtained from diabetic versus non...

  5. Role of synchronized oscillatory brain activity for human pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of cortical pain processing in humans has significantly improved since the development of modern neuroimaging techniques. Non-invasive electrophysiological approaches such as electro- and magnetoencephalography have proven to be helpful tools for the real-time investigation of neuronal signals and synchronous communication between cortical areas. In particular, time-frequency decomposition of signals recorded with these techniques seems to be a promising approach because different pain-related oscillatory changes can be observed within different frequency bands, which are likely to be linked to specific sensory and motor functions. In this review we discuss the latest evidence on pain-induced time-frequency signals and propose that changes in oscillatory activity reflect an essential communication mechanism in the brain that is modulated during pain processing. The importance of synchronization processes for normal and pathological pain processing, such as chronic pain states, is discussed.

  6. MRI-Based Multiscale Model for Electromagnetic Analysis in the Human Head with Implanted DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an established procedure for the treatment of movement and affective disorders. Patients with DBS may benefit from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to evaluate injuries or comorbidities. However, the MRI radio-frequency (RF energy may cause excessive tissue heating particularly near the electrode. This paper studies how the accuracy of numerical modeling of the RF field inside a DBS patient varies with spatial resolution and corresponding anatomical detail of the volume surrounding the electrodes. A multiscale model (MS was created by an atlas-based segmentation using a 1 mm3 head model (mRes refined in the basal ganglia by a 200 μm2 ex-vivo dataset. Four DBS electrodes targeting the left globus pallidus internus were modeled. Electromagnetic simulations at 128 MHz showed that the peak of the electric field of the MS doubled (18.7 kV/m versus 9.33 kV/m and shifted 6.4 mm compared to the mRes model. Additionally, the MS had a sixfold increase over the mRes model in peak-specific absorption rate (SAR of 43.9 kW/kg versus 7 kW/kg. The results suggest that submillimetric resolution and improved anatomical detail in the model may increase the accuracy of computed electric field and local SAR around the tip of the implant.

  7. Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The structural, connectomic and network covariance of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John D

    2013-02-01

    Though it is widely appreciated that complex structural, functional and morphological relationships exist between distinct areas of the human cerebral cortex, the extent to which such relationships coincide remains insufficiently appreciated. Here we determine the extent to which correlations between brain regions are modulated by either structural, connectomic or network-theoretic properties using a structural neuroimaging data set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) volumes acquired from N=110 healthy human adults. To identify the linear relationships between all available pairs of regions, we use canonical correlation analysis to test whether a statistically significant correlation exists between each pair of cortical parcels as quantified via structural, connectomic or network-theoretic measures. In addition to this, we investigate (1) how each group of canonical variables (whether structural, connectomic or network-theoretic) contributes to the overall correlation and, additionally, (2) whether each individual variable makes a significant contribution to the test of the omnibus null hypothesis according to which no correlation between regions exists across subjects. We find that, although region-to-region correlations are extensively modulated by structural and connectomic measures, there are appreciable differences in how these two groups of measures drive inter-regional correlation patterns. Additionally, our results indicate that the network-theoretic properties of the cortex are strong modulators of region-to-region covariance. Our findings are useful for understanding the structural and connectomic relationship between various parts of the brain, and can inform theoretical and computational models of cortical information processing. Published by Elsevier Inc.