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Sample records for human hand thumb

  1. Inverse Kinematic Analysis of Human Hand Thumb Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with a kinematic model of the thumb of the human hand. The proposed model has 3 degrees of freedom being able to model the movements of the thumb tip with respect to the wrist joint centre. The kinematic equations are derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg Convention and solved in both direct and inverse way. Inverse kinematic analysis of human hand thumb model reveals multiple and connected solutions which are characteristic to nonlinear systems when the number of equations is greater than number of unknowns and correspond to natural movements of the finger.

  2. Evolution and homologies of primate and modern human hand and forearm muscles, with notes on thumb movements and tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we explore how the results of a primate-wide higher-level phylogenetic analysis of muscle characters can improve our understanding of the evolution and homologies of the forearm and hand muscles of modern humans. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, none of the forearm and hand muscle structures usually present in modern humans are autapomorphic. All are found in one or more extant non-human primate taxa. What is unique is the particular combination of muscles. However, more muscles go to the thumb in modern humans than in almost all other primates, reinforcing the hypothesis that focal thumb movements probably played an important role in human evolution. What makes the modern human thumb myology special within the primate clade is not so much its intrinsic musculature but two extrinsic muscles, extensor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis longus, that are otherwise only found in hylobatids. It is likely that these two forearm muscles play different functional roles in hylobatids and modern humans. In the former, the thumb is separated from elongated digits by a deep cleft and there is no pulp-to-pulp opposition, whereas modern humans exhibit powerful thumb flexion and greater manipulative abilities, such as those involved in the manufacture and use of tools. The functional and evolutionary significance of a third peculiar structure, the intrinsic hand structure that is often called the 'interosseous volaris primus of Henle' (and which we suggest is referred to as the musculus adductor pollicis accessorius) is still obscure. The presence of distinct contrahentes digitorum and intermetacarpales in adult chimpanzees is likely the result of prolonged or delayed development of the hand musculature of these apes. In relation to these structures, extant chimpanzees are more neotenic than modern humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward a Phonetic Representation of Hand Configuration: The Thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert E.; Liddell, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a system for the representation of the configurations of the thumb in the hand configurations of signed languages and for the interactions of the thumb with the four fingers proper. The configuration of the thumb is described as a componential combination of the descriptions of thumb opposition, abduction of the CM…

  4. Functional workspace for precision manipulation between thumb and fingers in normal hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Chieh; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Chang, Cheung-Wen; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Sun, Yun-Nien

    2009-10-01

    Prehensile functions of hand are based on thumb-finger relationships which are regarded as an essential element in various manipulations of our daily living activities. Although the maximal workspace provides clinicians a way to comprehend the ranges of digital movements, little is known about the "functional workspace" based on thumb-finger relationships. This study defines the functional workspace of the precision thumb-finger grasp as the range of all possible positions in which thumb-tip and each fingertip can simultaneously contact each other. We present a quantitative method for measuring the functional workspace of the human hand. The maximal motion trajectories of thumb-tip and fingertips of twenty subjects were recorded using a video-capture system. The functional workspace of the precision manipulation was calculated via numerical methods based on the maximal workspaces obtained of the thumb-tip and fingertip motions. The ratios of the functional workspace with respect to the maximal workspace of the index, middle, ring and little fingers were calculated as 33.7%, 27.1%, 23.5% and 19.1%, respectively. Although the present approach is still a descriptive work which might require more validations or evidences to justify, the results obtained may become normal standards for practical use in objective handicapped authentications, insurance claims, and rehabilitation programs as well as criteria for ergonomic design considerations in the near future.

  5. The evolution of the hominin thumb and the influence exerted by the non-dominant hand during stone tool production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alastair J M; Dunmore, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Modern humans possess a highly derived thumb that is substantially stronger and more robust than the fingers. Previous hypotheses concerning the evolution of such traits have focused upon the manipulation of hammerstones during stone tool production and of stone tools during their use. To date there has been no research on the manipulative pressures exerted by the non-dominant (core-holding) hand during stone tool production and its potential influence on the evolutionary history of the thumb. Here we provide the first investigation into the frequencies of digit recruitment and the relative manipulative forces experienced in the non-dominant hand during stone tool production. Eight experienced knappers produced flake cutting tools under four distinct conditions while pressure sensors, secured to the volar pads of the thumb, index and middle fingers of the non-dominant hand, recorded manipulative forces. Results indicate that relative to the fingers, the thumb was recruited significantly more frequently and experienced significantly greater manipulative forces during core repositioning events and the securing of the core during flake detachments. Our results support the hypothesis that the robust thumb anatomy observed in the hominin lineage was selected for, at least in part, as a result of more frequent and greater manipulative pressures acting upon the thumb relative to the fingers on the non-dominant hand during stone tool production.

  6. Relationship of hand preference to accuracy on a thumb-positioning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolo-Quinn, L

    1991-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship of hand preference to performance on a thumb-positioning task. Two hypotheses were proposed on the basis of hemispheric lateralization. The first stated that all subjects would perform the task more accurately using the left thumb, regardless of hand preference. The second hypothesis tested was that left-handed subjects would perform more accurately than right-handed subjects. Each of 20 neurologically intact adults grouped by hand preference reproduced a criterion thumb position with both thumbs simultaneously. Absolute error, recorded for each movement and analyzed by mixed analysis of variance, did support the first hypothesis. However, the left-handed group did not perform statistically differently from right-handed subjects. Factors influencing the data are discussed and recommendations for further studies are made.

  7. TIBIALIS ANTERIOR VASCULARIZED TRIPLE FLAPS IN ONE STAGE RECONSTRUCTION OF MUTILATED HAND WITH LOSS OF THUMB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱云良; 章一新; 张余光; 王丹茹; 关文祥

    2004-01-01

    Objective To introduce a one stage technique in the reconstruction of mutilated hand with loss of thumb and eventual digits. Methods Tibialis anterior pediculated triple flaps (TAPTF) including distal lateral leg, dorsalis pedis flaps for skin defect covering and trimmed hallux for thumb reconstruction were presented.Results Mutilated hands in five patients were repaired by the technique with acceptable cosmetic and functional success. A three to twelve months follow-up in three patients resulted in the recovery of protective thermal sensation and pinch action of the reconstructed thumb. The donor sites were free from major disability. Conclusion TAPTF is ideal for one stage reconstruction of the mutilated hand with loss of digits.

  8. A systematic evaluation of the effect of thumb opponens splints on hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, S.R.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, P.U.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Haga, N.; Maathuis, C.G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a neoprene thumb opponens splint on hand function during a self-selected activities of daily living task in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy with thumb-in-palm position of the affected hand. Design: Systematic evaluation of seven cases using a mult

  9. Extrinsic finger and thumb muscles command a virtual hand to allow individual finger and grasp control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J Alexander; Hargrove, Levi J; Weir, Richard F ff; Kuiken, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Fine-wire intramuscular electrodes were used to obtain electromyogram (EMG) signals from six extrinsic hand muscles associated with the thumb, index, and middle fingers. Subjects' EMG activity was used to control a virtual three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand as they conformed the hand to a sequence of hand postures testing two controllers: direct EMG control and pattern recognition control. Subjects tested two conditions using each controller: starting the hand from a predefined neutral posture before each new posture and starting the hand from the previous posture in the sequence. Subjects demonstrated their abilities to simultaneously, yet individually, move all three DOFs during the direct EMG control trials; however, results showed subjects did not often utilize this feature. Performance metrics such as failure rate and completion time showed no significant difference between the two controllers.

  10. Thumb Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Thumb Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... A joint is where bones connect and move. Arthritis is thinning of the cartilage, which is the ...

  11. Treatment of thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis; quo vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, AJ

    2016-01-01

    The unique prehensile ability of the human hand is largely due to the biomechanical function of its complex first carpometacarpal (CMC1) joint. This makes the thumb the most important digit of the hand. The unique demands placed on the thumb regarding mobility, stability and transmission of force ma

  12. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-07-14

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils like the plesiomorphic ape Proconsul heseloni and the hominins Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba. Our results reveal high levels of hand disparity among modern hominoids, which are explained by different evolutionary processes: autapomorphic evolution in hylobatids (extreme digital and thumb elongation), convergent adaptation between chimpanzees and orangutans (digital elongation) and comparatively little change in gorillas and hominins. The human (and australopith) high thumb-to-digits ratio required little change since the LCA, and was acquired convergently with other highly dexterous anthropoids.

  13. Anatomic localization of motor points for the neuromuscular blockade of hand intrinsic muscles involved in thumb-in-palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Jin Hwan; Lee, Je Hoon; Ko, Young Jin; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hye Won

    2008-09-01

    To determine the location of the motor points and intramuscular branches for the muscles involved in thumb-in-palm and the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, the latter of which, because of its anatomic proximity, may be inadvertently blocked. Hand intrinsic muscles from 20 fresh cadavers were dissected. The point of nerve entry to the muscle belly and the points where the intramuscular endings were located most proximally and distally were defined in relation to a reference line connecting the hook of hamate and the head of the first metacarpal bone. We were able to define a region, located from 66.08% +/- 8.67% to 70.28% +/- 10.62% of the reference line, with the hook of hamate as starting point, where intramuscular endings for the thumb-in-palm muscles were dense and farther from the intramuscular endings for the abductor pollicis brevis. The region around 40% of the reference line was the point where the intramuscular endings were most dense for the abductor pollicis brevis. The results may provide guidelines that could help in localizing the appropriate points for the neuromuscular blockade of thumb-in-palm muscles and, at the same time, help in minimizing the inadvertent block of the abductor pollicis brevis.

  14. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu B Trudeau

    Full Text Available When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location. However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1 the narrower standard keyboard layout in the portrait orientation leads to lower self-reported discomfort and less reach than the landscape orientation; (2 a split keyboard layout results in better overall outcomes compared to the standard layout; and (3 the conventional bottom keyboard location leads to the best outcomes overall compared to other locations. A repeated measures laboratory experiment of 12 tablet owners measured typing speed, discomfort, task difficulty, and thumb/wrist joint postures using an active marker system during typing tasks for different combinations of device orientation (portrait and landscape, keyboard layout (standard and split, and keyboard location (bottom, middle, top. The narrower standard keyboard with the device in the portrait orientation was associated with less discomfort (least squares mean (and S.E. 2.9±0.6 than the landscape orientation (4.5±0.7. Additionally, the split keyboard decreased the amount of reaching required by the thumb in the landscape orientation as defined by a reduced range of motion and less MCP extension, which may have led to reduced discomfort (2.7±0.6 compared to the standard layout (4.5±0.7. However, typing speed was greater for the standard layout (127±5 char./min. compared to the split layout (113±4 char./min. regardless of device orientation and keyboard location. Usage guidelines and designers can incorporate these findings to optimize keyboard design parameters and form factors that promote user performance

  15. Tablet Keyboard Configuration Affects Performance, Discomfort and Task Difficulty for Thumb Typing in a Two-Handed Grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Matthieu B; Catalano, Paul J; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-01-01

    When holding a tablet computer with two hands, the touch keyboard configuration imposes postural constraints on the user because of the need to simultaneously hold the device and type with the thumbs. Designers have provided users with several possible keyboard configurations (device orientation, keyboard layout and location). However, potential differences in performance, usability and postures among these configurations have not been explored. We hypothesize that (1) the narrower standard keyboard layout in the portrait orientation leads to lower self-reported discomfort and less reach than the landscape orientation; (2) a split keyboard layout results in better overall outcomes compared to the standard layout; and (3) the conventional bottom keyboard location leads to the best outcomes overall compared to other locations. A repeated measures laboratory experiment of 12 tablet owners measured typing speed, discomfort, task difficulty, and thumb/wrist joint postures using an active marker system during typing tasks for different combinations of device orientation (portrait and landscape), keyboard layout (standard and split), and keyboard location (bottom, middle, top). The narrower standard keyboard with the device in the portrait orientation was associated with less discomfort (least squares mean (and S.E.) 2.9±0.6) than the landscape orientation (4.5±0.7). Additionally, the split keyboard decreased the amount of reaching required by the thumb in the landscape orientation as defined by a reduced range of motion and less MCP extension, which may have led to reduced discomfort (2.7±0.6) compared to the standard layout (4.5±0.7). However, typing speed was greater for the standard layout (127±5 char./min.) compared to the split layout (113±4 char./min.) regardless of device orientation and keyboard location. Usage guidelines and designers can incorporate these findings to optimize keyboard design parameters and form factors that promote user performance and

  16. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  17. Trabecular architecture in the thumb of Pan and Homo: implications for investigating hand use, loading, and hand preference in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas B; Kivell, Tracy L; Gross, Thomas; Pahr, Dieter H; Lazenby, Richard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Hershkovitz, Israel; Skinner, Matthew M

    2016-12-01

    Humans display an 85-95% cross-cultural right-hand bias in skilled tasks, which is considered a derived behavior because such a high frequency is not reported in wild non-human primates. Handedness is generally considered to be an evolutionary byproduct of selection for manual dexterity and augmented visuo-cognitive capabilities within the context of complex stone tool manufacture/use. Testing this hypothesis requires an understanding of when appreciable levels of right dominant behavior entered the fossil record. Because bone remodels in vivo, skeletal asymmetries are thought to reflect greater mechanical loading on the dominant side, but incomplete preservation of external morphology and ambiguities about past loading environments complicate interpretations. We test if internal trabecular bone is capable of providing additional information by analyzing the thumb of Homo sapiens and Pan. We assess trabecular structure at the distal head and proximal base of paired (left/right) first metacarpals using micro-CT scans of Homo sapiens (n = 14) and Pan (n = 9). Throughout each epiphysis we quantify average and local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), degree of anisotropy (DA), and elastic modulus (E) to address bone volume patterning and directional asymmetry. We find a right directional asymmetry in H. sapiens consistent with population-level handedness, but also report a left directional asymmetry in Pan that may be the result of postural and/or locomotor loading. We conclude that trabecular bone is capable of detecting right/left directional asymmetry, but suggest coupling studies of internal structure with analyses of other skeletal elements and cortical bone prior to applications in the fossil record. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Simultaneous adaptation of the thumb and index finger of the same hand to opposite prism displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Willemijn D; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2014-01-01

    It only takes a few goal-directed hand movements to adapt one's movements to a prism-induced displacement of the visual scene. Adaptation to the displacement leads to errors in the opposite direction from the initial displacement when the prisms are removed. Such aftereffects are thought to arise fr

  19. Developing a computational model of human hand kinetics using AVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowitz, Mark S. [State Univ. of New York, Binghamton, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop a finite element model of the human hand at the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), this project extended existing computational tools for analyzing and visualizing hand kinetics. These tools employ a commercial, scientific visualization package called AVS. FORTRAN and C code, originally written by David Giurintano of the Gillis W. Long Hansen`s Disease Center, was ported to a different computing platform, debugged, and documented. Usability features were added and the code was made more modular and readable. When the code is used to visualize bone movement and tendon paths for the thumb, graphical output is consistent with expected results. However, numerical values for forces and moments at the thumb joints do not yet appear to be accurate enough to be included in ISCR`s finite element model. Future work includes debugging the parts of the code that calculate forces and moments and verifying the correctness of these values.

  20. Neuro-based Thumb-tip Force and Joint Angle Modelling for Development of Prosthetic Thumb Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Anija Jalaludin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human fingers have a specific role that contributes to different hand functions. Among these fingers, the thumb plays the most special function as an anchor to many hand activities. As a result, the loss of the thumb due to traumatic accidents can be catastrophic as proper hand function will be severely limited. In order to solve this problem, a prosthetic thumb is developed to be worn in complementing the function of the rest of the fingers. The movement of the prosthetic device can be naturally controlled by using electromyogram (EMG signals. In this work, the EMG signals from the human muscles were measured in different thumb configurations and thumb-tip forces in flexion movement. The muscles involved are the Adductor Pollicis (AP, Flexor Pollicis Brevis (FPB, Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI. The classification of the EMG signals based on different force and thumb configurations is performed using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN. From a series of experiments, the results show that the neural network efficiently classified the signals and a unique set of EMG signals was generated for each thumb movement and force. Therefore, EMG signals were used to control the prosthetic movement with aid from the developed neural network.

  1. Case Reports: Thumb Reconstruction Using Amputated Fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nguyen T.; Staudenmaier, R.; Hoehnke, C.

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of an irreparably amputated thumb in multiple digit amputations using amputated fingers can considerably improve hand function and allows creation of a newly transplanted thumb with acceptable cosmetic and functional attributes. However, the surgery is challenging and rarely reported. We report six cases using this procedure in patients with crushed thumbs unsuitable for replantation. In four of the patients, the remnant of the index finger was replanted on the thumb stump and ...

  2. Skiers thumb - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thumb; Ulnar collateral ligament injury; Gamekeeper's thumb References Safran MA, Zachazewski J, Stone DA. Ulnar collateral ligament ... of the thumb (gamekeeper's or skier's thumb). In: Safran MA, Zachazewski J, Stone DA. Instructions for Sports ...

  3. [Triphalangeal thumb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vázquez, Juan Manuel; Schenk-Palao, Josef; Fernández-Palomo, Justino; Camacho-Galindo, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Triphalangeal thumb is often thought to be a rare congenital abnormality; it has an incidence of 1 in 25,000 births. We reviewed 49 triphalangeal thumbs in 28 Mexico City patients at the Diaz Lombardo Hospital from 1974 to 1979, Shriners Hospital from 1979 to 1982, Instituto Nacional de Ortopedia from 1981 to 1982, and at the ABC Hospital from 1971 to 1998. A total of 21 patients (75%) had bilateral deformity. Patients were classified according to Dieter Buck-Gramcko system and Müller teratologic line. All were surgically treated and evaluated with Cheng graduation scale, finding good results in 48 patients (97%), fair results in one (3%), and no poor results.

  4. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on obs

  5. The thumb of Miocene apes: new insights from Castell de Barberà (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2012-07-01

    Primate hands display a major selective compromise between locomotion and manipulation. The thumb may or may not participate in locomotion, but it plays a central role in most manipulative activities. Understanding whether or not the last common ancestor of humans and Pan displayed extant-ape-like hand proportions (i.e., relatively long fingers and a short thumb) can be clarified by the analysis of Miocene ape hand remains. Here we describe new pollical remains-a complete proximal phalanx and a partial distal phalanx-from the middle/late Miocene site of Castell de Barberà (ca., 11.2-10.5 Ma, Vallès-Penedès Basin), and provide morphometric and qualitative comparisons with other available Miocene specimens as well as extant catarrhines (including humans). Our results show that all available Miocene taxa (Proconsul, Nacholapithecus, Afropithecus, Sivapithecus, Hispanopithecus, Oreopithecus, and the hominoid from Castell de Barberà) share a similar phalangeal thumb morphology: the phalanges are relatively long, and the proximal phalanges have a high degree of curvature, marked insertions for the flexor muscles, a palmarly bent trochlea and a low basal height. All these features suggest that these Miocene apes used their thumb with an emphasis on flexion, most of them to powerfully assist the fingers during above-branch, grasping arboreal locomotion. Moreover, in terms of relative proximal phalangeal length, the thumb of Miocene taxa is intermediate between the long-thumbed humans and the short-thumbed extant apes. Together with previous evidence, this suggests that a moderate-length hand with relatively long thumb-involved in locomotion-is the original hand morphotype for the Hominidae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human hand modelling: kinematics, dynamics, applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustus, A.; Stillfried, G.; Visser, J.; Jörntell, H.; Van der Smagt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of mathematical modelling of the human hand is given. We consider hand models from a specific background: rather than studying hands for surgical or similar goals, we target at providing a set of tools with which human grasping and manipulation capabilities can be studied, and hand funct

  7. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  8. Combined free toe and free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for reconstruction of the thumb and thumb web space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X J; Tong, J; Wang, Y

    2000-08-01

    To repair a complexly injured hand with composite loss of the thumb and the thumb web space in one stage, the combined transfer of a free second toe and a free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was designed. It was used to simultaneously reconstruct the thumb and thumb web space of the injured hand in five cases. All flaps survived and there were no complications at any donor site after the reconstructions. In follow-up averaging 35.6 months, the final functional and cosmetic outcomes of the reconstructed thumbs and thumb web spaces were satisfactory. Results demonstrated that the combined transfer of a free second toe and a free deep inferior epigastric perforator flap is a valid method for simultaneous reconstruction of the thumb and the thumb web space of the injured hand.

  9. Thumb Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Once the cast is removed, you might have physical therapy to help you regain hand strength and movement. ... relieve swelling and pain. References Frontera WR. Hand osteoarthritis. In: Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. ...

  10. Hypoplastic thumb type IIIB: An alternative method for surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Onur Basat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplastic thumb is the second most common congenital deformity of the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia is characterized by diminished thumb size, metacarpal adduction, metacarpophalangeal joint instability, and thenar muscle hypoplasia. In the literature, different classification types of hypoplastic thumb have been used and different treatment methods described. In this case we presented an alternative palliative treatment method for a ten-year-old patient with modified Blauth's classification type IIIB hypoplastic thumb and one-year follow-up results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000: 59-61

  11. Cortical excitability is not depressed in movement-modulated stretch response of human thumb flexor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C J; Miles, T S

    2001-08-01

    There is strong evidence that the predominant pathway of the long-latency stretch reflex for flexor pollicis longus crosses the motor cortex. This reflex response is diminished during active thumb movements. We tested the hypothesis that this could be due to a decrease in the excitability of the transcortical component during movement. During isometric, concentric and eccentric thumb movements, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex was given at a time when the reflex signal was traversing the motor cortex. TMS was also given earlier in separate runs when the signal was traversing the spinal cord under each of the three contractile conditions. The electromyogram was analysed for non-linear summation between stretch responses and the potential evoked by the cortical stimulus. The response to TMS alone was uniform across the three types of contraction, and the lack of cortical involvement in the short-latency reflex was confirmed. The TMS-evoked response summed in a non-linear manner with the long-latency reflex response, confirming that the excitability of the motor cortex was increased as the reflex signal passed through it. The long-latency response was markedly depressed during isotonic compared with isometric contractions. However, the non-linear summation was not greater during the isometric contractions. Thus, the depressed reflex responses during isotonic movements do not stem from reduced motor cortical responsiveness or afferent input to the transcortical pathway, and may instead reflect modulation of cutaneous reflexes during isotonic contractions.

  12. Case reports: thumb reconstruction using amputated fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen T; Staudenmaier, R; Hoehnke, C

    2008-08-01

    Reconstruction of an irreparably amputated thumb in multiple digit amputations using amputated fingers can considerably improve hand function and allows creation of a newly transplanted thumb with acceptable cosmetic and functional attributes. However, the surgery is challenging and rarely reported. We report six cases using this procedure in patients with crushed thumbs unsuitable for replantation. In four of the patients, the remnant of the index finger was replanted on the thumb stump and in another two patients, an amputated middle finger and ring finger were used. The patients had a minimum followup of 12 months (mean, 18 months; range, 12-45 months). All newly transplanted thumbs survived resulting in the patients having satisfactory postoperative hand function and appearance.

  13. Neurovascular pedicle and advancement flaps for palmar thumb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, D E

    1997-05-01

    Thumb injuries are potentially devastating for overall hand function. The aim of surgical reconstruction is to preserve length, restore normal sensibility, and provide an aesthetic, rounded thumb profile. The level and type of thumb injury are most important factors in determining the treatment options for thumb reconstruction. The technical expertise and decision-making skills of the surgeon are of equal significance. With correct management, the majority of patients with these injuries regain excellent functional results.

  14. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Amputated Thumb: A Simplified Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents a case of prosthetic rehabilitation of an amputated thumb. It emphasizes that prosthetic replacement is a better option for aesthetic and psychological improvement, particularly in cases where the victim is unwilling to undergo complicated surgical procedures for reconstruction of thumb or where functioning of thumb cannot be restored even by multiple surgeries. In the present case, a 20 years old female patient, with missing thumb of her right hand was rehabilitated...

  15. Thumb injuries in downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, O; Balkfors, B; Lindsjö, U

    1982-02-01

    Thumb injuries are next to knee injuries the most common injury in downhill skiing today. In this material they constituted 17% of all skiing injuries. Three-fourths of the thumb injuries were lesions of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Compared to a control population consisting of 1619 randomly chosen uninjured skiers, we found that no type of ski pole handle in common use today eliminated the risk of thumb injury, but the injury frequency was higher when using a ski pole with a big plate on the top of the handle. It was, however, of no importance how the skier gripped the ski pole in relation to the strap. It is suggested that the skier during a fall holds on to the ski pole until the very last moment before the hand hits the ground. The ski pole handle then remains in the hand and constitutes the hypomochlium that forces the thumb into abduction and extension, which causes the typical ulnar collateral ligament injury.

  16. Efficient human hand kinematics for manipulation tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos Guzmán, Salvador; Ferre Perez, Manuel; Sanchez-Uran Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Ortego la Moneda, Javier; Peña, César

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on obtaining efficient human hand models that are suitable for manipulation tasks. A 24 DoF kinematic model of the human hand is defined to realistic movements. This model is based on the human skeleton. Dynamic and Static constraints have been included in order to improve the movement realism. Two simplified hand models with 9 and 6 DoF have been developed according to the constraints predefined. These simplified models involve some errors in reconstructing the hand post...

  17. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  18. The sensory somatotopic map of the human hand demonstrated at 4 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldjian, J A; Gottschalk, A; Patel, R S; Detre, J A; Alsop, D C

    1999-07-01

    Recent attempts at high-resolution sensory-stimulated fMRI performed at 1.5 T have had very limited success at demonstrating a somatotopic organization for individual digits. Our purpose was to determine if functional MRI at 4 T can demonstrate the sensory somatotopic map of the human hand. Sensory functional MRI was performed at 4 T in five normal volunteers using a low-frequency vibratory stimulus on the pad of each finger of the left hand. A simple motor control task was also performed. The data were normalized to a standard atlas, and individual and group statistical parametric maps (SPMs) were computed for each task. Volume of activation and distribution of cluster maxima were compared for each task. For three of the subjects, the SPMs demonstrated a somatotopic organization of the sensory cortex. The group SPMs demonstrated a clear somatotopic organization of the sensory cortex. The thumb to fifth finger were organized, in general, with a lateral to medial, inferior to superior, and anterior to posterior relationship. There was overlap in the individual SPMs between fingers. The sensory activation spanned a space of 12-18 mm (thumb to fifth finger) on the primary sensory cortex. The motor activation occurred consistently at the superior-most extent of the sensory activation within and across subjects. The sensory somatotopic map of the human hand can be identified at 4 T. High-resolution imaging at 4 T can be useful for detailed functional imaging studies. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT THUMB POSITIONS IN SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of a true model of a swimmer hand with the thumb in different positions using numerical simulation techniques. A three-dimensional domain was created to simulate the fluid flow around three models of a swimmer hand, with the thumb in different positions: thumb fully abducted, partially abducted, and adducted. These three hand models were obtained through computerized tomography scans of an Olympic swimmer hand. Steady-state computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed using the Fluent® code. The forces estimated in each of the three hand models were decomposed into drag and lift coefficients. Angles of attack of hand models of 0º, 45º and 90º, with a sweep back angle of 0º were used for the calculations. The results showed that the position with the thumb adducted presented slightly higher values of drag coefficient compared with thumb abducted positions. Moreover, the position with the thumb fully abducted allowed increasing the lift coefficient of the hand at angles of attack of 0º and 45º. These results suggested that, for hand models in which the lift force can play an important role, the abduction of the thumb may be better, whereas at higher angles of attack, in which the drag force is dominant, the adduction of the thumb may be preferable

  20. Review of human hand microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Nurinova, Nilufar I; Zapka, Carrie A; Fierer, Noah; Wilson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances have increased our understanding of the human microbiome, including the skin microbiome. Despite the importance of the hands as a vector for infection transmission, there have been no comprehensive reviews of recent advances in hand microbiome research or overviews of the factors that influence the composition of the hand microbiome. A comprehensive and systematic database search was conducted for skin microbiome-related articles published from January 1, 2008 to April 1, 2015. Only primary research articles that used culture-independent, whole community analysis methods to study the healthy hand skin microbiome were included. Eighteen articles were identified containing hand microbiome data. Most focused on bacteria, with relatively little reported on fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Bacteria from four phyla were found across all studies of the hand microbiome (most to least relative abundance): Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Key factors that impacted the hand microbiome composition included temporal and biogeographical dynamics, as well as intrinsic (age, gender) and extrinsic (product use, cohabitants, pet-ownership) variables. There was more temporal variability in the composition of the hand microbiome than in other body sites, making identification of the "normal" microbiome of the hands challenging. The microbiome of the hands is in constant flux as the hands are a critical vector for transmitting microorganisms between people, pets, inanimate objects and our environments. Future studies need to resolve methodological influences on results, and further investigate factors which alter the hand microbiome including the impact of products applied to hands. Increased understanding of the hand microbiome and the skin microbiome in general, will open the door to product development for disease prevention and treatment, and may lead to other applications, including novel diagnostic and forensic approaches.

  1. Estimating thumb-index finger precision grip and manipulation potential in extant and fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feix, Thomas; Kivell, Tracy L; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-05-06

    Primates, and particularly humans, are characterized by superior manual dexterity compared with other mammals. However, drawing the biomechanical link between hand morphology/behaviour and functional capabilities in non-human primates and fossil taxa has been challenging. We present a kinematic model of thumb-index precision grip and manipulative movement based on bony hand morphology in a broad sample of extant primates and fossil hominins. The model reveals that both joint mobility and digit proportions (scaled to hand size) are critical for determining precision grip and manipulation potential, but that having either a long thumb or great joint mobility alone does not necessarily yield high precision manipulation. The results suggest even the oldest available fossil hominins may have shared comparable precision grip manipulation with modern humans. In particular, the predicted human-like precision manipulation of Australopithecus afarensis, approximately one million years before the first stone tools, supports controversial archaeological evidence of tool-use in this taxon.

  2. In Vivo 3-Dimensional Kinematics of Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint During Thumb Opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Yohei; Oka, Kunihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kiyoshi; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Murase, Tsuyoshi

    2017-09-07

    This study primarily aimed to demonstrate the screw-home rotation of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and the function of surrounding ligaments during thumb oppositional motion. A 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the thumb CMC joint was conducted using data derived from computed tomography of 9 healthy volunteers. Scans were obtained in the neutral forearm and wrist position and the thumb in maximum radial abduction, maximum palmar abduction, and maximum opposition. The movements of the first metacarpal and the palmar and dorsal bases on the trapezium during thumb oppositional motion from radial abduction through palmar abduction were quantified using a coordinate system originating on the trapezium. In addition to the kinematic analyses, the length of virtual ligaments, including the anterior oblique, ulnar collateral, dorsal radial, dorsal central (DCL), and posterior oblique ligament (POL), were calculated at each thumb position. From radial abduction to opposition of the thumb through palmar abduction, the first metacarpal was abducted, internally rotated, and flexed on the trapezium. The palmar base of the first metacarpal moved in the palmar-ulnar direction, and the dorsal base moved in the palmar-distal direction along the concave surface of the trapezium. Although the DCL and POL lengthened, the lengths of other ligaments did not change significantly. During thumb oppositional motion, internal rotation of the first metacarpal occurred, with the palmar base rotating primarily with respect to the dorsal base. The DCL and POL may be strained in thumb functional positions. Kinematic variables indicated a screw-home rotation of the thumb CMC joint and the contribution of the dorsal ligaments to the stability of the rotation on the pivot point. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  4. Reorganization of the Human Somatosensory Cortex in Hand Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Catalan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Abnormalities of finger representations in the somatosensory cortex have been identified in patients with focal hand dystonia. Measuring blood flow with positron emission tomography (PET can be use to demonstrate functional localization of receptive fields. Methods: A vibratory stimulus was applied to the right thumb and little finger of six healthy volunteers and six patients with focal hand dystonia to map their receptive fields using H215O PET. Results: The cortical finger representations in the primary somatosensory cortex were closer to each other in patients than in normal subjects. No abnormalities were found in secondary somatosensory cortex, but the somatotopy there is less well distinguished. Conclusions: These data confirm prior electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging observations showing abnormalities of finger representations in somatosensory cortex of patients with focal hand dystonia.

  5. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  6. Mirror-image trigger thumb in dichorionic identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eric D; Xu, Xiaoti; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-06-01

    The congenital vs acquired etiology of pediatric trigger thumb is the subject of considerable debate. Existing case reports of bilateral presentation in identical twins and first-degree familial association support the congenital hypothesis. However, prospective studies have yet to report a neonate presenting with this anomaly at birth. This article describes the first known set of dichorionic, monozygotic identical twins with unilateral trigger thumbs, affecting contralateral (mirror-image) hands and with asynchronous age at presentation (11 months and 18 months, respectively).Pediatric trigger thumb is caused by a mismatch between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and its A1 synovial pulley. Four sets of twins have been previously reported in the literature with trigger thumb. Of these, 3 sets were monozygotic twins who had bilaterally affected thumbs. Together with the absence of trauma, a congenital etiology was suggested. The fact that pediatric trigger thumb is generally seen several months after birth was felt to be due to infants holding their thumbs clutched in their palms until 6 months. However, no confirmed cases of trigger thumb have been diagnosed at birth in several large prospective studies of newborns.In the current case, the asynchronous presentation of unilateral trigger thumbs in identical twins does not support a solely congenital cause. Furthermore, the mirror-image presentation contradicts current embryological understanding of the temporal course of twinning and the determination of laterality. Thus, a multifactorial etiology is supported with both a genetic and acquired component affecting the development of this condition. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Constraint Study for a Hand Exoskeleton: Human Hand Kinematics and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fai Chen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the number of projects studying the human hand from the robotic point of view has increased rapidly, due to the growing interest in academic and industrial applications. Nevertheless, the complexity of the human hand given its large number of degrees of freedom (DoF within a significantly reduced space requires an exhaustive analysis, before proposing any applications. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete summary of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the human hand as a preliminary step towards the development of hand devices such as prosthetic/robotic hands and exoskeletons imitating the human hand shape and functionality. A collection of data and constraints relevant to hand movements is presented, and the direct and inverse kinematics are solved for all the fingers as well as the dynamics; anthropometric data and dynamics equations allow performing simulations to understand the behavior of the finger.

  8. User Interface Aspects of a Human-Hand Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifang Yi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the user interface design for a human-hand simulation system, a virtual environment that produces ground truth data (life-like human hand gestures and animations and provides visualization support for experiments on computer vision-based hand pose estimation and tracking. The system allows users to save time in data generation and easily create any hand gestures. We have designed and implemented this user interface with the consideration of usability goals and software engineering issues.

  9. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  10. User Interface Aspects of a Human-Hand Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifang Yi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the user interface design for a human-hand simulation system, a virtual environment that produces ground truth data (life-like human hand gestures and animations and provides visualization support for experiments on computer vision-based hand pose estimation and tracking. The system allows users to save time in data generation and easily create any hand gestures. We have designed and implemented this user interface with the consideration of usability goals and software engineering issues.

  11. Radiographic thumb osteoarthritis: frequency, patterns and associations with pain and clinical assessment findings in a community-dwelling population

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Windt, Danielle; Nicholls, Elaine; Myers, Helen; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the frequency and patterns of radiographic OA (ROA) in the thumb joints; and (ii) associations between thumb ROA and the clinical characteristics of thumb OA in older adults with hand pain or problems. Methods. Participants were 592 community-dwelling older adults with hand pain or hand problems who attended a research clinic. Hand X-rays were taken and 32 joints were scored for the presence of ROA. The occurrence and pattern of ROA in the hand were examined. Univariable and multivariable associations of thumb pain and clinical assessments (nodes, deformity, enlargement, thenar muscle wasting, grind test, Kapandji index, Finkelstein’s test and thumb extension) with ROA were investigated. Results. The first CMC and thumb IP joints were the hand joints most frequently affected with ROA. The thumb (thumb IP, first MCP, first CMC, trapezioscaphoid) was the most commonly affected joint group (n = 412). Isolated thumb ROA occurred more frequently than in any other isolated joint group. Multivariable analyses showed that older age, thumb pain, thenar muscle wasting and presence of nodes, deformity or enlargement best determined the presence of thumb ROA. Conclusion. The first CMC and thumb IP joints were frequently affected with ROA. Prevalence estimates of ROA would be underestimated if these were not scored. One-third of the individuals with thumb ROA did not have involvement of the first CMC joint. The presence of thumb ROA was strongly associated with a combination of older age, thumb pain and clinical features of OA. PMID:21134961

  12. Human hand descriptions and gesture recognition for object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Salvador; Ferre, Manuel; Sánchez-Urán, M Ángel; Ortego, Javier; Aracil, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    This work focuses on obtaining realistic human hand models that are suitable for manipulation tasks. A 24 degrees of freedom (DoF) kinematic model of the human hand is defined. The model reasonably satisfies realism requirements in simulation and movement. To achieve realism, intra- and inter-finger constraints are obtained. The design of the hand model with 24 DoF is based upon a morphological, physiological and anatomical study of the human hand. The model is used to develop a gesture recognition procedure that uses principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant functions. Two simplified hand descriptions (nine and six DoF) have been developed in accordance with the constraints obtained previously. The accuracy of the simplified models is almost 5% for the nine DoF hand description and 10% for the six DoF hand description. Finally, some criteria are defined by which to select the hand description best suited to the features of the manipulation task.

  13. A large thumb mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit K; Macnair, Rory; Figus, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of a spontaneously occurring soft tissue mass on the palmar aspect of his left non dominant thumb. Over 5 months he was having progressive difficulty flexing at the interphalangeal joint. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass likely to be either a peripheral fibromatosis or giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon (Figure 1). Intraoperatively a large neuroma in continuity with the ulnar digital nerve was found and debulked (Figure 2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  14. Human handedness: is there a difference in the independence of the digits on the preferred and non-preferred hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Karen T; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2004-05-01

    In non-human primates, comparative studies show that greater dexterity is associated with greater independent control over the digits. Studies of humans, however, show no difference in the degree of independent control of single digits on the more dexterous preferred hand and its less dexterous partner. We wondered whether there might be a difference in the degree of independent control on the two hands during performance of functionally relevant tasks. Many object manipulation tasks require the ability to produce and control forces with more than one finger at the same time. We hypothesized that asymmetrical independence, with greater independence on the preferred than the non-preferred hand, would be evident with a task that requires the simultaneous production of force in two digits. We examined digit individuation when subjects produced flexion forces with a single digit in isolation, and simultaneous flexion forces in all ten combinations of two digits. Consistent with previous studies, we found no difference between the individuation of the digits on the preferred and non-preferred hands during force production with single digits in isolation. Similarly, no asymmetry was present when forces were produced by two digits. However, separation of two-digit forces into thumb-to-digit opposition forces and non-opposition forces showed that although there was no difference in individuation between the two hands for non-opposition forces, the digits on the preferred hand were more independent than those on the non-preferred hand for opposition forces. We suggest that this independence asymmetry is not itself the underlying cause of the dexterity differences between the hands, but rather arises from a difference in the capacity for use-dependent reorganization of the motor cortical circuits controlling each hand, and that this difference might underlie the dexterity differences between the hands.

  15. Combined Hand Gesture — Speech Model for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tzong Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  16. Combined hand gesture--speech model for human action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Tzong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Li, Jian-Pan

    2013-12-12

    This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  17. Intrinsic hand muscles and digit independence on the preferred and non-preferred hands of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Karen T; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2006-09-01

    Although the superior dexterity of one hand is an almost ubiquitous human experience, it is unclear which characteristics of the motor system controlling the preferred hand produce this superior dexterity. Between-species studies show that greater dexterity is associated with a motor system that permits more independent movements of the digits. If between-hand dexterity differences are mediated by the same mechanism as between-species dexterity differences, then there should be asymmetries within the corticospinal tracts of humans that would result in between-hand independence differences. The evidence for asymmetries in the corticospinal tracts is sparse, and if an asymmetry does exist, it appears to be limited to the control of intrinsic hand muscles. We wondered, therefore, whether there might be a difference in the degree of independent control on the two hands during performance of a task that primarily uses intrinsic hand muscles. We examined digit individuation when subjects produced abduction or adduction forces with a single digit in isolation. Consistent with previous studies in which forces or movements in single digits were generated primarily by extrinsic hand muscles, we found no difference between the individuation of the digits on the preferred and non-preferred hands. We suggest that whereas independence differences underlie large dexterity differences between species, they do not underlie the more subtle dexterity differences between the preferred and non-preferred hands. Instead, the neural substrate for handedness might be asymmetrical connectivity within M1, with more profuse connections within the dominant than non-dominant M1 imparting a greater potential for excitatory and inhibitory interactions between movement representations which might then result in the more efficient coordination of hand and arm movements of the preferred hand.

  18. Control of thumb force using surface functional electrical stimulation and muscle load sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, A.J.; Schouten, A.C.; Veltink, P.H.; Van der Kooij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors often have difficulties in manipulating objects with their affected hand. Thumb control plays an important role in object manipulation. Surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) can assist movement. We aim to control the 2D thumb force by predicting the sum of indiv

  19. Control of thumb force using surface functional electrical stimulation and muscle load sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard; Westerveld, Ard J.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke survivors often have difficulties in manipulating objects with their affected hand. Thumb control plays an important role in object manipulation. Surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) can assist movement. We aim to control the 2D thumb force by predicting the sum of

  20. Control of thumb force using surface functional electrical stimulation and muscle load sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, A.J.; Schouten, A.C.; Veltink, P.H.; Van der Kooij, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors often have difficulties in manipulating objects with their affected hand. Thumb control plays an important role in object manipulation. Surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) can assist movement. We aim to control the 2D thumb force by predicting the sum of

  1. A novel design method of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands for reproducing human hand grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baiyang; Xiong, Caihua; Chen, Wenrui; Zhang, Qiaofei; Mao, Liu; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Because hand is often used for grasping, developing a design of prosthetic hands, particularly light and compact underactuated anthropomorphic transradial prostheses for reproducing human hand complex grasping is crucial for upper-limb amputees. Obviously, the less the number of actuators is, the worse the anthropomorphic motion capability of the prosthetic hands will be. This paper aims to design a transmission mechanism with few motors actuating fingers which could serve the relatively accurate grasp movement of a human hand and has the potential to be embedded in a palm including the motors. We start with establishing an index for evaluating the anthropomorphic motion capability of a prosthetic hand. Based on the optimization of this index, we determine the number of actuators in fingers and the transmission relationship between the actuators and the metacarpophalangeal(MCP) joints. Then, a new design method to mechanically implement the transmission relationship based on a novel decomposition of transmission matrix is proposed in this paper. Utilizing this method, we obtained the final mechanical structure of a new prosthetic hand.

  2. Durable Tactile Glove for Human or Robot Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa; Diftler, Myron A.; Huber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A glove containing force sensors has been built as a prototype of tactile sensor arrays to be worn on human hands and anthropomorphic robot hands. The force sensors of this glove are mounted inside, in protective pockets; as a result of this and other design features, the present glove is more durable than earlier models.

  3. Human bite of the hand: clinical and surgical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simancas-Pereira Hernán; Fonseca-Caro John Fredy; Acevedo-Granados Camilo Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: human bites of the hand carries a risk of infection and functional and/oraesthetic complications, according to the mechanism of trauma, duration and specificfactors of the victim and the aggressor. The management of acute episodes isessential and must be an interdisciplinary care.Objective: to review human bites of the hand.Methodology: Thematic review which included the evaluation of clinical casereports published in the last fifteen years in English and Spanish, obtained by el...

  4. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  5. 3D Visual Sensing of the Human Hand for the Remote Operation of a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New low cost sensors and open free libraries for 3D image processing are making important advances in robot vision applications possible, such as three- dimensional object recognition, semantic mapping, navigation and localization of robots, human detection and/or gesture recognition for human-machine interaction. In this paper, a novel method for recognizing and tracking the fingers of a human hand is presented. This method is based on point clouds from range images captured by a RGBD sensor. It works in real time and it does not require visual marks, camera calibration or previous knowledge of the environment. Moreover, it works successfully even when multiple objects appear in the scene or when the ambient light is changed. Furthermore, this method was designed to develop a human interface to control domestic or industrial devices, remotely. In this paper, the method was tested by operating a robotic hand. Firstly, the human hand was recognized and the fingers were detected. Secondly, the movement of the fingers was analysed and mapped to be imitated by a robotic hand.

  6. 3D Visual Sensing of the Human Hand for the Remote Operation of a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New low cost sensors and open free libraries for 3D image processing are making important advances in robot vision applications possible, such as three-dimensional object recognition, semantic mapping, navigation and localization of robots, human detection and/or gesture recognition for human-machine interaction. In this paper, a novel method for recognizing and tracking the fingers of a human hand is presented. This method is based on point clouds from range images captured by a RGBD sensor. It works in real time and it does not require visual marks, camera calibration or previous knowledge of the environment. Moreover, it works successfully even when multiple objects appear in the scene or when the ambient light is changed. Furthermore, this method was designed to develop a human interface to control domestic or industrial devices, remotely. In this paper, the method was tested by operating a robotic hand. Firstly, the human hand was recognized and the fingers were detected. Secondly, the movement of the fingers was analysed and mapped to be imitated by a robotic hand.

  7. Issues in human/computer control of dexterous remote hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K.

    1987-01-01

    Much research on dexterous robot hands has been aimed at the design and control problems associated with their autonomous operation, while relatively little research has addressed the problem of direct human control. It is likely that these two modes can be combined in a complementary manner yielding more capability than either alone could provide. While many of the issues in mixed computer/human control of dexterous hands parallel those found in supervisory control of traditional remote manipulators, the unique geometry and capabilities of dexterous hands pose many new problems. Among these are the control of redundant degrees of freedom, grasp stabilization and specification of non-anthropomorphic behavior. An overview is given of progress made at the MIT AI Laboratory in control of the Salisbury 3 finger hand, including experiments in grasp planning and manipulation via controlled slip. It is also suggested how we might introduce human control into the process at a variety of functional levels.

  8. [Cutaneo-muscular reflexes of the human hand. II. Neurophysiologic aspects of reflex organization and coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, H M; Berkefeld, J; Conrad, B

    1987-09-01

    The organization and coordination of cutaneo-muscular reflexes of human finger and arm muscles to electrical stimulation of the digital nerves were investigated in 14 healthy volunteers. Thumb and finger muscles, although antagonists, showed homonymous reflex effects whereas the wrist and elbow muscles exhibited an reciprocally alternating reflex pattern in pairs of antagonists (Fig. 1). The mechanographical correlate of the homonymous reflex activity in distal muscles was a short release (Fig. 6). The receptive field for evoking such reflex effects covered both the palmar and dorsal surfaces of the fingers (Fig. 2). However, with stimulation of the thumb, the muscles of the fingers and of the wrist showed reflex reversal (Figs 3, 5). If the stimulus was moved from the second to the fifth fingers, a successive attenuation of the transcortical reflex component was seen (Fig. 4). It is concluded that the reflexes investigated are complex flexor reflexes comprising both a distal release and a proximal flexion synergy. According to opposition of the thumb in grasping, the receptive field terminates between thumb and index finger. These reflexes are supposed to have no assisting function during corticalized manipulatory movements--in contrast to the long-loop reflexes evoked by epicritic sensibility. The transcortical servo is blocked if the eliciting stimulus is contaminated by nociceptive signals; its receptive field is confined to those fingers used in the precision grip.

  9. Motor synergies for dampening hand vibration during human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the motion required to carry a cup filled with water without spilling it, which is a common human dexterous task. This task requires the individual to dampen hand vibration while walking. We hypothesize that a reduction in hand jerk and a constant cup angle are required to achieve this task. We measured movements while human subjects carried a cup with water (WW task) and with stones (WS task) using a three-dimensional position measurement system and then analyzed joint coordination. We empirically confirmed that the value of hand jerk and the variance in cup angle in the WW task were smaller than those in the WS task. We used uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis to quantify joint coordination corresponding to the motor synergy required to reduce the hand jerk and variance of the cup angle. UCM components, which did not affect the hand jerk and cup angle, were larger than orthogonal components, which directly affected the hand jerk and cup angle in the WW task. These results suggest that there is a coordinated control mechanism that reduces hand jerk and maintains a constant cup angle when carrying a cup filled with water without spilling it. In addition, we suggest that humans adopt a flexible and coordinated control strategy of allowing variance independent of the variables that should be controlled to achieve this dexterous task.

  10. 3D active workspace of human hand anatomical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Loredana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If the model of the human hand is created with accuracy by respecting the type of motion provided by each articulation and the dimensions of articulated bones, it can function as the real organ providing the same motions. Unfortunately, the human hand is hard to model due to its kinematical chains submitted to motion constraints. On the other hand, if an application does not impose a fine manipulation it is not necessary to create a model as complex as the human hand is. But always the hand model has to perform a certain space of motions in imposed workspace architecture no matter what the practical application does. Methods Based on Denavit-Hartenberg convention, we conceived the kinematical model of the human hand, having in mind the structure and the behavior of the natural model. We obtained the kinematical equations describing the motion of every fingertip with respect to the general coordinate system, placed on the wrist. For every joint variable, a range of motion was established. Dividing these joint variables to an appropriate number of intervals and connecting them, the complex surface bordering the active hand model workspace was obtained. Results Using MATLAB 7.0, the complex surface described by fingertips, when hand articulations are all simultaneously moving, was obtained. It can be seen that any point on surface has its own coordinates smaller than the maximum length of the middle finger in static position. Therefore, a sphere having the centre in the origin of the general coordinate system and the radius which equals this length covers the represented complex surface. Conclusion We propose a human hand model that represents a new solution compared to the existing ones. This model is capable to make special movements like power grip and dexterous manipulations. During them, the fingertips do not exceed the active workspace encapsulated by determined surfaces. The proposed kinematical model can help to choose

  11. On the other hand: Increased cortical activation to human versus mechanical hands in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Marisa; Boas, David A; Wilcox, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    There is a large body of work demonstrating that infants are sensitive to the distinction between human and mechanical entities from the early months of life, and have different expectations for the way these entities move and interact. The current work investigates the extent to which the functional organization of the immature brain reflects these early emerging sensitivities. Infants aged 8months watched two kinds of hands (human or mechanical) engage in two kinds of events (one with a functional outcome and one without). Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we assessed hemodynamic activation in the left and right temporal and temporal-occipital cortex in response to these events. The neuroimaging data revealed a significantly greater increase in activation in the right middle-posterior temporal cortex to events executed by the human than the mechanical hand; the event in which the hand engaged (function or non-function) did not significantly influence hemodynamic responses. In comparison, the left middle-temporal cortex showed significantly greater activation to events executed by the human than mechanical hand, but only when the events were functionally relevant. That is, the left middle-posterior temporal cortex responded selectively to human (as compared to mechanical) agents, but only in the context of functionally relevant actions on objects. These results reveal that the immature brain is functionally specialized to support infants' processing of human and non-human agents as distinct entities. These results also shed light on the cognitive and cortical mechanisms that guide infants' learning about agentive action and object function.

  12. Prosthetic pollicization following thumb amputation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The thumb contributes over 50% hand function, which is generally divided into motional, sensory and cosmetic functions. Optimal management of thumb loss necessitates individual consideration of surgical versus prosthetic options, in relation to the needs and circumstances of each patient. This paper presents a case of prosthetic pollicization of an amputated thumb and emphasizes on the fact that the prosthetic replacement has a definite edge over surgical procedures, where amputees refuse to undergo more complicated surgical procedures. The patient was rehabilitated successfully by a noninvasive and cost-effective approach by using high temperature-vulcanized (HTV silicone material and retaining the prosthesis with medical adhesives. On 3 months recall appointment, no complications were found. The prosthesis was in good shape, without need for any repairs.

  13. Effects of hand clasping and arm folding on academic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxiang Zang; Zaizhu Han; Yufeng Zang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Similar to handedness, hand clasping and arm folding are also lateral preferences.Previous studies showed a variation frequency for hand clasping and arm folding among different populations.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between patterns of lateral preferences (hand clasping or arm folding) and academic performance of middle school students.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTINGS: Cross-sectional investigation. The data were collected in the Beijing Zhongguancun High School in Beijing in May 2007. Data analysis was performed in the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University during June to July 2007.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 senior-grade students from Beijing Zhongguancun High School, including 58 males and 44 females, were selected for this study.METHODS: Different forms of hand clasping and arm folding were recorded. More specifically, hand clasping was either right-thumb-top or left-thumb-top, and arm folding was either right-arm-top or left-arm-top. Students with congruent preference used right-thumb-top-right-arm-top or left-thumb-top-left-arm-top, and incongruent preference was displayed by right-thumb-top-left-arm-top or left-thumb-top-right-arm-top. Academic performances were collected from mid-term exams in six subjects (Chinese, Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology), with a total points = 100 for each. A three-way (hand clasping, arm folding, and sex) ANOVA was performed to determine the effect on academic performances.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The relationship between hand clasping, arm folding, sex, and academic performance of students.RESULTS: (1) There was no significant difference in distribution frequency between right-thumb-top and left-thumb-top (P > 0.05), or between right-arm-top and left-arm-top (P > 0.05). The distribution frequency difference between boys and girls was not significant for any subtype (P > 0.05). (2) hand clasping had no significant main effect on any of the

  14. New optimum humanoid hand design for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mogeeb A; Taher, Mona F; Metwalli, Sayed M

    2012-04-30

    To address the need for a commercially feasible prosthetic hand, the current work presents the design of a new humanoid hand actuated using shape memory alloy (SMA) artificial muscle wires. The hand has 3 compliant fingers and a thumb attached to the palm. The palm structure is a novel design, which is based on the natural arches of the human hand to provide better grasping capabilities. A compact actuator module is proposed to house and cool the SMA wires. Design parameters of the hand were selected to maximize the work density. The hand is lightweight, low cost, and operates silently. It has functional opening and closing speeds and fingertip force.

  15. The contribution of the palmaris longus muscle to the strength of thumb abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ndou, Robert; Louw, Graham

    2010-05-01

    The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is described as a weak flexor of the wrist and a tensor of the palmar aponeurosis, but not a thumb abductor. The PLM is believed to aid thumb abduction through its insertion onto the thenar eminence. Two groups, both right hand dominant, were selected from 1,200 sampled participants. The first group comprised of 38 subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM and was used to determine the strength of thumb abduction. The second group comprised of 30 subjects, with bilateral presence of the PLM, and it was used to calculate the effects of hand dominance. A significant number of subjects with bilateral absence of the PLM were observed and undocumented. Using a dynamometer in subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM, the force of thumb abduction was significantly greater on the hand with a PLM than the one without it (P = 0.014), irrespective of hand dominance. In the second sample with bilateral PLM, thumb abduction on the dominant hand was 10% stronger than on the nondominant hand and was similar to the universally accepted average of 10% increase in grip strength of the dominant hand. Thus, 10% was deducted from all the dominant hands, and the force of thumb abduction remained greater on the hand with PLM than the hand without it (P = 0.049). The results of this study demonstrated the PLM to be involved in thumb abduction, and the authors therefore recommend that this action of the muscle be universally accepted by anatomists and hand surgeons.

  16. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  17. Prevention of Thumb Web Space Contracture With Multiplanar External Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    Thumb web space contracture following hand trauma can be disabling with numerous reconstructive procedures existing to correct the resultant deformity. Following marked soft tissue injury to the hand we utilized the Stryker Hoffmann II Micro External Fixator System to link the first and second metacarpals by a multiplanar system using 1.6 or 2.0 mm self-drilling half-pins and 3 mm carbon fiber connecting rods. This facilitated placement of the thumb in maximal palmar abduction as well as allowed adjustment of thumb position throughout the postoperative period. This technique was performed on 5 patients. Two patients were treated with a first web space external fixator for table saw injuries to the radial aspect of the hand. An additional 2 patients were treated with a first web space external fixator following metacarpophalangeal joint capsular release in the setting of thermal burns. A fifth patient underwent second ray amputation, trapeziectomy and trapezoidectomy for squamous cell carcinoma with subsequent stabilization with the external fixator. The external fixator was left in place until soft tissues were healed (average 5.5 wk). The patients were allowed to mobilize their hand in as much as the external fixator allowed, and no device-associated complications were noted. Thumb web space was preserved with passive and supple thumb circumduction and web space abduction/adduction in all patients at an average follow-up of 5 months. The average Quick Dash Score was 35±5 and the average Modern Activity Subjective Survey of 2007 was 30±8.

  18. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  19. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the hand following human bites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D.; Kerr, R.; Pineda, C.J.; Weisman, M.H.

    1985-10-01

    The spectrum of radiographic abnormalities accompanying bone and joint infection that results from human bites of the hand is presented in an analysis of 13 patients. Features include mono-articular involvement, predilection for a metacarpophalangeal joint, soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, bone erosions and periostitis. Magnification techniques may be required for early and accurate diagnosis. (orig.).

  20. 3D Printing Technology in Planning Thumb Reconstructions with Second Toe Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Cheng-Wu; Zhang, Jian-Lei; Meng, Ze-Zu; Liu, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Cong, Rui

    2017-05-01

    To report preoperative planning using 3D printing to plan thumb reconstructions with second toe transplant. Between December 2013 and October 2015, the thumbs of five patients with grade 3 thumb defects were reconstructed using a wrap-around flap and second toe transplant aided by 3D printing technology. CT scans of hands and feet were analyzed using Boholo surgical simulator software (www.boholo.com). This allowed for the creation of a mirror image of the healthy thumb using the uninjured thumb. Using 3D images of the reconstructed thumb, a model of the big toe and the second toe was created to understand the dimensions of the donor site. This model was also used to repair the donor site defect by designing appropriate iliac bone and superficial circumflex iliac artery flaps. The polylactic acid model of the donor toes and reconstructed thumb was produced using 3D printing. Surgically, the wrap-around flap of the first dorsal metatarsal artery and vein combined with the joint and bone of the second toe was based upon the model donor site. Sensation was reconstructed by anastomosing the dorsal nerve of the foot and the plantar digital nerve of the great toe. Patients commenced exercises 2 weeks after surgery. All reconstructed thumbs survived, although partial flap necrosis occurred in one case. This was managed with regular dressing changes. Patients were followed up for 3-15 months. The lengths of the reconstructed thumbs are 34-49 mm. The widths of the thumb nail beds are 16-19 mm, and the thickness of the digital pulp is 16-20 mm. The thumb opposition function was 0-1.5 cm; the extension angle was 5°-20° (mean, 16°), and the angle of flexion was 38°-55° (mean, 47°). Two-point discrimination was 9-11 mm (mean, 9.6 mm). The reconstructed thumbs had good appearance, function and sensation. Based on the criteria set forth by the Standard on Approval of Reconstructed Thumb and Finger Functional Assessment of the Chinese Medical Association, the results were

  1. Dissociable neural responses to hands and non-hand body parts in human left extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Ietswaart, Magdalena; Peelen, Marius V; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana

    2010-06-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a map of visual regions encoding specific categories of objects. For example, a region in the human extrastriate visual cortex, the extrastriate body area (EBA), has been implicated in the visual processing of bodies and body parts. Although in the monkey, neurons selective for hands have been reported, in humans it is unclear whether areas selective for individual body parts such as the hand exist. Here, we conducted two functional MRI experiments to test for hand-preferring responses in the human extrastriate visual cortex. We found evidence for a hand-preferring region in left lateral occipitotemporal cortex in all 14 participants. This region, located in the lateral occipital sulcus, partially overlapped with left EBA, but could be functionally and anatomically dissociated from it. In experiment 2, we further investigated the functional profile of hand- and body-preferring regions by measuring responses to hands, fingers, feet, assorted body parts (arms, legs, torsos), and non-biological handlike stimuli such as robotic hands. The hand-preferring region responded most strongly to hands, followed by robotic hands, fingers, and feet, whereas its response to assorted body parts did not significantly differ from baseline. By contrast, EBA responded most strongly to body parts, followed by hands and feet, and did not significantly respond to robotic hands or fingers. Together, these results provide evidence for a representation of the hand in extrastriate visual cortex that is distinct from the representation of other body parts.

  2. Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    /RCL injuries required surgical repair, which was significantly higher compared with players with isolated UCL injuries. Team physicians and hand surgeons treating elite football players with suspected thumb collateral ligament injuries should examine for RCL and UCL instability and consider MRI if any concern exists for a combined ligament injury pattern, as this injury is likely frequently missed.

  3. The i-LIMB hand and the DMC plus hand compared : A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet Van Der, Olga; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Bongers, Raoul M.; Bouwsema, Hanneke; Van Der Sluis, Corry K.; Otr, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    The i-LIMB hand is a novel upper limb myoelectric prosthetic hand with several joints in the fingers and thumb. This study aimed to determine whether this new device had more functionality than a more conventional myoelectric prosthetic hand with only a single joint between the thumb and two fingers

  4. Visual Interpretation Of Hand Gestures For Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.Sahane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hand gestures provides an attractive alternative to cumbersome interface devices for human-computer interaction (HCI. In particular, visual interpretation of hand gestures can help in achieving the ease and naturalness desired for HCI. This discussion is organized on the basis of the method used for modeling, analyzing, and recognizing gestures. We propose pointing gesture-based large display interaction using a depth camera. A user interacts with applications for large display by using pointing gestures with the barehand. The calibration between large display and depth camera can be automatically performed by using RGB-D camera.. We also discuss implemented gestural systems as well as other potential applications of vision-based gesture recognition. We discuss directions of future research in gesture recognition, including its integration with other natural modes of human computer interaction.

  5. Eye-Hand-Mouth Coordination in the Human Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagi, Yasuyuki

    2017-10-01

    There have been several studies concerning rudimentary coordination of the eyes, hands, and mouth in the human newborn. The author attempted to clarify the ontogenetic significance of the coordination during the earliest period of human life through a systematic review. The neural mechanism underlying the coordination was also discussed based on the current knowledge of cognitive neuroscience. Searches were conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar from their inception through March 2017. Studies have demonstrated that the coordination is a visually guided goal-directed motor behavior with intension and emotion. Current cognitive research has proved that feeding requires a large-scale neural network extending over several cortices. The eye-hand-mouth coordination in the newborn can be regarded as a precursor of subsequent self-feeding, and the coordination is very likely mediated through the underdeveloped but essentially the same network interconnecting cortices as in the adult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hands-free human-machine interaction with voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, B. H.

    2001-05-01

    Voice is natural communication interface between a human and a machine. The machine, when placed in today's communication networks, may be configured to provide automation to save substantial operating cost, as demonstrated in AT&T's VRCP (Voice Recognition Call Processing), or to facilitate intelligent services, such as virtual personal assistants, to enhance individual productivity. These intelligent services often need to be accessible anytime, anywhere (e.g., in cars when the user is in a hands-busy-eyes-busy situation or during meetings where constantly talking to a microphone is either undersirable or impossible), and thus call for advanced signal processing and automatic speech recognition techniques which support what we call ``hands-free'' human-machine communication. These techniques entail a broad spectrum of technical ideas, ranging from use of directional microphones and acoustic echo cancellatiion to robust speech recognition. In this talk, we highlight a number of key techniques that were developed for hands-free human-machine communication in the mid-1990s after Bell Labs became a unit of Lucent Technologies. A video clip will be played to demonstrate the accomplishement.

  7. Human-like Compliance for Dexterous Robot Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Active Electromechanical Compliance (AEC) system that was developed for the Jau-JPL anthropomorphic robot. The AEC system imitates the functionality of the human muscle's secondary function, which is to control the joint's stiffness: AEC is implemented through servo controlling the joint drive train's stiffness. The control strategy, controlling compliant joints in teleoperation, is described. It enables automatic hybrid position and force control through utilizing sensory feedback from joint and compliance sensors. This compliant control strategy is adaptable for autonomous robot control as well. Active compliance enables dual arm manipulations, human-like soft grasping by the robot hand, and opens the way to many new robotics applications.

  8. Principles of Hand Fracture Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, DN; Jordan, D; Malahias, M; Hindocha, S; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner. Hand fractures are the most common fractures presenting at both accident and emergency and within orthopaedic clinics. Appropriate evaluation at first presentation, as well as during their management, can significantly prevent both morbidity and disability to a patient. These decisions are dependant on a wide range of factors including age, hand dominance, occupation and co-morbidities. A fracture is best described as a soft tissue injury with an associated bony injury. Despite this being the case, this paper intends to deal mainly with the bone injury and aims to discuss both the timing, as well as the methods available, of hand fracture management. PMID:22423303

  9. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  10. A computational model of the human hand 93-ERI-053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Axelrod, T.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the Computational Hand Modeling project were to prove the feasibility of the Laboratory`s NIKE3D finite element code to orthopaedic problems. Because of the great complexity of anatomical structures and the nonlinearity of their behavior, we have focused on a subset of joints of the hand and lower extremity and have developed algorithms to model their behavior. The algorithms developed here solve fundamental problems in computational biomechanics and can be expanded to describe any other joints of the human body. This kind of computational modeling has never successfully been attempted before, due in part to a lack of biomaterials data and a lack of computational resources. With the computational resources available at the National Laboratories and the collaborative relationships we have established with experimental and other modeling laboratories, we have been in a position to pursue our innovative approach to biomechanical and orthopedic modeling.

  11. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Höppner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands.

  12. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Hannes; Große-Dunker, Maximilian; Stillfried, Georg; Bayer, Justin; van der Smagt, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands. PMID:28588472

  13. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ∼50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers.

  14. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the thumb carpometacarpal ligaments: a cadaveric study of ligament anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Amy L; Lee, Julia; Hagert, Elisabet

    2012-08-15

    Stability and mobility represent the paradoxical demands of the human thumb carpometacarpal joint, yet the structural origin of each functional demand is poorly defined. As many as sixteen and as few as four ligaments have been described as primary stabilizers, but controversy exists as to which ligaments are most important. We hypothesized that a comparative macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint would further define their role in joint stability. Thirty cadaveric hands (ten fresh-frozen and twenty embalmed) from nineteen cadavers (eight female and eleven male; average age at the time of death, seventy-six years) were dissected, and the supporting ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified. Ligament width, length, and thickness were recorded for morphometric analysis and were compared with use of the Student t test. The dorsal and volar ligaments were excised from the fresh-frozen specimens and were stained with use of a triple-staining immunofluorescent technique and underwent semiquantitative analysis of sensory innervation; half of these specimens were additionally analyzed for histomorphometric data. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate differences between ligaments. Seven principal ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified: three dorsal deltoid-shaped ligaments (dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique), two volar ligaments (anterior oblique and ulnar collateral), and two ulnar ligaments (dorsal trapeziometacarpal and intermetacarpal). The dorsal ligaments were significantly thicker (p histologic appearance of capsular tissue with low cellularity. The dorsal deltoid ligament complex is uniformly stout and robust; this ligament complex is the thickest morphometrically, has the highest cellularity histologically, and shows the greatest degree of sensory nerve endings. The hypocellular anterior oblique ligament is thin, is variable in its location, and

  15. Fingertip and Thumb Tip Wounds: Changing Algorithms for Sensation, Aesthetics, and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Günter; Rudolf, Klaus D; Levin, Scott L; Hrabowski, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Management of fingertip and thumb tip injuries has recently undergone substantial changes. The time-proven traditional armamentarium of local flaps has been expanded and replaced by a wide variety of flaps. Simultaneous with the development of new flaps, the conservative treatment of fingertip and thumb tip injuries with semiocclusive dressings has also become a more acceptable treatment for these injuries. The excellent results with respect to restoring contour, sensibility of the pulp, and aesthetics of the finger justify this more tedious and time-consuming treatment of fingertip and thumb tip injuries. This article gives an update of the most commonly used flaps and the semiocclusive dressing treatments of fingertip and thumb tip injuries. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand Gesture and Neural Network Based Human Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekta Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer is used by every people either at their work or at home. Our aim is to make computers that can understand human language and can develop a user friendly human computer interfaces (HCI. Human gestures are perceived by vision. The research is for determining human gestures to create an HCI. Coding of these gestures into machine language demands a complex programming algorithm. In this project, We have first detected, recognized and pre-processing the hand gestures by using General Method of recognition. Then We have found the recognized image’s properties and using this, mouse movement, click and VLC Media player controlling are done. After that we have done all these functions thing using neural network technique and compared with General recognition method. From this we can conclude that neural network technique is better than General Method of recognition. In this, I have shown the results based on neural network technique and comparison between neural network method & general method.

  17. Individual left-hand and right-hand intra-digit representations in human primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Individual intra-digit somatotopy of all phalanges of the middle and little finger of the right and left hand was studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 12 healthy subjects. Phalanges were tactilely stimulated and activation in BA 3b of the human primary somatosensory cortex could be observed for each individual phalanx. Activation peaks were further analysed using the Direction/Order (DiOr) method, which identifies somatotopy, if a significantly high number of subjects exhibit ordered distal-to-proximal phalanx representions along a similar direction. Based on DiOr, ordered and similar-direction-aligned intra-digit maps across subjects were found at the left hand for the little and middle finger and at the right hand for the little finger. In these digits the proximal phalanges were represented more medially along the course of the central sulcus than the distal phalanges. This is contrasted by the intra-digit maps for the middle finger of the right hand, which showed larger inter-subject variations of phalanx alignments without a similar within-digit representation across subjects. As all subjects were right-handed and as the middle finger of the dominant hand probably plays a more individual role in everyday tactile performance than the little finger of the right hand and all left-hand digits, the observed variation might reflect a functional somatotopy based on individual use of that particular digit at the dominant hand.

  18. Adaptation or exaptation? The case of the human hand

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marta Linde-Medina

    2011-09-01

    A controversy of relevance to the study of biological form involves the concept of adaptation. This controversy is illustrated by the structure and function of the human hand. A review of the principal definitions of adaptation points to two main problems: (1) they are qualitative and make reference to the whole structure (or substructural feature) and (2) they are based on the idea of natural selection as a moulding factor. The first problem would be solved by a definition that encompasses quantitative measures of the effects of selection, drawing on new advances in the comparative method. The second problem is deeper and presents greater conceptual difficulties. I will argue that the idea of natural selection as a moulding factor depends on the notion of a genetic program for development. But regarding the hand, experimental evidence on limb development challenges the idea of a genetic program for skeletal pattern formation, undermining a simple application of standard adaptationist concepts. These considerations lead to a revised definition of adaptation and interpretation of the evolutionary determinants of the hand’s form.

  19. Edward Hallarran Bennett: Bennett's fracture of the base of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2013-03-01

    Bennett's fracture involves part of the base of the metacarpal bone of the thumb. The fracture line runs obliquely and involves the joint between the first metacarpal and the adjacent carpal bone--the trapezium. The shaft of the metacarpal is pulled proximally by the action of the long muscles attached to the thumb, so a fracture-dislocation of the thumb carpo-metacarpal joint results. The injury occurs typically in young men as a result of a blow on the clenched fist, either in a fall or, very often, in landing a blow in boxing. Now this joint happens to be of extreme importance in fine movements of the thumb, because it is here that opposition of the thumb takes place. Look at your own hand; now put the tip of your thumb onto the tip of your index finger; this is opposition and only man and monkeys can carry out this action. It is this important movement that you use when writing, when holding a scissors or a scalpel. When you look at the two bones articulating together they resemble someone sitting on a saddle and the joint, the only one of its kind in your limbs, is appropriately called a 'saddle joint'.

  20. Trapezial topography in thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nortwick, Sarah; Berger, Aaron; Cheng, Robert; Lee, Julia; Ladd, Amy L

    2013-08-01

    Objective Contradictory reported arthritic patterns of the metacarpal surface of the trapezium include preferential volar wear, radial wear, and dorsal-ulnar sparing. We investigated whether a predominant wear pattern exists in surgical trapeziectomy for advanced thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. Methods We examined 36 intact trapezia from 34 thumb CMC arthroplasty patients over an 18-month period. The first metacarpal articular surface revealed three consistent morphology patterns: (1) saddle, (2) dish, and (3) cirque. The saddle represented cartilage loss with preservation of the normal trapezial morphology. The dish shape represented concave curvature, with loss of the normal saddle configuration. The cirque shape represented preferential volar concave wear, disrupting the convex volardorsal arc. Two surgeons classified the randomized specimens twice, blinded to patient identity and each other's categorization. Radiographic Eaton staging was correlated retrospectively for 35 of 36 of the trapezial specimens. Eight specimens were further quantified with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Results Thirty-six trapezia were classified as follows: 17 (47%) saddle, 12 (33%) dish, and 7 (19%) cirque. Intra-rater reliability was 0.97 and 0.95; inter-rater reliability in the second round was 0.95. The 36 trapezia represented 27 female (75%) and 9 male (25%) patients; 18 (50%) represented the dominant hand. Age at surgery averaged 64 (33-76). Complete cartilage loss of the entire metacarpal surface was seen in 15 (42%) of all specimens. Osteophyte presence was typically minimal in the saddle group; the dish group had characteristic extensive rimming osteophytes in a 91% female population (11/12), and the cirque group had volar osteophytes. Radiographic severity ranged from Eaton stage II to IV; less severe radiographic staging (Eaton II) predominated in the saddle configuration; advanced Eaton III-IV disease predominated in both cirque and dish shapes. Micro

  1. Dhyana-thumb-pus hing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; CUI Xue-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ The dhyana-thumb-pushing manipulation is the chief one inthe Dhyana Thumb Tuina School; it's also a characteristic manipulation and plays an important role in the TCM Tuina teaching and clinical treatment. The name came from Jingdechuanzhonglu() and was used in the Chan sect of Buddhism. According to the book, in Song Dynansty, Judi Buddhist Monk asked Tianlong Buddhist Monk for the dhyana. Tianlong erected a finger but said nothing, Judi deeply comprehended the dhyana. Later on, if someone asked him for the Buddhism doctrine, he did the same act. Before Judi died, he said: "I accepted a thumb Dhyana from Tianlong and benefited from it all my life."

  2. Finite element analysis of thumb carpometacarpal joint implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.

    1995-11-01

    The thumb carpometacarpal joint is frequently replaced in women who have developed severe osteoarthritis of the hand. A new, privately developed implant design consists of two components, trapezial and metacarpal, each with a saddle-shaped articulating surface. A three dimensional finite element model of this implant has been developed to analyze stresses on the device. The first simulations using the model involve loading the implant with forces normal to the trapezial component. Preliminary results show contact stress distributions at the particulating surfaces of the implant.

  3. Creating a custom fabricated neoprene orthosis for optimal thumb positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Leonard G; Amini, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Neoprene orthoses are used extensively in treating conditions of the hand when flexibility and support are sought. Devices such as these may be prefabricated from Neoprene alone or may include a thermoplastic or metal stay. Neoprene devices can also be custom fabricated by a practitioner in a time effective manner and at low cost. The custom fabricated orthosis described in this article is designed to support the thumb in a position of palmar abduction and opposition while maintaining CMC extension and an adequately open web space to prevent soft tissue contracture.

  4. Diagnostic value of clinical grind test for carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Melissa M; Roddey, Toni S; Costello, Charles; Olson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Clinical Measurement. Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis is a frequent cause of thumb pain. To evaluate the interrater reliability and the criterion validity of the grind test for thumb CMC osteoarthritis. Radiological evaluation was used as the gold standard. Seventy thumbs of 54 persons with various hand disorders were included in the study. The grind test was performed by two physical therapists, and radiographs were evaluated by a certified hand surgeon, all blinded to the participants' diagnosis and other test results. Interrater reliability was compared with a kappa statistic, and the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values were calculated from a 232 table. A kappa value of 0.48 was calculated as the interrater reliability. The sensitivity of the grind test was 42% and 53%, depending on tester. The specificity of the grind test was 80% and 93%, depending on tester. The positive likelihood ratio was 2.65 and 6.00, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.59 and 0.62. The positive predictive value was 91% and 96%, depending on tester. The negative predictive value was 68% and 70%, depending on tester. The grind test has moderate reliability and accurately confirms the diagnosis of CMC osteoarthritis and identifies those who do not have CMC osteoarthritis. However, a negative grind test does not necessarily reflect negative radiographic evidence of thumb CMC osteoarthritis. n/a. Copyright © 2010 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory Evaluation of Post Traumatic Thumb after Reconstruction with Reverse Radial Forearm Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ghadimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thumb is with a special role in hand function. Therefore, in addition to the significance of using thin, pliable, color-matched, and hairless cover in resurfacing the lesion in this area, recovery of sensation should also be taken into consideration. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with thumb degloving injuries were candidates for sensate reverse island radial forearm surgery. After transferring the flap, forearm lateral sensory nerve was sewn to the thumb digital nerve. At least for two years, these patients received regular diagnosis, and monofilament, static two point discrimination (S-2PD, and moving two point discrimination (M-2PD tests were taken from them.Results: Monofilament test did not show normal sensation recovery, at protective sensation threshold, in the parents. The difference between monofilament test and normal thumb was statistically significant (p<0.0001. In spite of this, the protective sensation was restored in all flaps after two years. According to the results from S-2PD and M-2PD tests, the restored sensation was at protective threshold or reduced, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001.Conclusion: Given difficulties of performing free flaps, and also deficiencies of pedicle flaps, the forearm radial island flap is known as one of the primary choices in most of the thumb soft tissue and hand defects reconstruction, due to its advantages, especially restoring the sensation of the injured site.

  6. On the classification of congenital thumb hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, M A

    2014-11-01

    In 1937, Müller introduced the concept of a teratological sequence of thumb hypoplasia with increasing severity from mild deficiency, through severe deficiency, to thumb absence. Blauth subsequently detailed five specific grades. In 1992, Manske and McCarroll altered Blauth's classification such that Grade 3 was sub-divided into Grades 3A and 3B, according to a presence or absence of the proximal metacarpal. Buck-Gramcko added a Grade 3C in which there was only a remnant metacarpal head. This article investigates their publications and those of others to identify 'who said what' and clarify the definitions of grades of thumb hypoplasia. A modification of Blauth's classification is proposed, which retains the integrity of the concept of Müller and the skeletal and soft tissue grading of Blauth, but which also incorporates the disparate anomalies that may present in Grades 2 and 3 hypoplastic thumbs.

  7. Features of hand-foot crawling behavior in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Sylos Labini, F; Lacquaniti, F

    2012-01-01

    Interlimb coordination of crawling kinematics in humans shares features with other primates and nonprimate quadrupeds, and it has been suggested that this is due to a similar organization of the locomotor pattern generators (CPGs). To extend the previous findings and to further explore the neural control of bipedal vs. quadrupedal locomotion, we used a crawling paradigm in which healthy adults crawled on their hands and feet at different speeds and at different surface inclinations (13°, 27°, and 35°). Ground reaction forces, limb kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activity from 26 upper and lower limb muscles on the right side of the body were collected. The EMG activity was mapped onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the motoneuron pools to characterize the general features of cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord activation. The spatiotemporal pattern of spinal cord activity significantly differed between quadrupedal and bipedal gaits. In addition, participants exhibited a large range of kinematic coordination styles (diagonal vs. lateral patterns), which is in contrast to the stereotypical kinematics of upright bipedal walking, suggesting flexible coupling of cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Results showed strikingly dissimilar directional horizontal forces for the arms and legs, considerably retracted average leg orientation, and substantially smaller sacral vs. lumbar motoneuron activity compared with quadrupedal gait in animals. A gradual transition to a more vertical body orientation (increasing the inclination of the treadmill) led to the appearance of more prominent sacral activity (related to activation of ankle plantar flexors), typical of bipedal walking. The findings highlight the reorganization and adaptation of CPG networks involved in the control of quadrupedal human locomotion and a high specialization of the musculoskeletal apparatus to specific gaits.

  8. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  9. 5,4,3,2,...Thumbs Up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Frank

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities for K-4 students that explore two areas of body mechanics--bones and joints--with an emphasis on the human hand. Relates knowledge of how the body functions to comparable examples in robotics such as the "hand" of the Canadarm of the space shuttle. Activities are geared for students in pairs. (AIM)

  10. Acute finger injuries: part II. Fractures, dislocations, and thumb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggit, Jeffrey C; Meko, Christian J

    2006-03-01

    Family physicians can treat most finger fractures and dislocations, but when necessary, prompt referral to an orthopedic or hand surgeon is important to maximize future function. Examination includes radiography (oblique, anteroposterior, and true lateral views) and physical examination to detect fractures. Dislocation reduction is accomplished with careful traction. If successful, further treatment focuses on the concomitant soft tissue injury. Referral is needed for irreducible dislocations. Distal phalanx fractures are treated conservatively, and middle phalanx fractures can be treated if reduction is stable. Physicians usually can reduce metacarpal bone fractures, even if there is a large degree of angulation. An orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat finger injuries that are unstable or that have rotation. Collateral ligament injuries of the thumb should be examine with radiography before physical examination. Stable joint injuries can be treated with splinting or casting, although an orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat unstable joints.

  11. Cerebral reorganisation of human hand movement following dynamic immobilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; Coert, JH; Stenekes, MW; Leenders, KL; Paans, AMJ; Nicolai, JRA

    2003-01-01

    Surgical treatment of a flexor tendon lesion of the hand is followed by a 6-week period of dynamic immobilisation. This is achieved by the elastic strings of a Kleinert splint, enabling only passive and no active flexor movements. After such immobilisation, the appearance of a temporary clumsy hand

  12. Physiotherapy after thumb extensor tendon repair in Verdan zone III. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczechowicz, Jakub; Pieniążek, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Finger tendon injuries represent very common consequences of hand injuries and, if not properly treated, can lead to substantial hand function impairment and interfere with activities of daily living. This article presents the results of rehabilitation of a female patient after thumb extensor tendon injury in Verdan's zone III. Based on standard diagnostic work-up (assessment of the active range of motion), we calculated the degree of functional hand function impairment according to Swanson's method. The diagnostic procedures also comprised measurements of dynamometric grip strength and precise grasp. The examinations were performed on four occasions, the first one during the first visit, and the last one a month after completion of the rehabilitation treatment in our Centre. Test results were used to design the treatment programme, which included among others the author's modification of Kleinert's dynamic reverse thumb splinting, peg-board exercises, physical therapy, individual therapy and home-based exercises. 1. The modified dynamic splint of our design fulfilled its task as both a preventive and therapeutic measure. 2. The dynamic splinting programme administered enabled early initiation of post-operative rehabilitation, which led to a very high degree of recovery of thumb and hand function. 3. The functional recovery outcomes achieved by our patient indicate the advisability of routine incorporation of full dynamic splinting in post-operative rehabilitation programmes of patients with thumb extensor tendon injuries.

  13. Motion Analysis of Thumb in Cellular Phone Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Sakai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thumb motion of 10 normal subjects during cellular phone use was measured using a reflective marker detection system to compare the maximum, minimum and range of flexion angles of the interphalangeal (IP, metacarpophalangeal (MP and carpometacarpal (CM joints. Two micro-reflective markers 3 mm in diameter were each placed on the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx, basal phalanx and metacarpal bone of the thumb. Three markers were placed on the dorsal hand in order to define the dorsal hand plane. Each subject pushed the 12 keys of a folding cellular phone with an 85-mm-long and 40-mm-wide keypad, sequentially from ‘1’ to ‘#’, and the pushing motion was recorded by six infrared video cameras for 12 seconds, using the VICON 612 system. The mean maximum flexion angle of the MP joint was significantly (p < .05 larger than the CM joint, and the mean minimum flexion angle of the CM joint was significantly (p < .01 smaller than the IP and MP joints. The mean range of motion of the IP joint was significantly (p < .05 larger than the MP and the CM joints. In a comparison of different key-pushing motions, only the CM joint was significantly (p < .05 larger in its range of motion. In conclusion, thumb motion on pushing the keys of the cellular phone was produced mainly by the MP and the CM joints. In addition, the ability to reach keys in different areas of the cellular phone keypad is regulated by changing the flexion angle of the CM joint.

  14. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubbioso, Raffaele; Raffin, Estelle; Karabanov, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representat...... in M1HAND. Like homotopic SAI, heterotopic SAF was somatotopically expressed in M1HAND. Together, the results provide first-time evidence that fast sensorimotor integration involves centre-inhibition and surround-facilitation in human M1HAND....

  15. Repair and reconstruction of thumb and finger tip injuries: a global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin Bo; Elliot, David; Adani, Roberto; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Stang, Felix

    2014-07-01

    In this review, an international group of senior hand surgeons was asked to provide their currently used methods, views, and advice on thumb and fingertip repair. The basic requirements and methods of thumb and fingertip repair are first outlined, followed by descriptions of the methods favored by individual units or surgeons. More recent innovative methods and modifications are described and challenging topics are discussed. This review ends by illustrating and discussing a few exploratory treatments that hold promise of greatly changing future perspectives of this common clinical problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reorganization of human motor cortex after hand replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röricht, S; Machetanz, J; Irlbacher, K; Niehaus, L; Biemer, E; Meyer, B U

    2001-08-01

    In 10 patients, reorganizational changes of the motor cortex contralateral to a replanted hand (MCreplant) were studied one to 14 years after complete traumatic amputation and consecutive successful replantation of the hand. The organizational state of MCreplant was assessed for the deafferentated and peripherally deefferentated hand-associated motor cortex and the adjacent motor representation of the proximal arm. For this, response maps were established for the first dorsal interosseus and biceps brachii muscle using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on a skull surface grid. Characteristics of the maps were center of gravity (COG), number of effective stimulation sites, amplitude sum, and amplitudes and response threshold at the optimal stimulation point. The COG is defined by the spatial distribution of response amplitudes on the map and lies over the cortex region with the most excitable corticospinal neurones supplying the recorded muscle. The COG of the biceps map in MCreplant was shifted laterally by 9.8 +/- 3.6 mm (range 5.0-15.7 mm). The extension of the biceps map in MCreplant was increased and the responses were enlarged and had lowered thresholds. For the muscles of the replanted hand, the pattern of reorganization was different: Response amplitudes were enlarged but thresholds, COG, and area of the cortical response map were normal. The different reorganizational phenomena observed for the motor cortical areas supplying the replanted hand and the biceps brachii of the same arm may be influenced by a different extent of deafferentation and by their different role in hand motor control.

  17. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Cyril D; Kampf Guenter; Bieber Nora; Below Harald; Kramer Axel; Huebner Nils-Olaf; Assadian Ojan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied t...

  18. Combined index finger pollicization with an anterolateral thigh flap for thumb reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guang; Xu Hongyan; Lei Hongyu; Guo Shuang; Huang Jianhua; Li Dibin

    2014-01-01

    A severe crush injury to the hand is devastating to patients. Under conditions in which the crush force is too great, the digits are not viable candidates for replantation. We present two cases in which the patients suffered from loss of the thumb ray at the first carpometacarpal joint and skin defect at the radial side. The tendons, radial nerve and metacarpal bone of the index finger were injured, and the second metacarpal head was retained. There was a comminuted fracture of the trapezium in both patients. The treatment protocols consisted of the index finger pollicization and the free anterolateral thigh flap transfer. The procedure was performed in a single operation. The new thumb is able to provide a stable post for pinch and grip after six months follow-up. Both patients were satisfied with the function and appearance of the reconstructed thumb.

  19. Osteonecrosis of Interphalangeal Joint of Thumb Two Months after Rattlesnake Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasso, Patrick; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Jacob, Glen

    2015-01-01

    This case report details the osteonecrosis of the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb two months after a rattlesnake bite. It describes the clinical presentation, imaging studies, histological review, pathology review, and review of literature. Our patient was a fifty-one year-old male who obtained a poisonous snakebite to the thumb. While in the hospital for acute treatment, a blood blister was debrided. He was seen two weeks after discharge for further debridement of epidermolysis. Patient presented one month later with a hand x-ray demonstrating bony erosions, and a bone scan showing active changes in the IP joint of his right thumb. He was taken to the OR for further debridement and definitive diagnosis. Pathology results confirmed osteonecrosis with negative bone cultures. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and operative management of osteonecrosis offer a unique challenge, especially in a patient presenting with osteonecrosis from a poisonous snakebite.

  20. The Vascularized Medial Femoral Corticoperiosteal Flap for Thumb Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kavit; Darhouse, Nagham; Sivakumar, Bran; Floyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present an interesting method of shaping a vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap into a “neophalanx” for phalangeal reconstruction. Our patient presented with limited strength and function secondary to fracture nonunion of the proximal phalanx of the dominant thumb. Following excision of the pseudarthrosis, an MFC corticoperiosteal flap was harvested, sculpted into a prism shape and inset. The superomedial genicular pedicle was anastomosed to the princeps pollicis artery and a cephalic tributary. On follow-up, new bone growth was seen on radiographs and the patient had substantially improved function, with full metacarpophalangeal extension, a Kapandji score of 9, and a markedly reduced Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 2.68. The MFC flap is useful for reconstruction of bony defects, with minimal donor morbidity. This versatile vascularized flap can be crafted to requisite shapes and is useful for small defects in the hand, including phalangeal reconstruction. PMID:26495205

  1. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    . The male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis.......Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis...

  2. Anatomy is important, but need not be destiny: novel uses of the thumb in aye-ayes compared to other lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Sergio M; Pellis, Vivien C

    2012-06-01

    Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascerensis) have highly specialized hands with long digits, especially the thin middle one (D3), which is used for extracting food, such as beetle larvae, under bark. Due to the elongation of their fingers, including the thumb, it is presumed that aye-ayes have a rather limited capacity for delicate manipulation of objects. However, studies have reported independent movement of digits D3 and D4, and one report noted a seemingly independent thumb (D1) movement in holding food. Sixteen captive adult aye-ayes were videotaped feeding on a diverse range of foods so as to document how the thumb is used during food holding. To determine if the patterns observed were unique to aye-ayes, 24 individuals from 9 other species of lemurs were also videotaped. Two patterns of thumb use idiosyncratic to aye-ayes and one other lemur, the sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), were identified: (1) when holding a food item in one hand, the thumb was used to secure the food, with the other digits playing a secondary role; (2) when holding a food item with both hands, the thumbs once again took a predominant role in securing the food. In the majority of these cases, whether held by one or two thumbs, the thumbs curled around the item, but some descriptive evidence is provided that suggests that aye-ayes exaggerate the role of the thumbs by shifting the hold to the outer edge. The novel uses of the thumbs in aye-ayes demonstrate that brain mechanisms can sometimes override the behavioral (or motor) limitations imposed by the morphology of the body.

  3. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  4. Bridging the gap between cadaveric and in vivo experiments: a biomechanical model evaluating thumb-tip endpoint forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Sarah J; Murray, Wendy M

    2013-03-15

    The thumb is required for a majority of tasks of daily living. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable tool, with the potential to help us bridge the gap between our understanding of the mechanical actions of individual thumb muscles, derived from anatomical cadaveric experiments, and our understanding of how force is produced by the coordination of all of the thumb muscles, derived from studies involving human subjects. However, current biomechanical models do not replicate muscle force production at the thumb-tip. We hypothesized that accurate representations of the axes of rotation of the thumb joints were necessary to simulate the magnitude of endpoint forces produced by human subjects. We augmented a musculoskeletal model with axes of rotation derived from experimental measurements (Holzbaur et al., 2005) by defining muscle-tendon paths and maximum isometric force-generating capacity for the five intrinsic muscles. We then evaluated if this augmented model replicated a broad range of experimental data from the literature and identified which parameters most influenced model performance. The simulated endpoint forces generated by the combined action of all thumb muscles in our model yielded comparable forces in magnitude to those produced by nonimpaired subjects. A series of 8 sets of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that the difference in the axes of rotation of the thumb joints between studies best explains the improved performance of our model relative to previous work. In addition, we demonstrate that the endpoint forces produced by individual muscles cannot be replicated with existing experimental data describing muscle moment arms.

  5. Reconstruction of the thumb tip using palmar neurovascular flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenberg, P S; Jakubietz, R G; Jakubietz, M G; Schmidt, K; Meffert, R H

    2012-04-01

    Reconstruction of the tip of the thumb using a neurovascular flap. Transverse defects of the thumb's tip or large defects of the palmar pulp (max. 2.0-2.5 cm) with exposure of bone and/or tendons. Extensive crush injury, heavy wound contamination, circulatory disorders, acute infection, very large defects (> 2.0-2.5 cm finger length), circumferential soft tissue defects, and previous defects/operations (relative). Supine position, hand supinated, tourniquet, loupe magnification. Mid-lateral incisions along both sides of the finger running from the defect to the interphalangeal joint (small defect) or proceeding further proximally. Careful elevation of the flap including both neurovascular bundles leaving dorsal branches of the bundles (long fingers only) and the flexor tendon sheath intact. Suture of the flap in either flexion position (i.e., advancement flap) (Moberg) or by creating an island-flap through an additional transverse skin incision along the flap's base (O'Brien). Finally, closure of the defect at the flap's base using a full thickness skin graft, Z plasty, or V-Y plasty. Plaster cast (finger slightly flexed) for 2 weeks. Reliable method. Good functional results with good sensibility and only minor reduction in range of motion.

  6. Hand to hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Susanna E; Graboys, Thomas B

    2002-08-01

    Examination of the hands has the potential to transform the encounter between physician and patient. Taking the hands conveys a sense of warmth and connectedness and is a means to communicate the physician's mindfulness. The hands can focus the examination on the individual patient as a complete human being, and not merely a disease or a collection of symptoms. The hands provide readily accessible information that may not be available through other evaluations, and they offer clues to a patient's physical and mental health. Commonplace observations, such as those revealed in the hands, can unravel medical mysteries and provide profound clinical insights.

  7. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-02-15

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses.

  8. Management of osteoarthrosis of the thumb joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Aaron J; Meals, Roy A

    2015-04-01

    We present current concepts and evidence to optimize diagnosis and management of osteoarthritis in the thumb joints. Numerous options and controversies exist for surgical treatment of carpometacarpal joint arthritis. Fewer options exist for metacarpophalangeal joint arthritis. Surgical treatment for interphalangeal arthritis is mainly arthrodesis.

  9. Problematic rules of thumb; Problematische Faustregeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2010-07-01

    Following rules of thumb may lead to underdimensioning of current inverters, as is illustrated here by the example of the German city of Nuremberg. The effect is even more significant on cloudy days when solar radiation may often be even more intensive. (orig.)

  10. [Human traveling wave EEG during voluntary movement of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, D R; Stepanova, P A; Kolodiazhnyĭ, S F

    2014-01-01

    The traveling wave trajectories connected with the movements of the right hand were revealed. Above sensomotor cortex 28 electrodes were set as a rectangle--4 rows with 7 electrodes in each one. 2D center-out reaching task was used. The target appeared on the screen edge through the random intervals 0.5-2.5 s equiprobably at the left, on the right, from above or from below. The task was to touch the target with the joystick-operated cursor displacing the cursor in one of the sides from the center to edge. EEG from the target occurrence till cursor contact with it was analyzed. Leading on phase of spontaneous EEG waves in the local area of the left sensomotor cortex and in the centre of back-parietal cortex during cursor movement downwards (the hand with joystick moves to oneself) comparing to rest state and movements in three other directions is revealed. The over time smoothing of data concerning phase alignment reveals hidden constant components in EEG resembling evoked potentials.

  11. Collagenase Treatment for Dupuytren Disease of the Thumb and First Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreise, Marieke M; Stenekes, Martin W; Werker, Paul M N

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum to treat thumb and first web contractures in Dupuytren disease. We prospectively included 14 thumbs in 12 patients with a contracture at the metacarpophalangeal or interphalangeal joint of at least 20° with a palpable cord in the thumb (n = 8) or an adduction contracture of the thumb with palpable cords in the first web (n = 6). They received an injection containing 0.58 mg of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum in the fibrous cord divided over 3 spots. The contracture was released by carefully manipulating the thumb under local anesthesia 1 day later. The extension and abduction deficits were measured before and after the intervention (follow-up at 7 and 30 days and 6 months). Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the data. In the total sample, postintervention extension deficits were statistically significantly lower than preintervention deficits except in one patient who had a recurrence at 6 months compared with the 30-day posttreatment result. Intermetacarpophalangeal head distance (IMD) also improved significantly. In an analysis of subgroups, we compared the separate contributions of treatment of a pretendinous cord and a first web cord on both extension deficit and IMD. Treatment of pretendinous cords significantly affected both extension deficit and IMD. However, treatment of first web contractures did not significantly improve extension or IMD. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum is a good treatment option for pretendinous cords in thumbs affected with Dupuytren disease because it provides good results, is minimally invasive, and has minor adverse events. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A vertical two-thumb technique is superior to the two-thumb encircling technique for infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Ung; Choi, Pil Cho; Lee, Hyun Jung; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Han, Sang Kuk; Cho, Jun Hwi

    2015-02-01

    The two-thumb encircling (TTE) technique often results in suboptimal cardiac compression and does not meet the requirements of current resuscitation guidelines. We compared this technique with the vertical two-thumb (VTT) technique, our novel modification of the TTE technique. This was a prospective randomised crossover simulation study of out-of-hospital infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Participants who had completed a basic life support course performed 10 cycles of cardiac compressions on a manikin for each technique. We enrolled 36 medical doctors who had applied for a hospital internship in this study. The VTT generated significantly higher pressure than the TTE and the pressure difference ranged from 26.8 to 62.9 mmHg for each cycle, with a mean difference of 43.5 mmHg (95% CI, 37.8-49.2). The difference in pressure showed a tendency to increase with increasing cycles of cardiac compressions. The participants' heart and respiratory rate was higher with the VTT, but they said that it was easier to perform cardiac compressions with this technique. The VTT technique generated more pressure than the TTE technique in a simulated model of infant out-of-hospital CPR. It can provide an alternative compression technique for effective infant CPR, especially for the rescuers with small hands or a weak grip. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Android Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . On such occasions, android and humanoid hand models should have similar structure, functions, and performance as the human hand. In this paper we present the anatomy, and the key functionalities of the human hand followed by a literature review on android/humanoid hands for grasping and manipulating objects...

  14. 单点持续双手拇指深压按揉法讨论脊髓损伤后痉挛1例%Discussion on Continuous Deep Pressing and Kneading Manipulation by Both Hands' Thumb on Single Point in Treatment of 1 Case of Spasm after Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德辉; 罗凯; 常翠翠; 王泽; 纪晓军

    2016-01-01

    TCM considers that, the imbalance of yin and yang is the main pathogenesis of spasm after spinal cord injury, which is presented as symp-toms of yin and yang imbalance or partial yin and yang, and makes the patients movement difficult and poor self-care ability, that causes a serious economic and social burden to the family and society, so clinicians should positively explore new ways to decrease the muscular tension. As a TCM method that decreases muscular tension, massage therapy is widely used in clinical practice, but the differences of manipulators' manipulation can cause the differences of self-perception and effect of patients. This article would report a case of patient with lower limb spasm caused by spinal cord injury treated by"continuous deep pressing and kneading manipulation by both hands' thumb on single point.%中医学认为,阴阳失衡是脊髓损伤后痉挛的主要发病机制,表现为阴阳失衡或者偏阴偏阳的症状,造成患者活动困难,生活自理能力差,这给家庭和社会造成严重的经济、社会负担,临床医务人员应积极研究探寻降低肌张力的新方法。推拿按摩作为传统中医降低肌张力的方法在临床中应用较广,但因施术者手法不同,患者自我感受不同,效果也不同。本文仅对1例脊髓损伤患者造成的下肢屈肌痉挛运用“单点持续双手拇指深压按揉法”治疗进行报道。

  15. HUMAN NATURE, DIRTY HANDS AND SOCIAL DISORDER: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    problems and various forms of immorality. Every society desires ..... 2(c) Human Nature and Machiavellian Challenge. Politics, in the .... salary (enforcing the laws against tax evasion with threats of .... shares something of the others concerns.

  16. Limitations of surface EMG signals of extrinsic muscles in predicting postures of human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjamuri, Ramana; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert; Sun, Mingui

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the limitations of sEMG (surface Electromyography) signals collected from the extrinsic muscles in the forearm in predicting the postures of human hand. Four subjects were asked to try ten extreme postures of hand which need high effort. Two of these four subjects were asked to try ten more normal postures which did not need effort During the experiments, muscle activity and static postures of the hand were measured. The data obtained were analyzed by principal component analysis. The results obtained revealed the limitations of sEMG signals of extrinsic muscles in reproducing the postures of the hand.

  17. New hand at the helm of CERN Human Resources

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Human resources is more than just an administrative function, said CERN's new HR Department head, Carla Bryois, in an interview with the Bulletin. Human resources management is about getting the best out of an organization's staff. That's good for the organisation as a whole, and it's good for the individual. A suitable task for a psychologist, you might think? And that's exactly the kind of person who has just taken over as head of CERN's Human Resources Department. Carla Bryois, who has Dutch and Swiss nationality, took up her duties on 1 April, and brings with her a wealth of experience from the private sector. Her career began with a degree in psychology and social sciences from the Geneva school made famous by Jean Piaget. From there, she went on to specialise in clinical psychology before taking a career break to raise a family. Carla Bryois, CERN's new HR Department head Returning to work, she moved from academic to occupational psychology, taking up a position in human resources with Elsevier scien...

  18. Illusory Sense of Human Touch from a Warm and Soft Artificial Hand

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Srinivasa, Yeshwin Mysore; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana

    2015-01-01

    To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4 deg C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when const...

  19. Compression neuropathy of the ulnar digital nerves in the thumbs of a massage therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Chen, Chien-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Compression neuropathies of digital nerves, caused by hypertrophied or anomalous muscles, are rare compared with such occurrences above the wrist. We reported a case of compression neuropathy of the ulnar digital nerves in bilateral thumbs of a massage therapist. Entrapment of the digital nerves by the hypertrophied first dorsal interosseous and adductor pollicis muscles over the first web space of the right hand was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical debulking of the muscles and neurolysis were performed on the dominant right hand. The left hand was successfully treated with botulinum toxin. No recurrence was noted in a follow-up of 36 months.

  20. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Korpela, Terttu; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Amiryousefi, Ali; Ziegler, Thedi; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-03-01

    Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes.

  1. Reverse flow first dorsal metacarpal artery flap for covering the defect of distal thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Giuseppe; Galeano, Mariarosaria; Zucchini, Maura; Zampetti, Pier Giuseppe; Ceruso, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of distal thumb injuries still remains a challenge for hand surgeons. Surgical treatment includes the use of local, regional, and free flaps. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the use of a sensitive reverse flow first dorsal metacarpal artery (FDMA) flap. The skin flap was designed on the radial side of the proximal phalanx of the index finger based on the ulnar and radial branch of the FDMA and a sensory branch of the superficial radial nerve. This neurovascular flap was used in five patients to cover distal soft-tissue thumb defects. All flaps achieved primary healing except for one patient in whom superficial partial necrosis of the flap occurred, and the defect healed by second intention. All patients maintained the thumb original length and were able to return to their previous daily activities. The reverse flow FDMA flap is a reliable option to cover immediate and delayed defects of distal thumb, offering acceptable functional and cosmetic outcomes in respect to sensibility, durability, and skin-match.

  2. First dorsal interosseous muscle contraction results in radiographic reduction of healthy thumb carpometacarpal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Corey; O'Brien, Virginia; Van Nortwick, Sara; Adams, Julie; Van Heest, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Hand therapists selectively strengthen the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) to stabilize arthritic joints yet the role of the FDI has not yet been radiographically validated. To determine if FDI contraction reduces radial subluxation (RS) of the thumb metacarpal (MC). Fluoroscopy was used to obtain true anterior-posterior radiographs of non-arthritic CMC joints: 1) at rest, 2) while stressed and 3) while stressed with maximal FDI contraction. Maximal FDI strength during CMC stress and thumb MC RS and trapezial articular width were measured. The ratio of RS to the articular width was calculated. Seventeen participants (5 male, 12 female) participated. Subluxation of a stressed CMC significantly reduced and the subluxation to articular width ratio significantly improved after FDI activation. Contraction of the FDI appears to radiographically reduce subluxation of the healthy thumb CMC joint. Further exploration on the FDI's reducibility and its carry-over effects in arthritic thumbs is needed. 4. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Marloye's harp and the thumb piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2001-05-01

    This note has two sources: a 19th-century textbook illustration and the thumb pianos sold to tourists during my time at the University of West Indies in Jamaica in 1972-73. Both of these instruments produce sounds: one by setting bars into longitudinal vibrations, and the other using transverse vibrations. This note will show how the lengths of the bars to produce the same note are very different in the two cases.

  4. Florid reactive periostitis of the thumb: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, Jordi; Bosch, Manuel; Español, Isabel

    2003-04-01

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare benign bone lesion that occurs most often in the phalanges of hands and feet. Histologic evaluation is commonly required to distinguish this benign lesion from clinically indistinguishable malignant and infectious disorders. The lesion is typically self-limiting or cured by local excision; however, in very aggressive cases ray amputation may be indicated. The authors report a case of florid reactive periostitis affecting the thumb with satisfactory outcome and without recurrence at 2-year follow-up.

  5. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Cyril D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A, 85% (hand-rub B and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w. For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A, 630 mg (B, and 358 mg (C. The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A, 1.1% (B, and 0.9% (C. After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A, 1542 mg (B, and 477 mg (C. The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A, 1.1% (B, and 0.5% (C. The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min, after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes. Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe.

  6. Tracing the origin of the panda's thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Valenciano, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Ercoli, Marcos D.; Hontecillas, Daniel; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the relative development of the carnivoran radial sesamoids to untangle the evolution of this iconic structure. In the pandas (both giant and red), this `false thumb' is known to perform a grasping role during bamboo feeding in both the red and giant pandas. An original locomotor role has been inferred for ailurids, but this remains to be ascertained for ursids. A large sample of radial sesamoids of Indarctos arctoides from the Miocene of Batallones-3 (Spain) indicates that this early ailuropodine bear displayed a relatively hypertrophied radial sesamoid, with a configuration more similar to that of the red panda and other carnivorans than to that of giant pandas. This false thumb is the first evidence of this feature in the Ursidae, which can be linked to a more herbivorous diet. Moreover, in the two extant pandas, the false thumb should not be interpreted as an anatomical convergence, but as an exaptive convergence regarding its use during the bamboo feeding, which changes the evolutionary view of this singular structure.

  7. Ancient Schwannoma of the Thumb Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A 21-year-old woman had become aware of a mass on the palmar aspect of the distal phalanx of her left thumb 11 years earlier. Her medical history was unremarkable, with no traumatic injury of the left thumb. Initial examination revealed a hard but elastic, immovable tumor of 30 × 25 mm on the palmar aspect of the distal phalanx of the left thumb, with an ulcer formed at the center. No pain, sensory disturbance, or motor dysfunction was noted. The patient underwent punch biopsy at the outpatient clinic, and the tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as benign schwannoma. Total excision of the tumor was performed with digital nerve block under surgical microscope. Histopathological findings revealed a fibrous capsule covering the tumor, directional growth of tightly organized spindle-shaped cells, and mixed Antoni A and B patterns. The tumor also contained many various sized cysts and showed histological degenerative changes not observed in ordinary schwannoma, such as hemorrhage and prominent blood vessels with hyalinized walls. The S-100 stain was positive. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having ancient schwannoma. There was no evidence of infection, pain, complications such as ulcer formation, or recurrent tumor at 6 months postoperative.

  8. Human cortical control of hand movements: parietofrontal networks for reaching, grasping, and pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimon, Flavia

    2010-08-01

    In primates, control of the limb depends on many cortical areas. Whereas specialized parietofrontal circuits have been proposed for different movements in macaques, functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed widespread, overlapping activations for hand and eye movements and for movements such as reaching and grasping. This review examines the involvement of frontal and parietal areas in hand and arm movements in humans as revealed with functional neuroimaging. The degree of functional specialization, possible homologies with macaque cortical regions, and differences between frontal and posterior parietal areas are discussed, as well as a possible organization of hand movements with respect to different spatial reference frames. The available evidence supports a cortical organization along gradients of sensory (visual to somatosensory) and effector (eye to hand) preferences.

  9. Hand hygiene compliance in Penang, Malaysia: Human audits versus product usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew Fong; Merican, Hassan; Nallusamy, Revathy; Ong, Loke Meng; Mohamed Nazir, Paa; Hamzah, Hafizah Binti; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene auditing is mandatory for all Malaysian public hospitals; nonetheless, the burden of auditing is impacting the support and sustainability of the program. We report an alternative method to routinely measure hand hygiene compliance with the aim to test whether alcohol-based handrub purchase data could be used as a proxy for usage because human auditing has decreased validity and reliability inherent in the methodology.

  10. Chimpanzee hand preference for throwing and infant cradling:implications for the origin of human handedness

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Kim A Bard; Jones, A; Bales, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Calvin (i983) has hypothesized that the neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive demands of throwing may have served as important evolutionary precursors to a variety of traits( e.g., handedness, tool use, and language processing) in early hominids. Eighty-eight percent of humans throw with their right hands (Healey, Liederman, and Geschwind I986), and Calvin has argued that this right-handed throwing evolved as a result of a left-hemisphere specialization for planned sequential movement...

  11. Human mitochondrial mTERF wraps around DNA through a left-handed superhelical tandem repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Menéndez, Nereida; Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Rubio-Cosials, Anna; Arnan, Carme; Montoya, Julio; Jacobs, Howard T; Bernadó, Pau; Coll, Miquel; Usón, Isabel; Solà, Maria

    2010-07-01

    The regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) processes is slowly being characterized at a structural level. We present here crystal structures of human mitochondrial regulator mTERF, a transcription termination factor also implicated in replication pausing, in complex with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides containing the tRNA(Leu)(UUR) gene sequence. mTERF comprises nine left-handed helical tandem repeats that form a left-handed superhelix, the Zurdo domain.

  12. Hand Shape Recognition in Human Machine Interaction through the Singularity Detection with Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinwen; Chen, Yanling; Qin, Hequn; Guo, Junjie

    This paper represents a hand shapes recognition system for the Human Machine Interaction (HMI) with service robot of disable people. This system uses a touchpad to precept the touching of fingers, as well as to provide a background for hand shapes image. Each finger can stay in one of the 4 statuses: stretch- touching on the pad, retracting-touching on the pad, stretch-detaching over the pad and retracting-detaching over the pad. Hand shapes, posed to express HMI instructions, are defined by the status combinations of Index finger, Middle finger, Ring finger and Little finger. Hand shape features, the relative heights of the fingertips, are extracted through the singularity detection with wavelet transform on hand shape contour. The hand shape recognition of this system is based on an optimized Bayesian decision binary tree. The design of 2 types of classifier in the tree and the corresponding error rates of the classifiers are analyzed. Implemented by a DSP processor, a correctness ratio of over 98% is obtained in the identification of 12 hand shapes. Experiments show that this system can provide a flexible, humanized and expendable HMI for service robot, as well as for other applications.

  13. Real Time Multiple Hand Gesture Recognition System for Human Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth S. Rautaray

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of computing devices in day to day life, the need of user friendly interfaces has lead towards the evolution of different types of interfaces for human computer interaction. Real time vision based hand gesture recognition affords users the ability to interact with computers in more natural and intuitive ways. Direct use of hands as an input device is an attractive method which can communicate much more information by itself in comparison to mice, joysticks etc allowing a greater number of recognition system that can be used in a variety of human computer interaction applications. The gesture recognition system consist of three main modules like hand segmentation, hand tracking and gesture recognition from hand features. The designed system further integrated with different applications like image browser, virtual game etc. possibilities for human computer interaction. Computer Vision based systems has the potential to provide more natural, non-contact solutions. The present research work focuses on to design and develops a practical framework for real time hand gesture.

  14. Pediatric trigger thumb in identical twins: congenital or acquired?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakel, Rafid; Van Heerden, Pieter; Gallagher, Barry; Verniquet, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Pediatric trigger thumb is an uncommon condition with a calculated incidence of 3 per 1000 live births or less. Some reports have suggested a congenital etiology while others could not find a single case of pediatric trigger thumb at birth. This article reports the occurrence of bilateral trigger thumbs in identical twins, age 3 years and 9 months, affecting their thumbs to similar extents, which may suggest a congenital etiology.Congenital etiology for trigger thumb has been proposed for many reasons: occurrence in infants, occurrence in twins, occasional bilaterality, possible presence of triggering at birth, and absence of history of trauma. The occurrence of pediatric trigger thumb in twins has been reported 3 times in the literature; all reported cases were bilateral, as in our case.The mean age at presentation of pediatric trigger thumb is 2 years. The thumb is usually held in a fixed flexion position (mimicking a fracture). Examination usually reveals a palpable nodule in the flexor pollicis longus tendon at the metacarpal joint. This is an important clinical sign. Triggering in children, however, is rare. Macroscopically, there is a nodular thickening of the tendon itself. Pathological changes can be found in the tendon, tendon sheath, or both. A specimen taken from one of the nodules in our case showed degenerative changes while those from both pulleys were normal.Pediatric trigger thumb responds predictably to A1 pulley release, preferably before age 4 years, although milder cases may resolve spontaneously. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

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    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  16. Gaze and hand position effects on finger-movement-related human brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

    2009-02-01

    Humans commonly use their hands to move and to interact with their environment by processing visual and proprioceptive information to determine the location of a goal-object and the initial hand position. It remains elusive, however, how the human brain fully uses this sensory information to generate accurate movements. In monkeys, it appears that frontal and parietal areas use and combine gaze and hand signals to generate movements, whereas in humans, prior work has separately assessed how the brain uses these two signals. Here we investigated whether and how the human brain integrates gaze orientation and hand position during simple visually triggered finger tapping. We hypothesized that parietal, frontal, and subcortical regions involved in movement production would also exhibit modulation of movement-related activation as a function of gaze and hand positions. We used functional MRI to measure brain activation while healthy young adults performed a visually cued finger movement and fixed gaze at each of three locations and held the arm in two different configurations. We found several areas that exhibited activation related to a mixture of these hand and gaze positions; these included the sensory-motor cortex, supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, and left cerebellum. We also found regions within the left insula, left cuneus, left midcingulate gyrus, left putamen, and right tempo-occipital junction with activation driven only by gaze orientation. Finally, clusters with hand position effects were found in the cerebellum bilaterally. Our results indicate that these areas integrate at least two signals to perform visual-motor actions and that these could be used to subserve sensory-motor transformations.

  17. Basal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb: comparison of suture button versus abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Kristopher R; Nydick, Jason A; White, Brian D; Vaccaro, Lisa; Hess, Alfred V; Stone, Jeffrey D

    2015-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare the outcomes of patients with severe basilar thumb osteoarthritis treated with trapeziectomy and suspensionplasty using abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon versus a suture button device. A retrospective study was performed for patients undergoing trapeziectomy and suspensionplasty with APL tendon or suture button fixation. Outcome measures included disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH); visual analog score (VAS); grip strength; key pinch; tip pinch; and thumb opposition. Radiographic measurements, surgical times, and complications were recorded. Thirty-three patients in the APL tendon group and 27 patients in the suture button group had a minimum 6-month follow-up. VAS, DASH, and functional measurements improved after surgery for both groups. Mean operative time was 68 min for the APL tendon group and 48 min for the suture button group. Complications were similar between groups. The use of suture button fixation when compared to APL tendon suspensionplasty offers similar clinical outcomes. Therapeutic III.

  18. The proportion of the face in younger adults using the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, O

    1996-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci could be an objective method in the determination of the natural and artistic proportions of human face. In this study, a sample of 400 subjects (200 male and 200 female, 22-25 years old) was used. Measurements were made of the length of thumb, the length of ear, the approximate distances between the hair line and the glabella or eyebrows, between the glabella or eyebrows and the tip of the nose and the distance between the nose and the chin, and the distance between the ear and the lateral aspect of the eye. The results obtained in the males and females showed significant (p < 0.01) correlations between the length of thumb and the proportions of the face examined in the study. Additionally, the height of the face was found to be almost three times the length of the thumb. However, the measurements obtained from female subjects were on average smaller than those taken from males. The results obtained in this experiment could be of value in understanding of the evaluation of the face for the people working in plastic surgery or art.

  19. [The dorsal flag flap for skin coverage of finger and thumb-tip injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Rab, Matthias; van Schoonhoven, Jörg; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef

    2008-09-01

    Immediate two-step coverage of dorsal finger and thumb-tip soft-tissue defects with a dorsal flag flap, which can bridge over two fingers if necessary. Soft-tissue defects on the dorsal aspect of fingers between the metacarpophalangeal and the distal interphalangeal joint as well as on the tip of the thumb. Large defects, complex hand trauma, need of a sensible thumb tip, infections, noncompliance. Marking of the flap at the middle phalanx and its flagpole pedicle, containing the dorsal digital artery. The breadth should reach to the middle of the finger and the proximal pole should not cross the middle of the proximal phalanx. With tourniquet dissection of the flap above the peritendineum with respect of the dorsal digital artery and subcutaneous veins in the pedicle. Opening of the tourniquet, in the case of flap perfusion transposition of the flap into the defect. Coverage of the donor site with skin graft. Palmar cast splinting in intrinsic-plus position for 1 week, followed by physiotherapy. Pedicle separation after 3 weeks. Continuation of physiotherapy and scar care. In 2006, ten patients were operated on, three of them for reconstruction of the thumb tip. All patients showed a survival of the flap and a good wound healing without complications. One patient developed a flexion contracture at the donor finger due to noncompliance following immobilization. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory in all patients, the average DASH Score ("Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand") was 16.4, mainly due to the residuals of the overall injury.

  20. Hand-rearing reduces fear of humans in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level.

  1. [The biphalangy of the thumb. General review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, P; Demondion, X; Drizenko, A; Fontaine, C

    1999-09-01

    The thumb has only two phalanges whereas the other fingers present three. For two millennia, many anatomists tried to solve this riddle. Four different theories can be found in the review of literature, to explain what element misses in the radial column. In the first theory (Galen), the first metacarpal should be the proximal phalanx of the thumb. The particular ossification of the first metacarpal advocates for this theory. In the second theory (Sappey), the first metacarpal should result from the fusion between the true first metacarpal and the proximal phalanx of the thumb, and the proximal epiphysis should be constituted from both metacarpal and phalangeal parts. In the third theory (Paturet), the middle phalanx is thought to be missing. Apart morphological considerations, the main argument refers to symbrachydactyly, which consists in decreasing digital ray length (by reducing the middle phalanx), and usually affects digits excluding the thumb. In case the thumb is affected (in complex symbrachydactylies), the reduction concerns thus the first metacarpal, suggesting that the thumb middle phalanx has already disappeared. In the fourth theory (Pfitzner), the distal phalanx of the thumb should result from the fusion between the second and third phalanges of the thumb. This mechanism, named symphalangy, is well known in the foot, especially in the fifth toe, but also for the other toes, and even in the two ulnar fingers.

  2. Teleoperation of a robot manipulator from 3D human hand-arm motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Jonathan; Verma, Siddharth; Wu, Xianghai; Luu, Timothy

    2003-10-01

    The control of a robot manipulator by a human operator is often necessary in unstructured dynamic environments with unfamiliar objects. Remote teleoperation is required when human presence at the robot site is undesirable or difficult, such as in handling hazardous materials and operating in dangerous or inaccessible environments. Previous approaches have employed mechanical or other contacting interfaces which require unnatural motions for object manipulation tasks or hinder dexterous human motion. This paper presents a non-contacting method of teleoperating a robot manipulator by having the human operator perform the 3D human hand-arm motion that would naturally be used to compete an object manipulation task and tracking the motion with a stereo-camera system at a local site. The 3D human hand-arm motion is reconstructed at the remote robot site and is used to control the position and orientation of the robot manipulator end-effector in real-time. Images captured of the robot interacting with objects at the remote site provide visual feedback to the human operator. Tests in teleoperation of the robot manipulator have demonstrated the ability of the human to carry out object manipulator tasks remotely and the teleoperated robot manipulator system to copy human-arm motions in real-time.

  3. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  4. Venturing into the overlap between pediatric orthopaedics and hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A; Ratner, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    There is an overlap between pediatric orthopaedic surgery and hand surgery. A pediatric orthopaedic surgeon is accustomed to the intricacies of the immature skeleton, whereas a hand surgeon is more familiar with the regional anatomy and finer surgical techniques. Many hand diagnoses and surgical techniques are appropriate for the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon, including straightforward duplicated thumb reconstruction of a trigger thumb. Many pediatric diagnoses are more suitable for treatment by a hand surgeon, including simple syndactyly release and complex duplicated thumb reconstruction. Other procedures, such as pollicization, cleft hand reconstruction, synpolydactyly release, and macrodactyly management, require more advanced expertise for successful treatment. It is helpful for pediatric orthopaedic surgeons and hand surgeons to be familiar with the indications, surgical techniques, outcomes, and complications of pediatric hand surgery.

  5. Improved experimental model for measuring skin degerming activity on the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, R N; McGrath, M B; Goss, W A

    1972-07-01

    A gloved-hand method is presented for evaluating the interaction of antimicrobial agents with the normal resident bacterial flora of human skin. One of the key features of the experimental model is a simplified technique for sampling the skin, which involves the addition of eluting fluid to the gloved hand. As with other skin sampling techniques, the number of bacteria recovered from the hands showed considerable variation from subject to subject. However, no significant differences were observed between the numbers of bacteria recovered from the right and left hands of individual subjects. The mean number of bacteria recovered from the hand before and after washing with nonmedicated soap was consistent and reproducible over a period of at least 5 consecutive days. The number of recoverable bacteria from the hand was greatly reduced by a single treatment with a surgical scrub preparation containing hexachlorophene. The extent of skin degerming achieved was little affected by the use of a surgical brush, and was maximal at approximately 30 min after contact with the hexachlorophene-containing formulation. It was determined that the level of transient bacteria on the hands could be controlled by a simple wash with nonmedicated soap, resulting in a stabilized base-line level from which treatment interactions with the resident microflora could be measured more precisely. The basic elements of the method presented fulfill the requirements of a satisfactory experimental model for the in vivo evaluation of skin-degerming agents on the hand. The selection of appropriate experimental designs allows treatment comparisons to be made with a high degree of statistical confidence.

  6. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hatala, E M; Hatala, K G; Hiles, S; Rabey, K N

    2016-06-23

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses.

  7. Treatment of thumb tip degloving injury using the modified first dorsal metacarpal artery flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Shao, Xinzhong; Gao, Shunhong; Wang, Bin; Liu, Dequn

    2010-10-01

    This study reports repair of a thumb tip degloving injury using the modified first dorsal metacarpal artery (FDMA) flap, including both dorsal branches of the proper digital nerve (DBPDNs). From May 2006 to February 2008, the modified FDMA flap was used in 11 thumbs in 11 patients. All patients suffered a degloving injury to the thumb tip, and 4 had associated bone loss ranging from 1 to 3 mm (mean, 2 mm) in length. The size of the soft tissue defects was 2.6 to 4.6 cm (mean, 3.5 cm) in length and 1.8 to 2.2 cm (mean, 2.0 cm) in width. The flaps ranged in size from 2.7 × 2.2 cm to 4.8 × 2.1 cm (mean, 3.6 × 2.1 cm). The mean pedicle length was 7.2 cm (range, 6.8-7.5 cm). Neurorrhaphy between the DBPDN and the proper digital nerve was performed in both sides in all cases. Patient follow-ups ranged from 26 to 47 months (mean, 32 mo). Sensibility of the reconstructed thumb was evaluated by static 2-point discrimination. The range of motion of the donor fingers was measured. The data were compared to those of the opposite sides. All flaps survived completely. At the final follow-up, the mean values of static 2-point discrimination were 5 mm (range, 4-8 mm) and 6 mm (range, 4-8 mm) on the radial and ulnar sides of the distal portion of the flap, respectively. The mean values of the radial and ulnar distal portions of the flaps reached 75% and 72% of those of the opposite sides. The mean range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the donor fingers were 73°, 101°, and 70°, respectively. The modified FDMA flap, including both DBPDNs, is useful for restoration of sensation on the thumb tip and maintenance of adequate length of the thumb. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hand Gesture Modeling and Recognition for Human and Robot Interactive Assembly Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture recognition is essential for human and robot collaboration. Within an industrial hybrid assembly cell, the performance of such a system significantly affects the safety of human workers. This work presents an approach to recognizing hand gestures accurately during an assembly task while in collaboration with a robot co-worker. We have designed and developed a sensor system for measuring natural human-robot interactions. The position and rotation information of a human worker's hands and fingertips are tracked in 3D space while completing a task. A modified chain-code method is proposed to describe the motion trajectory of the measured hands and fingertips. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM method is adopted to recognize patterns via data streams and identify workers' gesture patterns and assembly intentions. The effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by experimental results. The outcome demonstrates that the proposed system is able to automatically segment the data streams and recognize the gesture patterns thus represented with a reasonable accuracy ratio.

  9. Hand Gesture Modeling and Recognition for Human and Robot Interactive Assembly Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture recognition is essential for human and robot collaboration. Within an industrial hybrid assembly cell, the performance of such a system significantly affects the safety of human workers. This work presents an approach to recognizing hand gestures accurately during an assembly task while in collaboration with a robot co-worker. We have designed and developed a sensor system for measuring natural human-robot interactions. The position and rotation information of a human worker’s hands and fingertips are tracked in 3D space while completing a task. A modified chain-code method is proposed to describe the motion trajectory of the measured hands and fingertips. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM method is adopted to recognize patterns via data streams and identify workers’ gesture patterns and assembly intentions. The effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by experimental results. The outcome demonstrates that the proposed system is able to automatically segment the data streams and recognize the gesture patterns thus represented with a reasonable accuracy ratio.

  10. RGBD Video Based Human Hand Trajectory Tracking and Gesture Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of human hand trajectory tracking and gesture trajectory recognition based on synchronized color and depth video is considered. Toward this end, in the facet of hand tracking, a joint observation model with the hand cues of skin saliency, motion and depth is integrated into particle filter in order to move particles to local peak in the likelihood. The proposed hand tracking method, namely, salient skin, motion, and depth based particle filter (SSMD-PF, is capable of improving the tracking accuracy considerably, in the context of the signer performing the gesture toward the camera device and in front of moving, cluttered backgrounds. In the facet of gesture recognition, a shape-order context descriptor on the basis of shape context is introduced, which can describe the gesture in spatiotemporal domain. The efficient shape-order context descriptor can reveal the shape relationship and embed gesture sequence order information into descriptor. Moreover, the shape-order context leads to a robust score for gesture invariant. Our approach is complemented with experimental results on the settings of the challenging hand-signed digits datasets and American sign language dataset, which corroborate the performance of the novel techniques.

  11. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R

    2011-06-01

    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety.

  12. The application of force-sensing resistor sensors for measuring forces developed by the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonovas, A; Harrison, A J L; Hoult, S; Sammut, D

    2004-01-01

    Most attempts to measure forces developed by the human hand have been implemented by placing force sensors on the object of interaction. Other researchers have placed sensors just on the subject's fingertips. In this paper, a system is described that measures forces over the entire hand using thin-film sensors and associated electronics. This system was developed by the authors and is able to obtain force readings from up to 60 thin-film sensors at rates of up to 400 samples/s per sensor. The sensors can be placed anywhere on the palm and/or fingers of the hand. The sensor readings, together with a video stream containing information about hand posture, are logged into a portable computer using a multiplexer, analogue-to-digital converter and software developed for the purpose. The system has been successfully used to measure forces involved in a range of everyday tasks such as driving a vehicle, lifting saucepans and hitting a golf ball. In the latter case, results are compared with those from an instrumented golf club. Future applications include the assessment of hand strength following disease, trauma or surgery, and to enable quantitative ergonomic investigations.

  13. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  14. Understanding Human Hand Gestures for Learning Robot Pick-and-Place Tasks

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    Hsien-I Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Programming robots by human demonstration is an intuitive approach, especially by gestures. Because robot pick-and-place tasks are widely used in industrial factories, this paper proposes a framework to learn robot pick-and-place tasks by understanding human hand gestures. The proposed framework is composed of the module of gesture recognition and the module of robot behaviour control. For the module of gesture recognition, transport empty (TE, transport loaded (TL, grasp (G, and release (RL from Gilbreth's therbligs are the hand gestures to be recognized. A convolution neural network (CNN is adopted to recognize these gestures from a camera image. To achieve the robust performance, the skin model by a Gaussian mixture model (GMM is used to filter out non-skin colours of an image, and the calibration of position and orientation is applied to obtain the neutral hand pose before the training and testing of the CNN. For the module of robot behaviour control, the corresponding robot motion primitives to TE, TL, G, and RL, respectively, are implemented in the robot. To manage the primitives in the robot system, a behaviour-based programming platform based on the Extensible Agent Behavior Specification Language (XABSL is adopted. Because the XABSL provides the flexibility and re-usability of the robot primitives, the hand motion sequence from the module of gesture recognition can be easily used in the XABSL programming platform to implement the robot pick-and-place tasks. The experimental evaluation of seven subjects performing seven hand gestures showed that the average recognition rate was 95.96%. Moreover, by the XABSL programming platform, the experiment showed the cube-stacking task was easily programmed by human demonstration.

  15. Hand gesture recognition based on motion history images for a simple human-computer interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timotius, Ivanna K.; Setyawan, Iwan

    2013-03-01

    A human-computer interaction can be developed using several kind of tools. One choice is using images captured using a camera. This paper proposed a simple human-computer interaction system based on hand movement captured by a web camera. The system aims to classify the captured movement into one of three classes. The first two classes contain hand movements to the left and right, respectively. The third class contains non-hand movements or hand movements to other directions. The method used in this paper is based on Motion History Images (MHIs) and nearest neighbor classifier. The resulting MHIs are processed in two manners, namely by summing the pixel values along the vertical axis and reshaping into vectors. We also use two distance criteria in this paper, respectively the Euclidian distance and cross correlation. This paper compared the performance of the combinations of different MHI data processing and distance criteria using 10 runs of 2-fold cross validation. Our experiments show that reshaping the MHI data into vectors combined with a Euclidean distance criterion gives the highest average accuracy, namely 55.67%.

  16. Properties of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the human hand related to touch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallbo, A B; Johansson, R S

    1984-01-01

    Recordings from single peripheral nerve fibres made it possible to analyse the functional properties of tactile afferent units supplying the glabrous skin of the human hand and to assess directly the relation between impulse discharge and perceptive experiences. The 17,000 tactile units in this skin area of the human hand are of four different types: two fast adapting types, FA I and FA II (formerly RA and PC), and two slowly adapting types, SA I and SA II. The receptive field characteristics and the densities in the skin of the type I units (FA I and SA I) indicate that these account for the detailed spatial resolution that is of paramount importance for the motor skill and the explorative role of the hand. The relationship between the stimulus amplitude and perceived intensity during sustained skin indentations did not match the corresponding stimulus response functions of SA units suggesting non-linear transformations within the central nervous system. These transformations, in turn, appear to vary between subjects. A single impulse in a single FA I unit may be felt when originating from the most important tactile regions of the hand, indicating that the psychophysical detection may be set by the threshold of the sense organs. Moreover, no significant noise seems to be superimposed in the respective central sensory pathways.

  17. The Click Test: A Novel Tool to Quantify the Age-Related Decline of Fast Motor Sequencing of the Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodranghien, Florian; Mahé, Helene; Baude, Benjamin; Manto, Mario U; Busegnies, Yves; Camut, Stéphane; Habas, Christophe; Marien, Peter; de Marco, Giovanni; van Dun, Kim

    2017-05-10

    The thumb plays a critical role for manual tasks during the activities of daily life and the incidence of neurological or musculoskeletal disorders affecting the voluntary movements of the thumb is high in the elderly. There is currently no tool to assess repetitive motor sequencing of the thumb during ageing. To report a novel procedure (the Click Test) assessing the effects of ageing on fast motor sequencing of the thumb. Healthy subjects (n = 252; mean age +/- SD: 49.76 +/- 19.97 years; range: 19-89 years; F/M: 151/101) were asked to perform fast repeated flexion/extension movements of the thumb using a mechanical counter. Motor performances (assessed by the number of clicks during 3 time periods: 15, 30 and 45 sec), significantly decreased as a function of age for both the dominant (age effect; p < 0.0001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec) and the non-dominant hand (p < 0.0001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec). The number of clicks was significantly higher in males (gender effect; p < 0.001) and was higher on the dominant side as compared to the non-dominant side (handedness effect: p < 0.001). The Click Test is characterized by high repeatability (coefficients of variation from 3.20 to 4.47%), excellent intra-rater reliability (intra-class coefficients ICC ranging from 0.89 to 0.98), high inter-rater reproducibility (Pearson's product correlation ranging from 0.85 to 0.96), high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient = 0.95) and is highly correlated in terms of relative performances with the box and block test and the 9-hole peg test (positive linear correlation with the results of the box and block test: p < 0.001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec for both the dominant and the non-dominant hand; negative linear correlation with the results of the 9-hole peg test: p < 0.001 for 15, 30 and 45 sec for both the dominant and the non-dominant hand). The Click Test is an entirely novel and very low cost tool to reliably discriminate the ageing effects upon the performances during fast

  18. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, M Lindsay; Melvani, Sharmila; Druce, Julian; Barr, Ian G; Ballard, Susan A; Johnson, Paul D R; Mastorakos, Tasoula; Birch, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    Although pandemic and avian influenza are known to be transmitted via human hands, there are minimal data regarding the effectiveness of routine hand hygiene (HH) protocols against pandemic and avian influenza. Twenty vaccinated, antibody-positive health care workers had their hands contaminated with 1 mL of 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)(50)/0.1 mL live human influenza A virus (H1N1; A/New Caledonia/20/99) before undertaking 1 of 5 HH protocols (no HH [control], soap and water hand washing [SW], or use of 1 of 3 alcohol-based hand rubs [61.5% ethanol gel, 70% ethanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution, or 70% isopropanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution]). H1N1 concentrations were assessed before and after each intervention by viral culture and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The natural viability of H1N1 on hands for >60 min without HH was also assessed. There was an immediate reduction in culture-detectable and PCR-detectable H1N1 after brief cutaneous air drying--14 of 20 health care workers had H1N1 detected by means of culture (mean reduction, 10(3-4) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), whereas 6 of 20 had no viable H1N1 recovered; all 20 health care workers had similar changes in PCR test results. Marked antiviral efficacy was noted for all 4 HH protocols, on the basis of culture results (14 of 14 had no culturable H1N1; (Peffective in reducing influenza A virus on human hands, although SW is the most effective intervention. Appropriate HH may be an important public health initiative to reduce pandemic and avian influenza transmission.

  19. Contributions of skin and muscle afferent input to movement sense in the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordo, Paul J; Horn, Jean-Louis; Künster, Daniela; Cherry, Anne; Bratt, Alex; Gurfinkel, Victor

    2011-04-01

    In the stationary hand, static joint-position sense originates from multimodal somatosensory input (e.g., joint, skin, and muscle). In the moving hand, however, it is uncertain how movement sense arises from these different submodalities of proprioceptors. In contrast to static-position sense, movement sense includes multiple parameters such as motion detection, direction, joint angle, and velocity. Because movement sense is both multimodal and multiparametric, it is not known how different movement parameters are represented by different afferent submodalities. In theory, each submodality could redundantly represent all movement parameters, or, alternatively, different afferent submodalities could be tuned to distinctly different movement parameters. The study described in this paper investigated how skin input and muscle input each contributes to movement sense of the hand, in particular, to the movement parameters dynamic position and velocity. Healthy adult subjects were instructed to indicate with the left hand when they sensed the unseen fingers of the right hand being passively flexed at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint through a previously learned target angle. The experimental approach was to suppress input from skin and/or muscle: skin input by anesthetizing the hand, and muscle input by unexpectedly extending the wrist to prevent MCP flexion from stretching the finger extensor muscle. Input from joint afferents was assumed not to play a significant role because the task was carried out with the MCP joints near their neutral positions. We found that, during passive finger movement near the neutral position in healthy adult humans, both skin and muscle receptors contribute to movement sense but qualitatively differently. Whereas skin input contributes to both dynamic position and velocity sense, muscle input may contribute only to velocity sense.

  20. Learning robotic eye-arm-hand coordination from human demonstration: a coupled dynamical systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot.

  1. Corticosteroid injection with or without thumb spica cast for de Quervain tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi Mobarakeh, Mahmoud; Bahrami, Farzaneh; Hashemi-Motlagh, Kevyan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar; Akhoondzadeh, Niloofar

    2014-01-01

    To compare the corticosteroid injection (CSI) with or without thumb spica cast (TSC) for de Quervain tendinitis. In this prospective trial, 67 eligible patients with de Quervain tenosynovitis were randomly assigned into CSI + TSC (33 cases) and CSI (34 cases) groups. All patients received 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate with 1 cc lidocaine 2% in the first dorsal compartment at the area of maximal point tenderness. The primary outcome was the treatment success rate, and the secondary outcome was the scale and quality of the treatment method using Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand and visual analog scale scores. The groups had no differences in mean age, sex, and occupation. The visual analog scale and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were similar in both groups before the treatment. The treatment success rate was 93% in the CSI + TSC group and 69% in the CSI group. Although both methods improved the patients' conditions significantly in terms of relieving pain and functional ability, CSI + TSC had a significantly higher treatment success rate. The combined technique of corticosteroid injection and thumb spica casting was better than injection alone in the treatment of de Quervain tenosynovitis in terms of treatment success and functional outcomes. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with anencephaly and thumb agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Cataliotti, Antonella; Indaco, Lara; Pappalardo, Elisa; Barrano, Barbara; Ettore, Giuseppe; Bianca, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    Severe anomalies of the forebrain together with reduction limb anomalies are a rare congenital anomalies association. We report a prenatal diagnosis of acalvaria, anencephaly and thumb agenesis in a voluntary terminated fetus and discuss the role of genetic counseling.

  3. Distribution of malocclusion types among thumb suckers seeking orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of thumb sucking and its duration on the type of malocclusion. A total of 410 North Indian individuals between ages 12-30 years, 161 males and 249 females were examined. A specially designed proforma was used to record the detailed history of the individual. Among the etiological factors it was found that history of thumb sucking was present in 13.9% and significantly related to Class II div 1 malocclusion. When thumb sucking exceeded 18 months, it was found statistically significant (P < 0.1 in Class II skeletal malocclusion, in open bite (P < 0.1 and in extreme overjet (P < 0.5. Conclusion: If thumb sucking is not treated early, it can cause skeletal Class II malocclusion, anterior open bite and excessive overjet.

  4. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  5. First dorsal metacarpal artery flap for thumb reconstruction: a retrospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyldermans, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive pulp (zone 4) defects of the thumb, with the exposure of tendon or bone, are challenging reconstructive problems. Surgical treatment includes the use of local, regional, and free flaps. The first dorsal metacarpal artery flap has been used successfully for defects of the thumb. The innerved first dorsal metacarpal artery flap from the dorsum of the index finger was first described by Hilgenfeldt and refined by Holevich. An island flap carried on a neurovascular pedicle consisting of the first dorsal metacarpal artery was first demonstrated by Foucher and Braun. Seven innervated FDMCA island flaps were performed from May 2005 until July 2007 for thumb reconstruction. There were three women and four men with an average age of 54.9 years (range 28–89 years). The mean follow-up period was 15.4 months (range 4–29 months). The dominant hand was involved in six (85.7%) patients. In a retrospective clinical study, the following criteria were evaluated: (1) etiology of the defect, (2) time of reconstruction (primary vs. delayed), (3) survival rate of flap, (4) sensory function (Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments, static 2-PD, pain, cortical reorientation), (5) TAM measured with the Kapandji index, and (6) subjective patient satisfaction (SF 36). Four patients presented with trauma, two patients with defects after tumor resection and one with infection of the thumb. The flap was used for immediate reconstruction in three (42.9%) patients and for delayed reconstruction in four (57.1%) patients. Delayed reconstruction was performed 4.75 (1–12) months after initial trauma or first surgery. The donor area was grafted with full-thickness skin grafts in all cases. All flaps survived. The mean SWMF was 3.31 g and average statis 2-PD over the flap was 10.57 mm. Pain at the flap scored 3.71 over 10 and at the donor site 2.17 over 10. Paresthesia at the flap scored 0.57 over 4 and at the donor site 0.33 over 4. Complete cortical reorientation was only seen in one

  6. Life in our hands? Some ethical perspectives on the human genome and human genome diversity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius W. du Toit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with implications of the human genome and the human genome diversity project. It examined some theological implications, such as: humans as the image of God, God as the creator of life, the changed role of miracles and healings in religion, the sacredness of nature, life and the genome. Ethical issues that were addressed include eugenics, germline intervention, determinism and the human genome diversity project. Economic and legal factors that play a role were also discussed. Whilst positive aspects of genome research were considered, a critical stance was adopted towards patenting the human genome and some concluding guidelines were proposed.

  7. Dosimetry of hands and human factor; Dosimetria de manos y factor humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harr, R. [Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica A. C., Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The human factor in facilities where open radioactive sources are managed it can be controlled through the use of the ring dosimetry, however, that these devices only provide qualitative information that is not extrapolated to legislative limits. lt is present the case analysis of hands dosimetry of female person with responsibility for professional standards and a very high profile with ratings that allow her to have a high level of knowledge of the basic standards, and because with an attitude and a culture rooted of radiation protection, among other qualities. Their records reveal a trend in which monthly doses are below the 7 mSv, and only occasionally are between 7 and 12 mSv per month and hand. The other case correspond to a technician, trained in radiological techniques, also with a high profile, with two courses for occupationally exposed personnel more than 10 annual retraining, and work experience of over 10 years as occupationally exposed personnel, in which knowledge of standards and because of the entrenched culture of radiation protection and their interest degree in the care of their exposure is still in a phase half, in this case also shows a trend in the monthly dose where found registers between 7 and 11 mSv per month and hand. The third case is of a second technician with less experience and most basic knowledge, his dose register not show a real trend, sometimes be found reads of irregular values as if the dosimeter is not used and some other times as if misused by exposing to purpose (was observed at least one reading above the monthly 30 mSv). By way of conclusion, it is noted that the hands dosimetry is a useful tool to monitor transactions through the data compilation susceptible to analysis with variations which can be placed in the context of the human factor. (Author)

  8. Hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy skills acquisition: augmented reality simulator versus human cadaver training models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Fabien; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Delaney, Conor P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a simulator with the human cadaver model for hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training. An observational prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the laparoscopic surgery training models. The study took place during the laparoscopic colectomy training course performed at the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Thirty four practicing surgeons performed hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on human cadavers (n = 7) and on an augmented reality simulator (n = 27). Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Trainers and trainees completed independently objective structured assessment forms. Training models were compared by trainees' technical skills scores, events scores, and satisfaction. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both surgeon groups. Generic and specific skills scores were similar on both training models. Generic events scores were significantly better on the cadaver model. The 2 most frequent generic events occurring on the simulator were poor hand-eye coordination and inefficient use of retraction. Specific events were scored better on the simulator and reached the significance limit (p = 0.051) for trainers. The specific events occurring on the cadaver were intestinal perforation and left ureter identification difficulties. Overall satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p = 0.009). With regard to skills scores, the augmented reality simulator had adequate qualities for the hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy training. Nevertheless, events scores highlighted weaknesses of the anatomical replication on the simulator. Although improvements likely will be required to incorporate the simulator more routinely into the colorectal training, it may be useful in its current form for more junior trainees or those early on their learning curve. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  9. The use of a neoprene "thumb-sock" to prevent trauma in a thumb-sucking child with intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P J; Walton-Jones, A

    1999-01-01

    A nine-year-old girl with spastic quadriplegia, mental retardation, poor vision, a gastrostomy, and intractable epilepsy was referred by her pediatrician for a dental assessment with a view to extracting her anterior teeth as a means of preventing repeated damage to the skin over the proximal phalanx of her left thumb, which she sucked at night. This was the time of day when the frequency of her epileptic seizures was highest. A simple solution to the problem was developed by a dentist and an occupational therapist in which nylon-coated 3-mm neoprene sheeting (wet-suit material) was formed into a "thumb-sock" with a simple Velcro fastening around the wrist. No trauma to the thumb from epileptic seizures has occurred since the "thumb-sock" was fitted 24 months ago.

  10. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Belmonte, Uriel Haile; Ayala-Ramirez, Victor

    2016-01-04

    In this work, we present a multiclass hand posture classifier useful for human-robot interaction tasks. The proposed system is based exclusively on visual sensors, and it achieves a real-time performance, whilst detecting and recognizing an alphabet of four hand postures. The proposed approach is based on the real-time deformable detector, a boosting trained classifier. We describe a methodology to design the ensemble of real-time deformable detectors (one for each hand posture that can be classified). Given the lack of standard procedures for performance evaluation, we also propose the use of full image evaluation for this purpose. Such an evaluation methodology provides us with a more realistic estimation of the performance of the method. We have measured the performance of the proposed system and compared it to the one obtained by using only the sampled window approach. We present detailed results of such tests using a benchmark dataset. Our results show that the system can operate in real time at about a 10-fps frame rate.

  11. Human Hand Kinematic Modeling Based on Robotic Concepts for Digit Animation with Dynamic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondu, Bertrand

    The recent development of highly anthropomorphic avatars in computer graphics has emphasized the importance of accurate hand kinematic models. Although kinematic methods derived from robotics have recently been applied to the modeling of hands, we consider that original/new and relevant results can be brought into play with the use of more advanced applications of robotic techniques to human hand kinematic modeling. Our chapter analyses some of these questions both in the non-differential and differential fields. More specifically, we study how to integrate the peculiar natural digit movement constraints into robotics-based inverse kinematic modeling. As a result, we propose an original approach based on an interpretation of each joint dynamic constraint as a linear joint synergy. This leads to defining the considered digit as a serial chain kinematically redundant in position and reducing the dimension of its joint space by associated joint synergies. The method is applied to the Cartesian positioning simulation of a 4 d.o.f. index model; a comparison with a Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based approach emphasizes its relevance.

  12. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure design for a Two-DoF myoelectric prosthetic hand to realize basic hand functions in ADLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshigawa, Suguru; Jiang, Yinlai; Kato, Ryu; Morishita, Soichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuhiro; Yabuki, Yoshiko; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic hands are desired by those who have lost a hand or both hands not only for decoration but also for the functions to help them with their activities of daily living (ADL). Prosthetic robotic hands that are developed to fully realize the function of a human hand are usually too expensive to be economically available, difficult to operate and maintain, or over heavy for longtime wearing. The aim of this study is therefore to develop a simplified prosthetic hand (sim-PH), which is to be controlled by myoelectric signals from the user, to realize the most important grasp motions in ADL by trading off the cost and performance. This paper reports the structure design of a two-DoF sim-PH with two motors to drive the CM joint of the thumb and the interlocked MP joints of the other four fingers. In order to optimize the structure, the model of the sim-PH was proposed based on which 7 sim-PHs with different structural parameters were manufactured and tested in a pick-and-place experiment. Correspondence analysis of the experimental results clarified the relationship between the hand functions and the shapes of fingers.

  14. Mechatronic hands prosthetic and robotic design

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Paul Hammond

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the technical design characteristics of the main components that go into forming an artificial hand whether it is a simple design that does not have a natural appearance or a more complicated design where there are multiple movements of the fingers and thumb.

  15. Age-related changes in the joint position sense of the human hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisch T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Kalisch,1,2,* Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth,2,* Rebecca Kowalewski,2 Martin Tegenthoff,1 Hubert R Dinse21Department of Neurology, BG-Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany; 2Neural Plasticity Lab, Institute for Neuroinformatics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Age-related changes in lower limb joint position sense and their contributions to postural stability are well documented. In contrast, only a few studies have investigated the effect of age on proprioceptive hand function. Here, we introduce a novel test for measuring joint position sense in the fingers of the human hand. In a concurrent matching task, subjects had to detect volume differences between polystyrene balls grasped with their dominant (seven test stimuli: 126–505 cm3 and their nondominant hand (three reference stimuli: 210, 294, and 505 cm3. A total of 21 comparisons were performed to assess the number of errors, the weight of errors (ie, the volume difference between test and reference stimuli, and the direction of errors (ie, over- or underestimation of test stimulus. The test was applied to 45 healthy subjects aged 21 to 79 years. Our results revealed that all variables changed significantly with age, with the number of errors showing the strongest increase. We also assessed tactile acuity (two-point discrimination thresholds and sensorimotor performance (pegboard performance in a subset of subjects, but these scores did not correlate with joint position sense performance, indicating that the test reveals specific information about joint position sense that is not captured with pure sensory or motor tests. The average test–retest reliability assessed on 3 consecutive days was 0.8 (Cronbach's alpha. Our results demonstrate that this novel test reveals age-related decline in joint position sense acuity that is independent from sensorimotor performance.Keywords: aging, hand

  16. Eye-hand Hybrid Gesture Recognition System for Human Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Raajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture Recognition has become a way for computers to recognise and understand human body language. They bridge the gap between machines and human beings and make the primitive interfaces like keyboards and mice redundant. This paper suggests a hybrid gesture recognition system for computer interface and wireless robot control. The real-time eye-hand gesture recognition system can be used for computer drawing, navigating cursors and simulating mouse clicks, playing games, controlling a wireless robot with commands and more. The robot illustrated in this paper is controlled by RF module. Playing a PING-PONG game has also been demonstrated using the gestures. The Haar cascade classifiers and template matching are used to detect eye gestures and convex hull for finding the defects and counting the number of fingers in the given region.

  17. Robustness of muscle synergies underlying three-dimensional force generation at the hand in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, William Z.; Beer, Randall F.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies using advanced matrix factorization techniques have shown that the coordination of human voluntary limb movements may be accomplished using combinations of a small number of intermuscular coordination patterns, or muscle synergies. However, the potential use of muscle synergies for isometric force generation has been evaluated mostly using correlational methods. The results of such studies suggest that fixed relationships between the activations of pairs of muscles are relatively rare. There is also emerging evidence that the nervous system uses independent strategies to control movement and force generation, which suggests that one cannot conclude a priori that isometric force generation is accomplished by combining muscle synergies, as shown in movement control. In this study, we used non-negative matrix factorization to evaluate the ability of a few muscle synergies to reconstruct the activation patterns of human arm muscles underlying the generation of three-dimensional (3-D) isometric forces at the hand. Surface electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from eight key elbow and shoulder muscles during 3-D force target-matching protocols performed across a range of load levels and hand positions. Four synergies were sufficient to explain, on average, 95% of the variance in EMG datasets. Furthermore, we found that muscle synergy composition was conserved across biomechanical task conditions, experimental protocols, and subjects. Our findings are consistent with the view that the nervous system can generate isometric forces by assembling a combination of a small number of muscle synergies, differentially weighted according to task constraints. PMID:22279190

  18. Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention. Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators…

  19. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo;

    2015-01-01

    of the central sulcus following the bending of the central sulcus (CURVED). CURVED mapping employed a fixed (CURVED-450 FIX) or flexible coil orientation producing always a current perpendicular to the sulcal wall (CURVED-900 FLEX). During relaxation, CURVED but not STRAIGHT mapping revealed distinct......Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... was lowest for CURVED-900 FLEX. Together, the results show that within-M1HAND somatotopy can be readily probed with linear TMS mapping aligned to the sulcal shape. Sulcus-aligned linear mapping will benefit non-invasive studies of representational plasticity in human M1HAND....

  20. The hands in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Hall, C M; Evans, R D; Hayward, R D; Jones, B M

    1996-01-01

    The hand radiographs of fifteen patients with a diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome were reviewed by a radiologist with an interest in skeletal dysplasia along with the craniofacial team. Eleven patients exhibited a range of bone abnormalities of the following sites: thumbs, fingers, metacarpals, and the radius. The epiphysis of the distal phalanx of the thumb was most commonly involved site with 7 of the 15 patients affected. In addition to the structural abnormalities all cases before puberty (14 out of 15 patients in this series) showed variable delay of the bone age.

  1. Pre- and post-operative comorbidities in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: cervical arthritis, basal joint arthritis of the thumb, and trigger digit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Gong, H S; Lee, H J; Lee, Y H; Rhee, S H; Baek, G H

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 633 hands in 362 patients who had idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome and underwent carpal tunnel release between 1999 and 2009. Electrophysiological studies and simple radiographs of the wrist, cervical spine, and basal joint of the thumb were routinely checked, and patients were also assessed for the presence of trigger digit or de Quervain's disease before and after surgery. Among 362 patients, cervical arthritis was found in 253 patients (70%), and C5-C6 arthritis was the most common site. Basal joint arthritis of the thumb was observed in 216 (34%) of the 633 hands. Trigger digit or de Quervain's disease was observed in 85 of the 633 hands (13%) before surgery, and developed in 67 hands (11%) after surgery. Cervical arthritis, basal joint arthritis, and trigger digit commonly coexist with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient education about these disorders is very important when they coexist with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

  2. Monosynaptic Ia projections from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm motoneurones in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nicolas, G; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    2000-01-01

    Heteronymous Ia excitatory projections from intrinsic hand muscles to human forearm motoneurones (MNs) were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied after electrical stimuli were applied to the median and ulnar nerve at wrist level and to the corresponding homonymous nerve at elbow level.Homonymous facilitation, occurring at the same latency as the H reflex, and therefore attributed to monosynaptic Ia EPSPs, was found in all the sampled units. In many MUs an early facilitation was also evoked by heteronymous low-threshold afferents from intrinsic hand muscles. The low threshold (between 0.5 and 0.6 times motor threshold (MT)) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce this effect indicate that it is due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents.Evidence for a similar central delay (monosynaptic) in heteronymous as in homonymous pathways was accepted when the difference in latencies of the homonymous and heteronymous peaks did not differ from the estimated supplementary afferent conduction time from wrist to elbow level by more than 0.5 ms (conduction velocity in the fastest Ia afferents between wrist and elbow levels being equal to 69 m s−1).A statistically significant heteronymous monosynaptic Ia excitation from intrinsic hand muscles supplied by both median and ulnar nerves was found in MUs belonging to all forearm motor nuclei tested (although not in ECU MUs after ulnar stimulation). It was, however, more often found in flexors than in extensors, in wrist than in finger muscles and in muscles operating in the radial than in the ulnar side.It is argued that the connections of Ia afferents from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm MNs, which are stronger and more widely distributed than in the cat, might

  3. Right-Handed and Left-Footed? How Andrea Learned to Question the Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several tests for determining dominance of children's hands, eyes, feet, and thumbs. Discusses the relationship between hemispheric brain dominance and dominant sides of the body. Suggests that raising questions about generalizations can lead to new learning. (TW)

  4. A novel cortical target to enhance hand motor output in humans with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinyi; Federico, Paolo; Perez, Monica A

    2017-06-01

    A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4.3 ms; I-wave protocol) or at an interstimulus interval in-between I-waves (3.5 ms; control protocol) on separate days in a randomized order. Late I-waves are thought to arise from trans-synaptic cortical inputs and have a crucial role in the recruitment of spinal motor neurons following spinal cord injury. Motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, paired-pulse intracortical inhibition, spinal motor neuron excitability (F-waves), index finger abduction force and electromyographic activity as well as a hand dexterity task were measured before and after both protocols in 15 individuals with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury and 17 uninjured participants. We found that motor evoked potentials size increased in spinal cord injury and uninjured participants after the I-wave but not the control protocol for ∼30 to 60 min after the stimulation. Intracortical inhibition decreased and F-wave amplitude and persistence increased after the I-wave but not the control protocol, suggesting that cortical and subcortical networks contributed to changes in corticospinal excitability. Importantly, hand motor output and hand dexterity increased in individuals with spinal cord injury after the I-wave protocol. These results provide the first evidence that late synaptic input to corticospinal neurons may represent a novel therapeutic target for improving motor function

  5. Opportunities to improve the in vivo measurement of manganese in human hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam; Chettle, D. R.; Pejović-Milić, A.; Waker, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an element which is both essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels. Its excessive inhalation as a result of exposure through industrial and environmental emissions can cause neurological damage, which may manifest as memory deficit, loss of motor control and reduction in the refinement of certain body motions. A number of clinical studies demonstrate that biological monitoring of Mn exposure using body fluids, particularly blood, plasma/serum and urine is of very limited use and reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges. In this context, a non-invasive neutron activation technique has been developed at the McMaster University accelerator laboratory that could provide an alternative to measure manganese stored in the bones of exposed subjects. In a first pilot study we conducted recently on non-exposed human subjects to measure the ratio of Mn to Ca in hand bones, it was determined that the technique needed further development to improve the precision of the measurements. It could be achieved by improving the minimum detection limit (MDL) of the system from 2.1 µg Mn/g Ca to the reference value of 0.6 µg g-1 Ca (range: 0.16-0.78 µg Mn/g Ca) for the non-exposed population. However, the developed procedure might still be a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn, who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. To improve the MDL of the technique to the expected levels of Mn in a reference population, the present study investigates further optimization of irradiation conditions, which includes the optimal selection of proton beam energy, beam current and irradiation time and the effect of upgrading the 4π detection system. The maximum local dose equivalent that could be given to the hand as a result of irradiation

  6. Lymphoid neogenesis in skin of human hand, nonhuman primate, and rat vascularized composite allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Theresa; Zelger, Bettina G; Nasr, Isam W; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Barth, Rolf N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Brandacher, Gerald; Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Zelger, Bernhard; Cavadas, Pedro; Margreiter, Raimund; Lee, W P Andrew; Pratschke, Johann; Lakkis, Fadi G; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of skin rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) remain incompletely understood. The formation of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) in hand transplantation has been recently described. We assess this phenomenon in experimental and clinical VCA rejection. Skin biopsies of human (n = 187), nonhuman primate (n = 11), and rat (n = 15) VCAs were analyzed for presence of TLO. A comprehensive immunohistochemical assessment (characterization of the cell infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules) including staining for peripheral node addressin (PNAd) was performed and correlated with rejection and time post-transplantation. TLO were identified in human, nonhuman primate, and rat skin samples. Expression of PNAd was increased in the endothelium of vessels upon rejection in human skin (P = 0.003) and correlated with B- and T-lymphocyte numbers and LFA-1 expression. PNAd expression was observed at all time-points after transplantation and increased significantly after year 5. In nonhuman primate skin, PNAd expression was found during inflammatory conditions early and late after transplantation. In rat skin, PNAd expression was strongly associated with acute rejection and time post-transplantation. Lymphoid neogenesis and TLO formation can be uniformly found in experimental and human VCA. PNAd expression in vascular endothelium correlates with skin rejection and T- and B-cell infiltration.

  7. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires' Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Issei; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kokubu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires' technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford's evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires' technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  8. Presenting using Two-Handed Interaction in Open Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Luc; Smit, Jasper; Isenberg, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent demonstrations of low-cost, infrared-based point tracking, we explore two-handed, surface-less interaction for presentation. On both hands, thumb and index finger are equipped with retro-reflective markers which are tracked by a Wiimote. We contribute a robust finger pairing and pinc

  9. Presenting using Two-Handed Interaction in Open Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Luc; Smit, Jasper; Isenberg, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent demonstrations of low-cost, infrared-based point tracking, we explore two-handed, surface-less interaction for presentation. On both hands, thumb and index finger are equipped with retro-reflective markers which are tracked by a Wiimote. We contribute a robust finger pairing and

  10. Serum cytokine profiles of children with human enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Ying; Gan, Xing; Song, Juan; Sun, Peng; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Cytokine profiles may impact the pathogenicity and severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus (HEV) 71. In 91 severe or mild HEV 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease children, serum was collected between days 2 and 10 or day >10. Serum cytokines including Type 1 T helper (Th1) cytokines: interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12, and IL-18, Type 1 T helper (Th2) cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were assessed during the early stage and recovery. In the patients with mild illness, the peaks of IL-8 and IL-10 were observed on day 6 and that of IL-18 was on day 4. In the patients with severe illness, all cytokines spiked on day 3 and peaked on day 11. All cytokines except IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly correlated with immunoglobulin M levels by the end of the disease course. Cytokine profile variations between the patients with mild and severe illness may indicate prognosis and strain virulence, useful in clinical treatment of patients.

  11. Changes in sensory hand representation and pain thresholds induced by motor cortex stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Bérengère; Bradley, Claire; Magnin, Michel; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Shrinking of deafferented somatosensory regions after neural damage is thought to participate to the emergence of neuropathic pain, and pain-relieving procedures have been reported to induce the normalization of altered cortical maps. While repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex can lessen neuropathic pain, no evidence has been provided that this is concomitant to changes in sensory maps. Here, we assessed in healthy volunteers the ability of 2 modes of motor cortex rTMS commonly used in pain patients to induce changes in pain thresholds and plastic phenomena in the S1 cortex. Twenty minutes of high-frequency (20 Hz) rTMS significantly increased pain thresholds in the contralateral hand, and this was associated with the expansion of the cortical representation of the hand on high-density electroencephalogram source analysis. Neither of these effects were observed after sham rTMS, nor following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). The superiority of 20-Hz rTMS over iTBS to induce sensory plasticity may reflect its better match with intrinsic cortical motor frequencies, which oscillate at around 20 Hz. rTMS-induced changes might partly counterbalance the plasticity induced by a nerve lesion, and thus substantiate the use of rTMS to treat human pain. However, a mechanistic relation between S1 plasticity and pain-relieving effects is far from being established.

  12. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  13. Measurement of quality of life among patient undergoing arthroplasty of the thumb to treat CMC arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Aurélio Aita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To present the clinical and functional results, including measurement of quality of life, of patients undergoing trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty. METHOD: This was a prospective evaluation on 45 patients (53 thumbs with a diagnosis of idiopathic rhizarthrosis who underwent resection arthroplasty and interposition of an uncemented Ascension(r implant, made of pyrocarbon. The clinical and functional results were analyzed through radiography, range of motion (ROM in degrees (°, visual analog scale (VAS for pain and the disability of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH questionnaire for quality of life. In the group analyzed, 38 were women and seven were men, and their mean age was 63.17 years (range: 50-78. Eight patients were treated bilaterally. RESULTS: After 42.08 months of follow-up (range: 8-73, the subjective pain evaluation (VAS score was 1.37 (range: 1-4. The complete ROM of the thumb increased to 95.75% (range: 75-100% in relation to the contralateral side. The mean DASH questionnaire score was 9.98 (range: 1-18. The complication rate (negative events was 11.32%. Five patients presented dislocation of the thumb prosthesis. All of them were reoperated by means of dorsal capsuloplasty using a portion of the retinaculum of the extensors as a graft, and good clinical evolution was achieved in these cases. One patient presented fracturing of the metacarpal and was treated by means of osteosynthesis using Kirschner wires. CONCLUSION: This method is effective for treating rhizarthrosis, according to the measurements made on the clinical and functional results, even after taking the complication rate into consideration. Moreover, it provides an improvement of quality of life for these patients.

  14. Hand dug wells in Namibia: An underestimated water source or a threat to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, H.; Nakwafila, A.; Hamutoko, J. T.; Lohe, C.; Neumbo, F.; Petrus, I.; David, A.; Beukes, H.; Masule, N.; Quinger, M.

    The rural population of parts of northern and western Namibia uses hand dug wells for their domestic water supply, partly because no other source (e.g., deep tube wells) is available, but also as a substitute for pipeline water that is often perceived as being too expensive. The water quality of these wells is usually not monitored or controlled, thus a study has been carried out in four study areas in Namibia: southern Omusati/Oshana area, Okongo/Ohangwena area, Omatjete/Omaruru area, Okanguati/Kunene area. Hand dug wells have been tested for on-site parameters: electric conductivity, pH and temperature while samples were taken for major inorganic constituents and several minor and trace constituents including fluoride and nitrate. In addition a sampling campaign in 2010 included the determination of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. Results were classified according to the Namibian Water Guidelines. The constituents making the water unfit for human consumption are fluoride, nitrate, sulphate and total dissolved solids. Contamination by E. coli was indicated in nearly all wells that are used for livestock watering. For the Omatjete/Omaruru study area an isotope based study on the source of nitrate has indicated manure as a source. The range of recharge values obtained for the studied villages ranges from 1 mm/a to locally more than 100 mm/a. Overall the water resource in the shallow perched aquifers in the study areas is in many places inappropriate for human consumption. Treatment to improve the quality or introduction of protection measures is necessary to bring this resource to an acceptable quality according to national and/or international standards.

  15. Modulation of ongoing EMG by different classes of low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Macefield, V G

    2001-12-15

    1. We have previously demonstrated that the input from single FA I and SA II cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of the human hand is sufficiently strong to modulate ongoing EMG of muscles acting on the digits. Some unresolved issues have now been addressed. 2. Single cutaneous (n = 60), joint (n = 2) and muscle spindle (n = 34) afferents were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist. Spike-triggered averaging was used to investigate synaptic coupling between these afferents and muscles acting on the digits. The activity of 37 % of FA I (7/19), 20 % of FA II (1/5) and 52 % of SA II afferents (11/21) evoked a reflex response. The discharge from muscle spindles, 15 SA I and two joint afferents did not modulate EMG activity. 3. Two types of reflex responses were encountered: a single excitatory response produced by irregularly firing afferents, or a cyclic modulation evoked by regularly discharging afferents. Rhythmic stimulation of one FA I afferent generated regularly occurring bursts which corresponded to the associated cyclic EMG response. 4. Selectively triggering from the first or last spike of each burst of one FA I afferent altered the averaged EMG profile, suggesting that afferent input modulates the associated EMG and not vice versa. 5. The discharge from single FA I, FA II and SA II afferents can modify ongoing voluntary EMG in muscles of the human hand, presumably via a spinally mediated oligosynaptic pathway. Conversely, we saw no evidence of such modulation by SA I, muscle spindle or joint afferents.

  16. Design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand posture controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Weir, Richard F ff

    2014-03-01

    An ideal myoelectric prosthetic hand should have the ability to continuously morph between any posture like an anatomical hand. This paper describes the design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping. The controller commands continuously morphing hand postures including functional grasps using between two and four surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes pairs. Four unique maps were developed to transform the EMG control signals in the principal component domain. A preliminary validation experiment was performed by 10 nonamputee subjects to determine the map with highest performance. The subjects used the myoelectric controller to morph a virtual hand between functional grasps in a series of randomized trials. The number of joints controlled accurately was evaluated to characterize the performance of each map. Additional metrics were studied including completion rate, time to completion, and path efficiency. The highest performing map controlled over 13 out of 15 joints accurately.

  17. The caring moment and the green-thumb phenomenon among Swedish nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds; Bäck-Pettersson, Siv; Segesten, K

    1993-01-01

    People who have a special gift for gardening are sometimes described as having a green thumb. Likewise, some nurses have a green thumb for nursing. The aims of this study were to identify and describe the characteristics of green-thumb nurses and of caring situations. A descriptive-exploratory de......People who have a special gift for gardening are sometimes described as having a green thumb. Likewise, some nurses have a green thumb for nursing. The aims of this study were to identify and describe the characteristics of green-thumb nurses and of caring situations. A descriptive......-exploratory design was used, and 16 nurses, recruited by their superiors, participated in semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that the green-thumb nurse is competent, compassionate, and courageous. The essence of the caring moment was identified as the green-thumb nurse's ability to act on the spur...

  18. Magic Hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE two most amazing things on the planet may well be the human brain and human hands. When they work together, the results can be enchanting. At an international folk art fair held recently in Beijing, artisans and masters from Japan, India, Switzerland, Peru, South

  19. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Nehete; Anita Nehete; Sandeep Singla; Harshad Adhav

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally s...

  20. Selection of suitable hand gestures for reliable myoelectric human computer interface

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Myoelectric controlled prosthetic hand requires machine based identification of hand gestures using surface electromyogram (sEMG) recorded from the forearm muscles. This study has observed that a sub-set of the hand gestures have to be selected for an accurate automated hand gesture recognition, and reports a method to select these gestures to maximize the sensitivity and specificity. Methods Experiments were conducted where sEMG was recorded from the muscles of the forearm while s...

  1. Clonal CD8+ T Cell Persistence and Variable Gene Usage Bias in a Human Transplanted Hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Y Kim

    Full Text Available Immune prophylaxis and treatment of transplanted tissue rejection act indiscriminately, risking serious infections and malignancies. Although animal data suggest that cellular immune responses causing rejection may be rather narrow and predictable based on genetic background, there are only limited data regarding the clonal breadth of anti-donor responses in humans after allogeneic organ transplantation. We evaluated the graft-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes in skin punch biopsies of a transplanted hand over 178 days. Profiling of T cell receptor (TCR variable gene usage and size distribution of the infiltrating cells revealed marked skewing of the TCR repertoire indicating oligoclonality, but relatively normal distributions in the blood. Although sampling limitation prevented complete assessment of the TCR repertoire, sequencing further identified 11 TCR clonal expansions that persisted through varying degrees of clinical rejection and immunosuppressive therapy. These 11 clones were limited to three TCR beta chain variable (BV gene families. Overall, these data indicate significant oligoclonality and likely restricted BV gene usage of alloreactive CD8+ T lymphocytes, and suggest that changes in rejection status are more due to varying regulation of their activity or number rather than shifts in the clonal populations in the transplanted organ. Given that controlled animal models produce predictable BV usage in T lymphocytes mediating rejection, understanding the determinants of TCR gene usage associated with rejection in humans may have application in specifically targeted immunotherapy.

  2. Dystrophic calcinosis in a child with a thumb sucking habit: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannini Cesar Abrantes Lima de Figueiredo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an uncommon case of a 3-year-old boy with a finger sucking habit who developed dystrophic calcification in his left thumb. Two years after excision, there was no recurrence, and the thumb retained full range of motion. We also discuss its probable pathogenesis and present a brief review of the literature about orthopedic complications in the hand due to this habit.Os autores apresentam caso incomum de uma criança de três anos de idade com o hábito de chupar o dedo que desenvolveu calcinose distrófica no polegar esquerdo. Dois anos após a ressecção cirúrgica, não ocorreu recidiva e o polegar mantém todos os movimentos. Discutem, ainda, sua provável patogênese e fazem breve revisão da literatura a respeito das complicações ortopédicas na mão devido a este hábito.

  3. Vasoconstricting effect of angiotensin II in human hand veins: influence of aging, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Masami; Fujimura, Akio

    2002-09-01

    We examined human hand veins to determine whether venoconstricting response to angiotensin II (Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) was influenced by aging or such diseases as diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT). Twenty healthy male subjects (20-73 years), and 8 male patients with non-insulin-dependent DM and 8 male patients with essential HT were included in this study. A constant dose (50 ng/min) of Ang II or increasing dose (2-256 ng/min) of NA was infused into the dorsal hand vein and its diameter was measured using a linear variable differential transformer. The constant infusion of Ang II caused rapid desensitization or tachyphylaxis. The venoconstriction by Ang II in the 8 elderly subjects (58 to 73 years) was significantly (p<0.05) larger than that in the 8 young subjects (20 to 36 years) from 6 to 18 min after the start of the infusion (after 6 min: 63.6+/-11.6 (mean+/-SD)% vs. 39.9+/-20.8%, 12 min: 34.0+/-11.9% vs. 12.0+/-12.0%). However, the venoconstriction by Ang II in the patients with DM or HT was not significantly different from that in the 9 age-matched control subjects. No significant difference in venoconstrictor response to NA was observed between the young and elderly subjects, nor between the control subjects and the patients with DM or HT. These findings indicated that venoconstrictor response to Ang II might be greater in the elderly but might not be influenced by DM nor HT.

  4. Decoding individual finger movements from one hand using human EEG signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liao

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface (BCI is an assistive technology, which decodes neurophysiological signals generated by the human brain and translates them into control signals to control external devices, e.g., wheelchairs. One problem challenging noninvasive BCI technologies is the limited control dimensions from decoding movements of, mainly, large body parts, e.g., upper and lower limbs. It has been reported that complicated dexterous functions, i.e., finger movements, can be decoded in electrocorticography (ECoG signals, while it remains unclear whether noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG signals also have sufficient information to decode the same type of movements. Phenomena of broadband power increase and low-frequency-band power decrease were observed in EEG in the present study, when EEG power spectra were decomposed by a principal component analysis (PCA. These movement-related spectral structures and their changes caused by finger movements in EEG are consistent with observations in previous ECoG study, as well as the results from ECoG data in the present study. The average decoding accuracy of 77.11% over all subjects was obtained in classifying each pair of fingers from one hand using movement-related spectral changes as features to be decoded using a support vector machine (SVM classifier. The average decoding accuracy in three epilepsy patients using ECoG data was 91.28% with the similarly obtained features and same classifier. Both decoding accuracies of EEG and ECoG are significantly higher than the empirical guessing level (51.26% in all subjects (p<0.05. The present study suggests the similar movement-related spectral changes in EEG as in ECoG, and demonstrates the feasibility of discriminating finger movements from one hand using EEG. These findings are promising to facilitate the development of BCIs with rich control signals using noninvasive technologies.

  5. Decoding individual finger movements from one hand using human EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ke; Xiao, Ran; Gonzalez, Jania; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) is an assistive technology, which decodes neurophysiological signals generated by the human brain and translates them into control signals to control external devices, e.g., wheelchairs. One problem challenging noninvasive BCI technologies is the limited control dimensions from decoding movements of, mainly, large body parts, e.g., upper and lower limbs. It has been reported that complicated dexterous functions, i.e., finger movements, can be decoded in electrocorticography (ECoG) signals, while it remains unclear whether noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) signals also have sufficient information to decode the same type of movements. Phenomena of broadband power increase and low-frequency-band power decrease were observed in EEG in the present study, when EEG power spectra were decomposed by a principal component analysis (PCA). These movement-related spectral structures and their changes caused by finger movements in EEG are consistent with observations in previous ECoG study, as well as the results from ECoG data in the present study. The average decoding accuracy of 77.11% over all subjects was obtained in classifying each pair of fingers from one hand using movement-related spectral changes as features to be decoded using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The average decoding accuracy in three epilepsy patients using ECoG data was 91.28% with the similarly obtained features and same classifier. Both decoding accuracies of EEG and ECoG are significantly higher than the empirical guessing level (51.26%) in all subjects (pmovement-related spectral changes in EEG as in ECoG, and demonstrates the feasibility of discriminating finger movements from one hand using EEG. These findings are promising to facilitate the development of BCIs with rich control signals using noninvasive technologies.

  6. Conservative treatment of thumb base osteoarthritis : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Anne J.; Van Minnen, L. Paul; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Schreuders, A. R.; Vermeulen, Guus M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a systematic review of randomized controlled trials regarding the conservative treatment of thumb base osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic bibliographic databases Medline (Pubmed) and Embase (both starting year to May 2014) u

  7. Thumb Sucking: Help Your Child Break the Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process. References Nowak AJ, et al. Oral habits and orofacial development in children. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 8, 2015. Ask your dentist about thumb, finger and pacifier habits. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. http://www.aapd. ...

  8. Rules of Thumb for Up-and-Down Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Reports that economist Paul Krugman identifies three types of economic writing. Asserts that the major principles of macroeconomics can be synthesized into "Five Rules of Thumb" which can help to interpret economic news. Presents and discusses these five rules and includes a survey summary of journalists and economists on this issue.…

  9. NOTE: A preliminary study for non-invasive quantification of manganese in human hand bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A.; Chettle, D. R.; McNeill, F. E.; Pysklywec, M. W.; Oudyk, J.

    2008-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body, but it is also toxic when humans are excessively exposed to Mn. Blood (or serum/plasma) and other body fluids reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive measurement of Mn stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following feasibility studies, a first pilot study, using neutron activation analysis to measure Mn in the bones of the hand of ten healthy male human subjects, was conducted with the approval of the concerned research ethics boards. The participants of this study had no known history of exposure to Mn. Two volunteers were excluded from this study due to technical problems with their measurements. The inverse variance weighted mean value of Mn/Ca for the participants of this study is 0.12 ± 0.68 µg Mn/g Ca which is comparable within uncertainties with the estimated range of 0.16 0.78 µg Mn/g Ca and mean value of 0.63 ± 0.30 µg Mn/g Ca derived from cadaver data. It is recommended to investigate the use of the diagnostic technique for in vivo measurements of workers exposed occupationally to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. The technique needs further development to improve the precision of in vivo measurements in the non-exposed population.

  10. Examination of the torque required to passively palmar abduct the thumb CMC joint in a pediatric population with hemiplegia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Ahmad, Mona Qureshi; Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Correia, Annette

    2015-12-16

    Many activities of daily living involve precision grasping and bimanual manipulation, such as putting toothpaste on a toothbrush or feeding oneself. However, children afflicted by stroke, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury may have lost or never had the ability to actively and accurately control the thumb. To translate insights from adult rehabilitation robotics to innovative therapies for hand rehabilitation in pediatric care, specifically for thumb deformities, an understanding of the torque needed to abduct the thumb to assist grasping tasks is required. Participants (n=16, 10 female, 13.2±3.1 years) had an upper extremity evaluation and measures were made of their passive range of motion, anthropometrics, and torques to abduct the thumb for both their affected and non-affected sides. Torque measures were made using a custom wrist orthosis that was adjusted for each participant. The torque to achieve maximum abduction was 1.47±0.61inlb for the non-affected side and 1.51±0.68inlb for the affected side, with a maximum recorded value of 4.87inlb. The overall maximum applied torque was observed during adduction and was 5.10inlb. We saw variation in the applied torque, which could have been due to the applied torques by the Occupational Therapist or the participant actively assisting or resisting the motion rather than remaining passive. We expect similar muscle and participant variation to exist with an assistive device. Thus, the data presented here can be used to inform the specifications for the development of an assistive thumb orthosis for children with "thumb-in-palm" deformity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A region finding method to remove the noise from the images of the human hand gesture recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Jibran; Mahmood, Waqas

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems depends on the quality of the images presented to the system. Since these systems work in real time environment the images may be corrupted by some environmental noise. By removing the noise the performance of the system can be enhanced. So far different noise removal methods have been presented in many researches to eliminate the noise but all have its own limitations. We have presented a region finding method to deal with the environmental noise that gives better results and enhances the performance of the human hand gesture recognition systems so that the recognition rate of the system can be improved.

  12. Early Pleistocene human hand phalanx from the Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Pablos, Adrián; Carretero, José Miguel; Huguet, Rosa; Valverdú, Josep; Martinón-Torres, María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new Early Pleistocene proximal hand phalanx (ATE9-2) from the Sima del Elefante cave site (TE - Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), ascribed to Homo sp., is presented and comparatively described in the context of the evolution of the genus Homo. The ATE9-2 specimen is especially important because of the paucity of hand bones in the human fossil record during the Early Pleistocene. The morphological and metrical analyses of the phalanx ATE9-2 indicate that there are no essential differences between it and comparator fossil specimens for the genus Homo after 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago). Similar to Sima de los Huesos and Neandertal specimens, ATE9-2 is a robust proximal hand phalanx, probably reflecting greater overall body robusticity in these populations or a higher gracility in modern humans. The age of level TE9 from Sima del Elefante and morphological and metrical studies of ATE9-2 suggest that the morphology of the proximal hand phalanges and, thus, the morphology of the hand could have remained stable over the last 1.2-1.3 Ma. Taking into account the evidence recently provided by a metacarpal from Kaitio (Kenya) from around 1.42 Ma, we argue that modern hand morphology is present in the genus Homo subsequent to Homo habilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology tape for treating thumb metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate on the effects of the stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology tape on a patient with thumb metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension injury. [Subject] The patient was a 43-year-old man with severe thumb MCP pain and extremely limited thumb movement. [Methods] Stepwise application of orthosis and kinesiology taping were performed for 3 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. [Results] After stepwise treatment, the patient was able to power grip, precision pinch, turn a key, and hold a pen without pain. [Conclusion] Stepwise application of thumb orthosis and kinesiology tape is a safe and effective treatment for thumb MCP joint hyperextension injury.

  14. Learning Dexterous Manipulation for a Soft Robotic Hand from Human Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous multi-fingered hands can accomplish fine manipulation behaviors that are infeasible with simple robotic grippers. However, sophisticated multi-fingered hands are often expensive and fragile. Low-cost soft hands offer an appealing alternative to more conventional devices, but present considerable challenges in sensing and actuation, making them difficult to apply to more complex manipulation tasks. In this paper, we describe an approach to learning from demonstration that can be used...

  15. [Diagnostics of the skeletal massiveness and human somatotype using hand bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zviagin, V N; Zamiatina, A O; Galitskaia, O I

    2003-01-01

    The skeleton massiveness (SM) and the somatotype of human constitution were determined on the basis of osteometry of bones of carpal and metacarpal bones (MB) and of phalanxes. Seventy male and 13 female skeletons from the collection of the chair for anthropology, Moscow State University, were investigated. Described are the results of examinations of 8 carpal bones made according to 3 signs (length, width, and height), and of 5 metacarpal bones made according to 4 signs (length, base and head width, and base height); investigation findings of finger phalanxes (in full) are also presented. Methods of current multidimensional statistics were used within the case study, i.e. related with the key components--for SM specification and the discriminative analysis--for constitution specification. The SM determination accuracy according to type A was 40%, according to type B--80%, according to type C--37.5% and according to type D--52.9%. The classification accuracy of constitutions by carpal bones was 50.0%, by MB--46.4%, and by MB plus finger phalanxes--48.1%. It is pointed out that it was for the first time that the elaborated quantitative criteria of osteometry of hand bones could be used in the expertise practice for the purpose of personality identification by osseous remains.

  16. A Study on Decoding Models for the Reconstruction of Hand Trajectories from the Human Magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decoding neural signals into control outputs has been a key to the development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. While many studies have identified neural correlates of kinematics or applied advanced machine learning algorithms to improve decoding performance, relatively less attention has been paid to optimal design of decoding models. For generating continuous movements from neural activity, design of decoding models should address how to incorporate movement dynamics into models and how to select a model given specific BCI objectives. Considering nonlinear and independent speed characteristics, we propose a hybrid Kalman filter to decode the hand direction and speed independently. We also investigate changes in performance of different decoding models (the linear and Kalman filters when they predict reaching movements only or predict both reach and rest. Our offline study on human magnetoencephalography (MEG during point-to-point arm movements shows that the performance of the linear filter or the Kalman filter is affected by including resting states for training and predicting movements. However, the hybrid Kalman filter consistently outperforms others regardless of movement states. The results demonstrate that better design of decoding models is achieved by incorporating movement dynamics into modeling or selecting a model according to decoding objectives.

  17. Enhanced propriospinal excitation from hand muscles to wrist flexors during reach-to-grasp in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Burke, David; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In humans, propriospinal neurons located at midcervical levels receive peripheral and corticospinal inputs and probably participate in the control of grip tasks, but their role in reaching movements, as observed in cats and primates, is still an open question. The effect of ulnar nerve stimulation on flexor carpi radialis (FCR) motor evoked potential (MEP) was tested during reaching tasks and tonic wrist flexion. Significant MEP facilitation was observed at the end of reach during reach-to-grasp but not during grasp, reach-to-point, or tonic contractions. MEP facilitation occurred at a longer interstimulus interval than expected for convergence of corticospinal and afferent volleys at motoneuron level and was not paralleled by a change in the H-reflex. These findings suggest convergence of the two volleys at propriospinal level. Ulnar-induced MEP facilitation was observed when conditioning stimuli were at 0.75 motor response threshold (MT), but not 1 MT. This favors an increased excitability of propriospinal neurons rather than depression of their feedback inhibition, as has been observed during tonic power grip tasks. It is suggested that the ulnar-induced facilitation of FCR MEP during reach may be due to descending activation of propriospinal neurons, assisting the early recruitment of large motoneurons for rapid movement. Because the feedback inhibitory control is still open, this excitation can be truncated by cutaneous inputs from the palmar side of the hand during grasp, thus assisting movement termination. It is concluded that the feedforward activation of propriospinal neurons and their feedback control may be involved in the internal model, motor planning, and online adjustments for reach-to-grasp movements in humans.

  18. The human touch: skin temperature during the rubber hand illusion in manual and automated stroking procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Rohde

    Full Text Available A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI. The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants perceive body ownership over a rubber hand if they see it being stroked in synchrony with their own occluded hand. The current study set out to replicate this result, i.e., psychologically induced cooling of the stimulated hand using an automated stroking paradigm, where stimulation was delivered by a robot arm (PHANToM(TM force-feedback device. After we found no evidence for hand cooling in two experiments using this automated procedure, we reverted to a manual stroking paradigm, which is closer to the one employed in the study that first produced this effect. With this procedure, we observed a relative cooling of the stimulated hand in both the experimental and the control condition. The subjective experience of ownership, as rated by the participants, by contrast, was strictly linked to synchronous stroking in all three experiments. This implies that hand-cooling is not a strict correlate of the subjective feeling of hand ownership in the RHI. Factors associated with the differences between the two designs (differences in pressure of tactile stimulation, presence of another person that were thus far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect.

  19. The Human Touch: Skin Temperature during the Rubber Hand Illusion in Manual and Automated Stroking Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Marieke; Wold, Andrew; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Ernst, Marc O.

    2013-01-01

    A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants perceive body ownership over a rubber hand if they see it being stroked in synchrony with their own occluded hand. The current study set out to replicate this result, i.e., psychologically induced cooling of the stimulated hand using an automated stroking paradigm, where stimulation was delivered by a robot arm (PHANToMTM force-feedback device). After we found no evidence for hand cooling in two experiments using this automated procedure, we reverted to a manual stroking paradigm, which is closer to the one employed in the study that first produced this effect. With this procedure, we observed a relative cooling of the stimulated hand in both the experimental and the control condition. The subjective experience of ownership, as rated by the participants, by contrast, was strictly linked to synchronous stroking in all three experiments. This implies that hand-cooling is not a strict correlate of the subjective feeling of hand ownership in the RHI. Factors associated with the differences between the two designs (differences in pressure of tactile stimulation, presence of another person) that were thus far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect. PMID:24260454

  20. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws XMCP™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Parra, C N; Montaner-Alonso, D; Morales-Rodríguez, J

    2017-09-04

    The study objective was to assess the results of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws at 25°, XMCP ™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany, NJ). Radiographs evaluated the angle of arthrodesis, time of fusion and fixation of the implant. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using the DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale. Any complications found during surgery or the follow-up period were noted. We studied 9 patients. The mean follow-up was 27.6 months. Patients showed clinical and radiological evidence of fusion in an average of 8 weeks, the angle of fusion was 25°. There were no complications and no implant had to be removed. The XMCP™ system provides a reliable method for MCPJ arthrodesis for several indications and can be used with other procedures in the complex hand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The fighting hypothesis in combat : How well does the fighting hypothesis explain human left-handed minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton G.G.; McManus, I.C.; Schaafsma, Sara M.; Geuze, Reint H.; McGrew, WC; Schiefenhovel, W; Marchant, LF

    2013-01-01

    The strong population bias in hand preference in favor of right-handedness seems to be a typical human trait. An elegant evolutionary hypothesis explaining this trait is the so-called fighting hypothesis that postulates that left-handedness is under frequency-dependent selection. The fighting hypoth

  2. (Not) Made by the human hand: media consciousness and immediacy in the cultural production of the real

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.

    2011-01-01

    Taking its examples from the realm of popular religion and popular culture, this essay shows how sensations of im-mediacy are sought and produced in a great number of fantasy scripts. Some of these scripts seek to undo media-awareness: concealing or denying the involvement of the human hand they pro

  3. Thumbs down for genetically modified foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Many researchers and food companies strain at the leash to use genetic modification. Consumers, on the other hand, reject GM food products. This is one of many results of a EU funded project about consumers' attitudes and decisionmaking with regard to GM food products. Consumers' scepticism towards...... their general attitudes. The group of consumers that do not like new and different products, are relatively more averse to GM food products. This also goes for consumers who are concerned about nature and who in general believe that man has no right to rule over plants and animals as well as for consumers who...... have a negative attitudes towards technology in general. Much points to the fact that consumers' aversion towards GM food products is quite stable. In the study, increased information on GM did not increase consumers' acceptance of GM food products. Furthermore there is evidence that consumers reject...

  4. Carotid Artery Stenting 2013: Thumbs up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagdi, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    It has been customary for interventional cardiologists involved in carotid artery stenting, to underline non-inferiority of the percutaneous technique versus surgical carotid endarterectomy. To that end, all cause morbidity and mortality figures of both methods are compared. Surgery has, in most large randomized studies, had an edge over stenting in terms of cerebrovascular adverse events. This may have partly been due to occasional indiscriminate indication for stenting in lesions and/or vessels with unfavourable characteristics (severe target vessel tortuosity and calcification, Type III aortic arch, and so on). On one hand, the author pleads for improvement of the excellent results of endarterectomy, by subjecting all patients planned for surgery to a thorough preoperative cardiological work up, including generous invasive investigation, thus reducing the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiac death. On the other hand, we are convinced that the results of carotid stenting should then be compared to best practice surgery. The rate of neurological adverse event rate after carotid endarterectomy at our institution lies under 0.7% at 30 days postoperatively. Specifically, the goal should be that carotid stenting underbids surgical endarterectomy, also and mainly, in terms of cerebral and cerebrovascular adverse events. Cardiac morbidity and mortality as well as laryngeal nerve palsy should no more be the main arguments for the percutaneous approach. This should easily be possible if patient selection for carotid revascularisation would be approached according to morphological criteria, in analogy with the “Syntax”-score used to optimise revascularisation strategies in coronary artery disease.

  5. The study of intramuscular nerve distribution patterns and relative spindle abundance of the thenar and hypothenar muscles in human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Jiang, Yanjun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Shengbo

    2012-01-01

    The intramuscular nerve distribution and relative spindle abundance of the human hand have not been well defined, although this is important in guiding hand surgery. Forty human hands were dissected and subjected to modified Sihler's stain and haematoxylin and eosin stain to investigate intramuscular nerve distribution and relative spindle abundance, respectively. The flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), adductor pollicis (AP), and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) contain separate nerve compartments. Neural anastomoses were observed in the thenar and hypothenar muscles, including the Y-like, O-like, H-like, and U-like appearance. We found that U-like neural anastomoses may be the characteristic of the opponens muscles. The relative spindle abundance was the greatest in the opponens muscles which may coordinate fine movements. Except for the two opponens muscles, the rest of the thenar and hypothenar muscles could be used as whole muscle or half-muscle donors for muscle transplant. Our nerve map of the hand offers valuable guidance for hand reconstruction.

  6. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-10-15

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a "linear" TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting motor threshold. We pseudorandomly stimulated six targets located on a straight mediolateral line corresponding to the overall orientation of the central sulcus with a fixed coil orientation of 45° to the mid-sagittal line (STRAIGHT-450FIX) or seven targets in the posterior part of the crown of the central sulcus following the bending of the central sulcus (CURVED). CURVED mapping employed a fixed (CURVED-450FIX) or flexible coil orientation producing always a current perpendicular to the sulcal wall (CURVED-900FLEX). During relaxation, CURVED but not STRAIGHT mapping revealed distinct corticomotor excitability peaks in M1HAND with the excitability maximum of ADM located medially to the FDI maximum. This mediolateral somatotopy was still present during tonic contraction of the ADM or FDI. During ADM contraction, cross-correlation between the spatial excitability profiles of ADM and FDI was lowest for CURVED-900FLEX. Together, the results show that within-M1HAND somatotopy can be readily probed with linear TMS mapping aligned to the sulcal shape. Sulcus-aligned linear mapping will benefit non-invasive studies of representational plasticity in human M1HAND.

  7. Skin contact transfer of three fragrance residues from candles to human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Anne Marie; Bredbenner, Amy; McGowen, Margaret; Niemiera, David; Parker, Lori; Renskers, Kevin; Selim, Sami; Sgaramella, Richard; Signorelli, Richard; Tedrow, Sebastian; Troy, William

    2007-08-01

    The dermal hand transfer of three fragrance materials (cinnamic aldehyde, d-limonene and eugenol) from scented candles was determined in 10 subjects (i.e., 20 hands) after grasping scented candles for 5 consecutive 20s exposures/grasps. The fragrance materials from each subject's hands were recovered by isopropyl alcohol wipes and subsequent extractions. Removal efficiencies for both cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol placed directly on the hands were not concentration dependent and ranged from 103% to 106%. The removal efficiency of d-limonene showed an inverse relation with 74.3% removed at the low concentration of 50 microg and 63.8% removed at the high concentration of 500 microg. The residue/transfer of d-limonene from the candles to the hands was below the limit of detection of 50 microg. The residue/transfer of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol to each subject's hands was consistent between subjects as well as between each exposure/grasp. The total mean residues of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol transferred per grasp from the candles to the hands were 0.255 microg/cm(2) and 0.279 microg/cm(2), respectively.

  8. The proprioception and neuromuscular stability of the basal thumb joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mobargha, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The basal thumb joint, or the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is an enigmatic construction. The concavo-convex shape of the CMC1 and wide range of movement, allows for both precision and power grips and is particularly susceptible to the development of osteoarthritis. Previous theories regarding the development of CMC1 osteoarthritis have focused on the role of gender, excessive joint load and ligament laxity as causative factors. An emerging theory is the role o...

  9. Grebe syndrome with bilateral fibular hemimelia and thumb duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Narasimha; Joseph, Benjamin [Department of Orthopaedics, Kasturba Medical College, Karnataka State (India)

    2002-03-01

    Grebe syndrome is a rare recessively inherited form of short-limbed dwarfism. Among the skeletal anomalies reported in the past, complete fibular hemimelia and thumb duplication have not been documented. We report a case of Grebe syndrome with these associated anomalies and review the various skeletal anomalies reported in the literature related to this syndrome. Awareness of the skeletal anomalies that can occur in this syndrome should enable an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. The effect of maintaining a constant preload or a constant degree of thumb abduction on the isometric twitch force of the thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH

    Objective. To investigate the effects of maintaining a constant preload and of maintaining a constant degree of thumb abduction on the isometric twitch force during mechanomyography of the thumb, we monitored neuromuscular function in patients anaesthetized without the use of a neuromuscular

  11. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires’ Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Mifune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford’s evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  12. Scientists Engineer a New Thumb for PatientFrom Reuters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单先心

    2001-01-01

    @@ 选注者言:断指再植,或是将脚趾移植到手指,这些已经是外科手术中广为应用的办法,而本文却让我们领略一种崭新的修复断指的手段,文章称之为tissueengineering,我们是否能称之为“人体组织工程”?其具体做法是:...took cellsfrom the patient and injected them into a coral scaffold fashioned(... 式的;... 风的 )in the shape of a thumb bone. The scaffold was implanted where the thumb tiphad been, with skin from the patient's stomach providing the finishing touch.] Taking a step forward in the brave new world of “tissue engineering,” doctorshave used a patient' s own body cells and a scaffold (本义: 脚手架)made of coral ( 珊瑚)to grow back a missing portion of his thumb.

  13. [Pollicization of the Index Finger in Patients with Congenital Thumb Hypoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, U; Singer, G; Schmidt, B; Spendel, S

    2016-08-01

    Congenital thumb hypoplasia is a radial deficiency occurring in the form of sole dysplasia or in combination with additional aberrations. Thumb hypoplasia can be categorised into 5 grades ranging from mild deformity to complete absence of the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia leads to a disturbance of grip function depending on its severity. The choice of treatment is based on the degree of thumb hypoplasia. For hypoplasia greater than grade 3B, restoration of the thumb using pollicization of the index finger is the treatment of choice. For this purpose the index finger is transformed into a thumb and is transposed to the position of the thumb with vessels and nerves being retained. The skeleton has to be shortened, rotated and abducted, followed by reconstruction of the muscles in line with the function of the new thumb. This procedure facilitates a restoration with maximal stability, sensitivity and mobility. In cases of isolated thumb hypoplasia, pollicization of the index finger yields good results persisting into adulthood. If associated aberrations are present, the outcome is less predictable because of the preexistent stiffness of the index finger. Nevertheless, associated aberrations do not represent a contraindication for index finger pollicization.

  14. Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training

  15. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  16. Human motor development and hand laterality: a kinematic analysis of drawing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, R; Miller, V; von Voss, H

    2000-12-08

    This study examines the developmental profiles of basic 'open-loop' drawing movements on the non-dominant hand (ND) in comparison with the dominant hand (D). Fifty-three right-handed children aged 7-14 years and 15 adults aged 27-43 years were examined. Each subject drew lines and circles of different sizes at maximum velocity with a pressure-sensitive pen on a computer graphics tablet. Small lines were drawn at 90 degrees to the axis of the forearm (lines using wrist movements (LWM)) and along the axis of the forearm (lines using elbow movements (LEM)). Larger lines were drawn at 90 degrees to the axis of the forearm (LEM). At both extremities, the movement frequencies of the proximally generated drawing movements increased in a parallel fashion at different levels. In LWM, the right-left-differences (RLD) were high in 7- to 8-year-old children; until puberty, the ND hand reached almost the performance of the D hand. In contrast, the RLD of the LFM increased at the same time. As adulthood approaches, frequencies of all drawings increased further while the LWM on the ND side remained stable. In adults, there were similar RLD for all line drawings involving predominantly flexion and extension movements. When drawing circles, the RLD were highest, though stable in all age groups. Hand laterality of pen use changes over time; these changes are dependent on complexity (combined/sequential cf. flexion-extension muscle activation) and on topography (proximal cf. distal movements). Distinct developmental profiles of motoneuronal populations of the cortex may be responsible for the distinct hand laterality effects and the decreasing variability of motor patterns. The drawing abilities and developmental changes on the untrained ND hand indicate that effector-specific practice plays a minor role.

  17. Manual activity shapes structure and function in contralateral human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granert, Oliver; Peller, Martin; Gaser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    From longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies we know that relatively short periods of training can increase regional grey matter volume in trained cortical areas. In 14 right-handed patients with writer's cramp, we employed VBM to test whether suppression (i.e., immobilization) or enha......1(HAND) is dynamically shaped by the level of manual activity. This bi-directional structural plasticity is functionally relevant as local grey matter changes are mirrored by changes in regional excitability....

  18. Human-Computer Interaction Based on Hand Gestures Using RGB-D Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Llorente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new method for hand gesture recognition based on an RGB-D sensor. The proposed approach takes advantage of depth information to cope with the most common problems of traditional video-based hand segmentation methods: cluttered backgrounds and occlusions. The algorithm also uses colour and semantic information to accurately identify any number of hands present in the image. Ten different static hand gestures are recognised, including all different combinations of spread fingers. Additionally, movements of an open hand are followed and 6 dynamic gestures are identified. The main advantage of our approach is the freedom of the user’s hands to be at any position of the image without the need of wearing any specific clothing or additional devices. Besides, the whole method can be executed without any initial training or calibration. Experiments carried out with different users and in different environments prove the accuracy and robustness of the method which, additionally, can be run in real-time.

  19. Human dorsomedial parieto-motor circuit specifies grasp during the planning of goal-directed hand actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesia, Michael; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Elahi, Behzad; Jegatheeswaran, Gaayathiri; Isayama, Reina; Neva, Jason L; Davare, Marco; Staines, W Richard; Culham, Jody C; Chen, Robert

    2017-07-01

    According to one influential view, two specialized parieto-frontal circuits control prehension: a dorsomedial stream for hand transport during reaching and a dorsolateral stream for preshaping the fingers during grasping. However, recent evidence argues that an area within the dorsomedial stream-macaque area V6A and, its putative human homolog, superior parietal occipital cortex (SPOC) - encodes both hand transport and grip formation. We tested whether planning varied hand actions modulates functional connectivity between left SPOC and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) using a dual-site, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm with two coils (dsTMS). Participants performed three different hand actions to a target object comprising a small cylinder atop a larger cylinder. These actions were: reaching-to-grasp the top (GT) using a precision grip, reaching-to-grasp the bottom (GB) using a whole-hand grip, or reaching-to-touch (Touch) the side of the target object without forming a grip. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from TMS to M1, with or without preceding TMS to SPOC, were recorded from first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) hand muscles in two experiments that varied timing parameters (the stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA, between the 'GO' cue and stimulation and interpulse interval, IPI, between SPOC and M1 stimulation). We found that preparatory response amplitudes in the SPOC-M1 circuit of different hand muscles were selectively modulated early in the motor plan for different types of grasps. First, based on SPOC-M1 interactions, across two experiments, the role of the ADM was facilitated during a whole-hand grasp of a large object (GB) relative to other conditions under certain timing parameters (SOA = 150 msec; IPI = 6 msec). Second, the role of the FDI was facilitated during hand action planning compared to rest. These findings suggest that the human dorsomedial parieto-motor stream plays a causal role in

  20. The mechanism of HIT/DLR prosthetic hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-sensory five-fingered prosthetic hand has been designed on the basis of underactuated mechanism and coupling principle. The hand is much similar to the adult hand. Three motors actuate the thumb, the index finger and the other three fingers each. The hand comprises 13 joints. Actuated by a motor, the thumb can move along a conic surface, which is superior in appearance. Driven by another motor with springs as transmission elements, the mid finger, ring finger and little finger can envelop objects with complex shape. The sensory system and the appearance design are introduced. It was verified by experiments that the hand has strong capacity of self adaptation and can accomplish accurate and powerful grasp for objects with complex shape.

  1. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  2. Decoding of human hand actions to handle missing limbs in Neuroprosthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana eBelic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The only way we can interact with the world is through movements, and our primary interactions are via the hands, thus any loss of hand function has immediate impact on our quality of life. However, to date it has not been systematically assessed how coordination in the hand's joints affects every day actions. This is important for two fundamental reasons. Firstly, to understand the representations and computations underlying motor control in-the-wild situations, and secondly to develop smarter controllers for prosthetic hands that have the same functionality as natural limbs. In this work we exploit the correlation structure of our hand and finger movements in daily-life. The novelty of our idea is that instead of averaging variability out, we take the view that the structure of variability may contain valuable information about the task being performed. We asked seven subjects to interact in 17 daily-life situations, and quantified behaviour in a principled manner using CyberGlove body sensor networks that, after accurate calibration, track all major joints of the hand. Our key findings are: 1. We confirmed that hand control in daily-life tasks is very low-dimensional, with four to five dimensions being sufficient to explain 80-90% of the variability in the natural movement data. 2. We established a universally applicable measure of manipulative complexity that allowed us to measure and compare limb movements across tasks. We used Bayesian latent variable models to model the low-dimensional structure of finger joint angles in natural actions. 3. This allowed us to build a naïve classifier that within the first 1000ms of action initiation (from a flat hand start configuration predicted which of the 17 actions was going to be executed - enabling us to reliably predict the action intention from very short-time-scale initial data, further revealing the foreseeable nature of hand movements for control of neuroprosthetics and tele operation

  3. Thermovision Analysis Changes of Human Hand Surface Temperature in Cold Pressor Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chwałczyńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold pressor test (CTP as a diagnostic method of the circulatory system reactivity may be a basis for the qualification for thermal stimulation therapy. The aim of the work was a thermovisual assessment of the reaction to the Hines and Brown cold pressor test. A group of 30 healthy men in the age of 23.5 ± 0.8 years were examined. The average weight of the examinees was 78.4 ± 9.2 kg, their height 180.7 ± 5.9 cms, and BMI 23.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2. A thermovisual picture of a tested and not tested hand of all the subjects was taken before and after the cold pressor test. Under the influence of cold water the surface temperature of a tested hand has decreased in a statistically significant way by 8.3°C on average, which is 29% of the temperature before the test, whilst the temperature of an untested hand dropped by 0.67°C. The decreases of temperature were not even and there was a statistically significant difference between the dorsal and palmar side of the hand. The correlation between the changes of systolic blood pressure and the hand surface temperature before and after CTP was observed.

  4. Obtaining and preservation of the donor hands in human hand allotransplantation%异体手移植供手的获取和保存

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钢; 朱立军; 杨运平; 裴国献; 顾立强

    2001-01-01

    Objective To discuss the methods of obtaining and preservation of the donor hands in human allotransplantation. Methods After brain death of the donor was confirmed, the whole donor arm was sterilized with 3 % iodine tincture and 75 % ethyl alcohol and strapped with sterile towels. A circular incision 5 cm above the elbow was made, and the brachial artery was dissected and catheterized for perfusion of UW solution at 4℃. The arm was amputated with the brachial artery still in continuity and catheterized. When the fluid refluxed from the veins was clear, the artery was divided. The marked donor arm was wrapped in aseptic dressing and sealed in a plastic bag. The bag was immersed in ice water and transported rapidly. Carotid artery blood of the donor was taken for examination. Results The time from brain death to amputation of the donor arm was 5 minutes and 6 minutes respectively. The time from amputation to reperfusion of the hand allotransplant was 6 hours and 6 hours and 19 minutes respectively. Postoperatively, the vital signs were normal and blood circulation of the transplants was excellent. Immunological and histological examination indicated no occurrence of rejection. Ten months after the operation, motor function of the fingers in both cases was graded good by total active motion evaluation. In case 1, the function of the median and ulnar nerve recovered to excellent and good respectively, while in case 2 both recovered to fair. Conclusions The obtaining and preservation of the donor arm was successful in the present 2 cases of human hand allotransplantation according to the satisfactory postoperative outcome.%目的通过2例异体手移植探讨获取和保存供手的方法。方法在供者被宣布脑死亡后,将拟取肢体用3 %碘酒、75 %酒精常规消毒,从肘关节以上5 cm平面作环形皮肤切口,游离肱动脉后插管,用4℃ UW液灌注(保留插管)后行前臂离断(肱动脉相连),再灌洗至回流

  5. Design of a cybernetic hand for perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozza, M C; Cappiello, G; Micera, S; Edin, B B; Beccai, L; Cipriani, C

    2006-12-01

    Strong motivation for developing new prosthetic hand devices is provided by the fact that low functionality and controllability-in addition to poor cosmetic appearance-are the most important reasons why amputees do not regularly use their prosthetic hands. This paper presents the design of the CyberHand, a cybernetic anthropomorphic hand intended to provide amputees with functional hand replacement. Its design was bio-inspired in terms of its modular architecture, its physical appearance, kinematics, sensorization, and actuation, and its multilevel control system. Its underactuated mechanisms allow separate control of each digit as well as thumb-finger opposition and, accordingly, can generate a multitude of grasps. Its sensory system was designed to provide proprioceptive information as well as to emulate fundamental functional properties of human tactile mechanoreceptors of specific importance for grasp-and-hold tasks. The CyberHand control system presumes just a few efferent and afferent channels and was divided in two main layers: a high-level control that interprets the user's intention (grasp selection and required force level) and can provide pertinent sensory feedback and a low-level control responsible for actuating specific grasps and applying the desired total force by taking advantage of the intelligent mechanics. The grasps made available by the high-level controller include those fundamental for activities of daily living: cylindrical, spherical, tridigital (tripod), and lateral grasps. The modular and flexible design of the CyberHand makes it suitable for incremental development of sensorization, interfacing, and control strategies and, as such, it will be a useful tool not only for clinical research but also for addressing neuroscientific hypotheses regarding sensorimotor control.

  6. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing...... of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  7. Human Hand as a Meta-tool%手的元工具特征——基于历史唯物主义的视野

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高剑平; 张正华; 罗芹

    2012-01-01

    手的形成与手的工具化是相伴相生的自然选择过程。人手的形成必然具备工具化的特点,工具化了的手是人手形成的标志。手的形成意味着人类的诞生,人类最早的制造工具活动就是从“手”中开始的。手具有自然属性和工具属性:自然属性与一般动物无异,工具属性则从人类诞生之日起就存在着。手的形成过程就是其元工具特征演化并凝固于手的过程。而器械作为手的工具属性的延伸,成为了人类改造自然的强大力量。%Human hand is a recta-tool. The forming of human hand and its function as a tool, which transacted each other, share a very long and same history. A human hand has to be a tool at first, and becoming a tool is the final stage of forming human hand. Human being must have human hand first and the first human behavior of making tools is from 'hand'. Human hand has natural property and instrumental property. The natural property of human hands is the same to animals', while the instrumental property exists only in human being as early as the existence of us. Machines which are powerful tool for practice, are the hands of human being' instrumental hand.

  8. The effects of smoke hand grenades on human lung cells and bacteria for toxicity screening purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Langenberg, J.P.; Tuinman, I.L.; Alblas, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to signaling smoke is almost impossible to avoid, and may have adverse health effects. Hand grenades with signaling smoke are used during training and/or military operations. To obtain the most realistic results when estimating the toxicity of the smoke, not only the smoke–forming compositi

  9. The effects of smoke hand grenades on human lung cells and bacteria for toxicity screening purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Langenberg, J.P.; Tuinman, I.L.; Alblas, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to signaling smoke is almost impossible to avoid, and may have adverse health effects. Hand grenades with signaling smoke are used during training and/or military operations. To obtain the most realistic results when estimating the toxicity of the smoke, not only the smoke–forming

  10. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  11. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  12. Observation of microcirculatory blood flow in human hands with non-contact laser Doppler perfusion imaging technology%非接触式激光多普勒血流成像技术对人手背部微循环血流的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果明; 税晓容; 雷桅

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用激光多普勒血流成像技术观察人手背部微循环血流灌注量变化。方法采用非接触式激光多普勒血流成像仪检测10例健康成年人手背部的微循环血流灌注量。结果手背平均血流灌注量为60.72 PU,示指甲、大拇指甲、中指甲、无名指甲和小指甲中血流灌注量分别为(302.64±115.32)、(339.99±137.53)、(353.44±131.36)、(356.53±129.05)、(389.39±146.32)PU,大拇指、示指、中指、无名指、小指上部血流灌注量分别为(238.06±139.08)、(195.64±78.15)、(144.80±73.76)、(143.85±75.34)、(146.74±54.80)PU,大拇指、示指、中指、无名指、小指下部血流灌注量分别为(128.23±50.84)、(105.65±41.84)、(73.16±27.79)、(81.61±31.18)、(71.15±25.13)PU。结论应用激光多普勒血流成像技术可观察到人手背不同部位的表面血流灌注量存在差异,血流灌注量手指甲以示指甲最低而小指甲最高,上半部从大拇指到小指依次减少,下半部大拇指最高而小指最低。%Objective To observe the blood flow perfusion in human hand microcirculation by the laser Doppler perfu -sion imaging ( LDPI) technology .Methods The non-contact LDPI was used to detect the microcirculatory blood perfusion in 10 healthy adults′hands.Results The mean blood flow perfusion in human hand was 60.72 PU;the blood flow perfu-sion in nails of forefinger, thumb, medius, ring finger and little finger was (302.64 ±115.32), (339.99 ±137.53), (353.44 ±131.36), (356.53 ±129.05) and (389.39 ±146.32) PU, respectively;the blood flow perfusion in the upper parts of forefinger, thumb, medius, ring finger and little finger was (238.06 ±139.08), (195.64 ±78.15), (144.80 ± 73.76), (143.85 ±75.34) and (146.74 ±54.80) PU, respectively;and the blood flow perfusion in the lower parts of forefinger, thumb

  13. Return to football and long-term clinical outcomes after thumb ulnar collateral ligament suture anchor repair in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Hadeed, Michael M; Lyons, Matthew L; Gluck, Joshua S; Diduch, David R; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate return to play after complete thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury treated with suture anchor repair for both skill position and non-skill position collegiate football athletes and report minimum 2-year clinical outcomes in this population. For this retrospective study, inclusion criteria were complete rupture of the thumb UCL and suture anchor repair in a collegiate football athlete performed by a single surgeon who used an identical technique for all patients. Data collection included chart review, determination of return to play, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) outcomes. A total of 18 collegiate football athletes were identified, all of whom were evaluated for follow-up by telephone, e-mail, or regular mail at an average 6-year follow-up. Nine were skill position players; the remaining 9 played in nonskill positions. All players returned to at least the same level of play. The average QuickDASH score for the entire cohort was 1 out of 100; QuickDASH work score, 0 out of 100; and sport score, 1 out of 100. Average time to surgery for skill position players was 12 days compared with 43 for non-skill position players. Average return to play for skill position players was 7 weeks postoperatively compared with 4 weeks for non-skill position players. There was no difference in average QuickDASH overall scores or subgroup scores between cohorts. Collegiate football athletes treated for thumb UCL injuries with suture anchor repair had quick return to play, reliable return to the same level of activity, and excellent long-term clinical outcomes. Skill position players had surgery sooner after injury and returned to play later than non-skill position players, with no differences in final level of play or clinical outcomes. Management of thumb UCL injuries in collegiate football athletes can be safely and effectively tailored according to the demands of the player's football position. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014

  14. Nerve fibre and sensory end organ density in the epidermis and papillary dermis of the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E J; Terenghi, G; Hazari, A; Wiberg, M

    2005-09-01

    Quantification of sensory recovery after peripheral nerve surgery is difficult and no accurate techniques are available at present. Quantification of reinnervated skin has been used experimentally, and in some clinical studies, but the lack of knowledge about the normal sensory distribution has been a problem. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to map the density of sensory end organs, nerve fibres and free nerve endings in the glabrous skin of the human hand. Skin biopsies were taken from patients undergoing acute and elective hand surgery. Nerve fibres were stained in the epidermis and papillary dermis and quantified in five sites on the palm of the hand, using protein gene product 9.5 immunoreactivity-a panneuronal marker. The finger tip skin was found to have more than twice the nerve fibre density in the papillary dermis than the skin of the palm, and the number of Meissner corpuscles in the finger tip was also higher than in the palm. We found a reduction in innervation density with increasing age in the dermis, however, that was not the case for the epidermis. The innervation of the epidermis showed high interindividual variability and unlike the papillary dermis did not display any pattern of distribution in the hand.

  15. DESIGN OF A NOVEL DEXTEROUS ROBOT HAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Li; Liu Hong; Xie Zongwu; Jin Minghe; Gao Xiaohui; Hirzinger G

    2004-01-01

    In the robotic community more and more hands are developed. Based on the experience of HIT Hand and DLR Hand II, a smaller and easier manufactured dexterous robot hand with multisensory function and high integration is jointly developed. The prototype of the hand is successfully built. It has 4 fingers in total 13-DOFs (degree of freedom). Each finger has 3-DOFs and 4 joints, the last 2 joints are mechanically coupled by means of four-bar linkage mechanism. It also has an additional DOF to realize motion of the thumb relative to the palm. The fingertip force can reach up to 10 N. Full integration of mechanical body, actuation system, multisensory system and electronics is a significant feature. DSP based control system is implemented in PCI bus architecture and the serial communication between the hand and DSP needs only 2 lines.

  16. The effect of finger spreading on drag of the hand in human swimming

    CERN Document Server

    van Houwelingen, Josje; Kunnen, Rudie P J; van Heijst, GertJan F; Grift, Ernst Jan; Breugem, Wim Paul; Delfos, Rene; Westerweel, Jerry; Clercx, Herman J H; van de Water, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finger spreading on hydrodynamic drag in swimming is studied both with a numerical simulation and with laboratory experiments. Both approaches are based on the exact same 3D model of the hand with attached forearm. The virtual version of the hand with forearm was implemented in a numerical code by means of an immersed boundary method and the physical version was studied in a wind tunnel experiment. An enhancement of the drag coefficient of 2 and 5% compared to the case with closed fingers was found for the numerical simulation and experiment, respectively. A 5 and 8% favourable effect on the (dimensionless) force moment at an optimal finger spreading of 10 degrees was found, which indicates that the difference is more outspoken in the force moment. Also an analytical model is proposed, using scaling arguments similar to the Betz actuator disk model, to explain the drag coefficient as a function of finger spacing.

  17. Design and experiment of human hand motion driven electromagnetic energy harvester using dual Halbach magnet array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salauddin, M.; Park, Jae Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present a dual Halbach array electromagnetic energy harvester that generates significant power from hand shaking vibration. The magnetic-spring configuration is employed for generating sufficient power from the hand motion of irregular and low-frequency vibrations. However, significant power generation at low-frequency vibrations is challenging because the power flow decreases as the frequency decreases; moreover, designing a spring-mass system that is suitable for low-frequency-vibration energy harvesting is difficult. In this work, our proposed device overcomes both of these challenges by using a dual Halbach array and magnetic springs. During the experiment, vibration was applied in a horizontal direction to reduce the gravity effect on the Halbach-array structure. To achieve an increased power generation at low-amplitude and low-frequency vibrations, the magnetic structure of the dual Halbach array and the magnetic springs were optimized in terms of the operating frequency and the power density. A prototype was fabricated and tested both using a vibration exciter and by manual hand-shaking. The fabricated device showed resonant behavior during the vibration exciter test. For the vibration exciter test, the prototype device offers a maximum average power of 2.92 mW to a 62 Ω optimum load, at a 6 Hz resonance frequency and under a 0.5 g acceleration. The prototype device is capable of delivering a maximum average power of 2.27 mW from hand shaking. The fabricated device exhibited a normalized power density 0.46 mW cm‑2g‑2 which is very high compared to the current state-of-the-art devices, representing its ability in powering portable and wearable smart devices from extremely low frequency vibration.

  18. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly effortless, we adjust our movements to continuously changing environments. After initiation of a goal-directed movement, the motor command is under constant control of sensory feedback loops. The main sensory signals contributing to movement control are vision and proprioception. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive feedback for online reaching control, and demonstrate that distinct cortical areas process proprioceptive-only and multi-sensory information for fast feedback corrections.

  19. The resonant component of human physiological hand tremor is altered by slow voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, Martin; Vernooij, Carlijn A; Osborne, Timothy M; Reynolds, Raymond F

    2012-05-15

    Limb resonance imparts a characteristic spectrum to hand tremor. Movement will alter the resonance. We have examined the consequences of this change. Rectified forearm extensor muscle EMG and physiological hand tremor were recorded. In postural conditions the EMG spectrum is relatively flat whereas the acceleration spectrum is sharply peaked. Consequently, the gain between EMG and acceleration is maximal at the frequency where the tremor is largest (∼8 Hz). The shape of the gain curve implies mechanical resonance. Substantial alterations in posture do not significantly change the characteristics of the tremor or the shape or size of the gain curve. By contrast, slow or moderately paced voluntary wrist flexion–extension movements dramatically increase the hand tremor size and lower its peak frequency. These changes in size and frequency of the tremor cannot be attributed to changes in the EMG. Instead they reflect a very large change in the size and shape of the gain curve relating EMG to acceleration. The gain becomes larger and the peak moves to a lower frequency (∼6 Hz). We suggest that a movement-related (thixotropic) alteration in resonant properties of the wrist provides a simple explanation for these changes. The mechanism is illustrated by a model. Our new findings confirm that resonance plays a major role in wrist tremor. We also demonstrate that muscles operate very differently under postural and dynamic conditions. The different coupling between EMG and movement in posture and when moving must pose a considerable challenge for neural predictive control of skeletal muscles.

  20. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath restricting joint movement in the thumb: A case study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath are the second most common type of subcutaneous benign tumors found in the hand. These tumors are slow growing soft tissue mases that develop over a long period of time and can occur at any age. Although such lesions are usually painless, there is a possibility of recurrence of the tumor. Patients should seek postoperative management in order to prevent any possibility of recurrence. In view of the current literature, we present a case involving a patient suffering from a multifocal giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath that restricted movement of the interphalangeal joints of the thumb. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 16-19

  1. Potential role of hands in the spread of respiratory viral infections: studies with human parainfluenza virus 3 and rhinovirus 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A; Rivard, S; Rahman, M

    1991-10-01

    Hands often become contaminated with respiratory viruses, either directly or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Spread of such viruses could then occur by touching the nasal mucosa or the conjunctivae. In this quantitative study, we compared the survival of mucin-suspended human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3) and rhinovirus 14 (RV-14) and the transfer of the viruses to and from the fingers of adult volunteers. When each finger pad was contaminated with 10 microliters of either HPIV-3 (1.3 x 10(5) to 5.5 x 10(5) PFU) or RV-14 (2.1 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(5) PFU), less than 1.0% of HPIV-3 and 37.8% of RV-14 remained viable after 1 h; after 3 h, nearly 16% of RV-14 could still be detected, whereas HPIV-3 became undetectable. Tests on the potential spread of viruses from contaminated hands or surfaces were conducted 20 min after contamination of the donor surface by pressing together donor and recipient surfaces for 5 s. Transfer of HPIV-3 from finger to finger or finger to metal disk could not be detected, but 1.5% of infectious HPIV-3 was transferred from disk to finger. Irrespective of the type of donor or recipient surface, 0.7 to 0.9% of RV-14 was transferred. The relatively rapid loss of HPIV-3 infectivity on hands suggests that their role in the direct spread of parainfluenza viruses is limited. However, the findings of this study further reinforce the view that hands can be vehicles for rhinovirus colds. These results also suggest a role for nonporous environmental surfaces in the contamination of hands with respiratory viruses.

  2. Efficacy of combined conservative therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with thumb base osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial (COMBO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveza, Leticia A; Wajon, Anne; Bennell, Kim L; Vicenzino, Bill; Hodges, Paul; Eyles, Jillian P; Jongs, Ray; Riordan, Edward A; Duong, Vicky; Min Oo, Win; O'Connell, Rachel; Meneses, Sarah R F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Management of thumb base osteoarthritis (OA) using a combination of therapies is common in clinical practice; however, evidence for the efficacy of this approach is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a combination of conservative therapies for the treatment of thumb base OA compared with an education control group. Methods and analysis This is a randomised, controlled, single-centre, two-arm superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio; with assessor and statistician blinded. Participants are blinded to the trial's hypothesis and to the interventions received by the opposite group. A total of 204 participants will be recruited from the community and randomised using a computer-generated schedule. The intervention group will receive education for joint protection and OA, a splint for the base of the thumb, hand exercises and topical diclofenac sodium 1% gel over 6 weeks. The control group will receive education for joint protection and OA alone. Main inclusion criteria are pain ≥40 mm (Visual Analogue Scale, 0–100) at the base of the thumb, impairment in hand function ≥6 (Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis, 0–30) and radiographic thumb base OA (Kellgren Lawrence grade ≥2). Participants currently receiving any of the intervention components will be excluded. Outcomes will be measured at 2, 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is change in pain and hand function from baseline to 6 weeks. Other outcomes include changes in grip and pinch strength, quality of life, presence of joint swelling and tenderness, duration of joint stiffness, patient's global assessment and use of rescue medication. Analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Adverse events will be monitored throughout the study. Ethics and dissemination This protocol is approved by the local ethics committee (HREC/15/HAWKE/479). Dissemination will occur through presentations at international conferences and publication

  3. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system.

  4. Keratoelastoidosis marginalis of the hands: A report in two farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhobe, Mayur; Tambe, Swagata; Jerajani, Hemangi; Parulkar, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Keratoelastoidosis marginalis of the hands (KEMH) is a distinct solar elastotic dermatosis belonging to the group of marginal keratoderma. It is characterized by linear plaques on the hand and calcified dermal elastotic masses predominantly affecting the radial side of the index finger, first web space, and ulnar side of the thumb. It is predominantly seen in the middle-aged and elderly age group. We report the occurrence of KEMH in two farmers with other cutaneous features of chronic actinic damage. PMID:27294058

  5. Warm hands, cold heart: progressive whole-body cooling increases warm thermosensitivity of human hands and feet in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Morris, Nathan B; Jay, Ollie

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Investigations on inhibitory/facilitatory modulation of vision, touch and pain show that conditioning stimuli outside the receptive field of testing stimuli modulate the central processing of visual, touch and painful stimuli. We asked whether contextual modulation also exists in human temperature integration. What is the main finding and its importance? Progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (the conditioning stimulus) significantly increased local thermosensitivity to skin warming but not cooling (the testing stimuli) in a dose-dependent fashion. In resembling the central mechanisms underlying endogenous analgesia, our findings point to the existence of an endogenous thermosensory system in humans that could modulate local skin thermal sensitivity to facilitate thermal behaviour. Although inhibitory/facilitatory central modulation of vision and pain has been investigated, contextual modulation of skin temperature integration has not been explored. Hence, we tested whether progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (Tsk ; a large conditioning stimulus) alter the magnitude estimation of local warming and cooling stimuli applied to hairy and glabrous skin. On four separate occasions, eight men (27 ± 5 years old) underwent a 30 min whole-body cooling protocol (water-perfused suit; temperature, 5°C), during which a quantitative thermosensory test, consisting of reporting the perceived magnitude of warming and cooling stimuli (±8°C from 30°C baseline) applied to the hand (palm/dorsum) and foot (sole/dorsum), was performed before cooling and every 10 min thereafter. The cooling protocol resulted in large progressive reductions in Tsk [10 min, -3.36°C (95% confidence interval -2.62 to -4.10); 20 min, -5.21°C (-4.47 to -5.95); and 30 min, -6.32°C (-5.58 to -7.05); P temperature. While thermosensitivity to local skin cooling remained unchanged (P = 0.831), sensitivity to skin

  6. Optical coherence tomography, In vivo human hand explorer, optical coherence microscope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available giving the palm skin its wavy shape which also is the normal DEJ shape (Figs. 1 and 2). Sweat secreting ducts appear whiter due to enhanced reflectivity as a result of the relatively high refractive index of sweat. Blood vessels (BV) appear as low... if the device affords non- invasive, non-destructive, and non-contact operation to avoid disturbing normal functioning of the palm during assessment. The hand palm hosts micron-size organs, for example, a dense network of blood vessels, sweat glands, ducts...

  7. Collagenase Treatment for Dupuytren Disease of the Thumb and First Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke M.; Stenekes, Martin W.; Werker, Paul M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum to treat thumb and first web contractures in Dupuytren disease. Methods We prospectively included 14 thumbs in 12 patients with a contracture at the metacarpophalangeal or interphalangeal joint of at least 20 de

  8. The biomechanics of a thumb carpometacarpal immobilization splint: design and fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, J C

    2000-01-01

    Splinting for the common osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint of the thumb is infrequently described in the literature, but the few splints that are described include one or both adjacent joints. This paper describes the design and biomechanics of a custom-molded thumb CMC immobilization splint that excludes the thumb metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The problem of the imbalance of extrinsic extensor/abductor forces against the intrinsic flexor/adductor forces is described. The accompanying weakening of the thumb CMC capsule allows dorsal shifting of the proximal end of the metacarpal, producing pain. The splint described in this paper 1) prevents motion of the first metacarpal in relation to the other metacarpals, 2) prevents tilting (flexion) of the first metacarpal during pinch, and 3) allows unrestricted thumb metacarpal and wrist joint motion. Attention to detail during construction is required for an accurate pattern, precise positioning of the CMC joint during molding, accurate molding around the first metacarpal, and well-distributed pressure. This design may also be used for protection following thumb CMC arthroplasty or thumb CMC sprain or strain and as a base for thumb metacarpophalangeal and/or interphalangeal mobilization splinting.

  9. Collagenase Treatment for Dupuytren Disease of the Thumb and First Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreise, Marieke M.; Stenekes, Martin W.; Werker, Paul M. N.

    Purpose To evaluate the short-term effectiveness of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum to treat thumb and first web contractures in Dupuytren disease. Methods We prospectively included 14 thumbs in 12 patients with a contracture at the metacarpophalangeal or interphalangeal joint of at least 20

  10. Long-term follow-up of surgical treatment for thumb duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, M; Nicolai, JPA

    2005-01-01

    There are few long-term follow-up reports concerning the treatment of thumb duplication. We reviewed the treatment of 19 of 74 patients treated at our institution between 1956 and 2002. The average follow-up was 22 (range, 7 years to 35 years) years. Satisfactory function was achieved in 18 thumbs a

  11. Human synaptic plasticity gene expression profile and dendritic spine density changes in HIV-infected human CNS cells: role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Subba Rao Atluri

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occur in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. Our current understanding of HAND emanates mainly from HIV-1 subtype B (clade B, which is prevalent in USA and Western countries. However very little information is available on neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 subtype C (clade C that exists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Therefore, studies to identify specific neuropathogenic mechanisms associated with HAND are worth pursuing to dissect the mechanisms underlying this modulation and to prevent HAND particularly in clade B infection. In this study, we have investigated 84 key human synaptic plasticity genes differential expression profile in clade B and clade C infected primary human astrocytes by using RT(2 Profile PCR Array human Synaptic Plasticity kit. Among these, 31 and 21 synaptic genes were significantly (≥3 fold down-regulated and 5 genes were significantly (≥3 fold up-regulated in clade B and clade C infected cells, respectively compared to the uninfected control astrocytes. In flow-cytometry analysis, down-regulation of postsynaptic density and dendrite spine morphology regulatory proteins (ARC, NMDAR1 and GRM1 was confirmed in both clade B and C infected primary human astrocytes and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Further, spine density and dendrite morphology changes by confocal microscopic analysis indicates significantly decreased spine density, loss of spines and decreased dendrite diameter, total dendrite and spine area in clade B infected SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells compared to uninfected and clade C infected cells. We have also observed that, in clade B infected astrocytes, induction of apoptosis was significantly higher than in the clade C infected astrocytes. In conclusion, this study suggests that down-regulation of synaptic plasticity genes, decreased dendritic spine density and induction of

  12. [Bacteriological study of oral cavity of people of Mexican origin to determine etiology agents of human infections in hand bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Guzmán, Cristhyan Baruch; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Guzmán-Murillo, María Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Hand infections secondary to human bites often leave serious consequences on the functioning of the hand. Such infections are caused by different bacteria. Most bacteriological studies have been made to people of Anglo-Saxon origin or descent, and based on these findings; provide treatment to patients of different origins which may not always be as effective. Descriptive, internal stratified 17 patients were isolated samples of oral cavity and dental plaque bacterial species to identify and define the possible treatment according to the species identified. Microorganisms were isolated Gram (+) and Gram (-) belonging to the normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque in all the cases studied, presenting a variable number of microorganisms according to age but not by sex. The group of Gram-positive bacteria isolated showed sensitivity to: erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. In the group of Gram negative: kanamycin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, E. Corrodens sensitive to the group of quinolones as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin as well as ceftriaxone and cefoperazone sulbactam. The bacterial species that are commonly found in normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque may be potential pathogens in a hand injury where to find the appropriate conditions for their development.

  13. [Superposition of the motor commands during creation of static efforts by human hand muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchaka, I V; Horkovenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The features of superposition of central motor commands (CMCs) have been studied during generation of the "two-joint" isometric efforts by hand. The electromyogram (EMG) amplitudes which were recorded from the humeral belt and shoulder muscles have been used for estimation of the CMCs intensity. The forces were generated in the horizontal plane of the work space; the position of arm was fixed. Two vectors of equal amplitudes and close direction and their geometrical sum were compared. The hypothesis of the CMCs' superposition in the task of the force vector summation has been examined. The directions of the constituent and resulting forces with satisfactory superposition of the CMCs were defined. Differences in the co-activation patterns for flexor and extensor muscles of both joints were shown. The high level of the flexor muscles activity has been observed during extension efforts, while the flexion directions demonstrated much weaker activation of the extensor muscles.

  14. Outcomes of digital zone IV and V and thumb zone TI to TIV extensor tendon repairs using a running interlocking horizontal mattress technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Grant G; Conneely, Stacy; Haufler, Christina; Walsh, Maura; Ruchelsman, David E

    2013-06-01

    Biomechanical evidence has demonstrated that the running interlocking horizontal mattress (RIHM) repair for extensor tendon lacerations is significantly stronger, with higher ultimate load to failure and less tendon shortening compared with other techniques. We investigated the efficacy and safety of primary extensor tendon repair using the RIHM repair technique in the fingers followed by the immediate controlled active motion protocol, and in the thumb followed by a dynamic extension protocol. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing extensor tendon repair from August 2009 to April 2012 by single surgeon in an academic hand surgery practice. The inclusion criteria were simple extensor tendon lacerations in digital zones IV and V and thumb zones TI to TIV and primary repair performed using the RIHM technique. We included 8 consecutive patients with 9 tendon lacerations (3 in the thumb). One patient underwent a concomitant dorsal hand rotation flap for soft tissue coverage. We used a 3-0 nonabsorbable braided suture to perform a running simple suture in 1 direction to obtain a tension-free tenorrhaphy, followed by an RIHM corset-type suture using the same continuous strand in the opposite direction. Average time to surgery was 10 days (range, 3-33 d). Mean follow-up was 15 weeks (range, 10-26 wk). We applied the immediate controlled active motion protocol to all injuries except those in the thumb, where we used a dynamic extension protocol instead. Using the criteria of Miller, all 9 tendon repairs achieved excellent or good results. There were no tendon ruptures or extensor lags. No patients required secondary surgery for tenolysis or joint release. No wound complications occurred. The RIHM technique for primary extensor tendon repairs in zone IV and V and T1 to TIV is safe, allows for immediate controlled active motion in the fingers and an immediate dynamic extension protocol in the thumb, and achieves good to excellent functional outcomes

  15. Design and Development of a Bilateral Therapeutic Hand Device for Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaquor Rahman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The major cause of disability is stroke. It is the second highest cause of death after coronary heart disease in Australia. In this paper, a post stroke therapeutic device has been designed and developed for hand motor function rehabilitation that a stroke survivor can use for bilateral movement practice. A prototype of the device was fabricated that can fully flex and extend metacarpophalangeal (MCP, proximal interphalangeal (PIP and distal interphalangeal (DIP joints of the fingers, and interphalangeal (IP, metacarpophalangeal (MCP and trapeziometacarpal (IM joints of the thumb of the left hand (impaired hand, based on movements of the right hand's (healthy hand fingers. Out of 21 degrees of freedom (DOFs of hand fingers, the prototype of the hand exoskeleton allowed fifteen degrees of freedom (DOFs, with three degrees of freedom (DOFs for each finger and three degrees of freedom (DOFs for the thumb. In addition, testing of the device on a healthy subject was conducted to validate the design requirements.

  16. Development of a humanoid robot hand with coupling four-bar linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the operating performance of robots’ end-effector, a humanoid robot hand based on coupling four-bar linkage was designed. An improved transmission system was proposed for the base joint of the thumb. Thus, a far greater motion range and more reasonable layout of the palm were obtained. Moreover, the mathematical model for kinematics simulation was presented based on the Assur linkage group theory to verify and optimize the proposed structure. To research the motion relationships between the fingers and the object in the process of grasping object, the grasping analysis of multi-finger manipulation was presented based on contact kinematics. Finally, a prototype of the humanoid robot hand was produced by a three-dimensional printer, and a kinematics simulation example and the workspace solving of the humanoid robot hand were carried out. The results showed that the velocities of finger joints approximately met the proportion relationship 1:1:1, which accorded with the grasping law of the human hand. In addition, the large workspace, reasonable layout, and good manipulability of the humanoid robot hand were verified.

  17. Human Body Explorations: Hands-On Investigations of What Makes Us Tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalumuck, Karen E.

    This book presents science activities on the human body with materials that can be purchased in a grocery store or pharmacy. Each activity includes an explorer and facilitator guide. Activities include: (1) "Naked Egg"; (2) "Cellular Soap Opera"; (3) "Acid in Your Stomach"; (4) "How Much Do You C?"; (5)…

  18. Automated volumetric grid generation for finite element modeling of human hand joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Underhill, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rainsberger, R. [XYZ Scientific Applications, Inc., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We are developing techniques for finite element analysis of human joints. These techniques need to provide high quality results rapidly in order to be useful to a physician. The research presented here increases model quality and decreases user input time by automating the volumetric mesh generation step.

  19. Mask roughness induced LER: a rule of thumb -- paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

    2010-03-12

    Much work has already been done on how both the resist and line-edge roughness (LER) on the mask affect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and currently factor into LER limits. Here, we propose a 'rule-of-thumb' simplified solution that provides a fast and powerful method to obtain mask roughness induced LER. We present modeling data on an older generation mask with a roughness of 230 pm as well as the ultimate target roughness of 50 pm. Moreover, we consider feature sizes of 50 nm and 22 nm, and show that as a function of correlation length, the LER peaks at the condition that the correlation length is approximately equal to the resolution of the imaging optic.

  20. Thumb Imprint Based Detection of Hyperbilirubinemia Using Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Srestha; Sahoo, Amaresh Kumar; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2016-12-01

    Early and easy detection of diseases, using point-of-care and inexpensive devices, not only provides option for early treatment but also reduces the risk of propagation. Herein we report the fabrication of a robust film based luminescence indicator of bilirubin, which can indicate hyperbilirubinemia through the thumb imprint of the patient. The UV-light induced luminescence intensity of the film, made out of chitosan stabilised gold (Au) nanoclusters, which was effectively quenched in the presence of Cu2+ ions, recovered in the presence of bilirubin from skin or blood serum. Moreover, the sensitivity of detection of bilirubin was tuneable with the amount of Cu2+ added, thereby facilitating the detection of the desired concentration range of bilirubin.

  1. Corticomuscular coherence analysis on hand movement distinction for active rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinxin; Xiao, Siyuan; Qi, Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yiwen; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Active rehabilitation involves patient's voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient's daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients' electroencephalography (EMG) on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest). We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  2. Corticomuscular Coherence Analysis on Hand Movement Distinction for Active Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Lou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active rehabilitation involves patient’s voluntary thoughts as the control signals of restore device to assist stroke rehabilitation. Although restoration of hand opening stands importantly in patient’s daily life, it is difficult to distinguish the voluntary finger extension from thumb adduction and finger flexion using stroke patients’ electroencephalography (EMG on single muscle activity. We propose to implement corticomuscular coherence analysis on electroencephalography (EEG and EMG signals on Extensor Digitorum to extract their intention involved in hand opening. EEG and EMG signals of 8 subjects are simultaneously collected when executing 4 hand movement tasks (finger extension, thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. We explore the spatial and temporal distribution of the coherence and observe statistically significant corticomuscular coherence appearing at left motor cortical area and different patterns within beta frequency range for 4 movement tasks. Linear discriminate analysis is applied on the coherence pattern to distinguish finger extension from thumb adduction, finger flexion, and rest. The classification results are greater than those by EEG only. The results indicate the possibility to detect voluntary hand opening based on coherence analysis between single muscle EMG signal and single EEG channel located in motor cortical area, which potentially helps active hand rehabilitation for stroke patients.

  3. Trapezium excision and suture suspensionplasty (TESS) for the treatment of thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Matthew D; Meyer, Nicholas J; Baker, Daniel; Brehmer, Jess; Carlson, Brent D

    2014-06-01

    Basilar thumb arthritis, or first carpometacarpal arthritis, is a common condition affecting older women and some men. It is estimated that as many as one third of postmenopausal woman are affected. Surgical treatment of this condition includes options ranging from arthrodesis to prosthetic arthroplasty. Intermediate options include complete or partial trapezial excision with or without interposition of a cushioning/stabilizing material (auto source, allo source, synthetic source). A multitude of methods appear to offer similar end results, although some methods definitely involve more surgical work and perhaps greater patient risk. Through retrospective evaluation of a cohort of patients who underwent suture suspensionplasty, we determined the postoperative effect on strength, motion, patient satisfaction, complications, and radiographic maintenance of the scaphoid-metacarpal distance. This review shows the method to be clinically effective and, by comparison with a more traditional ligament reconstruction trapezial interposition arthroplasty, the method does not require use of autograft or allograft tendon and has fewer surgical steps. Forty-four patients were included in this retrospective study. The results showed that 91% of patients were satisfied with the procedure. Pinch and grip strength remained the same preoperatively and postoperatively. A Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand patient-reported outcome instrument (DASH) scores averaged 30 at final follow-up. Three patients developed a late complication requiring further surgical intervention. In summary, this technique appears to be technically reproducible, requires no additional tendon material, and achieves objectively and subjectively similar results to other reported procedures used to manage first CMC Arthritis.

  4. Comparison of the effects of flexion and extension of the thumb and fingers on the position and cross-sectional area of the median nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Toge

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the separate effects of thumb and finger extension/flexion on median nerve position and cross-sectional area. METHODS: Ultrasonography was used to assess median nerve transverse position and cross-sectional area within the carpal tunnel at rest and its movement during volitional flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Both wrists of 165 normal subjects (11 men, 4 women, mean age, 28.6, range, 22 to 38 were studied. RESULTS: Thumb flexion resulted in transverse movement of the median nerve in radial direction (1.2 ± 0.6 mm, whereas flexion of the fingers produced transverse movement in ulnar direction, which was most pronounced during flexion of the index and middle fingers (3.2 ± 0.9 and 3.1 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Lesser but still statistically significant movements were noted with flexion of the ring finger (2.0 ± 0.8 mm and little finger (1.2 ± 0.5 mm. Flexion of the thumb or individual fingers did not change median nerve cross-sectional area (8.5 ± 1.1 mm(2. CONCLUSIONS: Volitional flexion of the thumb and individual fingers, particularly the index and middle fingers, produced significant transverse movement of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel but did not alter the cross-sectional area of the nerve. The importance of these findings on the understanding of the pathogenesis of the carpal tunnel syndrome and its treatment remains to be investigated.

  5. Thumb-pads up-a new species of thick-thumbed bat from Sumatra (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Glischropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia

    2015-06-29

    To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra.

  6. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  7. Effects of smartphone overuse on hand function, pinch strength, and the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnal, Esra Erkol; Demİrcİ, kadİr; Çetİntürk, Azİze; Akgönül, Mehmet; Savaş, Serpİl

    2015-08-01

    In this study we investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands. One hundred two students were divided into 3 groups: non-users, and high or low smartphone users. Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) scores and grip and pinch strengths were recorded. Pain in thumb movement and rest and hand function were evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), respectively. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the median nerve and the FPL tendon were calculated bilaterally using ultrasonography. Significantly higher median nerve CSAs were observed in the dominant hands of the high smartphone users than in the non-dominant hands (PSmartphone overuse enlarges the median nerve, causes pain in the thumb, and decreases pinch strength and hand functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of rotational movements, hand shaping, and accuracy in advance and withdrawal for the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-06-01

    The reach-to-eat movement, transport of a hand to grasp an object that is withdrawn and placed in the mouth, is amongst the earliest developing functional movements of human infants. The present longitudinal study is the first description of the maturation of hand-rotation, hand shaping, and accuracy associated with the advance and withdrawal phases of the movement. Eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and eight adults, were video recorded as they reached for familiar objects or food items. Hand, arm, and trunk movements were assessed frame-by-frame with the Skilled Reaching Rating Scale, previously developed for the assessment of adult reaching, and supplementary kinematic analysis. Reach-to-eat maturation was characterized by three changes. First, for advance, a simple open hand transport gradually matured to a movement associated with pronation and hand shaping of the digits for precision grasping. Second, for withdrawal to the mouth, a direct withdrawal movement gradually became associated with hand supination that oriented the target object to the mouth. Third, associated with the maturation of rotational movements, inaccurate and fragmented hand transport and withdrawal movements developed into precise targeting of the hand-to-object and object-to-mouth. Across the age range, there was a decrease in bimanual reaching and an increase in right handed reaching. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that the maturation of the reach-to-eat movement involves the development of rotational and shaping movements of the hand and visual and somatosensory guidance of a preferred hand.

  9. A New Profile Shape Matching Stereovision Algorithm for Real-time Human Pose and Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new profile shape matching stereovision algorithm that is designed to extract 3D information in real time. This algorithm obtains 3D information by matching profile intensity shapes of each corresponding row of the stereo image pair. It detects the corresponding matching patterns of the intensity profile rather than the intensity values of individual pixels or pixels in a small neighbourhood. This approach reduces the effect of the intensity and colour variations caused by lighting differences. As with all real-time vision algorithms, there is always a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed. This algorithm achieves a balance between the two to produce accurate results for real-time applications. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed algorithm is tested for human pose and hand gesture recognition to control a smart phone and an entertainment system.

  10. Design and Development of Robot Hand System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The methodology is based on anthropomorphic design with three fingers and an opposing thumb. Each finger has three links and three double revolute joints. Each finger is actuated by a single opposing pair of tendons. The robot hand system is interfaced to microcontroller with software control by means of 14 independent commands for the motion of joints: close and open for fore finger, middle finger, ring finger and thumb finger and wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, pick and place and home position. The tendoning system and wireless feedback logic provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topology and therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control structure. Results: Reliable grasping and releasing is achieved with simple control mechanisms and IR sensors/push-button switches. The hand can pick a variety of objects with different surface characteristics and shapes without having to reconstruct its surface description. Picking of the object is successfully completed as long as the object is within the workspace of the hand and placed the object at the desired position within the workspace by relevant software control using keyboard commands. Conclusion: Hardware and software development of microcontroller-based four-fingered robotic hand is addressed. Details of hand control software for mainly pick and place applications are presented. Results of the experimental work for pick and place application of different objects is enumerated.

  11. 3D pose estimation and motion analysis of the articulated human hand-forearm limb in an industrial production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz

    2010-09-01

    This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Biomimetic hand exotendon device (BiomHED) for functional hand rehabilitation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Landers, Katlin A; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-06-01

    Significant functional impairment of the hand is commonly observed among stroke survivors. In order to restore the functional use of the affected hand, we developed a biomimetic device that assists in generating functional movements of the hand. The device is actuated by exotendons that replicate the kinetic functional of the hand muscle-tendons, therefore it can reproduce the spatial finger joint coordination patterns of the functional manual tasks (e.g., power grip and pinch) with a reduced number of actuators. The system includes a thumb actuation mechanism, whose action is coordinated with finger exotendons to perform various manual tasks, thereby restoring the functional use of the hand. This paper presents the design of the device and the preliminary data of the functional movement generation by the system.

  13. How Weight Affects the Perceived Spacing between the Thumb and Fingers during Grasping.

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    Annie A Butler

    Full Text Available We know much about mechanisms determining the perceived size and weight of lifted objects, but little about how these properties of size and weight affect the body representation (e.g. grasp aperture of the hand. Without vision, subjects (n = 16 estimated spacing between fingers and thumb (perceived grasp aperture while lifting canisters of the same width (6.6cm but varied weights (300, 600, 900, and 1200 g. Lifts were performed by movement of either the wrist, elbow or shoulder to examine whether lifting with different muscle groups affects the judgement of grasp aperture. Results for perceived grasp aperture were compared with changes in perceived weight of objects of different sizes (5.2, 6.6, and 10 cm but the same weight (600 g. When canisters of the same width but different weights were lifted, perceived grasp aperture decreased 4.8% [2.2 ‒ 7.4] (mean [95% CI]; P < 0.001 from the lightest to the heaviest canister, no matter how they were lifted. For objects of the same weight but different widths, perceived weight decreased 42.3% [38.2 ‒ 46.4] from narrowest to widest (P < 0.001, as expected from the size-weight illusion. Thus, despite a highly distorted perception of the weight of objects based on their size, we conclude that proprioceptive afferents maintain a reasonably stable perception of the aperture of the grasping hand over a wide range of object weights. Given the small magnitude of this 'weight-grasp aperture' illusion, we propose the brain has access to a relatively stable 'perceptual ruler' to aid the manipulation of different objects.

  14. Functional magnetic resonance adaptation reveals the involvement of the dorsomedial stream in hand orientation for grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Simona; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Sedda, Anna; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; Culham, Jody C

    2011-11-01

    Reach-to-grasp actions require coordination of different segments of the upper limbs. Previous studies have examined the neural substrates of arm transport and hand grip components of such actions; however, a third component has been largely neglected: the orientation of the wrist and hand appropriately for the object. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation (fMRA) to investigate human brain areas involved in processing hand orientation during grasping movements. Participants used the dominant right hand to grasp a rod with the four fingers opposing the thumb or to reach and touch the rod with the knuckles without visual feedback. In a control condition, participants passively viewed the rod. Trials in a slow event-related design consisted of two sequential stimuli in which the rod orientation changed (requiring a change in wrist posture while grasping but not reaching or looking) or remained the same. We found reduced activation, that is, adaptation, in superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) when the object was repeatedly grasped with the same orientation. In contrast, there was no adaptation when reaching or looking at an object in the same orientation, suggesting that hand orientation, rather than object orientation, was the critical factor. These results agree with recent neurophysiological research showing that a parieto-occipital area of macaque (V6A) is modulated by hand orientation during reach-to-grasp movements. We suggest that the human dorsomedial stream, like that in the macaque, plays a key role in processing hand orientation in reach-to-grasp movements.

  15. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe2O3) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  17. Ergonomics applications of a mechanical model of the human operator in power hand tool operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert; Nembhard, David

    2005-02-01

    Applications of a new model for predicting power threaded-fastener-driving tool operator response and capacity to react against impulsive torque reaction forces are explored for use in tool selection and ergonomic workplace design. The model is based on a mechanical analog of the human operator, with parameters dependent on work location (horizontal and vertical distances); work orientation (horizontal and vertical); and tool shape (in-line, pistol grip, and right angle); and is stratified by gender. This model enables prediction of group means and variances of handle displacement and force for a given tool configuration. Response percentiles can be ascertained for specific tool operations. For example, a sample pistol grip nutrunner used on a horizontal surface at 30 cm in front of the ankles and 140 cm above the floor results in a predicted mean handle reaction displacement of 39.0 (SD=28.1) mm for males. Consequently 63%of the male users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement limit. When a right angle tool of similar torque output is used instead, the model predicted that only 4.6%of the male tool users exceed a 30 mm handle displacement. A method is described for interpolating individual subject model parameters at any given work location using linear combinations in relation to the range of modeled factors. Additional examples pertinent to ergonomic workstation design and tool selection are provided to demonstrate how the model can be used to aid tool selection and workstation design.

  18. Discovery of benzimidazole-diamide finger loop (Thumb Pocket I) allosteric inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase: Implementing parallel synthesis for rapid linker optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Sylvie; Poupart, Marc-André; Gillard, James; Poirier, Martin; Kukolj, George; Beaulieu, Pierre L

    2010-01-01

    Previously described SAR of benzimidazole-based non-nucleoside finger loop (Thumb Pocket I) inhibitors of HCV NS5B polymerase was expanded. Prospecting studies using parallel synthesis techniques allowed the rapid identification of novel cinnamic acid right-hand sides that provide renewed opportunities for further optimization of these inhibitors. Novel diamide derivatives such as 44 exhibited comparable potency (enzymatic and cell-based HCV replicon) as previously described tryptophan-based inhibitors but physicochemical properties (e.g., aqueous solubility and lipophilicity) have been improved, resulting in molecules with reduced off-target liabilities (CYP inhibition) and increased metabolic stability.

  19. Similar hand shaping in reaching-for-food (skilled reaching) in rats and humans provides evidence of homology in release, collection, and manipulation movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2009-12-01

    Many animal species use their forelimbs to assist in eating, such as occurs in a reach-to-eat task (skilled reaching) in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food that is placed in the mouth for eating. It is unclear the extent to which the skilled reaching movements of different species share common ancestry and so are homologous or evolved independently and so are analogous (homoplasy). Here hand shaping (the movements of the hand and digits) that occur as the hand is transported to the target, were examined using high-speed (1000 frames/s) video recording and kinematic measurement (Peak Motus) in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) and human (Homo sapiens). Ten movement similarities were identified from the point that the limb initiated transport towards the food item to the point that the food was grasped. The digits were closed and semi-flexed as the hand was lifted (released from a substrate) and supinated. They closed further as the hand was collected for aiming. They then extended as the hand was transported to the target and then opened in conjunction with pronation to orient the hand for grasping (manipulation). Finally the digits were flexed and closed for grasping. These movements occurred at approximately the same point of limb transport in both species even though the rat used a whole paw grasp and the humans used a pincer grasp. Bushbabies (Galago garnettii), titi monkeys (Callicebus brunneus), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) displayed similar hand shaping in skilled reaching despite species differences in grasping movements. Homologous hand shaping in the rodent clade and the primate clade and within the primate lineage is discussed in relation to its possible derivation from hand shaping movements associated with stepping.

  20. A Modified Rule of Thumb for Evaluating Scale Reproducibilities Determined by Electronic Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    The Goodenough technique for determining scale error is compared to the Guttman technique and demonstrated to be more conservative than the Guttman technique. Implications with regard to Guttman's evaluative rule of thumb for evaluating a reproducibility are noted. (Author)

  1. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.

  2. Linear Hand Burn Contracture Release under Local Anesthesia without Tourniquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Koswara, Astrid F

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to present a case of hand burn linear contracture release performed under local anesthesia. It also introduces the one-per-mil tumescent solution consisted of 0.2% lidocaine and 1:1.000.000 epinephrine as a local anesthesia formula, which has the potential of providing adequate anesthesia as well as hemostatic effect during surgery of the hand without tourniquet. The surgery was performed on a 19 year-old male patient with multiple thumb and fingers flexion linear contracture for 105 minutes without any obstacle. The patient did not complain any pain and discomfort during the procedure; while bloodless operative field was successfully achieved. At four-month follow up, the patient could fully extend his thumb, middle and ring finger, while the index was limited by 10° at the DIP joint. Overall, the patient was satisfied with the outcome.

  3. Differences in greeting behaviour towards humans with varying levels of familiarity in hand-reared wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurys, Anita; Kubinyi, Enikő; Gácsi, Márta; Virányi, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    Socialized wolves' relationship with humans is a much debated, but important question in light of dog domestication. Earlier findings reported no attachment to the caretaker at four months of age in a Strange Situation Test, while recently attachment to the caretaker was reported at a few weeks of age in a similar paradigm. To explore wolf–human relationship, we analysed behaviours of hand reared, extensively socialized wolves towards four visitor types: foster-parents, close acquaintances, persons met once before, and complete strangers during a greeting episode. As hypothesized, in the greeting context subjects showed more intense and friendly behaviour towards foster-parents, than other visitor types, which may reflect familiarity and affinity. However, differences were more pronounced in the group situation (at six months of age) than in the individual situation (at 12 and 24 months), suggesting that unique status of foster parents may become less distinct as wolves get older, while exploration of novel social agents is expressed more with older age. Fear related behaviour patterns were only found in the individual situation, mainly displayed towards strangers. We showed that, in case of extensively socialized wolves, distinctive affiliation and affinity towards the foster parent prevails into adulthood. PMID:28680658

  4. Laterality and grip strength influence hand bone micro-architecture in modern humans, an HRpQCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Trousdale, William H; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Braga, José

    2017-06-01

    It is widely hypothesized that mechanical loading, specifically repetitive low-intensity tasks, influences the inner structure of cancellous bone. As such, there is likely a relationship between handedness and bone morphology. The aim of this study is to determine patterns in trabecular bone between dominant and non-dominant hands in modern humans. Seventeen healthy patients between 22 and 32 years old were included in the study. Radial carpal bones (lunate, capitate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, 1st, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals) were analyzed with high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Additionally, crush and pinch grip were recorded. Factorial analysis indicated that bone volume ratio, trabeculae number (Tb.N), bone surface to volume ratio (BS.BV), body weight, stature and crush grip were all positively correlated with principal components 1 and 2 explaining 78.7% of the variance. Volumetric and trabecular endostructural parameters (BV/TV, BS/BV or Tb.Th, Tb.N) explain the observed inter-individual variability better than anthropometric or clinical parameters. Factors analysis regressions showed correlations between these parameters and the dominant side for crush strength for the lunate (r(2) = 0.640, P modern human wrist. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  5. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ... serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist ... When one of these hand bones is broken (fractured), it can prevent you ...

  6. Dissociation of the pathways mediating ipsilateral and contralateral motor-evoked potentials in human hand and arm muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Ulf; Ishii, Kenji; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Yaseen, Zaneb; Battaglia, Fortunato; Hallett, Mark; Cincotta, Massimo; Wassermann, Eric M

    1999-01-01

    Growing evidence points toward involvement of the human motor cortex in the control of the ipsilateral hand. We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the pathways of these ipsilateral motor effects.Ipsilateral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were obtained in hand and arm muscles of all 10 healthy adult subjects tested. They occurred in the finger and wrist extensors and the biceps, but no response or inhibitory responses were observed in the opponens pollicis, finger and wrist flexors and the triceps.The production of ipsilateral MEPs required contraction of the target muscle. The threshold TMS intensity for ipsilateral MEPs was on average 1.8 times higher, and the onset was 5.7 ms later (in the wrist extensor muscles) compared with size-matched contralateral MEPs.The corticofugal pathways of ipsilateral and contralateral MEPs could be dissociated through differences in cortical map location and preferred stimulating current direction.Both ipsi- and contralateral MEPs in the wrist extensors increased with lateral head rotation toward, and decreased with head rotation away from, the side of the TMS, suggesting a privileged input of the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex to the pathway of the ipsilateral MEP.Large ipsilateral MEPs were obtained in a patient with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum.The dissociation of the pathways for ipsilateral and contralateral MEPs indicates that corticofugal motor fibres other than the fast-conducting crossed corticomotoneuronal system can be activated by TMS. Our data suggest an ipsilateral oligosynaptic pathway, such as a corticoreticulospinal or a corticopropriospinal projection as the route for the ipsilateral MEP. Other pathways, such as branching of corticomotoneuronal axons, a transcallosal projection or a slow-conducting monosynaptic ipsilateral pathway are very unlikely or can be excluded. PMID:10420023

  7. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  8. Two thumbs and one index: A comparison of manual coordination in touch-typing and mobile-typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerni, Tania; Longcamp, Marieke; Job, Remo

    2016-06-01

    It has been extensively demonstrated that in touch-typing, manual alternation is performed faster than manual repetition (see i.e. Rumelhart & Norman, 1982), due to parallel activation of successive keystrokes. In this experiment, we tested whether the manual coordination patterns typical of touch-typing can be observed in mobile-typing. We recruited skilled touch-typists and divided them into two groups depending on their typing habits on the mobile device. The "one-hand" group typed with one index finger on the mobile, and therefore produced words exclusively through manual repetition. The "two-hands" group used two thumbs, and therefore produced words through a combination of mobile-typing repetitions and alternations. The two groups were tested in a typing to dictation task with both a standard keyboard and a mobile keyboard. Results showed that manual alternation and manual repetition patterns are similar in touch-typing and in mobile-typing. For the "two-hands" group, the mean interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) for touch-typing decreased as manual alterations in words increased in both touch- and mobile-typing. The "one-hand" group showed an opposite pattern in mobile-typing. Bigram frequency was correlated with IKIs per bigrams in both tasks and groups, but the correlation for the "one-hand" group in mobile-typing was different. Our results suggest that manual coordination processes are the same in touch-typing and in mobile-typing despite different effectors, provided that both hands are used to type.

  9. A novel mutation in the SHH long-range regulator (ZRS) is associated with preaxial polydactyly, triphalangeal thumb, and severe radial ray deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Al Haidan, Yazied; Al Balwi, Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) within the posteriorly located zone of polarizing activity is the main controller of the antero-posterior axis of limb development. The ZRS (zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence) is a long-range limb-specific SHH enhancer. Several point mutations in the ZRS have been described in humans. These mutations cause enhanced SHH activity and ectopic anterior expression of SHH and a variable phenotype of preaxial polydactyly and triphalangeal thumb. Absent thumb or radius has not been reported with ZRS mutations. Here, we report on a family with a variable phenotype of preaxial polydactyly as well as absent thumb and radius, with kidney and cardiac defects. The family was screened for SALL1, SALL4, and TBX5 mutations, but all were normal. Finally, they were screened for ZRS mutations, which showed a novel point mutation within the ZRS, NG_009240.1: g.106954C>T (traditional nomenclature: ZRS619C>T) in the five affected members. This mutation was not previously reported in any public domain database, and was not found in our healthy and ethnically matched control individuals or unaffected family members. We hypothesize that interactions of SHH and SALL1 explain the overlapping features of the family described here and patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome.

  10. Perseveration Found in a Human Drawing Task: Six-Fingered Hands Drawn by Patients with Right Anterior Insula and Operculum Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiharu Niki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perseveration has been observed in a number of behavioural contexts, including speaking, writing, and drawing. However, no previous report describes patients who show perseveration only for drawing a human figure. Objective. The present report describes a group of patients who show body awareness-related cognitive impairment during a human figure drawing task, a different presentation from previously described neuropsychological cases. Methods. Participants were 15 patients who had a frontal lobe brain tumour around the insula cortex of the right hemisphere and had subsequently undergone a neurosurgical resective operation. Participants were asked to draw a human figure in both “hands-down” and “hands-up” configurations. Results. Eight of the 15 patients drew a human figure with six fingers during the “hands-up” and the “hands-down” human figure drawing tasks (one patient drew eight fingers. A statistical analysis of potential lesion areas revealed damage to the right anterior frontal insula and operculum in this group of patients relative to the five-finger drawing group. Conclusions. Our findings reveal a newly described neuropsychological phenomenon that could reflect impairment in attention directed towards body representations.

  11. The Safety of the Thenar Portal: An Anatomical Study of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Wei; Hung, Leung-Kim

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To define the localization of the distal course of the motor branches of median nerve (MBMN) and its arborization and its quantitative relationships to the thenar portal of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in the hope of evaluating the safety of this portal. Method In 16 embalmed cadaveric upper extremities, the localization of the course of the MBMN and its arborization were defined. In 14 fresh-frozen cadaver upper extremities, the CMC arthroscopic portals, 1-U, 1-R, and a thenar portal, were established, after which the limbs were dissected. Measurements were taken from the portals to the superficial radial nerve, radial artery, and the MBMN. Results The distal course of the MBMN and its terminal branches were all located in the proximal third of the thenar muscles, where the thenar portal was introduced. The mean distances between vital structures and each traditional portal (1-R or 1-U) were consistent with the previously published studies. Both the superficial and the profound branches of MBMN were very close to the thenar portal, and the distance between these two main terminal branches and the thenar portal was 1.2 mm (range: 0-6.2; standard deviation [SD] = 2) and 2.2 mm (range: 0-7; SD = 2.1), respectively. Five (35.7%) of the 14 fresh-frozen specimens indicated the superficial branch lay directly over the portal. One hand (7.1%) had the profound branch crossed over the thenar portal. Four hands (28.5%) indicated both the superficial and profound branches directly overlay the thenar portal. The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery was found in six hands, and in four of them, it crossed over the thenar portal. Conclusion The distal course of the MBMN and its terminal branches were all located in the proximal third of the thenar muscles, where the thenar portal was introduced. Clinical Relevance The thenar portal could improve the view of the CMC joint of the thumb and provide better performance of procedures in this

  12. The role of human parietal area 7A as a link between sequencing in hand actions and in overt speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eHeim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (po-pi-po. Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45. In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a yet little considered role of the superior parietal lobule in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the

  13. Split hand/foot malformation genetics supports the chromosome 7 copy segregation mechanism for human limb development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Amar J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic aberrations of several unlinked loci cause human congenital split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) development. Mutations of the DLX5 (distal-less) transcription factor-encoding gene in chromosome 7 cause SHFM through haploinsufficiency, but the vast majority of cases result from heterozygous chromosomal aberrations of the region without mutating the DLX5 gene. To resolve this paradox, we invoke a chromosomal epigenetic mechanism for limb development. It is composed of a monochromatid gene expression phenomenon that we discovered in two fission yeasts with the selective chromosome copy segregation phenomenon that we discovered in mouse cells. Accordingly, one daughter cell inherits both expressed DLX5 copies while the other daughter inherits both epigenetically silenced ones from a single deterministic cell of the developing limb. Thus, differentiated daughter cells after further proliferation will correspondingly produce proximal/distal-limb tissues. Published results of a Chr. 7 translocation with a centromere-proximal breakpoint situated over 41 million bases away from the DLX locus, centromeric and DLX5-region inversions have satisfied key genetic and developmental biology predictions of the mechanism. Further genetic tests of the mechanism are proposed. We propose that the DNA double helical structure itself causes the development of sister cells' gene regulation asymmetry. We also argue against the conventionally invoked morphogen model of development. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821526

  14. Effects of the use of a special computer mouse : The HandShoe Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ZWIETEN K. J.; K. Schmidt; Helder, P.; Lippens, P.; Zoubova, I.; Zinkovsky, A.

    2011-01-01

    With a conventional mouse a combination of thumb, ring- and little finger is required to realize optimal control in the horizontal (X-Y) plane. By providing a supporting contour for hand palm and fingers, it was noted that gripping and pinching of thumb and fingers (m. extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis) to control the mouse in the X-Y plane was no longer necessary. The supporting contour enables a near to fully relaxed flexor and extensor muscle position which is reflected by a signif...

  15. Real-time estimation of 3D human arm motion from markerless images for human-machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Siddharth; Kofman, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    Vision-based motion tracking is commonly used in surveillance, human-machine interfaces in robotics and automation, virtual and augmented reality applications and biomechanics. Most techniques require markers, use a predefined motion sequence or user-intervention for initialization, and do not process in real-time. This paper describes the implementation of a vision-based non-invasive technique for markerless real-time tracking of human-arm motion. Human-arm motion is tracked by processing images from two calibrated cameras in real-time to estimate the position of the 3D joint centers of the wrist and elbow, and determine the orientation of the hand from the 3D positions of the index finger and thumb. Tracking of the hand and arm was carried out without any prior knowledge of subject's arm length, texture, width and distance from the camera.

  16. RURS′ elbow guard: An innovative treatment of the thumb-sucking habit in a child with Hurler′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thumb sucking is the process of sucking on the thumb for oral pleasure. Thumb and finger sucking habits, or nonnutritive sucking, are considered to be the most prevalent of oral habits. Some parents are concerned by thumb sucking and may even try to restrain the infant or child. In most cases, this is not necessary. Most children stop thumb sucking on their own. When older children continue to suck their thumbs, it could mean they are bored, anxious, or have emotional problems such as depression. This article presents a case report of a child with Hurler′s syndrome along with thumb sucking/biting habit. Hurler′s syndrome, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis I, is a rare condition inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait. It represents the classical prototype of mucopolysaccharide disorder. A unique appliance to prevent thumb sucking/biting was developed and termed as "RURS′ elbow guard," which was successfully used to break thumb sucking of the child with Hurler syndrome. The present report also describes the steps in fabrication of this new habit-breaking appliance, which is also designed to protect the finger from the effects of the sucking habit.

  17. Anatomy and clinic application of reverse-flow island flaps on dorsal thumb web with dorsoulnar artery of thumb as a pedicle%拇指尺侧指背动脉为蒂的虎口背侧逆行岛状皮瓣的解剖与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史增元; 尹维刚; 俞淼; 董文伟; 毛海蛟; 唐旭

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore a surgical treatment of skin defects on the thumb by reverse-flow island flaps on dorsal thumb web with dorsoulnar artery of thumb as a pedicle.Methods The origin,courses and distribution of dorsoulnar artery of thumb from 70 adult cadaveric hand specimens perfused by red latex were explored.Skin defects on the thumb of 8 cases were repaired with reverse-flow island flaps on dorsal thumb web.The cut areas of flaps vary from 4.5 cm × 3.0 cm to 7.5 cm × 4.0 cm.Results There were 4 types of the dorsoulnar artery of thumb basing on the origin and courses.Type Ⅰ was outside the first dorsal interosseous muscle type,which was the dorsoulnar artery of thumb mainly originated from the first dorsal metacarpal artery and cross through the surface of the first dosal interosseous muscle(42.9%).Type Ⅱ was under the first dorsal interosseous muscle type,which was from the thumb principal artery or deep branch of radial artery and run under the first dorsal interosseous muscle(41.4%).Type Ⅲ was mixed type from the anastomose point of above two arteries at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint(11.4%).Type Ⅳ was absence type (4.3%).Eight flaps fully survived.Excellent texture and satisfying appearance of the flaps as well as normal thumb web function were verified after 8 months' follow-up.Conclusion It is significant to determine the type of dorsoulnar artery of thumb to decide different operations due to the artery's considerable variation.The reverse-flow island flap on dorsal thumb is an ideal method to repair soft tissue defect on the thumb for its convenient operating and little effect in the donor area.%目的 探讨拇指尺侧指背动脉为蒂虎口背侧逆行岛状皮瓣修复拇指皮肤缺损的手术方法.方法 用70侧成人尸手标本,经动脉灌注红色乳胶,解剖观测拇指尺侧指背动脉的来源、走行和分布范围.在临床上应用该逆行岛状皮瓣修复8例拇指

  18. Hand Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman presents with redness of the hands and reports the intermittent occurrence of tiny vesicles, scaling, and fissuring, accompanied by itching on the palms, fingers, and dorsal sides of the hands. She has two young children and works as a nurse in a nearby hospital. She has a histor

  19. [Surgical management of the adult spastic hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allieu, Y

    2011-06-01

    The adult spastic hand, of varying causes, but dominated by vascular hemiplegia and brain damage, associates motor disorders and problems of tonus. The variety of forms of brain damage explains the wealth and diversity of the symptoms. These symptoms, often the most serious along with cognitive disorders, justify the expression "central neurological hand". Each case is an individual one. The effect on the hands may be unilateral or bilateral with spasticity involving the fingers/thumb/wrist. The clinical evaluation leading to a decision tree must take into account spasticity, retraction and paralysis, for each muscle. When completed by anesthetic motor blocks, spasticity and/or retraction, damage to extrinsic and/or intrinsic muscles of the fingers may be differentiated. This repeated multidisciplinary evaluation makes it possible to distinguish between "non functional hands", "functional hands" and "potentially functional hands". In the first instance, surgery can only improve the esthetic aspect or facilitate nursing. In the second instance, correcting spasticity may improve function. The treatment of spasticity is based on inhibiting spasticity (by injecting botulinum toxin or surgical motor hyponeurotisation) and reinforcing the non-spastic antagonist muscles via tendon transfer or tenodesis. Surgery is indicated to correct muscular retraction and deformities. The functional indications are highly selective and their limited results only allow a "supporting hand" to be constructed at best. The non-functional indications lead to a codified intervention whose results will greatly improve the management of these patients.

  20. Thumb reconstruction after traumatic loss%外伤性拇指缺损的重建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施海峰; 芮永军; 张全荣; 许亚军; 糜菁熠; 陆征峰; 寿奎水

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the best reconstructive method for traumatic loss of the thumb at different degree. Methods There were 189 patients whose thumbs were reconstructed for all types of traumatic loss from Jan,2003 to Jan,2010 in our hospital. Different methods were used to reconstruct . type Ⅰ: bone loss at the level of the distal phalanx or at the level of the IP joint. Reconstructed by hallux wrap-around flap with part or complete distal phalanx of the big toe (63 patients); type Ⅱ: bone loss at the level of the proximal phalanx or at the level of the MP joint. Reconstructed thumb by the contralateral second toe transfer,if the skin was not enough, combined of pulp flap of the homolateral big toe (92 patients).; another method was to graft iliac bone covered with flap(s) (16 patients). type Ⅲ: bone loss at the level of the metacarpal bone or at the level of the CMC joint. Method Ⅰ: pollicization by index finger of the injury hand combined a flap to cover the first web space (5 patients); Method 2: reconstructed by hallux wrap-around flap combined with bone, tendon and joints of the second toe, a island or free flap covered the first web space (13 patients). Results There're 155 patients were followed up for more than 6 months, and a satisfactory appearance of the reconstructed thumb and functional restoration were obtained. Grip strength was not significantly less than normal side, but pinch strength was significantly less than normal side and 2-PD was worse than normal finger. The function of thumb was better over time. The functions of donor feet were not significantly loss. Conclusion Reconstruction of the traumatic thumb by tissues of toe is effective. We could also chose pollicization by index finger of the injury hand or bone grafting covered by flaps according to the patient's aspiration.%目的 探讨不同程度外伤性拇指缺损的最佳重建方法.方法 根据Serafin的三度分类法,对自2003年1月~2010年1月收治的189例不

  1. Sampling method development and optimization in view of human hand odor analysis by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzuel, Vincent; Portas, Eglantine; Cognon, Guillaume; Rivals, Isabelle; Heulard, François; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Forensic profiling of human odor is challenging and would be useful to support information provided by dogs in courts of justice. Analyses of volatile compounds constitutive of human odor are commonly performed with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. All developed methods and sampling prototypes have to be easy to use in the field by crime scene investigators. This paper will focus on techniques for human hand odor sampling prior to analysis by a thermodesorption device coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Thermodesorption and gas chromatography methods were developed using a sorbent phase spiked with a mixture of 80 compounds representative of human hand odor. Then, the crucial sampling step was performed indirectly with a homemade device based on air suction and trapping on a sorbent. This indirect sampling device was evaluated with the same synthetic mixture for optimization. An innovative polymer sorbent called Sorb-Star(®) was compared to classic Tenax TA(®) packed tubes. Sorb-Star(®) provided similar recovery to Tenax TA(®) packed tubes and a smaller pooled coefficient of variation (6 vs 13%). Thus, it appeared to be fully suited to the indirect sampling of human hand odor. The developed methods were successfully applied to real samples, the ultimate aim being the comparison of a suspect's sample to a sample collected from a crime scene.

  2. Influence of Fatigue on Hand Muscle Coordination and EMG-EMG Coherence During Three-Digit Grasping

    OpenAIRE

    Danna-Dos Santos, Alessander; Poston, Brach; Jesunathadas, Mark; Bobich, Lisa R.; Hamm, Thomas M.; Santello, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a fatiguing contraction by gripping a manipulandum with thumb, index, and middle fingers while matching an isometric target force (40% maximal ...

  3. Bio-inspired mechanical design of a tendon-driven dexterous prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Jehenne, Beryl; Donati, Marco; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design of a new dexterous upper-limb prosthesis provided with a novel anthropomorphic hand, a compact wrist based on bevel gears and a modular forearm able to cover different levels of upper-limb amputations. The hand has 20 DoFs and 11 motors, with a dexterous three fingered subsystem composed by a fully actuated thumb, and an hybrid index and middle fingers to enable dexterous manipulation and enhance grasp performance.

  4. [SUBUNGUAL EXOSTOSIS OF THE THUMB - CASE REPORT IN AN EIGHT YEAR OLD GIRL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antabak, Anko; Đapić, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Subungual exostosis (SE) is a benign osteocartilaginous tumor of the distal phalanx of the finger, particularly of the toes. It affects both sexes, the most frequently occurring in the second and third decades of life, and very rarely in children younger than eight years. We present subungual exostosis (SE) in a eith year old female child affecting the terminal phalanx of the right thumb. She presented to us with gradually enlarging, painless, subungual hard nodule on the right thumb, spherical appearance size of 12 mm in diameter. Roentogram of the foot showed bony outgrowth arising from the terminal phalanx of right thumb. Lesion was excised with prior ablation of the nail, and sent for histopathological examination. Histology showed evidence of SE. No recurrence at postoperated site was seen till ten months of follow-up.

  5. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus with multiple absences of thumb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jayoung; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung-Mook

    2013-02-01

    We report a rare case of a 10-year-old girl with anomalous course of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle, which exists with absence of thenar muscles and muscles in the 1st extensor compartment. Her chief complaint was severe atrophy on the right thenar eminence. On physical examination, there was no obvious functional abnormality on her right thumb. On magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis brevis muscles were absent. The tendon of the EPL muscle was found, but it had abnormal insertion on the radial side of the proximal phalanx, not on the distal phalanx. This variation was thought to have played a major role in compensating for impaired abduction of the thumb, which is usually accompanied by agenesis of major abductors of the thumb.

  6. A hybrid adaptive control strategy for a smart prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hung; Naidu, D Subbaram; Perez-Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a soft computing technique of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a hard computing technique of adaptive control for a two-dimensional movement of a prosthetic hand with a thumb and index finger. In particular, ANFIS is used for inverse kinematics, and the adaptive control is used for linearized dynamics to minimize tracking error. The simulations of this hybrid controller, when compared with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller showed enhanced performance. Work is in progress to extend this methodology to a five-fingered, three-dimensional prosthetic hand.

  7. Redirection of cutaneous sensation from the hand to the chest skin of human amputees with targeted reinnervation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiken, Todd A.; Marasco, Paul D.; Lock, Blair A.; Harden, R. Norman; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Amputees cannot feel what they touch with their artificial hands, which severely limits usefulness of those hands. We have developed a technique that transfers remaining arm nerves to residual chest muscles after an amputation. This technique allows some sensory nerves from the amputated limb to reinnervate overlying chest skin. When this reinnervated skin is touched, the amputees perceive that they are being touched on their missing limb. We found that touch thresholds of the reinnervated ch...

  8. Visual spatial attention has opposite effects on bidirectional plasticity in the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Ryan, Alexander E; Sale, Martin V; Campbell, Megan E J; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2014-01-22

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are key mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that are thought to act in concert to shape neural connections. Here we investigated the influence of visual spatial attention on LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity in the human motor cortex. Plasticity was induced using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which involves repeated pairing of peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter functional responses in the thumb area of the primary motor cortex. PAS-induced changes in cortical excitability were assessed using motor-evoked potentials. During plasticity induction, participants directed their attention to one of two visual stimulus streams located adjacent to each hand. When participants attended to visual stimuli located near the left thumb, which was targeted by PAS, LTP-like increases in excitability were significantly enhanced, and LTD-like decreases in excitability reduced, relative to when they attended instead to stimuli located near the right thumb. These differential effects on (bidirectional) LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity suggest that voluntary visual attention can exert an important influence on the functional organization of the motor cortex. Specifically, attention acts to both enhance the strengthening and suppress the weakening of neural connections representing events that fall within the focus of attention.

  9. Hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Besarwal, Raj Kumar; Gupta, Rahul; Agarwal, Puneet; Napalia, Sheetal

    2014-05-01

    Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients.

  10. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook a manual of quick, accurate solutions to everyday pipeline engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, EW

    2014-01-01

    Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day pipeline operations. For more than 35 years, the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook has served as the ""go-to"" reference for solving even the most day-to-day vexing pipeline workflow problems. Now in its 8th edition, this handbook continues to set the standard by which all other piping books are judged. Along with over 30% new or updated material regarding codes, construction processes, and equipment, this book continues to offer hundreds of ""how-to"" methods and ha

  11. A case of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome with unusual association of hypoplastic thumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Amitava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome in a seven-month-old male infant presented with the features of epibulbar dermoid, microtia and hemifacial microsomia associated with thumb defect. The dermoid was bilateral and microtia was unilateral. Preauricular appendages and pits were double and single respectively on both the sides. Hemifacial microsomia was unilateral and was associated with cleft lip, macrostomia, dental misalignment, large tongue and high arched palate. The association of hypoplastic thumb with Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome has not been documented in the past.

  12. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  13. Investigation of the Intra- and Inter-Limb Muscle Coordination of Hands-and-Knees Crawling in Human Adults by Means of Muscle Synergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the intra- and inter-limb muscle coordination mechanism of human hands-and-knees crawling by means of muscle synergy analysis, surface electromyographic (sEMG signals of 20 human adults were collected bilaterally from 32 limb related muscles during crawling with hands and knees at different speeds. The nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF algorithm was exerted on each limb to extract muscle synergies. The results showed that intra-limb coordination was relatively stable during human hands-and-knees crawling. Two synergies, one relating to the stance phase and the other relating to the swing phase, could be extracted from each limb during a crawling cycle. Synergy structures during different speeds kept good consistency, but the recruitment levels, durations, and phases of muscle synergies were adjusted to adapt the change of crawling speed. Furthermore, the ipsilateral phase lag (IPL value which was used to depict the inter-limb coordination changed with crawling speed for most subjects, and subjects using the no-limb-pairing mode at low speed tended to adopt the trot-like mode or pace-like mode at high speed. The research results could be well explained by the two-level central pattern generator (CPG model consisting of a half-center rhythm generator (RG and a pattern formation (PF circuit. This study sheds light on the underlying control mechanism of human crawling.

  14. Surgical management of hand deformities in hereditary dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotović Ljubomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1996-2001 in the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns of the Military Medical Academy, 18 patients. 12 male and 6 female, with hereditary dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (HDEB and hand deformities were surgically treated, to achieve the complete separation of fingers, correction of the thumb adduction contracture and flexion or extension contracture of finger joints. The period of wound healing on flat surfaces after surgery, and the period between two operations was estimated. The most common deformity was the flexion contractures of metacarpophalangeal (MP joints (45% and one or both interphalangeal (IP joints (types A1, A2. In 20% of the hands MP joint was streched with the flexion contracture in distal interphalangeal (DIP or both IP joints (types B1, B2. In 35% of hands MP joint was in hyperextension with folded proximal interphalangeal (PIP or both IP joints (C1 i C2. The adduction deformity of the thumb type 1, without the possibility of abduction, was present in 15%, type 2, when the thumb was placed above the palm in 60% and type 3, when the thumb was fused in the palm in 25%. Pseudosyndactyly of the first degree (till PIP joint was found in 30% of hands, the second degree (till DIP joint in 25%, and the third degree (the whole finger length in 45% of hands. Fingers were completely separated and stretched surgically. The period of spontaneous healing was 15 days on the average. EBDC represents great medical and social problem that requires multidisciplinary approach of physicians of various specialties (surgeons, dermatologists, pediatrists, geneticists, nutritionists physiatrists, ophtalmologists, dentists, ENT, as well as specially trained persons and families. The efficient specific systemic therapy aiming to increase the skin resistence to mechanical trauma does not exist yet, and should be developed in the field of gene therapy. The surgical correction of hand deformities, acrylate glove use in the longer post

  15. Pulgar flotante. Descripción y reconstrucción: Caso clínico Floating thumb. Description and reconstruction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Revelo Jirón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la descripción clínica y los hallazgos radiológicos de un caso de pulgar flotante parcialmente tratado en su infancia. Además se plantean las líneas generales a seguir de forma previa al tratamiento ante una malformación congénita del miembro superior y específicamente a nivel de la mano y del pulgar, destacando la clasificación y valoración de los aspectos estético-funcionales. Posteriormente se plantean las conductas quirúrgicas que pueden seguirse y los resultados obtenidos en el caso tratado.This paper deals with the clinical and radiological findings in a case of floating thumb, whose treatment began in the childhood. The general approach to the upper limb and particularly hand and thumb congenital malformations is outlined, as well as their classification and assessment of the cosmetic and functional aspects. Finally the different surgical approaches to this pathology are mentioned and the results obtained in the present case are shown.

  16. EF-hands at atomic resolution: The structure of human psoriasin (S100A7) solved by MAD phasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov; Etzerodt, Michael; Madsen, Peder Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    The S100 family consists of small acidic proteins, belonging to the EF-hand class of calcium-binding proteins. They are primarily regulatory proteins, involved in cell growth, cell structure regulation and signal transduction. Psoriasin (S100A7) is an 11.7 kDa protein that is highly upregulated i...... structures of apo forms of S100 proteins. The substitution of Ca2+ ions in EF-hands by lanthanide ions may provide a general vehicle for structure determination of S100 proteins by means of MAD phasing....

  17. Persistence of left supracardinal vein in an adult patient with heart-hand syndrome and cardiac pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Jan; Heifetz, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A patient with a sporadic heart-hand syndrome, which includes thumb hypoplasia, septum primum atrial septal defect, and cleft mitral valve is described. During attempted placement of a pacemaker lead, persistence of left superior and inferior vena cava was found in addition to the right-sided caval veins. This corresponds to persistence of left-sided supracardinal vein present during fetal development.

  18. [Hand infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients.

  19. [Safety handles for ski sticks to prevent eye, hand and stomach injuries (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, H

    1980-12-01

    Eye injuries caused by ski stick handles are rare but serious. The material and shape of the handle can be designed to prevent serious injury without adversely affecting function. Even at winter temperatures polyurethane remains moderately malleable and shock-absorbent; it is light, and is a poor heat conductor, so that the hands do not get cold quickly. The end of the handle is 8 cm in diameter; attached to this is an adjustable loop which fits around the hand. The loop opens on impact. It is thus impossible for the orbit to sustain injury and there is less danger to other injury-prone regions of the body such as the neck and stomach. The anatomically designed handles, with wide thumb supports, help prevent hand injuries, and in particular thumb injuries, to a large extent. Such injuries have occurred frequently in the past.

  20. The OMT Classification of Congenital Anomalies of the Hand and Upper Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Michael A; Oberg, Kerby C

    2015-10-01

    The Oberg, Manske and Tonkin (OMT) Classification of congenital anomalies of the hand and upper limb uses dysmorphological terminology, placing conditions in one of three groups: Malformations, Deformations and Dysplasias. The main group, Malformations, is further subdivided according to whether the whole of the limb is affected or the hand plate alone, and whether the primary insult involves one of the three axes of limb development and patterning or is non-axial. The common surgical diagnoses, such as thumb duplication and thumb hypoplasia, are then placed within this framework. Recently the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Scientific Committee for Congenital Conditions approved the OMT Classification as a timely and appropriate replacement of the previously accepted Swanson Classification. This review charts the development of and modifications to the OMT Classification and its current status.

  1. Assessing Financial Education Methods: Principles vs. Rules-of-Thumb Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skimmyhorn, William L.; Davies, Evan R.; Mun, David; Mitchell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Despite thousands of programs and tremendous public and private interest in improving financial decision-making, little is known about how best to teach financial education. Using an experimental approach, the authors estimated the effects of two different education methodologies (principles-based and rules-of-thumb) on the knowledge,…

  2. Partial trapeziectomy and interposition of fascia lata allograft in the operative treatment of thumb base osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Anne J.; Weijns, Marieke E.; Braakenburg, Assa; Van Minnen, Leo Paul; Mink Van Der Molen, Aebele B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the results of fascia lata allograft interposition after partial trapeziectomy in patients with symptomatic first carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. Methods and results: Twenty-one patients (22 thumbs) with Eaton-Glickel stage II

  3. Median Nerve Deformation and Displacement in the Carpal Tunnel during Index Finger and Thumb Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesburg, Margriet H. M.; Yoshii, Yuichi; Villarraga, Hector R.; Henderson, Jacqueline; Cha, Stephen S.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the deformation and displacement of the normal median nerve in the carpal tunnel during index finger and thumb motion, using ultrasound Thirty wrists from 15 asymptomatic volunteers were evaluated Cross-sectional images during motion from full extension t

  4. The Effect of an Open Carpal Tunnel Release on Thumb CMC Biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Tanner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We have observed worsening thumb pain following carpal tunnel release (CTR in some patients. Our purpose was to determine the effect of open CTR on thumb carpometacarpal (CMC biomechanics. Methods. Five fresh-frozen cadaver arms with intact soft tissues were used. Each specimen was secured to a jig which fixed the forearm at 45° supination, and the wrist at 20° dorsiflexion, with thumb pointing up. The thumb was axially loaded with a force of 130 N. We measured 3D translation and rotation of the trapezium, radius, and first metacarpal, before and after open CTR. Motion between radius and first metacarpal, radius and trapezium, and first metacarpal and trapezium during loading was calculated using rigid body mechanics. Overall stiffness of each specimen was determined. Results. Total construct stiffness following CTR was reduced in all specimens but not significantly. No significant changes were found in adduction, pronation, or dorsiflexion of the trapezium with respect to radius after open CTR. Motion between radius and first metacarpal, between radius and trapezium, or between first metacarpal and trapezium after open CTR was not decreased significantly. Conclusion. From this data, we cannot determine if releasing the transverse carpal ligament alters kinematics of the CMC joint.

  5. Collateral ligament reconstruction of the chronic thumb injury with bio-tenodesis screw fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gvozdenovic, Robert; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new technique for the reconstruction of chronic lesions of the collateral ligaments of the metacarpophalangeal ligaments of the thumb, using a Bio-Tenodesis screw for the fixation of a tendon graft in a triangular manner with proximal apex and allowing early mobilization, starting 2...

  6. Capacity Value: Evaluation of WECC Rule of Thumb; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo

    2015-06-09

    This presentation compares loss of load expectation and wind and solar capacity values to the rules of thumb used in the Western Interconnection planning and provides alternative recommendations to the modeling efforts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council's Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee.

  7. A family with hereditary ankyloglossia complicated by heterochromia irides and a congenital clasped thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Iida, M; Yamaguchi, Y

    1983-10-01

    We experienced a family with hereditary ankyloglossia complicated by heterochromia irides and a congenital clasped thumb. This is considered to be a rare case because, to our knowledge, there have been no published reports on such cases of hereditary complications to date.

  8. Use of twin dorsal middle phalangeal finger flaps for thumb or index finger reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W; Chen, K J

    2013-05-01

    Amputation or degloving injuries of the thumb or index finger are highly disabling. We describe the use of twin dorsal middle finger flaps harvested from the dorsal aspects of the middle and ring fingers, and based on one palmar proper digital artery, its venae comitantes, and the dorsal branches of the palmar digital nerves of the middle and ring fingers, respectively. These flaps offer advantages when large soft tissue defects of the thumb or index finger are present. In this study, twin dorsal middle finger flaps were used in nine patients (six thumbs, three index fingers). All flaps completely survived. At the mean follow-up of 20 months, the appearance of the reconstructed thumbs or index fingers was acceptable, the length was maintained, and the mean static 2-point discrimination values were 10 mm in the palmar flap and 13 mm in the dorsal flap of the reconstructed digit. All patients were satisfied with the appearance and mobility of the donor fingers. All but one donor finger showed normal finger pulp sensibility, with a static 2-point discrimination between 3 and 6 mm.

  9. Partial trapeziectomy and interposition of fascia lata allograft in the operative treatment of thumb base osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Anne J.; Weijns, Marieke E.; Braakenburg, Assa; Van Minnen, Leo Paul; Mink Van Der Molen, Aebele B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the results of fascia lata allograft interposition after partial trapeziectomy in patients with symptomatic first carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. Methods and results: Twenty-one patients (22 thumbs) with Eaton-Glickel stage II

  10. The Engineer's Thumb or Sherlock Holmes on the trail of 'the uncanny'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batail, J

    1997-08-01

    Freud identified 'primal phantasies' (life in the womb, 'primal scene', seduction, castration). It is argued that 'The Engineer's Thumb', a short story from 'The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes', draws its uncanniness from the fact that it is underpinned by all the primal phantasies described by Freud. 'The Engineer's Thumb' therefore illustrates what analytical interpretation can contribute to the understanding of certain literary works. 'The Engineer's Thumb' may also serve as an introduction to a broader study of the Freudian concept of 'the uncanny'. This study seems to confirm what Freud said when he pointed out that 'an uncanny experience occurs either when infantile complexes which have been repressed are once more revived by some impression, or when primitive beliefs which have been surmounted seem once more to be confirmed' (1919, p. 249). 'The Engineer's Thumb' has another interesting feature: in this short story. Conan Doyle, by setting up a 'talking cure', anticipates the creation of psychoanalysis and highlights in a striking way certain aspects of what was to become psychoanalytical treatment.

  11. Love and caring. Ethics of face and hand--an invitation to return to the heart and soul of nursing and our deep humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript offers a new view of old and timeless values: the essential ethic of love, informed by contemporary European philosophies, and caring theory, as well as ancient poetry and wisdom traditions. It integrates some of the philosophical views of Levinas and Logstrup with Watson's Transpersonal Caring Theory. The metaphysics, metaphors, and meanings associated with "ethics of face," the "infinity of the human soul," and "holding another's life in our hands" are tied to a deeply ethical foundation for the timeless practice of love and caring, as a means to sustain, not only our shared humanity, but the profession of nursing itself.

  12. Hand eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand eczema is often a chronic, multifactorial disease. It is usually related to occupational or routine household activities. Exact etiology of the disease is difficult to determine. It may become severe enough and disabling to many of patients in course of time. An estimated 2-10% of population is likely to develop hand eczema at some point of time during life. It appears to be the most common occupational skin disease, comprising 9-35% of all occupational diseases and up to 80% or more of all occupational contact dermatitis. So, it becomes important to find the exact etiology and classification of the disease and to use the appropriate preventive and treatment measures. Despite its importance in the dermatological practice, very few Indian studies have been done till date to investigate the epidemiological trends, etiology, and treatment options for hand eczema. In this review, we tried to find the etiology, epidemiology, and available treatment modalities for chronic hand eczema patients.

  13. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  14. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    /materials/methods. A survey of 3181 healthcare workers was performed. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Data on sick leave and notification to the authorities were obtained. Results. The response rate was 71% (2274 of 3181). The 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was 21%, and was positively associated with atopic...

  15. Restoration of hand function in C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies using a staged approach with nerve and tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Dong, Zhen; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Brachial plexus palsies of C7-T1 result in the complete loss of hand function, including finger and thumb flexion and extension as well as intrinsic muscle function. The task of reanimating such a hand remains challenging, and so far there has been no reliable neurological reconstructive method for restoring hand function. The authors aimed to establish a reliable strategy to reanimate the paralyzed hand. Two patients had sustained C7-T1 complete lesions. In the first stage of the operative procedure, a supinator motor branch to posterior interosseous nerve transfer was performed with brachialis motor branch transfer to the median nerve to restore finger and thumb extension and flexion. In the second stage, the intact brachioradialis muscle was used for abductorplasty to restore thumb opposition. Both patients regained good finger extension and flexion. Thumb opposition was also attained, and overall hand function was satisfactory. The described strategy proved effective and reliable in restoring hand function after C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies.

  16. Hand surgery for dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Radwan, Saleh; Zinger, Gershon; Eylon, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of inherited, mechanobullous disorders caused by mutations in various structural proteins in the skin. The manifestation of these disorders in the hand is of digital contractures and pseudosyndactyly or "cocoon hands," causing significant functional impairment.Our preferred surgical treatment of these patients involves separation of the digits from the palm by releasing the finger flexion contractures and separating them, primarily the adducted thumb. However, recurrence is common. Our hypothesis was that functional improvement is gained irrespective of recurrence of contractures. We retrospectively evaluated 4 patients, 2 male and 2 female, whose average age was 11 years, treated surgically by the separation of all their digits and by coverage with skin grafts. The follow-up period was between 1 and 3½ years. Partial recurrence of the deformity was observed in all patients. Recurrence was more pronounced in the nondominant hand, especially between the digits and of flexion contractures, but did not preclude the use of precision or oppositional pinch at final follow-up. The patient with the longest follow-up has been referred for revision surgery to gain further release of contractures.Significant rehabilitation goals were achieved in all 4 patients after surgery. After 6 months, both of the younger patients were measured for finger dexterity, which showed lower scores than the norm, although this was felt to be dependent on which daily manual activities they were more familiar with. These tests could not have been performed before surgery. All patients and families felt the effort was worthy. Separating the thumb and straightening the digits was found to be significant, yet the indication for separating all the digits is debatable. The need for revision surgery, to maintain the digit function, is clear. Level 4, case series.

  17. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  18. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social…

  19. TREATMENT OF POSTTRAUMATIC ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURES OF THE THUMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Melikhov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of surgical treatment of 21 patients with posttraumatic ischemic contractures of the first finger of a hand were analyzed. The working classification in which there are three degrees of a contracture depending on size of deficiency of a dermal cord of the first interdigital interval was offered. Advanced tactics of surgical treatment of such pathology was developed. Thus, during the first stage we carried out abduction of the first finger by the elimination of cicatrical, muscle and arthrogenic contracture components. At the second stage of treatment, if it was necessary, active opposition of the first finger was restored.

  20. Index finger radial digital proper artery transfer and sleeve anastomosis to treat thumb digital artery defect%食指桡侧指固有动脉转位套入法治疗拇指断指

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚阳; 李崇杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of index finger radial digital proper artery transfer and sleeve anastomosis on treatment of thumb digital artery defect. Methods 10 cases of complete or incomplete thumb amputation with digital artery defect, but without tendon or nerve defect, were replanted by index finger radial digital proper artery transfer and sleeve anastomosis to thumb ulnar digital proper artery. Results All of 10 cases survived after operation, finger pulp was plump, color and lustre was florid. The patients were followed up for 10 months to 2 years, the hand function has obtained satisfactory recovery, and extrinsic feature was natural. Conclusion Index finger radial digital proper artery transfer and sleeve anastomosis is especially adaptive to the treatment of thumb digital artery defect.%目的:探讨食指桡侧指固有动脉转位套入法治疗拇指断指的疗效。方法对10例指动脉缺损而无肌腱神经缺损的拇指完全或不完全离断病例,采用食指桡侧指固有动脉转位与拇指尺侧指固有动脉行套入吻合法修复动脉,再植拇指。结果本组10例再植拇指均成活,指腹饱满,色泽红润,经6~24个月随访,患者手部功能恢复满意,外观自然,2例出现虎口狭窄,经手术改善。结论食指桡侧指固有动脉转位套入法适用于单纯拇指指动脉缺损的再植治疗。

  1. Towards the design of a prosthetic underactuated hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Laliberté

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent advances in the design of an underactuated hand for applications in prosthetics. First, the design of the fingers is addressed. Based on previous experiments with prototypes developed in the past, new tendon routings are proposed that lead to a more effective transmission of the forces. A novel elastic tendon routing is also proposed for the passive opening of the hand. A simplified static analysis of the fingers is proposed to support the results. Then, a new kinematic design of the thumb is presented. The thumb is designed to perform out-of-the-plane motions in order to broaden the variety of possible grasps. A mechanism for the implementation of underactuation between the fingers is proposed that alleviates the friction problems encountered in earlier hand designs. Finally, a prototype of the hand is briefly described and typical grasps are shown.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  2. Radiological imaging of congenital hand anomalies - a 6-year single-centre experience and what the hand surgeons want to know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerety, E.L.; Hopper, M.A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grant, I. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Plastic Surgery, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-19

    Congenital hand anomalies present a rare but important physical and emotional challenge for children and parents. Radiological imaging is important for accurate diagnosis, to aid decision making and to monitor changes in the growing hand. The goal of any treatment is to help the child achieve his/her maximum potential, to provide a useful hand with attention to cosmesis. We investigated the range of congenital hand anomalies imaged in a tertiary referral centre. We examined the timing of imaging and the key clinical questions. The radiology imaging system was searched retrospectively for radiographs of congenital hand anomalies over a 6-year period. The images were reviewed and patient demographics, diagnosis and other imaging recorded. Over 6 years, 85 patients had imaging. Twenty-three patients had bilateral problems and 11 had recognised syndromes. The most common abnormalities imaged were duplicated thumbs (28 %), followed by syndactyly (18 %). Children were first imaged as early as 1 day old, with the median age of initial imaging 12 months. Thumb duplication and syndactyly are the most common conditions for which radiographs are requested at our hospital, although overall syndactyly is considered the most common congenital hand anomaly. For a variety of reasons, children are often imaged very early, before review by the Specialist in Children's Hand Surgery (despite surgery being unlikely before 1 year of age.) We discuss the classification systems and specific issues that hand surgeons want to know from the radiologists. (orig.)

  3. First permanent implant of nerve stimulation leads activated by surface electrodes, enabling hand grasp and release: the stimulus router neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Liu Shi; Ravid, Einat; Kowalczewski, Jan Andrzej; Olson, Jaret Lawrence; Morhart, Michael; Prochazka, Arthur

    2012-05-01

    . More than 150 000 neuroprostheses (NPs) have been implanted in people to restore bodily function in a variety of neural disorders. The authors developed a novel NP, the Stimulus Router System (SRS), in which only passive leads are implanted. Each lead picks up a portion of the current delivered through the skin by an external stimulator. . The authors report on the first human implant of an SRS. . The recipient was a tetraplegic man with bilateral hand paralysis. Three SRS leads were implanted in his right forearm to activate the finger extensors, finger flexors, and thumb flexor. A wristlet containing a surface stimulator and electrodes was used to pass trains of electrical pulses through the skin to each lead. Hand opening and grasp were controlled via a wireless earpiece that sensed small tooth-clicks and transmitted signals to the wristlet. . The current required to activate the muscles was less than half that required prior to implantation and below perceptual threshold. Maximal grip force and hand opening aperture were both larger using the SRS. The implanted leads have remained functional for 3 years. The recipient reported various tasks of daily life that improved during SRS usage. An electronic counter revealed mean monthly usage of 18.5 hours, equivalent to 55 hours of continuous manual activity. . This first implant of the SRS indicates that it can be effective and reliable and has potential to provide an alternative to existing NPs.

  4. Simultaneous formation of right- and left-handed anti-parallel coiled-coil interfaces by a coil2 fragment of human lamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinos, Larisa E; Burkhard, Peter; Herrmann, Harald; Aebi, Ueli; Strelkov, Sergei V

    2011-04-22

    The elementary building block of all intermediate filaments (IFs) is a dimer featuring a central α-helical rod domain flanked by the N- and C-terminal end domains. In nuclear IF proteins (lamins), the rod domain consists of two coiled-coil segments, coil1 and coil2, that are connected by a short non-helical linker. Coil1 and the C-terminal part of coil2 contain the two highly conserved IF consensus motifs involved in the longitudinal assembly of dimers. The previously solved crystal structure of a lamin A fragment (residues 305-387) corresponding to the second half of coil2 has yielded a parallel left-handed coiled coil. Here, we present the crystal structure and solution properties of another human lamin A fragment (residues 328-398), which is largely overlapping with fragment 305-387 but harbors a short segment of the tail domain. Unexpectedly, no parallel coiled coil forms within the crystal. Instead, the α-helices are arranged such that two anti-parallel coiled-coil interfaces are formed. The most significant interface has a right-handed geometry, which is accounted for by a characteristic 15-residue repeat pattern that overlays with the canonical heptad repeat pattern. The second interface is a left-handed anti-parallel coiled coil based on the predicted heptad repeat pattern. In solution, the fragment reveals only a weak dimerization propensity. We speculate that the C-terminus of coil2 might unzip, thereby allowing for a right-handed coiled-coil interface to form between two laterally aligned dimers. Such an interface might co-exist with a heterotetrameric left-handed coiled-coil assembly, which is expected to be responsible for the longitudinal A(CN) contact.

  5. Mechanical design and performance specifications of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Belter, MS, BS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we set forth a detailed analysis of the mechanical characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. We report on an empirical study concerning the performance of several commercially available myoelectric prosthetic hands, including the Vincent, iLimb, iLimb Pulse, Bebionic, Bebionic v2, and Michelangelo hands. We investigated the finger design and kinematics, mechanical joint coupling, and actuation methods of these commercial prosthetic hands. The empirical findings are supplemented with a compilation of published data on both commercial and prototype research prosthetic hands. We discuss numerous mechanical design parameters by referencing examples in the literature. Crucial design trade-offs are highlighted, including number of actuators and hand complexity, hand weight, and grasp force. Finally, we offer a set of rules of thumb regarding the mechanical design of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.

  6. Mechanical design and performance specifications of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Joseph T; Segil, Jacob L; Dollar, Aaron M; Weir, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we set forth a detailed analysis of the mechanical characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. We report on an empirical study concerning the performance of several commercially available myoelectric prosthetic hands, including the Vincent, iLimb, iLimb Pulse, Bebionic, Bebionic v2, and Michelangelo hands. We investigated the finger design and kinematics, mechanical joint coupling, and actuation methods of these commercial prosthetic hands. The empirical findings are supplemented with a compilation of published data on both commercial and prototype research prosthetic hands. We discuss numerous mechanical design parameters by referencing examples in the literature. Crucial design trade-offs are highlighted, including number of actuators and hand complexity, hand weight, and grasp force. Finally, we offer a set of rules of thumb regarding the mechanical design of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.

  7. A molecular exploration of human DNA/RNA co-extracted from the palmar surface of the hands and fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerenza, D; Aneli, S; Omedei, M; Gino, S; Pasino, S; Berchialla, P; Robino, C

    2016-05-01

    "Touch DNA" refers to the DNA that is left behind when a person touches or comes into contact with an item. However, the source of touch DNA is still debated and the large variability in DNA yield from casework samples suggests that, besides skin, various body fluids can be transferred through contact. Another important issue concerning touch DNA is the possible occurrence of secondary transfer, but the data published in the literature in relation to the background levels of foreign DNA present on the hand surfaces of the general population are very limited. As the present study aimed at better understanding the nature and characteristics of touch DNA, samples were collected from the palmar surface of the hands and fingers ("PHF" samples) of 30 male and 30 female donors by tape-lifting/swabbing and subjected to DNA/RNA co-extraction. Multiplex mRNA profiling showed that cellular material different from skin could be observed in 15% of the PHF samples. The total amount of DNA recovered from these samples (median 5.1 ng) was significantly higher than that obtained from samples containing skin cells only (median 1.6 ng). The integrity of the DNA isolated from the donors' hands and fingers as well as the prevalence of DNA mixtures were evaluated by STR typing and compared with reference STR profiles from buccal swabs. DNA integrity appeared significantly higher in the male rather than in the female subsample, as the average percentage of the donors' alleles effectively detected in PHF profiles was 75.1% and 60.1%, respectively. The prevalence of mixtures with a foreign DNA contribution ≥20% was 19.2% (30.0% in the female PHF samples and 8.3% in the male PHF samples). The obtained results support the hypothesis that transfer of cellular material different from skin may underlie the occasional recovery of quality STR profiles from handled items. These results also suggest that gender may represent an important factor influencing the propensity of individuals to carry

  8. Mirror activity in the human brain while observing hand movements: a comparison between EEG desynchronization in the mu-range and previous fMRI results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo

    2009-07-28

    Mu (mu) rhythms are EEG oscillations between 8-13 Hz distinguished from alpha by having more anterior distribution and being desynchronized by motor rather than visual activity. Evidence accumulating during the last decade suggests that the desynchronization of mu rhythms (mu suppression) might be also a manifestation of a human Mirror Neuron System (MNS). To further explore this hypothesis we used a paradigm that, in a previous fMRI study, successfully activated this putative MNS in humans. Our direct goal was to provide further support for a link between modulation of mu rhythms and the MNS, by finding parallels between the reported patterns of fMRI activations and patterns of mu suppression. The EEG power in the mu range has been recorded while participants passively observed either a left or a right hand, reaching to and grasping objects, and compared it with that recorded while participants observed the movement of a ball, and while observing static grasping scenes or still objects. Mirroring fMRI results (Shmuelof, L., Zohary, E., 2005. Dissociation between ventral and dorsal fMRI activation during object and action recognition. Neuron 47, 457-470), mu suppression was larger in the hemisphere contra-lateral to the moving hand and larger when the hands grasped different objects in different ways than when the movement was repetitive. No suppression was found while participants observed still objects but mu suppression was also found while seeing static grasping postures. These data are discussed in light of similar parallels between modulations of alpha waves and fMRI while recording EEG in the magnet. The present data support a link between mu suppression and a human MNS.

  9. Hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marie Scharoun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioural assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge.

  10. Thenar reversed island flap combined with thumb dorsoulnar neurocutaneous vascular flap for repairing of distal thumb degloving injury%大鱼际逆行岛状皮瓣联合拇指尺背侧皮神经营养血管皮瓣修复拇指末节套脱伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈泳; 施海峰; 钱俊; 吴柯; 芮永军

    2016-01-01

    transferred to cover the dorsum of the thumb.The donor sites were closed by either direct suture or by full thickness skin graft.Results All the flaps in the 12 cases survived uneventfully.Postoperative follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months,with an average of 10 months.The appearance,texture and color of the flaps were satisfactory.Sensory and motor function recovery were excellent in 8 cases,good in 3 cases and fair in 1 case according to the upper extremity functional evaluation criteria issued by the Hand Surgery Society of the Chinese Medical Association.Two-point discrimination of the thenar reversed island flap on the thumb pulp was 6.9 to 9.5 mm(average 7.8 mm),while that of the dorsoulnar neurocutaneous vascular flap on the dorsum of the thumb was 7.0 to 11.0 mm (average 8.5 rnm).According to the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) rating sensory function recovery was S2 to S4,with an average of S3+.Conclusion Combined transfer of thenar reversed island flap and dorsoulnar neurocutaneous vascular flap from the thumb is a surgical procedure that is simple,does not require dissection of deep anatomical structures,preserves known blood vessels,causes minor surgical trauma and leads to satisfactory results in repairing distal thumb degloving injury.

  11. 接合神经的甲皮瓣修复拇指皮肤软组织缺损%Toe nail flap with nerve anastomoses for repairing thumb skin soft tissue defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣峰; 孙新君; 江海廷; 张福田

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical outcomes and experience of using thumb nail flaps with nerve anastomoses to repair thumb nail bed and skin soft tissue defect. Methods From January 2006 to January 2014, 32 cases were using emergency thumb nail flap transplantation to repair thumb skin soft tissue injury with nail bed defects. All the cases were treated with toe bottom nerve and finger intrinsic nerve anastomoses, cutaneous branch of peroneal nerve and superfical branch of radial nerve anastomoses, and the donor sites were directly sutured. Results All thumb nail flaps in 32 cases survived after surgery. After 12~36 months of follow up, the thumbs were in good shape, the nails grew well, and the color of flaps was close with the surrounding skin; all had good sensory and motor function, and two-point discrimination of finger pulps was 4~8 mm. According to Chinese Medical Association of Hand Surgery branch of replantation and reconstruction of function evaluation test standard, 25 cases were excellent, 6 cases were good, 1 case was acceptable, and no bad cases occured, and the excellent and good rate was 96.9%. Conclusion Using the method of toe bottom nerve and finger intrinsic nerve anastomoses, cutaneous branch of peroneal nerve and superfical branch of radial nerve anastomoses, emergency free hallux toe nail flap to repair thumb injury with nail bed defects, the appearance and functions of thumbs after surgery are satisfactory, and the nerve function recovers well.%目的:探讨采用接合神经的甲皮瓣修复拇指甲床及皮肤软组织缺损的临床疗效。方法2006年1月-2014年1月,急诊应用甲皮瓣移植修复伴有甲床缺损的拇指皮肤软组织损伤32例,均将趾底神经-指固有神经接合,腓神经皮支与桡神经浅支接合,供区直接缝合。结果术后32例甲皮瓣全部成活,随访12~36个月,拇指外观良好,指甲生长良好,皮瓣颜色与周围皮肤近

  12. Human health risk assessment of chloroxylenol in liquid hand soap and dishwashing soap used by consumers and health-care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lisa J; Rodricks, Joseph D; Turnbull, Duncan; DeLeo, Paul C; Nash, J Frank; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Carlson, Pete A

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative human risk assessment of chloroxylenol was conducted for liquid hand and dishwashing soap products used by consumers and health-care workers. The toxicological data for chloroxylenol indicate lack of genotoxicity, no evidence of carcinogenicity, and minimal systemic toxicity. No observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) were established from chronic toxicity studies, specifically a carcinogenicity study that found no cancer excess (18 mg/kg-day) and studies of developmental and reproductive toxicity (100 mg/kg-day). Exposure to chloroxylenol for adults and children was estimated for two types of rinse-off cleaning products, one liquid hand soap, and two dishwashing products. The identified NOAELs were used together with exposure estimates to derive margin of exposure (MOE) estimates for chloroxylenol (i.e., estimates of exposure over NOAELs). These estimates were designed with conservative assumptions and likely overestimate exposure and risk (i.e., highest frequency, 100% dermal penetration). The resulting MOEs ranged from 178 to over 100, 000, 000 indicating negligibly small potential for harm related to consumer or health-care worker exposure to chloroxylenol in liquid soaps used in dish washing and hand washing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Buzuloiu; Patrick Lambert; Didier Coquin; Bogdan Ionescu

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on ...

  14. Trapeziometacarpal narrow pseudarthrosis: a new surgical technique to treat thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, M; Civani, A; Pagani, D; Sansone, V

    2013-10-01

    We describe a technique that arose from the observation of the clinical outcome of failed arthrodeses of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. In these cases a pseudoarthrosis developed which, surprisingly, rarely lead to a poor clinical outcome. Thus we developed a simple technique which deliberately caused the formation of a narrow pseudoarthrosis in the carpometacarpal joint. We present a retrospective review of 248 consecutive patients treated for Eaton stages II and III osteoarthritis. We observed a statistically significant improvement in mean appositional and oppositional pinch strength, mean DASH score (63.8 pre-operatively to 10.5 at final follow-up), and the mean pain score (8.3 to 0.2). We conclude that trapeziometacarpal limited excision arthroplasty is a simple and reliable alternative to existing surgical techniques for treating Stage II or III thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis.

  15. Thumb mechanism of HIT bio-prosthetic hand%HIT/DLR仿人假手拇指机构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海; 姜力; 侯琳琪; 刘宏; 高海波

    2007-01-01

    为了使假手在外观和抓握方式上更加仿人化,基于欠驱动原理系统地设计了仿人假手的拇指.它由一个电机驱动,2个关节组成.其设计和以往假手的拇指有较大的不同:倾斜于手掌放置,其电机、带轮和谐波减速器全部嵌入在手掌内部;可以在抓握时沿空间上一锥面运动;将欠驱动原理在手指的运用上,从平面运动拓广到空间的运动.这使得假手拇指在外型和运动方式上和人的拇指极其相似.并对拇指的空间连杆机构进行了运动学分析,以确定其结构参数.实验表明,所设计的仿人拇指和人的拇指极其接近,并且在抓握时和其他手指配合,具有很强的自适应能力,能够实现对复杂物体的包络、精确抓握和力量抓握.使该假手更加美观、仿人、实用.

  16. Development of a Networked Thumb Print-Based Staff Attendance Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Tolulope Awode; Oluwagbemiga Shoewu; Oluwabukola Mayowa Ishola; Segun O. Olatinwo

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a networked thumb print-based attendance management system. Now, more than ever, it has become necessary to give more thought to the methods of time and attendance management. The traditional time clock, manual attendance registering often no longer makes sense and simply does not meet the needs of the modern work environment. This system offers a comprehensive software solution that will streamline company's operations, and simplify timekeeping. Nowad...

  17. Anomalous Course of the Extensor Pollicis Longus With Multiple Absences of Thumb Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jayoung; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung-Mook

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 10-year-old girl with anomalous course of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle, which exists with absence of thenar muscles and muscles in the 1st extensor compartment. Her chief complaint was severe atrophy on the right thenar eminence. On physical examination, there was no obvious functional abnormality on her right thumb. On magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis ...

  18. Task-dependent modulation of functional connectivity between hand motor cortices and neuronal networks underlying language and music: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparing, R; Meister, I G; Wienemann, M; Buelte, D; Staedtgen, M; Boroojerdi, B

    2007-01-01

    Although language functions are, in general, attributed to the left hemisphere, it is still a matter of debate to what extent the cognitive functions underlying the processing of music are lateralized in the human brain. To investigate hemispheric specialization we evaluated the effect of different overt musical and linguistic tasks on the excitability of both left and right hand motor cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Task-dependent changes of the size of the TMS-elicited motor evoked potentials were recorded in 12 right-handed, musically naive subjects during and after overt speech, singing and humming, i.e. the production of melody without word articulation. The articulation of meaningless syllables served as control condition. We found reciprocal lateralized effects of overt speech and musical tasks on motor cortex excitability. During overt speech, the corticospinal projection of the left (i.e. dominant) hemisphere to the right hand was facilitated. In contrast, excitability of the right motor cortex increased during both overt singing and humming, whereas no effect was observed on the left hemisphere. Although the traditional concept of hemispheric lateralization of music has been challenged by recent neuroimaging studies, our findings demonstrate that right-hemisphere preponderance of music is nevertheless present. We discuss our results in terms of the recent concepts on evolution of language and gesture, which hypothesize that cerebral networks mediating hand movement and those subserving language processing are functionally linked. TMS may constitute a useful tool to further investigate the relationship between cortical representations of motor functions, music and language using comparative approaches.

  19. Sustained attention to spontaneous thumb sensations activates brain somatosensory and other proprioceptive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Clemens C C; Díaz, José-Luis; Concha, Luis; Barrios, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    The present experiment was designed to test if sustained attention directed to the spontaneous sensations of the right or left thumb in the absence of any external stimuli is able to activate corresponding somatosensory brain areas. After verifying in 34 healthy volunteers that external touch stimuli to either thumb effectively activate brain contralateral somatosensory areas, and after subtracting attention mechanisms employed in both touch and spontaneous-sensation conditions, fMRI evidence was obtained that the primary somatosensory cortex (specifically left BA 3a/3b) becomes active when an individual is required to attend to the spontaneous sensations of either thumb in the absence of external stimuli. In addition, the left superior parietal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, motor and premotor cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Broca's area, and occipital cortices were activated. Moreover, attention to spontaneous-sensations revealed an increased connectivity between BA 3a/3b, superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), probably allowing top-down activations of primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that specific primary somatosensory areas in conjunction with other left parieto-frontal areas are involved in processing proprioceptive and interoceptive bodily information that underlies own body-representations and that these networks and cognitive functions can be modulated by top-down attentional processes.

  20. Effectiveness of appliance therapy in reducing overjet and open bite associated with thumb sucking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiraju, G S; Harika, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effectiveness of appliance therapy and reward therapy in reducing overjet and open bite associated with thumb sucking habit. Thirty nine subjects (17 males and 22 females) with chronic thumb sucking habit were allocated to three groups: group A (positive reinforcement), group B (modified triple loop corrector), and group C (control). Pre-treatment and post-treatment study casts were evaluated for changes in overjet and open bite. Data from measurements of the three groups were statistically analyzed using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U tests. All statistical computation was performed with SPSS 15.0 software. Significance was set at 0.05 level. Statistically significant reductions in mean overjet and open bite were seen for the group treated with appliance therapy when compared to other two groups (Poverjet and open bite associated with thumb sucking habit. Early interception of these habits is recommended to reduce the incidence of malocclusion in children.

  1. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  2. Modification of hand reconstruction with unilateral foot donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Cun-yi; LIU Xu-dong; CAI Pei-hua; JIANG Pei-zhu; YU Zhong-jia; ZENG Bing-fang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Multiple toes transplantation is an effective method for restoring the prehension of the hands.1-5 Generally, the thumb, index and middle finger are reconstructed by transferring a free big toe skin-nail flap with the second and third toes from a same foot. The great saphenous vein, superficial veins on the dorsum of the foot, the dorsalis pedis artery, and the first dorsal metatarsal artery are resected to be used as the donor pedicle. The arterial pedicle is freed up to the dorsal digital artery of the big and second toes. Both the second and third toes are supplied by the dorsal digital artery of the second toe on the tibial side. By using unilateral toe donation to reconstruct a digitless hand, we can preserve the normal form and function of the contralateral foot.However, because of the small length of the digital arteries between the big and second toes, the first web space is limited. Here we present our experiences on two cases of hand reconstruction with unilateral three toes transplantation. Good function and motion range of the thumb were achieved in both the patients.

  3. THE OCCURRENCE OF THE RADIAL CLUB HAND IN CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Иванович Голяна

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Radial club hand is a developmental anomaly of the upper extremity, being characterized as a longitudinal underdevelopment of a forearm and a hand on the radial surface, consisting in a hypo-/ aplazy radial bone and the thumb of various degree of expressiveness. Characteristic symptoms of this developmental anomaly are: shortening and bow-shaped curvature of a forearm, palmar and radial deviation of a hand, underdevelopment of the thumb from its proximal departments and structures, anomaly of development of three-phalanx fingers of a hand (is more often than the 2-4th, violation of a cosmetic condition and functionality of the affected segment. From 2000 for 2012 in FSI SRICO n.a. H.Turner examination and treatment of 23 children with various syndromes at which the radial club hand was revealed are conducted. The main syndromes at which it is revealed radial club hand - Holt-Orama syndrome, TAR- syndrome and VACTERL syndrome. Tactics and techniques of surgical treatment of a radial club hand it various syndromes most often don’t differ from treatment of other types of a radial club hand though demand an individual approach depending on severity and a type of deformation of the upper extremity.

  4. Hand-Ground Nanoscale Zn(II) -Based Coordination Polymers Derived from NSAIDs: Cell Migration Inhibition of Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mithun; Sarkar, Koushik; Deb, Jolly; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2017-04-27

    Increased levels of intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) have been linked with the unregulated cancer cell migration that often leads to metastasis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are responsible for the increased PGE2 concentration in inflamed as well as cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that NSAID-derived Zn(II) -based coordination polymers are able to inhibit cell migration of human breast cancer cells. Various NSAIDs were anchored to a series of 1D Zn(II) coordination polymers through carboxylate-Zn coordination, and these structures were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Hand grinding in a pestle and mortar resulted in the first reported example of nanoscale coordination polymers that were suitable for biological studies. Two such hand-ground nanoscale coordination polymers NCP1 a and NCP2 a, which contained naproxen (a well-studied NSAID), were successfully internalized by the human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, as was evident from cellular imaging by using a fluorescence microscope. They were able to kill the cancer cells (MTT assay) more efficiently than the corresponding mother drug naproxen, and most importantly, they significantly inhibited cancer cell migration thereby displaying anticancer activity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Reverse on-top plasty in mutilating hand injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Won-Il; Han, Soo-Hyung; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-04-01

    For crushing injury of the hand that involves 4-digit amputations sparing the thumb, lengthening of amputated stump and covering the defect are important for hand function. From March 2007 to September 2011, the authors performed "reverse on-top plasty" in 5 patients. The fifth metacarpal bone was disarticulated, turned over 180 degrees, and embedded in reverse direction so that the metacarpal base becomes the tip of new finger. Soft tissue defects were covered using anterolateral thigh free flap or reverse radial forearm flap. The mean follow-up period was 21.2 months, and major complications such as bony resorption did not occur. Static 2-point discrimination showed fair recovery of fingertip sense. Key pinch power was 76.4% of the uninjured hand. In conclusion, reverse on-top plasty is good in gaining more sufficient finger length and durability using cartilaginous portion of the fifth metacarpal bone than the previously used on-top plasty.

  6. Afferent-induced facilitation of primary motor cortex excitability in the region controlling hand muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanne, H; Degardin, A; Tyvaert, L; Bocquillon, P; Houdayer, E; Manceaux, A; Derambure, P; Cassim, F

    2009-08-01

    Sensory inputs from cutaneous and limb receptors are known to influence motor cortex network excitability. Although most recent studies have focused on the inhibitory influences of afferent inputs on arm motor responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), facilitatory effects are rarely considered. In the present work, we sought to establish how proprioceptive sensory inputs modulate the excitability of the primary motor cortex region controlling certain hand and wrist muscles. Suprathreshold TMS pulses were preceded either by median nerve stimulation (MNS) or index finger stimulation with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 20 to 200 ms (with particular focus on 40-80 ms). Motor-evoked potentials recorded in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), first dorsalis interosseus and extensor carpi radialis muscles were strongly facilitated (by up to 150%) by MNS with ISIs of around 60 ms, whereas digit stimulation had only a weak effect. When MNS was delivered at the interval that evoked the optimal facilitatory effect, the H-reflex amplitude remained unchanged and APB motor responses evoked with transcranial electric stimulation were not increased as compared with TMS. Afferent-induced facilitation and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) mechanisms are likely to interact in cortical circuits, as suggested by the strong facilitation observed when MNS was delivered concurrently with ICF and the reduction of SICI following MNS. We conclude that afferent-induced facilitation is a mechanism which probably involves muscle spindle afferents and should be considered when studying sensorimotor integration mechanisms in healthy and disease situations.

  7. Motor unit activity in biceps brachii of left-handed humans during sustained contractions with two load types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey R; Cleland, Brice T; Mani, Diba; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of single motor units during sustained isometric contractions that required either force or position control in left-handed individuals. The target force for the two sustained contractions (24.9 ± 10.5% maximal force) was identical for each biceps brachii motor unit (n = 32) and set at 4.7 ± 2.0% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force above its recruitment threshold (range: 0.5-41.2% MVC force). The contractions were not sustained to task failure, but the duration (range: 60-330 s) was identical for each motor unit and the decline in MVC force immediately after the sustained contractions was similar for the two tasks (force: 11.1% ± 13.7%; position: 11.6% ± 9.9%). Despite a greater increase in the rating of perceived exertion during the position task (task × time interaction, P contractions requiring either force or position control.

  8. The Work of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludick, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing Maria and Mario Montessori's reverence for the hand, Pat Ludick takes the reader into the wonder of the human body, mind, and spirit and across the planes of education, into the making of a whole personality and grounded intelligence that is ready for the adult world. Putting the hand front and center, she lyrically evolves an overview…

  9. 小儿手烧伤瘢痕畸形的整形外科治疗%Plastic surgery treatment on cicatricial deformation in child burn of hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛乃航; 朱云

    2002-01-01

    Background: Cicatricial deformation in child burn of hand often leads to severe squaelae. According to different causes of disease , different plastic surgery were adopted .The key of operation lies in skin repairing , articulation dealing, and thumb correcting, which aim is to resume normal longitudinal and transverse arcs ,holding and clenching ability.

  10. Split-hand plus sign in ALS: differential involvement of the flexor pollicis longus and intrinsic hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Parvathi; Bae, Jong Seok; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2013-05-01

    The flexor pollicis longus (FPL), a key muscle involved in fractionated thumb movements, may be relatively spared in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared to the thenar group of muscles, termed the split-hand plus sign. Consequently, the diagnostic utility of the split-hand plus sign was prospectively assessed in ALS. In total, 103 patients (37 ALS and 66 non-ALS) with neuromuscular symptoms underwent assessment of FPL and APB strength using the Medical Research Council (MRC) score. A median nerve strength index (MSI) was developed to quantify differential involvement by expressing the APB strength score as a fraction of the FPL strength score. The APB muscle strength was significantly reduced compared to FPL strength in ALS patients (p hand plus sign distinguished ALS from non-ALS neuromuscular disorders, thereby suggesting a diagnostic utility of this novel clinical sign in ALS.

  11. Nudge, nudge, wink, wink: love, sex and gay men with intellectual disabilities - a helping hand or a human right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D

    2013-11-01

    How do human rights help us with the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) who face discrimination and barriers in their sexual lives? Men with ID who are gay face a whole range of rights violations when it comes to exercising their sexual identity. How can such a seemingly marginalised group draw on rights based claims for better and equal treatment? This paper explores how the power of men's own stories may usefully challenge prevailing social norms and in turn strengthen human rights claims in this area. It also reflects on the challenges posed to such an agenda by current economic difficulties and changes in the organisation of adult social care in the UK. The paper draws on empirical research with gay men with ID completed in the UK in 2005 and briefly revisits some key messages from the data. It also considers the wider literature on the power and possibilities of human rights, 'intimate stories' and translating human rights into everyday change. Gay men with ID tell powerful stories of love, longing and exclusion. Such stories have the capacity to transform wider social attitudes and in turn strengthen the rights claims of this marginalised groups. There are question marks about the possibility of such change in a time of austerity and the broader move in the UK's welfare state from the collective to the individual consumer of services. However, the telling of men's 'intimate stories' creates an almost unassailable challenge to current discriminatory practices and norms. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  12. Thermography-based blood flow imaging in human skin of the hands and feet: a spectral filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the relationship between skin blood flow and skin temperature dynamics is the main problem in thermography-based blood flow imaging. Oscillations in skin blood flow are the source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels toward the skin's surface, as assumed in this study. This hypothesis allows us to use equations for the attenuation and dispersion of thermal waves for converting the temperature signal into the blood flow signal, and vice versa. We developed a spectral filtering approach (SFA), which is a new technique for thermography-based blood flow imaging. In contrast to other processing techniques, the SFA implies calculations in the spectral domain rather than in the time domain. Therefore, it eliminates the need to solve differential equations. The developed technique was verified within 0.005-0.1 Hz, including the endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic frequency bands of blood flow oscillations. The algorithm for an inverse conversion of the blood flow signal into the skin temperature signal is addressed. The examples of blood flow imaging of hands during cuff occlusion and feet during heating of the back are illustrated. The processing of infrared (IR) thermograms using the SFA allowed us to restore the blood flow signals and achieve correlations of about 0.8 with a waveform of a photoplethysmographic signal. The prospective applications of the thermography-based blood flow imaging technique include non-contact monitoring of the blood supply during engraftment of skin flaps and burns healing, as well the use of contact temperature sensors to monitor low-frequency oscillations of peripheral blood flow.

  13. On Semantic Development of HAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎金娥

    2015-01-01

    The body-part term, HAND, ranks 48 in Swadesh's 100-Word List.This paper discusses the origin and meanings, and then the rules of semantic development in the HAND semantic field by comparing with other languages.The word itself does not only denote the body part but also things resembling hands in shape, position, function and things associated with hands.Plenty of linguistic evidence can be found to illustrate that all human beings regard their bodies as the basis and starting point of recognition of the whole world.

  14. Functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level-7 year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replantation is defined as reattachment of amputated limb using neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain recovery of limb. Re-vascularisation involves all the above steps in case of limb injuries that result in a near total amputation. Aim and Objective : To study the functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent replantation of total amputation of hand at wrist level within a period of Jan 2003-June 2010. We evaluated post operative functional outcome compared to uninjured hand taking into consideration: 1. The patient′s overall satisfaction with the hand. 2. Recovery of flexor and extensor function of thumb and fingers. 3. Recovery of thumb opposition. 4. Recovery of sensations in the median and ulnar nerve distribution. 5. Ability of surviving hand to perform daily tasks. Results: There were total seventeen patients and age range was two years to 55 years. Out of 17 patients,16 were males. All the replantations were successful except for one. Summary: The results showed that, although the replanted hands were never functionally as good as the contralateral hand the patients were able to perform most of the daily activities.

  15. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  16. The evaluation of human hand odor volatiles on various textiles: a comparison between contact and noncontact sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Paola A; Curran, Allison M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this study is to compare contact and noncontact human scent collection procedures across an array of textiles (cotton, rayon, polyester, and wool) to determine an optimized collection method for human scent evidence. Six subjects were sampled in triplicate for each textile and collection mode, and the samples were then analyzed through headspace solid-phase micro-extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Contact sampling with cotton material has been shown to be the collection method that yielded the greatest number of volatile compounds and the highest scent mass amounts. Through Spearman rank correlations, it was shown that an individual's scent profile is more reproducible within samples collected on the same textile type than between different materials. Furthermore, contact sampling with cotton fabric demonstrated the greatest reproducibility producing the lowest amount of type I and type II errors with 90.85% of the samples distinguished at the 0.9 match/no match threshold.

  17. The Perceptual Basis of Some Rules of Thumb in Photography

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    Martin S. Banks

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We communicate increasingly with visual imagery such as realistic pictures (e.g., photographs, computer graphic images, perspective drawings and paintings. People are readily able to interpret pictures, but the means by which they do so is poorly understood. Photographers utilize many guidelines for creating natural-looking pictures. One guideline concerns the lens focal length required to produce pictures that are not spatially distorted. Photography texts recommend choosing a focal length of 50mm. There are two phenomena related to this guideline. One is perceived spatial distortions in wide-angle (short focal length pictures. I will argue that the perceived distortions are caused by the perceptual mechanisms people employ to take into account oblique viewing positions. The second phenomenon is perceived depth in pictures taken with different focal lengths. The textbooks argue that pictures taken with short focal lengths expand perceived depth and those taken with long focal lengths compress it. I will argue that these effects are due to a combination of the viewing geometry and peoples' viewing. Another guideline concerns the camera aperture and depth-of-field blur. Photography textbooks do not describe a quantitative rule and treat the magnitude of depth-of-field blur as arbitrary. I examine apertures, lenses, and image formation. From that examination, I argue that there is a natural relationship between depth-of-field blur and the 3D layout of the photographed scene. Human viewers are sensitive to this relationship. In particular, depicted scenes are perceived differently depending on the relationship between blur and 3D layout. Understanding the perceptual basis of these guidelines provides insight into how to construct photographs, perspective paintings, and computer graphic images for more effective visual communication.

  18. A specific mutation in the distant sonic hedgehog (SHH) cis-regulator (ZRS) causes Werner mesomelic syndrome (WMS) while complete ZRS duplications underlie Haas type polysyndactyly and preaxial polydactyly (PPD) with or without triphalangeal thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Dagmar; Pawlik, Barbara; Li, Yun; Akarsu, Nurten A; Caliebe, Almuth; May, Klaus J W; Schweiger, Bernd; Vargas, Fernando R; Balci, Sevim; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Wollnik, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Werner mesomelic syndrome (WMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with unknown molecular etiology characterized by hypo- or aplasia of the tibiae in addition to the preaxial polydactyly (PPD) of the hands and feet and/or five-fingered hand with absence of thumbs. We show that point mutations of a specific nucleotide within the sonic hedgehog (SHH) regulatory region (ZRS) cause WMS. In a previously unpublished WMS family, we identified the causative G>A transition at position 404 of the ZRS, and in six affected family members of a second WMS family we found a 404G>C mutation of the ZRS. The 404G>A ZRS mutation is known as the "Cuban mutation" of PPD type II (PPD2). Interestingly, the index patient of that family had tibial hypoplasia as well. These data provide the first evidence that WMS is caused by a specific ZRS mutation, which leads to strong ectopic SHH expression. In contrast, we show that complete duplications of the ZRS region lead to type Haas polysyndactyly or triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome, but do not affect lower limb development. We suggest the term "ZRS-associated syndromes" and a clinical subclassification for the continuum of limb malformations caused by different molecular alterations of the ZRS.

  19. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for...

  20. Hand Detection Using HSV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Noreen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural Human Computer Interaction HCI is the demand of todays technology oriented world. Detecting and tracking of face and hands are important for gesture recognition. Skin detection is a very popular and useful technique for detecting and tracking human-body parts. It has been much attention mainly because of its vast range of applications such as face detection and tracking naked people detection hand detection and tracking people retrieval in databases and Internet etc. Many models and algorithms are being used for detection of face hand and its gesture. Hand detection using model or classification is to build a decision rule that will discriminate between skin and non-skin pixels. Identifying skin color pixels involves finding the range of values for which most skin pixels would fall in a given color space. All external factors will be eliminated to detect the hand and its color in the image in complex background.

  1. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  2. Operative design and technique of human hand allotransplantation%异体手移植的手术设计与操作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾立强; 裴国献; 林昂如; 王钢; 朱立军

    2001-01-01

    Objective To introduce the operative design and technique of human hand allotransplantation. Methods Hand allotransplantation was performed in two patients with right hand defect. In another patient with loss of both hands and distal 2/3 of the forearm, bilateral allotransplantation of hands and forearms was done. The operations were done according to the procedures of autogenons limb replantation: preparation of the recipient area, preparation of the donor limb, and reattachment of the corresponding structures. The level of bony reconnection was determined first. The radius and ulna of the recipient site and the donor limb were approximated after step - like osteotomy and fixed with screws. After suturing of the flexor digitorum profundus, the ulnar and radial arteries were anastomosed. Aftev blood had feowed out ofveins for severd minutes of veins, the cephalic and basilic veins were anastomosed. Suturing of the flexor digitorum superficialis and the wrist, and then the wrist and finger extensors, coaptation of the nerves, and skin closure were done consecutively. Postoperatively, immunosupressive drugs were used to prevent rejection. Results Transplantation of four hands in three cases lasted 7 hours and 52 minutes , 9 hours and 10 minutes, 9 hours and 28 minutes, and 10 hours and 5 minutes respectively. The ischaemic time of the transplanted hands was 6 hours, 6 hours and 19 minutes, 8 hours and 59 minutes, and 7 hours and 58 minutes respectively. Blood circulation of three hands in two cases were fluent while venous crisis occurred in another case 3 hours postoperatively, which was corrected by surgical exploration. All transplanted hands survived without rejection reaction over 2 to 14 months period of follow - up. Satisfactory restoration of the function was obtained. Conclusions It was of emphasis to determine the replantation level in accordance with the stumps of the patient's hands in the operative design of hand allotransplantation. The

  3. On the control of a robot hand by extracting neural signals from the PNS: preliminary results from a human implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, S; Rigosa, J; Carpaneto, J; Citi, L; Raspopovic, S; Guglielmelli, E; Benvenuto, A; Rossini, L; Di Pino, G; Cavallo, G; Carrozza, M C; Cipriani, C; Hoffmann, K P; Dario, P; Rossini, P M

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybrid neuroprosthetic systems (HBSs) linking the human nervous system with artificial devices is an important area of research that is currently addressed by several groups to restore sensorimotor function in people affected by different disabilities. It is particularly important to establish a fast, intuitive, bidirectional flow of information between the nervous system of the user and the smart robotic device. Among the possible solutions to achieve this goal, interfaces with the peripheral nervous system and in particular intraneural electrodes can represent an interesting choice. In the present study, thin-film longitudinal intra-fascicular electrodes were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of an amputee. The possibility of restoring the bidirectional link between the subject and the external world was investigated during a 4 week trial. The result showed that both the extraction of motor information and the restoration of sensory function are possible.

  4. Crystallization of the Zalpha domain of the human editing enzyme ADAR1 complexed with a DNA-RNA chimeric oligonucleotide in the left-handed Z-conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bernard A; Athanasiadis, Alekos; Hanlon, Eugene B; Lowenhaupt, Ky; Wilbert, Christina M; Rich, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The Zalpha domain of human double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) has been crystallized with a hexanucleotide containing alternating deoxyribose and ribose furanose sugars. Solution circular dichroism experiments show that this double-stranded chimera (dCrG)(3) initially adopts the right-handed A-conformation. However, addition of stoichiometric amounts of Zalpha causes a rapid transition to the Z-conformation. Raman spectroscopy of crystals of the Zalpha-(dCrG)(3) complex confirm that the chimeric oligonucleotide is stabilized in the Z-conformation. A complete data set has been obtained at 2.5 A resolution. The Zalpha-(dCrG)(3) crystals belong to the tetragonal I422 space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 104.2, c = 117.6 A. Work is under way to solve the structure by molecular replacement.

  5. Facilitation from hand muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve to the extensor carpi radialis motoneurone pool in humans: a study with an electromyogram-averaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Sato, Toshiaki; Nakano, Haruki; Fujii, Hiromi; Shindo, Masaomi; Naito, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Effects of low-threshold afferents of hand muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve on an excitability of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motoneurone pool in humans were examined using an electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) technique. Changes of EMG-A of ECR exhibiting 10% of the maximum contraction by electrical stimulation to the ulnar nerve at the wrist (ES-UN) and mechanical stimulation to the hypothenar muscles (MS-HTM) and first dorsal interosseus (MS-FDI) were evaluated in eight normal human subjects. The ES-UN with the intensity immediately below the motor threshold and MS-HTM and -FDI with the intensity below the threshold of the tendon(T)-reflex were delivered. Early and significant peaks in EMG-A were produced by ES-UN, MS-HTM, and MS-FDI in eight of eight subjects. The mean amplitudes of the peaks by ES-UN, MS-HTM, and MS-FDI were, respectively, 121.9%, 139.3%, and 149.9% of the control EMG (100%). The difference between latencies of the peaks by ES-UN and MS-HTM, and ES-UN and MS-FDI was almost equivalent to that of the Hoffmann(H)- and T-reflexes of HTM and FDI, respectively. The peaks by ES-UN, MS-HTM, and MS-FDI diminished with tonic vibration stimulation (TVS) to HTM and FDI, respectively. These findings suggest that group Ia afferents of the hand muscles facilitate the ECR motoneurone pool.

  6. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Sun Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for tendon and joint force analysis. EMG is used on hand muscles associated with hand functions and with signal-processing technology.

  7. The thumb subdomain of yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is involved in processivity, transcript fidelity and mitochondrial transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Gilberto; Sousa, Rui; Brieba, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    Single subunit RNA polymerases have evolved 2 mechanisms to synthesize long transcripts without falling off a DNA template: binding of nascent RNA and interactions with an RNA:DNA hybrid. Mitochondrial RNA polymerases share a common ancestor with T-odd bacteriophage single subunit RNA polymerases. Herein we characterized the role of the thumb subdomain of the yeast mtRNA polymerase gene (RPO41) in complex stability, processivity, and fidelity. We found that deletion and point mutants of the thumb subdomain of yeast mtRNA polymerase increase the synthesis of abortive transcripts and the probability that the polymerase will disengage from the template during the formation of the late initial transcription and elongation complexes. Mutations in the thumb subdomain increase the amount of slippage products from a homopolymeric template and, unexpectedly, thumb subdomain deletions decrease the binding affinity for mitochondrial transcription factor (Mtf1). The latter suggests that the thumb subdomain is part of an extended binding surface area involved in binding Mtf1.

  8. A novel use for suture button suspension: reconstruction of the dorsal ulnar ligament to treat thumb metacarpal dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajul; Martin, Garry; Thomson, James Grant

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous treatment algorithms that have been developed to treat thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. A newer treatment option for these patients is CMC stabilization using suture button suspensionplasty. The authors of this case report have extensive experience with the suture-button suspensionplasty using the Mini TightRope CMC technique (Arthrex). We present a novel usage of the suture-button suspensionplasty to reconstruct the dorsal ulnar ligament (in contrast to the usual reconstruction of the volar beak ligament) to treat a patient with persistent thumb metacarpal dislocation at the CMC joint. Two separate patients are presented. One patient demonstrates volar beak ligament instability, and the other demonstrates dorsal ulnar ligament instability. Both patients' demographics and operative indications are described. The operative technique for the novel usage of the suture-button suspensionplasty is described. Operative results of the dorsal ulnar ligament reconstruction are reviewed. After suture-button suspension of the thumb metacarpal to the trapezium, the dorsal ulnar ligament has been reconstructed. The patient demonstrated stability of the thumb CMC joint without dorsal or radial dislocation. The authors of this case report present a novel usage of the suture-button suspensionplasty to treat a patient with proximal thumb metacarpal dislocation at the trapezial-metacarpal interface. This method, in contrast to the referenced method of volar beak ligament reconstruction, allows reconstruction of the dorsal ulnar ligament. This allows stabilization of the joint by preventing dorsal and radial dislocation of the metacarpal.

  9. New electronic habit reminder for the management of thumb-sucking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for intervention of nonnutritive sucking habits include counseling, positive reinforcement, calendar with rewards, adhesive bandage, bitter nail polish, long sleeves, and appliance therapy. All these methods have been reported in the literature with variable success rates. We present a case of an 8-year-old child with thumb-sucking habit successfully managed in a short period of 5 months by a new electronic habit reminder, an extraoral appliance which was designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with intraoral appliances.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst in the thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akio; Shiba, Eisuke; Hisaoka, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst is rare, and the most frequently affected region is the head and neck. Presentation of case A 41-year-old man noticed swelling and a small ulceration in the thumb pulp. A lesion with a 2-cm diameter was simply resected based on a diagnosis of infected epidermal cyst. Pathological diagnosis of the resected material was squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst. Consequent amputation was performed. Discussion and conclusion The clinical symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma arising from an epidermal cyst can mimic those of an infected epidermal cyst. The current report facilitates awareness of such disease. PMID:25912006

  11. Modified quad helix appliance for thumb sucking and cross bite correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digit sucking habit is a learned pattern of behavior commonly seen in children of preschool age. Prolonged digit sucking beyond the preschool age, lead to the development of malocclusion such as anterior open bite, maxillary constriction and posterior crossbite. Treatment strategies include interception of habit and correction of the malocclusion. The present case report describes a modified quad helix appliance used successfully in a 9-year-old child to intercept thumb sucking habit and simultaneous correction of posterior crossbite. The appliance has the advantage of easy fabrication, being versatile and more patients compliant.

  12. Neuronal network coherent with hand kinematics during fast repetitive hand movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Op de Beeck, Marc; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2012-01-16

    We quantified the coupling between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) cortical signals and the kinematics of fast repetitive voluntary hand movements monitored by a 3-axis accelerometer. Ten healthy right-handed adults performed self-paced flexion-extension movements of right-hand fingers at ~3Hz with either touching the thumb during flexions (TOUCH) or not (noTOUCH). At the sensor level, we found in all subjects and conditions significant coherence at the movement frequency (F0) and its first harmonic (F1). Coherence values were significantly higher in TOUCH compared to noTOUCH. At the group level, dynamic imaging of coherent sources localized the main source of coherent activity at the left primary motor (M1) hand area, except at F0 TOUCH were the main source was localized at the left primary sensory (S1) hand area. Other coherent brain areas were also identified at right S1-M1 cortices (F0), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F1), left posterior parietal cortex (F0 TOUCH and F1 noTOUCH) and left medial S1-M1 areas (TOUCH). This study highlights the prominent role of rhythmic neuronal activity phase-locked to movements for the encoding and the integration of key sensori-motor features of limb kinematics. This study also suggests that somatosensory afferences play a key role to sustain a high synchronization level between the neuronal activity in coherent brain areas and hand acceleration. Some coherent brain regions differed between F0 and F1 in both conditions, suggesting that distinct cortical areas are involved in different features of hand kinematics.

  13. Return to Play After Forearm and Hand Injuries in the National Basketball Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kyle W.; Hearns, Krystle A.; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hand injuries can result in significant time away from competition for professional basketball players. Time to return to play after hand injuries in elite athletes has not been well described. Purpose: To report the return to play from metacarpal fractures, phalangeal fractures, and thumb ligament tears in National Basketball Association (NBA) players over a 5-year period. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The NBA transaction report was analyzed from January 2009 to May 2014. Players were identified if they were added to the inactive list (IL), missed games due to their injury, or underwent surgery as a result of hand injury. Number of games missed due to injury, days spent on the IL, and age at injury were calculated by injury type and location. Results: One hundred thirty-seven injuries were identified: 39 injuries to the hand and 98 injuries to the finger. Three major injury patterns were identified and analyzed: metacarpal fractures (n = 26), phalangeal fractures (n = 33), and thumb ligament tears (n = 9). The type of injury sustained affected return to play (P < .05). All thumb ligament tears required surgery and had the longest return to play of 67.5 ± 17.7 days (P < .05). The return to play for surgically treated metacarpal fractures (56.7 ± 26.3 days) was significantly greater than nonsurgically treated metacarpal fractures (26.3 ± 12.1 days; P < .01). Return to play for surgically repaired phalangeal fractures (46.2 ± 10.8 days) trended greater but was not significantly different than phalangeal fractures treated nonsurgically (33.3 ± 28.5 days; P = .21). Conclusion: Hand injuries in professional basketball players can lead to prolonged periods of time away from competition, especially after surgery. This study provides guidelines on expected return to play in the NBA after these common hand injuries. PMID:28251168

  14. [The first ray of the hand and the foot in the primates (II). Functional anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J-N

    2008-08-01

    To study the articular amplitude of the first ray of both hands and feet using passive mobilisation, either on fresh human cadavers or on living primates after anesthesia (namely eight pongidae, 15 cercopithecidae, two platirrhinii, eight lemuroidae, three daubentonidae, two loridae and two galagonidae). Plans slightly parasagittal and parafrontal have been chosen to obtain the maximum dorsal and palmar or plantar inclinations and the maximum lateral and medial inclinations. The pronosupination of the first ray has been evaluated in relation of these plans and alike for the hand of the simian primates on the plan of the concavity and the convexity of trapezial surface. The results have been compared with these obtained in the man. The pronosupination of the first ray, so denominated by analogy with the pronosupination of the fore-arm is the movement which allows the pulp of the thumb or of the hallux to look now forward or now backward in order to be opposed at the other fingers during the pollici- or the hallucidigital pinch. It can be considered like "effective" unless if there is rotation around the longitudinal axis of its metacarpus (or metatarsus). The prosimian primates had great and sensibly similar circular amplitude of their first metacarpus and first metatarsus, which reached more than 90 degrees in all the directions. It allowed a pronosupination of 90 degrees, but this was only "apparent" because it has been obtained by the alone combined action of the two orthogonal axes at the basis of the ray by simple effect of cardan joint. The anthropoids had only limited circular amplitude, not exceeding 45 degrees. It was associated with an "effective" pronosupination according to a longitudinal axis. The rotation reached 90 degrees. It was produced around the point of anchorage made up by the medial ligaments for the trapezometacarpal articulation and the lateral ligaments for the cuneometatarsal. This movement was possible because of the peculiar relief of

  15. Twin digital and in-step neurovascularised free flaps for reconstruction of the degloved mutilated hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S J; Koh, S H; Chung, C H

    2010-11-01

    Degloved mutilated hand injury results in severe contracture of palmar surfaces after avulsion defects of soft tissue and insensate scarring of amputated digits at the proximal interphalangeal level. In an effort to restore the basic function of such hands, we simultaneously used a sensate in-step free flap for re-surfacing the first web space and sensate twin digital free flaps for re-surfacing the palmar defects of the thumb and index finger. Three male patients sustained degloved mutilated hand injury from a machine in a factory. The average age of the patients was 26 years. These injuries were reconstructed by concomitant twin digital neurovascularised free flaps harvested on the contralateral hands and the in-step neurovascularised free flaps harvested on the feet. The lateral plantar vascular pedicle of the in-step flaps was anastomosed to the vascular pedicle of the twin digital flaps by a flow-through fashion. All flaps survived. These flaps provided durable sensate coverage and improved pinch and grasp. The morbidity of donor fingers and feet was minimal. These described flaps supply durable glabrous sensate skin of prehensile function in degloved mutilated hands. Our method is useful in the reconstruction of degloved mutilated hands with amputated stumps of the thumb and counter digit more than 3 cm in length required for pinch and grip. Copyright © 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Species-specific differences and similarities in the behavior of hand-raised dog and wolf pups in social situations with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Márta; Gyori, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám; Virányi, Zsófia; Kubinyi, Eniko; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2005-09-01

    In order to reveal early species-specific differences, we observed the behavior of dog puppies (n = 11) and wolf pups (n = 13) hand raised and intensively socialized in an identical way. The pups were studied in two object-preference tests at age 3, 4, and 5 weeks. After a short isolation, we observed the subjects' behavior in the presence of a pair of objects, one was always the subject's human foster parent (caregiver) and the other was varied; nursing bottle (3 weeks), unfamiliar adult dog (3 and 5 weeks), unfamiliar experimenter (4 and 5 weeks), and familiar conspecific age mate (4 weeks). Dogs and wolves did not differ in their general activity level during the tests. Wolf pups showed preference for the proximity of the caregiver in two of the tests; Bottle-Caregiver at the age of 3 weeks and Experimenter-Caregiver at the age of 5 weeks, while dogs showed preference to the caregiver in three tests; conspecific Pup-Caregiver and Experimenter-Caregiver at the age of 4 weeks and dog-caregiver at the age of 5. Compared to wolves, dogs tended to display more communicative signals that could potentially facilitate social interactions, such as distress vocalization, tail wagging, and gazing at the humans' face. In contrast to dog puppies, wolf pups showed aggressive behavior toward a familiar experimenter and also seemed to be more prone to avoidance. Our results demonstrate that already at this early age--despite unprecedented intensity of socialization and the comparable social (human) environment during early development--there are specific behavioral differences between wolves and dogs mostly with regard to their interactions with humans.

  17. On the origins of human handedness and language: a comparative review of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Hopkins, William D

    2013-09-01

    Within the evolutionary framework about the origin of human handedness and hemispheric specialization for language, the question of expression of population-level manual biases in nonhuman primates and their potential continuities with humans remains controversial. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence showing consistent population-level handedness particularly for complex manual behaviors in both monkeys and apes. In the present article, within a large comparative approach among primates, we will review our contribution to the field and the handedness literature related to two particular sophisticated manual behaviors regarding their potential and specific implications for the origins of hemispheric specialization in humans: bimanual coordinated actions and gestural communication. Whereas bimanual coordinated actions seem to elicit predominance of left-handedness in arboreal primates and of right-handedness in terrestrial primates, all handedness studies that have investigated gestural communication in several primate species have reported stronger degree of population-level right-handedness compared to noncommunicative actions. Communicative gestures and bimanual actions seem to affect differently manual asymmetries in both human and nonhuman primates and to be related to different lateralized brain substrates. We will discuss (1) how the data of hand preferences for bimanual coordinated actions highlight the role of ecological factors in the evolution of handedness and provide additional support the postural origin theory of handedness proposed by MacNeilage [MacNeilage [2007]. Present status of the postural origins theory. In W. D. Hopkins (Ed.), The evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates (pp. 59-91). London: Elsevier/Academic Press] and (2) the hypothesis that the emergence of gestural communication might have affected lateralization in our ancestor and may constitute the precursors of the hemispheric specialization for language.

  18. Contact transfer of anions from hands as a function of the use of hand lotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, R. W.; Schulman, M.

    2001-01-01

    Contact transfer of anions from human hands can result in contamination of materials, increasing their rate of corrosion. Two types of hand lotion were applied to the hands: one was specially formulated for cleanroom use and the other was a popular commercial lotion. The effect on contact transfer of anions was measured versus anion transfer from washed hands without lotions.

  19. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  20. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coquin Didier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  1. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Coquin, Didier; Lambert, Patrick; Buzuloiu, Vasile

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  2. fMRI reveals a lower visual field preference for hand actions in human superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) and precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossit, Stéphanie; McAdam, Teresa; McLean, D Adam; Goodale, Melvyn A; Culham, Jody C

    2013-10-01

    Humans are more efficient when performing actions towards objects presented in the lower visual field (VF) than in the upper VF. The present study used slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether human brain areas implicated in action would show such VF preferences. Participants were asked to fixate one of four different positions allowing objects to be presented in the upper left, upper right, lower left or lower right VF. In some trials they reached to grasp the object with the right hand while in others they passively viewed the object. Crucially, by manipulating the fixation position, rather than the position of the objects, the biomechanics of the movements did not differ across conditions. The superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) and the left precuneus, brain areas implicated in the control of reaching, were significantly more activated when participants grasped objects presented in the lower VF relative to the upper VF. Importantly, no such VF preferences were observed in these regions during passive viewing. This finding fits well with evidence from the macaque neurophysiology that neurons within visuomotor regions over-represent the lower VF relative to the upper VF and indicate that the neural responses within these regions may reflect a functional lower VF advantage during visually-guided actions.

  3. Thumb Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  4. Human Driving Forces and Their Impacts on Land Use/Land Cover. Hands-On! Developing Active Learning Modules on the Human Dimensions of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Susanne

    This learning module aims to engage students in problem solving, critical thinking, scientific inquiry, and cooperative learning. The module is appropriate for use in any introductory or intermediate undergraduate course that focuses on human-environment relationships. The module explains that land use/cover change has occurred at all times in all…

  5. Racial Variation in Treatment of Traumatic Finger/Thumb Amputation: A National Comparative Study of Replantation and Revision Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic finger/thumb amputations are some of the most prevalent traumatic injuries affecting Americans each year. Rates of replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation, however, have been steadily declining across U.S. hospitals, which may make these procedures less accessible to minorities and vulnerable populations. The specific aim of this study was to examine racial variation in finger replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Methods Using a two-level hierarchical model, we retrospectively compared replantation rates for African-American patients with those of Whites, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients younger than 65 with traumatic finger/thumb amputation injuries who sought care at a U.S. trauma center between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study sample. Results We analyzed 13,129 patients under 65 years of age with traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Replantation rates declined over time from 19% to 14% (p = 0.004). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, African-Americans (OR=0.81; CI: 0.66–0.99; p = 0.049) were less likely to undergo replantation procedures than Whites, and uninsured patients (OR=0.73; CI: 0.62–0.84; p advancements in microsurgical techniques and the increasing use of reconstructive surgery in other fields, finger/thumb replantation rates are declining in the U.S. and vulnerable populations are less likely to undergo replantation after amputation injuries. Regionalization of care for these injuries may not only provide a higher quality care but also reduce variations in treatment. PMID:26910702

  6. Effect of object width on muscle and joint forces during thumb-index finger grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Laurent; Domalain, Mathieu; Berton, Eric

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the impact of modifying the object width on muscle and joint forces while gripping objects. The experimental protocol consisted to maintain horizontally five objects of different widths (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 cm) with a thumb-index finger grip. Subjects were required to grasp spontaneously the object without any instruction regarding the grip force (GF) to apply. A biomechanical model of thumb-index finger pinch was developed to estimate muscle and joint forces. This model included electromyography, fingertip force, and kinematics data as inputs. The finger joint postures and the GF varied across the object widths. The estimated muscle forces also varied significantly according to the object width. Interestingly, we observed that the muscle force/GF ratios of major flexor muscles remain particularly stable with respect to the width whereas other muscle ratios differed largely. This may argue for a control strategy in which the actions of flexors were preserved in spite of change in joint postures. The estimated joint forces tended to increase with object width and increased in the distal-proximal sense. Overall, these results are of importance for the ergonomic design of handheld objects and for clinical applications.

  7. Isolated thumb carpometacarpal joint dislocation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akritopoulos Panagiotis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated thumb carpometacarpal dislocation is a rare injury pattern and the optimal treatment option is still controversial. Case Description We present a 27-year-old basketball player who underwent an isolated dorsal dislocation of the thumb carpometacarpal joint after a fall. The dislocation was successfully reduced by closed means but the joint was found to be grossly unstable. Due to inherent instability, repair of the ruptured dorsoradial ligament and joint capsule was performed. The ligament was detached from its proximal insertion into trapezium and subsequently stabilized via suture anchors. The torn capsule was repaired in an end-to-end fashion and immobilization of the joint was applied for 6 weeks. Results At 3-year follow up evaluation the patient was pain free and returned to his previous level of activity. No restriction of carpometacrpal movements or residual instability was noticed. Radiographic examination showed normal joint alignment and no signs of subluxation or early osteoarthritis. Conclusion Surgical stabilization of the dorsal capsuloligamentous complex may be considered the selected treatment option in isolated carpometacarpal joint dislocations, that remain unstable after closed reduction in young and high demand patients. Level of Clinical Evidence: Level IV

  8. Post-traumatic instability of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J

    1977-01-01

    Of eithty-six patients with collateral ligament instability of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb, sixty-six (77 per cent) had ulnar and twenty (23 per cent) had radial instability, while in addition twenty-four had fractures and twenty-nine had volar subluxation of the proximal phalanx. Of the sixty-nine patients operated on, sixty-five had an abnormality of the ulnar or radial collateral ligament proper or of its attachment; two, subluxation of the extensor pollicis longus; and two, stretching of the adductor expansion. Stability was restored by collateral ligament repair or reconstruction, by fixation of a fracture fragment with a Kirschner wire, or by arthrodesis in all but five thumbs. Of the five patients who did not have stability of the metacarpophalangeal joint following surgery, three had had the collateral ligament sutured more than three weeks after injury and two had had reconstruction of the collateral ligament using a tendon graft. Early surgical treatment is recommended for all patients with post-traumatic instability of the metacarpophalangeal joint greater than 45 degrees and for those with volar subluxation of the proximal phalanx or a displaced fracture of the base of the proximal phalanx. Collateral ligament repair is indicated for patients operated on within three weeks of injury, and reconstruction of the ligament by means of a tendon graft is recommended for those treated more than three weeks after injury.

  9. The aesthetic hand prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, J

    1981-10-01

    The high-quality aesthetic prosthesis can be equally helpful to those with acquired amputation and to those whose loss is due to agenesis. Restoring near-normal appearance improves patients' function in a global sense, enabling them to better utilize what they have in the complex socioeconomic environment of today's mobile society. The aesthetic prosthesis often also gives some prehensile assistance, providing an opposition part for remaining digits or thumb. The needs of each patient must be carefully considered, and the prosthesis must conform to the high standards of quality outlined. Its use is primarily for the unilateral amputee who is making a good adjustment to the loss with realistic expectations.

  10. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dębek, Anna; Czyrny, Zbigniew; Nowicki, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain's and Wartenberg's disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometa-carpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon's canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath) can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination.

  11. Sonography of pathological changes in the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dębek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Everyday medical practice shows that most common problems within the hand result from overload, injuries and degeneration. Dorsal side pathologies such as de Quervain’s and Wartenberg’s disease, intersection syndrome or degenerative lesions of carpometacarpal joint of the thumb discussed in the paper can be accurately diagnosed and differentiated by means of ultrasound examination. Ultrasound is similarly powerful in detection and grading of traumatic lesions involving extensor tendons and their sagittal bands or the flexor tendons and their pulleys. In the case of carpal tunnel syndrome one can not only visualize the median nerve but also other structures of the tunnel that may cause compression. Similarly ulnar nerve compression within the Guyon’s canal can be well evaluated. In cases of nerve trauma one can precisely define the level, and in cases of nerve discontinuity, the distance between stumps can be measured which is important in surgery planning. Often nerve trauma is a sequelae of tendon reconstruction. In such cases scars and nerve entrapment can be depicted. Tumors within a hand are usually benign, of which the most common are ganglia. On ultrasound examination a connection between a ganglion and its source (usually a joint or sheath can frequently be defined. The relationship of tumors to nerves, tendon sheaths or vessels may suggest their nature. Ultrasound with dynamic tissue assessment is a very valuable adjunct to clinical examination.

  12. Investigation on Inter-Limb Coordination and Motion Stability, Intensity and Complexity of Trunk and Limbs during Hands-Knees Crawling in Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shenglan; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Xu

    2017-03-28

    This study aimed to investigate the inter-limb coordination pattern and the stability, intensity, and complexity of the trunk and limbs motions in human crawling under different speeds. Thirty healthy human adults finished hands-knees crawling trials on a treadmill at six different speeds (from 1 km/h to 2.5 km/h). A home-made multi-channel acquisition system consisting of five 3-axis accelerometers (ACC) and four force sensors was used for the data collection. Ipsilateral phase lag was used to represent inter-limb coordination pattern during crawling and power, harmonic ratio, and sample entropy of acceleration signals were adopted to depict the motion intensity, stability, and complexity of trunk and limbs respectively. Our results revealed some relationships between inter-limb coordination patterns and the stability and complexity of trunk movement. Trot-like crawling pattern was found to be the most stable and regular one at low speed in the view of trunk movement, and no-limb-pairing pattern showed the lowest stability and the greatest complexity at high speed. These relationships could be used to explain why subjects tended to avoid no-limb-pairing pattern when speed was over 2 km/h no matter which coordination type they used at low speeds. This also provided the evidence that the central nervous system (CNS) chose a stable inter-limb coordination pattern to keep the body safe and avoid tumbling. Although considerable progress has been made in the study of four-limb locomotion, much less is known about the reasons for the variety of inter-limb coordination. The research results of the exploration on the inter-limb coordination pattern choice during crawling from the standpoint of the motion stability, intensity, and complexity of trunk and limbs sheds light on the underlying motor control strategy of the human CNS and has important significance in the fields of clinical diagnosis, rehabilitation engineering, and kinematics research.

  13. Increase in twitch force of the adductor pollicis muscle with stabilized preload at constant thumb abduction before and after administration of muscle relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH; Fidler, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the twitch force of the adductor pollicis remains stable when 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation is started after stabilization of the thumb preload at a constant degree of thumb abduction; also to study any possible increase in twitch force before the onset of and afte

  14. Traumatic hand injuries: the emergency clinician's evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Aaron; Hern, H Gene

    2011-06-01

    At the start of your Saturday afternoon shift, you are not surprised to see that several patients are waiting to be seen for physical injuries. The first patient is a 34-year-old woman who sustained injury to her hand while skiing, 2 hours prior to her arrival. She reports falling with her hand still tethered to the pole's grip, landing on her outstretched right hand. She felt a painful snap in her right thumb, which still hurts, but otherwise she did not sustain any other trauma. Her only complaint currently is pain at the base of the right thumb. The patient is otherwise completely healthy, has no past medical or surgical history, and takes no medications. Upon examination, the affected hand appears to be surprisingly normal except for mild tenderness and swelling over the ulnar aspect of her first metacarpophalangeal joint and mildly decreased strength in her pincher grasp. X-ray reveals no fracture. You wonder if there is additional testing that should be done to evaluate this injury. You move on to a second patient, a 24-year-old man who cut his ring finger knuckle when he punched a wall 2 days ago. Physical examination reveals a small puncture wound over the IV metacarpophalangeal joint with mild swelling, erythema, warmth, and decreased range of motion secondary to pain. X-ray reveals no fracture, but there's something suspicious about this case. A third patient is a 37-year-old industrial worker whose finger contacted the stream of a high-powered grease injector. Physical examination reveals a small puncture wound over the volar proximal interphalangeal joint of his left long finger, mild tenderness to palpation over the area, and slight decreased range of motion secondary to pain. You wonder if the injury is as benign as it looks.

  15. Neural bases of hand synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The human hand has so many degrees of freedom that it may seem impossible to control. A potential solution to this problem is "synergy control" which combines dimensionality reduction with great flexibility. With applicability to a wide range of tasks, this has become a very popular concept. In this review, we describe the evolution of the modern concept using studies of kinematic and force synergies in human hand control, neurophysiology of cortical and spinal neurons, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hand muscles. We go beyond the often purely descriptive usage of synergy by reviewing the organization of the underlying neuronal circuitry in order to propose mechanistic explanations for various observed synergy phenomena. Finally, we propose a theoretical framework to reconcile important and still debated concepts such as the definitions of "fixed" vs. "flexible" synergies and mechanisms underlying the combination of synergies for hand control.

  16. Salter-Harris type IV fracture of the proximal phalanx of the thumb with rotation of the epiphysis: Outcome 10 years following open reduction and K-wire fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Al-Qattan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We present a rare case of Salter-Harris type IV fracture of the proximal phalanx of the thumb with rotation of the epiphysis. Long term outcome was satisfactory but there was diaphyseal constriction leading to a narrower thumb.

  17. Design of a wearable hand exoskeleton for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Inseong; Lee, Jeongsoo; Park, Yeongyu; Bae, Joonbum

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, design of a wearable hand exoskeleton system for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers, is proposed. The exoskeleton was designed with a simple and wearable structure to aid finger motions in 1 degree of freedom (DOF). A hand grasping experiment by fully-abled people was performed to investigate general hand flexion/extension motions and the polynomial curve of general hand motions was obtained. To customize the hand exoskeleton for the user, the polynomial curve was adjusted to the joint range of motion (ROM) of the user and the optimal design of the exoskeleton structure was obtained using the optimization algorithm. A prototype divided into two parts (one part for the thumb, the other for rest fingers) was actuated by only two linear motors for compact size and light weight.

  18. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its...... functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically...

  19. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  20. Ubiquitous Human Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a thumb tack and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This short essay explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  1. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Sasha B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR. This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05 between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05. Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device is capable of moving the hand's digits through

  2. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  3. Return to Play After Forearm and Hand Injuries in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kyle W; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

    2017-02-01

    Hand injuries can result in significant time away from competition for professional basketball players. Time to return to play after hand injuries in elite athletes has not been well described. To report the return to play from metacarpal fractures, phalangeal fractures, and thumb ligament tears in National Basketball Association (NBA) players over a 5-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. The NBA transaction report was analyzed from January 2009 to May 2014. Players were identified if they were added to the inactive list (IL), missed games due to their injury, or underwent surgery as a result of hand injury. Number of games missed due to injury, days spent on the IL, and age at injury were calculated by injury type and location. One hundred thirty-seven injuries were identified: 39 injuries to the hand and 98 injuries to the finger. Three major injury patterns were identified and analyzed: metacarpal fractures (n = 26), phalangeal fractures (n = 33), and thumb ligament tears (n = 9). The type of injury sustained affected return to play (P basketball players can lead to prolonged periods of time away from competition, especially after surgery. This study provides guidelines on expected return to play in the NBA after these common hand injuries.

  4. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1993-01-01

    Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

  5. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  6. Replantation of thumb or fingers with skin degloving injury in 30 patients: an outcomes evaluation%30例手指皮肤套脱伤再植术后疗效及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪秉青; 侯瑞兴; 巨积辉; 金光哲; 王凯

    2016-01-01

    目的 报告应用再植术治疗手指皮肤套脱伤术后的疗效.方法 对我院自2007年至2012年30例共42指采用再植术治疗手指皮肤套脱伤的病例进行2~7年(平均4年)的随访观察,并将示指、中指、环指、小指套脱伤按撕脱平面分为Ⅰ度套脱伤和Ⅱ度套脱伤,应用中华医学会手外科学会断指再植功能评定试用标准及MHQ手功能评价标准对手指功能进行评定.结果 根据中华医学会手外科学会断指再植功能评定试用标准评定,30例手指皮肤套脱伤患者术后恢复优良率达93.3%,其中Ⅰ度皮肤套脱伤术后恢复优良率达100%,Ⅱ度皮肤套脱伤术后恢复优良率87.5%.根据MHQ手功能评价标准,患者主观评价得分较高.结论 运用再植术治疗手指皮肤套脱伤,修复的手指可最大限度地恢复外形和功能,其中Ⅰ度套脱伤术后恢复效果高于Ⅱ度套脱伤术.患者对术后恢复的满意程度较高.%Objective To report the clinical outcomes of replantation of thumb and fingers with skin degloving injuries.Methods Thirty patients with 42 avulsed thumb and fingers treated with replantation from 2007 to 2012 were follow-up for 2 to 7 years (average,4 years).Based on the level of the degloving injury,avulsion of the index,middle,ring and little fingers was categorized into grade Ⅰ avulsion and grade Ⅱavulsion.The results of replantation were assessed by the provisional functional assessment criteria for thumb and finger replantation issued by the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association and by the Michigan hand outcomes questionnaire (MHQ).Results According to the provisional functional assessment criteria for thumb and finger replantation issued by the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association,93.3 % of the cases achieved excellent and good results.This satisfactory rate was 100% in grade Ⅰ avulsions and 87.5% in grade Ⅱ avulsions.MHQ revealed high patient satisfaction

  7. Three-dimensional modeling of human hands based on hand anatomical structures%基于解剖结构可视化手模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桂有; 张正治; 杨博贵; 孙华; 贾卫斗

    2007-01-01

    确显示手掌部主要解剖结构.%BACKGROUND:The anatomic structures and kinetic characteristics are the bases to establish hand model, and the kinetic characteristics of hand are determined by the anatomic structure. So, numerous scholars have paid close attention to virtual hand models based on the anatomic structures of hand.OBJECTIVE: To construct visible hand model based on anatomic structure.DESIGN: Single sample trial.SETTING: Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This trial was carried out in the Center Laboratory, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA in October 2003. Two fresh adult hands, which involved wrist joint, provided by the Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, were employed. The two hands had no organic damage by naked observation.METHODS: The specimens were embedded and mill-cut (mill-cut layer thinness 0.2 mm). Cannon (ESO 1OD) digital camera (6.3 million pixel) was used for image collection. Each image was 31.5 MB, Data of 1 200 images were obtained.Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software was used for image treatment and then two-dimensional cross-section images were collected. The bone, flexor tendon and the outline of hand was three-dimensionally reconstructed by using the software,which was developed by the Department of Computer Science and Technology,Tsinghua University and Institute of Computer Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone, flexor tendon and outline of hand.RESULTS: ①The outline of hand: After being reconstructed, the outline, which consisted of all fingers and nails, was well displayed, and observed from many directions.② Three-dimensional reconstruction of the bone of hand: The reconstructed bones of hands involved digital bones, metacarpal bones, carpal bones and all joints, and they could be displayed solely or in groups with other

  8. An emerging recombinant human enterovirus 71 responsible for the 2008 outbreak of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Fuyang city of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Junling

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, a common contagious disease that usually affects children, is normally mild but can have life-threatening manifestations. It can be caused by enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackieviruses and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71 with highly variable clinical manifestations. In the spring of 2008, a large, unprecedented HFMD outbreak in Fuyang city of Anhui province in the central part of southeastern China resulted in a high aggregation of fatal cases. In this study, epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Of the 6,049 cases reported between 1 March and 9 May of 2008, 3023 (50% were hospitalized, 353 (5.8% were severe and 22 (0.36% were fatal. HEV71 was confirmed as the etiological pathogen of the outbreak. Phylogenetic analyses of entire VP1 capsid protein sequence of 45 Fuyang HEV71 isolates showed that they belong to C4a cluster of the C4 subgenotype. In addition, genetic recombinations were found in the 3D region (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a major component of the viral replication complex of the genome between the Fuyang HEV71 strain and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, resulting in a recombination virus. In conclusion, an emerging recombinant HEV71 was responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Fuyang City of China, 2008.

  9. Communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements activated the mirror neuron system

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kimberly J.; Isenberg, Nancy; Haxby, James V.

    2007-01-01

    Humans produce hand movements to manipulate objects, but also make hand movements to convey socially relevant information to one another. The mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated during the observation and execution of actions. Previous neuroimaging experiments have identified the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and frontal operculum as parts of the human MNS. Although experiments have suggested that object-directed hand movements drive the MNS, it is not clear whether communicative hand ge...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High ...

  13. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  14. The natural history of the growth of the hand: I. Hand area as a percentage of body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsheybani, H R; Crecelius, G M; Timothy, N H; Pfeiffer, M; Saggers, G C; Manders, E K

    2001-03-01

    The use of a patient's own hand as a tool to estimate the area of burn injury is well documented. The area of the palmar surface of one hand has been estimated to be 1 percent of the body surface area. The area of the palmar surface of the hand was measured to test the accuracy of this estimate and then compared with the body surface area as calculated by formulas in common use. This study also sought to determine the natural history of the growth of the hand to permit development of a readily available, bedside means of estimating hand area and body surface area. Bilateral hand tracings were obtained from 800 volunteers ranging in age from 2 to 89 years. The area of each tracing was determined using an integrating planimeter. The height and weight of each individual were measured, and his/her body surface area was calculated. The palmar hand's percentage of body surface area was determined by calculating the quotient for hand area divided by body surface area. Additionally, the width of the hand was measured from the ulnar aspect at the palmar digital crease of the small finger to the point where the thumb rested against the base of the index finger. The length of the hand was measured from the middle of the interstylon to the tip of the middle finger. These two figures were multiplied together to obtain a product which approximated the area of the hand. Based on the most commonly used DuBois formula for calculating body surface area, the area of palmar surface of the hand corresponds to 0.78 +/- 0.08 percent of the body surface area in adults. The percentage varies somewhat with age and reaches a maximum of 0.87 +/- 0.06 percent in young children. Multiplying the length of the hand by its width overestimates the area of the hand as determined by planimetry by only 2 percent. A patient's own hand may be used as a complementary, readily available template for estimation of burn area or other areas of disease or injury. In adults, the area of tracing of the outline

  15. Thumb Ossification Composite Index (TOCI) for Predicting Peripubertal Skeletal Maturity and Peak Height Velocity in Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Validation Study of Premenarchal Girls with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Followed Longitudinally Until Skeletal Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Alec L H; Chau, W W; Shi, B; Chow, Simon K; Yu, Fiona Y P; Lam, T P; Ng, Bobby K W; Qiu, Y; Cheng, Jack C Y

    2017-09-06

    Accurate skeletal maturity assessment is important to guide clinical evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis, but commonly used methods are inadequate or too complex for rapid clinical use. The objective of the study was to propose a new simplified staging method, called the thumb ossification composite index (TOCI), based on the ossification pattern of the 2 thumb epiphyses and the adductor sesamoid bone; to determine its accuracy in predicting skeletal maturation when compared with the Sanders simplified skeletal maturity system (SSMS); and to validate its interrater and intrarater reliability. Hand radiographs of 125 girls, acquired when they were newly diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis prior to menarche and during longitudinal follow-up until skeletal maturity (a minimum of 4 years), were scored with the TOCI and SSMS. These scores were compared with digital skeletal age (DSA) and radius, ulna, and small hand bones (RUS) scores; anthropometric data; peak height velocity; and growth-remaining profiles. Correlations were analyzed with the chi-square test, Spearman and Cramer V correlation methods, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Reliability analysis using the intraclass correlation (ICC) was conducted. Six hundred and forty-five hand radiographs (average, 5 of each girl) were scored. The TOCI staging system was highly correlated with the DSA and RUS scores (r = 0.93 and 0.92, p 0.97. The new proposed TOCI could provide a simplified staging system for the assessment of skeletal maturity of subjects with idiopathic scoliosis. The index needs to be subjected to further multicenter validation in different ethnic groups.

  16. 3D printed self-driven thumb-sized motors for in-situ underwater pollutant remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fen; Hu, Qipeng; Dong, Lina; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Tingtao; Xin, Hongbo; Liu, Miaoxing; Xue, Chaowen; Song, Xiangwei; Ai, Fanrong; Li, Ting; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-02-01

    Green fuel-driven thumb sized motors (TSM) were designed and optimized by 3D printing to explore their in-situ remediation applications in rare studied underwater area. Combined with areogel processing and specialized bacteria domestication, each tiny TSM could realize large area pollutant treatment precisely in an impressive half-automatically manner.

  17. The Significance of the Hand for the Elementary Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The use of the hand is a physiological sequence. The prehensile nature of the human hand is an evolutionary feature as is the freeing of the hands due to bipedalism. Kay Baker outlines of the human hand's significance to the mind as found in chapter 14 of the "Absorbent Mind." In this article, she has created lists that break down the…

  18. Multiscale Convolutional Neural Networks for Hand Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconstrained hand detection in still images plays an important role in many hand-related vision problems, for example, hand tracking, gesture analysis, human action recognition and human-machine interaction, and sign language recognition. Although hand detection has been extensively studied for decades, it is still a challenging task with many problems to be tackled. The contributing factors for this complexity include heavy occlusion, low resolution, varying illumination conditions, different hand gestures, and the complex interactions between hands and objects or other hands. In this paper, we propose a multiscale deep learning model for unconstrained hand detection in still images. Deep learning models, and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs in particular, have achieved state-of-the-art performances in many vision benchmarks. Developed from the region-based CNN (R-CNN model, we propose a hand detection scheme based on candidate regions generated by a generic region proposal algorithm, followed by multiscale information fusion from the popular VGG16 model. Two benchmark datasets were applied to validate the proposed method, namely, the Oxford Hand Detection Dataset and the VIVA Hand Detection Challenge. We achieved state-of-the-art results on the Oxford Hand Detection Dataset and had satisfactory performance in the VIVA Hand Detection Challenge.

  19. Radiation-induced thumbs carcinoma due to practicing dental X-ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam S Halboub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with diagnostic X-ray radiation may result in serious health problems, unless protection guidelines are followed. This became prevalent immediately a decade following the invention of X-ray radiation, where it had not been known that the accumulative exposure to X-ray radiation may carry huge health hazards. The reoccurrence of various fatal cancer cases compelled the concerned health authorities to develop safety standards to be followed by all X-ray clinics and technicians worldwide. This report documents the clinical case of a dental radiographer, who developed thumbs carcinoma after 15 years of practicing the profession, most likely due to his neglect of the X-ray radiation protection guidelines.

  20. Ectopic banking of amputated great toe for delayed thumb reconstruction: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Ian L; Hui-Chou, Helen G; Zelken, Jonathan; Basile, Patrick L; Ipsen, Derek; Higgins, James P

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic banking of amputated parts is a recognized technique for delayed replantation of an amputated part when the amputation stump will not permit immediate replantation. This is conventionally performed with the intent of transferring the injured part back to its anatomic position when the amputation stump is more appropriate for replantation. Current warfare conditions have led to a commonly encountered military trauma injury pattern of multiple extremity amputations with protected trunk and core structures. This pattern poses many challenges, including the limit or absence of donor sites for immediate or delayed flap reconstructive procedures. We describe a case in which we ectopically banked the great toe of an amputated lower extremity for delayed thumb reconstruction.

  1. Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser (MRKH) syndrome with absent thumbs and big toes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mahira

    2014-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare developmental failure of Müllerian ducts. Principle clinical features of MRKH syndrome are primary amenorrhoea associated with congenital absence of vagina, uterine anomalies, normal ovaries, 46 XX karyotype with normal female secondary sexual characteristics and frequent association with renal, skeletal, and other congenital anomalies. A case of a 3-year-old child with congenitally absent thumbs and big toes is reported herein; she was brought in with complaints of urinary incontinence. Radiological investigation (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan) revealed absent uterus and vagina while both ovaries were normal. Intravenous urography (IVU) study showed bifid pelvicalyceal systems bilaterally. Karyotyping revealed a 46 XX female phenotype. Laparoscopy confirmed normal ovaries bilaterally and small unfused uterine buds lying beside both ovaries on each side of pelvis. Early diagnosis of MRKH syndrome is essential for timely planning of vaginal and (if possible) uterine reconstructive surgeries.

  2. Development of a Networked Thumb Print-Based Staff Attendance Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Awode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the development of a networked thumb print-based attendance management system. Now, more than ever, it has become necessary to give more thought to the methods of time and attendance management. The traditional time clock, manual attendance registering often no longer makes sense and simply does not meet the needs of the modern work environment. This system offers a comprehensive software solution that will streamline company's operations, and simplify timekeeping. Nowadays, the need of a solution for Time and Attendance in the modern company is a necessity. It is important to be able to manage and control the workers by means of a system of control of times and schedules.

  3. [Klippel-Feil syndrome with tracheoesophageal fistula, bifid thumb and cerebral angiolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta Carruyo, Eliéxer; Rojas Zerpa, Gustavo; Urdaneta Contreras, Adriana; Maldonado Alviarez, Malvy; Brito Rodríguez, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The Klippel-Feil syndrome is a congenital malformation of the skull flap involving complex cervical vertebrae and organs, characterized by a classic triad: short neck, limitation of movement of the head due to cervical spine fusion and low hairline in occipital region. It results from an error in the axial skeleton segmentation of the embryo; its incidence is estimated at 1/40,000-42,000 births and predominates in females. The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical picture of a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome and multiple malformations, including tracheoesophageal fistula, bifid thumb and intracranial lipomas/angiolipomas,that have not been previously described in the syndrome, so it is considered an exceptional finding.

  4. Enhanced MR imaging of tenosynovitis of hand and wrist in inflammatory arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Ashilyan, O.; Anavim, A.; Tramma, S. [Univ. of California, Orange (United States). Dept. of Radiological Sciences

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the appearance of tenosynovitis in various tendon groups in the wrist and hand and to compare MR enhanced and non-enhanced imaging evaluation of tenosynovitis of hand and wrist in inflammatory arthritis. We reviewed 72 MRI studies of hands and wrists, including coronal, axial and sagittal images in 30 consecutive patients with inflammatory arthritis and tenosynovitis. We compared the degree of synovitis on T2-weighted vs contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, using a predetermined scale. We also measured the extent of tenosynovitis in three dimensions. The tendons were assigned to volar, dorsal, ulnar and radial groups in the wrist and to extensor, flexor and thumb groups in the hand. Degree of tenosynovitis (graded 0-3), cross-sectional area and volume of the inflamed synovium in various tendon groups were then compared by statistical analysis. Review of the medical records revealed the following diagnoses in our patient population: rheumatoid arthritis (n=16), unspecified inflammatory polyarthritis (n=9), psoriatic arthritis (n=2), CREST syndrome (n=1), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=1), paraneoplastic syndrome with arthritis (n=1). The average T2 brightness scores and post-gadolinium enhancement scores were 1.0 and 1.7 respectively (P<0.001) in the wrist studies. The average T2 brightness scores and post-gadolinium enhancement scores were 0.7 and 1.4, respectively (P<0.001) in the hand studies. The average sensitivity of T2-weighted imaging for detection of tenosynovitis was 40% in the hand and 67% in the wrist tendons, when contrast-enhanced images were used as a reference. Carpal tunnel flexor tendons were the most frequently affected tendons of the wrist. The most frequently affected tendons of the hand were second and third flexor tendons. The hand flexors demonstrated higher degrees of enhancement and larger volumes of the inflamed tenosynovium than did the hand extensors and tendons of the thumb.

  5. A comparison of single-handed chin lift and two-handed jaw thrust for tracheal intubation using a lightwand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seong-Mi; Kim, Hyerim; Chang, Jee-Eun; Min, Seong-Won; Lee, Jung-Man; Hwang, Jin-Young

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of single-handed chin lift and two-handed jaw thrust on lightwand-guided intubation and postoperative sore throat. Sixty adult patients were included in the study. After induction of anesthesia, intubation was performed using a lightwand under single-handed chin lift or two-handed jaw thrust. In the single-handed chin lift group, the lightwand was inserted with the right hand after the mandible was lifted by placing the thumb of the left hand into the mouth. In the two-handed jaw thrust group, the lightwand was inserted while jaw thrust was achieved by an assistant using two hands. Lightwand search time, number of intubation attempts, and time to achieve intubation were assessed. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured before and after intubation. Postoperative sore throat was evaluated at 1 and 24 h after surgery. Lightwand search time was significantly shorter in the two-handed jaw thrust group compared to the single-handed chin lift group (7.2 ± 4.6 vs. 12.1 ± 9.1 s, respectively; p = 0.016). The two-handed jaw thrust group had shorter intubation time than the single-handed chin lift group (21.0 ± 6.6 vs. 27.9 ± 9.9 s, respectively; p = 0.004). The number of intubation attempts and hemodynamic changes during intubation were similar between the two groups. The incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat were lower at 24 h after surgery in the two-handed jaw thrust group compared with the single-handed chin lift group (p = 0.011). The two-handed jaw thrust facilitated lightwand-guided intubation, and reduced the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat compared to the single-handed chin lift.

  6. Radiological and clinical outcome after operations in patients with congenital deficiencies of the wrist and hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer-Schmied, Nicole; Jung, Martin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, Karl, E-mail: karl.ludwig@klinikum-herford.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Herford (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, therapy results, complications and radiologic workup of operatively treated congenital disorders of the hand and wrist in a large university center during a 10-year period. Methods: The institutional database was retrospectively analysed for patients with congenital disorders of the hand and wrist treated operatively during a 10-year period (1998-2007). Disorders were classified according to Van Schoonhoven into 11 different entities. For each entity the incidence, the patients' age at the time of operation, the pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological workup and the frequency of complications and reoperations were evaluated. Results: A total of 278 patients was treated operatively for congenital disorders of the hand and wrist with syndactyly being present in 112, thumb hypoplasia in 15, polydactyly in 11, radial clubhand in 7, radioulnar synostosis in 6, clinodactyly in 6, thumb duplication in 6, brachydactyly in 4 and macrodactyly in 4 cases. Patients' age at the time of operation varied substantially between the different entities with a mean age between 0.9 and 6.2 years. There were 9 complications (3%, n = 278) - all of them infections. There were 28 reoperations (10%, n = 278), 13 of them (5%, n = 278) due to reoccurring webs in syndactyly. Conclusion: Congenital disorders of the hand and wrist include various rare diseases with syndactyly and thumb hypoplasia being the most frequent entities. As a rule, diagnosis is obtained clinically. Radiologic workup typically consists of plain radiography. Complications are rare, whereas reoperations are frequent, mostly due to reoccurring webs in syndactyly.

  7. Comparison of SpO2 values from different fingers of the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Bakan, Mefkur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Zengin, Seniyye Ulgen; Idin, Kadir; Salihoglu, Ziya

    2015-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is a frequently used tool in anesthesia practice. Gives valuable information about arterial oxygen content, tissue perfusion and heart beat rate. In this study we aimed to provide the comparison of peripheral capillary hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) values among every finger of the two hands. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers from operative room stuffs between the ages of 18-30 years were enrolled in the study. They were monitored after 5 min of rest. After their non invasive blood pressure, heart rate, fasting time and body temperature were measured, SpO2 values were obtained from every finger and each of two hands fingers with the same pulse oximetry. All the SpO2 values were obtained after at least 1 min of measurement period. A total of 370 SpO2 measurements from 37 volunteers were obtained. The highest average SpO2 value was measured from right middle finger (98.2 % ± 1.2) and it was statistically significant when compared with right little finger and left middle finger. The second highest average SpO2 value was measured from right thumb and it was statistically significant only when compared with left middle finger (the finger with the lowest average SpO2 value) (p < 0.05). SpO2 measurement from the fingers of the both hands with the pulse oximetry, the right middle finger and right thumb have statistically significant higher value when compared with left middle finger in right-hand dominant volunteers. We assume that right middle finger and right thumb have the most accurate value that reflects the arterial oxygen saturation.

  8. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Senna

    Full Text Available Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  9. The design and development of a gloveless endoskeletal prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, R; Yeh, C; LeBlanc, M

    1998-10-01

    Current prosthetic hands, although functional, have the potential of being improved significantly. We report here the design and development of a novel prosthetic hand that is lighter in weight, less expensive, and more functional than current hands. The new prosthesis features an endoskeleton embedded in self-skinning foam that provides a realistic look and feel and obviates the need for a separate cosmetic glove. The voluntary-closing mechanism offers variable grip strength. Placement of joints at three locations (metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangeal) within each of four fingers affords realistic finger movement. High-strength synthetic cable attached to the distal phalanx of each finger is used to effect flexion. A multiposition passive thumb provides both precision and power grips. The new prosthesis can securely grasp objects with various shapes and sizes. Compared to current hands, weight has been reduced by approximately 50%, and cable excursion required for full finger flexion by more than 50%. The new endoskeletal prosthesis requires approximately 12-24% less force input to grasp a variety of everyday objects, largely due to its adaptive grip. Production cost estimates reveal the new prosthesis to be significantly less expensive than current prosthetic hands.

  10. Functional corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area revealed by corticomuscular coherence during precise grip force control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Chen

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition. Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic (EMG signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required.

  11. Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices.

  12. Experimental protocol for the kinematic analysis of the hand: definition and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, I; Mazzoleni, P; Rabuffetti, M; Thorsen, R; Ferrarin, M

    2006-06-01

    A quantitative and objective method based on the optoelectronic kinematic analysis of hand segments and on the calculation of global and partial parameters, which provide measures of the degree of long finger and thumb extension is proposed for the evaluation of the hand's voluntary range of motion and maximal opening of the fingers and thumb. To test the precision and repeatability of the method, the protocol was applied on 14 healthy subjects (28 hands). The proposed parameters are repeatable and show a precision between 5.5 degrees and 10.4 degrees (mean value: 7.3 degrees), comparable to values obtained with other methods. Advantages of the present approach include simultaneous analysis of all fingers, absence of cumbersome connecting cables and no need for individually customized devices. The method, also applied to the paretic hands of two hemiplegic stroke patients before and after electrical stimulation of the wrist and finger extensor muscles, has shown encouraging results for its clinical feasibility and utility in addition to functional tests.

  13. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gonzalez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources. In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate, decoding (one signal to recognize, and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair, or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces in order to improve the usability of existing low

  14. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Dosen, Strahinja; Amsuess, Sebastian; Yu, Wenwei; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI) cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns) and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources). In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate), decoding (one signal to recognize), and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair), or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces) in order to improve the usability of existing low-bandwidth HMIs.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 at the origin of an epidemic of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Eloit, Marc; Zhu, Huachen; Danet, Lucie; Huang, Zhong; Zou, Gang; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cheval, Justine; Perot, Philippe; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ky, Santy; Heng, Sothy; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; van Doorn, Rogier; Tan Tran, Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy J; Wentworth, David E; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Delpeyroux, Francis; Guan, Yi; Altmeyer, Ralf; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-09-21

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 circulates in many countries and has caused large epidemics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, since 1997. In April 2012, an undiagnosed fatal disease with neurological involvement and respiratory distress occurred in young children admitted to the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Most died within a day of hospital admission, causing public panic and international concern. In this study, we describe the enterovirus (EV) genotypes that were isolated during the outbreak in 2012 and the following year. From June 2012 to November 2013, 312 specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients and tested by generic EV and specific EV-A71 reverse transcription PCR. EV-A71 was detected in 208 clinical specimens while other EVs were found in 32 patients. The VP1 gene and/or the complete genome were generated. Our phylogenetic sequencing analysis demonstrated that 80 EV-A71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenotype and 3 EV-A71 strains belonged to the B5 genotype. Furthermore, some lineages of EV-A71 were found to have appeared in Cambodia following separate introductions from neighboring countries. Nineteen EV A (CV-A6 and CV-A16), 9 EV B (EV-B83, CV-B3, CV-B2, CV-A9, E-31, E-2 and EV-B80) and 4 EV C (EV-C116, EV-C96, CV-A20 and Vaccine-related PV-3) strains were also detected. We found no molecular markers of disease severity. We report here that EV-A71 genotype C4 was the main etiological agent of a large outbreak of HFMD and particularly of severe forms associated with central nervous system infections. The role played by other EVs in the epidemic could not be clearly established.

  16. Single-arm open-label study of Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the thumb

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    Velasco E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eloisa Velasco,1 Mª Victoria Ribera,2 Joan Pi3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisés Broggi, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Parc Taulí University Hospital, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain Introduction: Osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC joint of the thumb – also known as rhizarthrosis – is painful and has a significant impact on quality of life. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid may potentially meet the need for effective, minimally invasive intervention in patients not responding adequately to initial treatment. We aimed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of viscosupplementation with Durolane (NASHA nonanimal hyaluronic acid in rhizarthrosis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study with a 6-month follow-up period. Eligible patients had Eaton–Littler grade II–III rhizarthrosis in one TMC joint with pain and visual analog scale (VAS pain score ≥4 (scale: 0–10. A single injection of NASHA was administered to the affected TMC joint. The primary effectiveness variable was change from baseline in VAS pain score.Results: Thirty-five patients (mean age 60.8 years; 85.7% female received NASHA and completed the study. The least-squares mean change from baseline in VAS pain score over 6 months was –2.00, a reduction of 27.8% (p<0.001. The reduction in pain exceeded 25% as early as month 1 (26.5%, and gradual improvement was observed throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Secondary effectiveness parameters included QuickDASH (shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [DASH], Kapandji thumb opposition test, radial abduction, metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint flexion, and pinch (clamp strength. Most of these measurements showed statistically significant improvements from baseline over 6 months. Five

  17. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  18. Results of an Internet survey of myoelectric prosthetic hand users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Schulz, Stefan; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2007-12-01

    The results of a survey of 54 persons with upper limb amputations who anonymously completed a questionnaire on an Internet homepage are presented. The survey ran for four years and the participants were divided into groups of females, males, and children. It was found that the most individuals employ their myoelectric hand prosthesis for 8 hours or more. However, the survey also revealed a high level of dissatisfaction with the weight and the grasping speed of the devices. Activities for which prostheses should be useful were stated to include handicrafts, personal hygiene, using cutlery, operation of electronic and domestic devices, and dressing/undressing. Moreover, additional functions, e.g., a force feedback system, independent movements of the thumb, the index finger, and the wrist, and a better glove material are priorities that were identified by the users as being important improvements the users would like to see in myoelectric prostheses.

  19. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

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    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  20. Epidemics and Frequent Recombination within Species in Outbreaks of Human Enterovirus B-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Shandong China in 2010 and 2011.

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    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus B (HEV-B associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks in China are not well known. In the present study, we tested 201 HEV isolates from 233 clinical specimens from patients with severe HFMD during 2010-2011 in Linyi, Shandong, China. Of the 201 isolates, 189 were fully typed and 18 corresponded to HEV-B species (six serotypes CVA9, CVB1, CVB4, Echo 6, Echo 25 and Echo 30 using sensitive semi-nested polymerase chain reaction analysis of VP1 gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 region showed that eight E30SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D2; E25SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D6; E6SD belonged to sub-lineage C6 and five CVB1SD belonged to subgroup 4C; and B4SD belonged sub-lineage D2. The full viral genomes of the CVB1SD, E6SD, E25SD and E30SD isolates were sequenced. Analysis of phylogenetic and similarity plots indicated that E25SD recombined with E25-HN-2, E30FDJS03 and E4AUS250 at noncontiguous P2A-P3D regions, while E30SD, E30FDJ03, E25-HN-2 and E9 DM had shared sequences in discrete regions of P2 and P3. Both E6SD and B1SD shared sequences with E1-HN, B4/GX/10, B5-HN, and A9-Alberta in contiguous regions of most of P2 and P3. Genetic algorithm recombination detection analysis further confirmed the existence of multiple potential recombination points. In conclusion, analysis of the complete genomes of E25SD, E30SD, CVB1SD and E6SD isolated from HFMD patients revealed that they formed novel subgenogroup. Given the prevalence and recombination of these viruses in outbreaks of HFMD, persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated HEV-B pathogens is required to predict potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks.