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Sample records for human hand bones

  1. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E

    2008-01-01

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4π geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The 26 Mg(n,γ) 27 Mg reaction produces γ-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of 27 Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV γ-rays from the decay of 56 Mn, produced by the 55 Mn(n,γ) 56 Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection limit in the hand of human subjects of 1.6

  2. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: aslamib@mcmaster.ca

    2008-08-07

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4{pi} geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction produces {gamma}-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of {sup 27}Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV {gamma}-rays from the decay of {sup 56}Mn, produced by the {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}){sup 56}Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection

  3. NOTE: A preliminary study for non-invasive quantification of manganese in human hand bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A.; Chettle, D. R.; McNeill, F. E.; Pysklywec, M. W.; Oudyk, J.

    2008-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body, but it is also toxic when humans are excessively exposed to Mn. Blood (or serum/plasma) and other body fluids reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive measurement of Mn stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following feasibility studies, a first pilot study, using neutron activation analysis to measure Mn in the bones of the hand of ten healthy male human subjects, was conducted with the approval of the concerned research ethics boards. The participants of this study had no known history of exposure to Mn. Two volunteers were excluded from this study due to technical problems with their measurements. The inverse variance weighted mean value of Mn/Ca for the participants of this study is 0.12 ± 0.68 µg Mn/g Ca which is comparable within uncertainties with the estimated range of 0.16 0.78 µg Mn/g Ca and mean value of 0.63 ± 0.30 µg Mn/g Ca derived from cadaver data. It is recommended to investigate the use of the diagnostic technique for in vivo measurements of workers exposed occupationally to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. The technique needs further development to improve the precision of in vivo measurements in the non-exposed population.

  4. A preliminary study for non-invasive quantification of manganese in human hand bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E; Pysklywec, M W; Oudyk, J

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body, but it is also toxic when humans are excessively exposed to Mn. Blood (or serum/plasma) and other body fluids reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive measurement of Mn stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following feasibility studies, a first pilot study, using neutron activation analysis to measure Mn in the bones of the hand of ten healthy male human subjects, was conducted with the approval of the concerned research ethics boards. The participants of this study had no known history of exposure to Mn. Two volunteers were excluded from this study due to technical problems with their measurements. The inverse variance weighted mean value of Mn/Ca for the participants of this study is 0.12 ± 0.68 μg Mn/g Ca which is comparable within uncertainties with the estimated range of 0.16-0.78 μg Mn/g Ca and mean value of 0.63 ± 0.30 μg Mn/g Ca derived from cadaver data. It is recommended to investigate the use of the diagnostic technique for in vivo measurements of workers exposed occupationally to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. The technique needs further development to improve the precision of in vivo measurements in the non-exposed population. (note)

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron irradiation facility developed for accelerator based in vivo neutron activation measurements in human hand bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Waker, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron irradiation facility developed at the McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator was employed to assess in vivo elemental content of aluminum and manganese in human hands. These measurements were carried out to monitor the long-term exposure of these potentially toxic trace elements through hand bone levels. The dose equivalent delivered to a patient during irradiation procedure is the limiting factor for IVNAA measurements. This article describes a method to estimate the average radiation dose equivalent delivered to the patient's hand during irradiation. The computational method described in this work augments the dose measurements carried out earlier [Arnold et al., 2002. Med. Phys. 29(11), 2718-2724]. This method employs the Monte Carlo simulation of hand irradiation facility using MCNP4B. Based on the estimated dose equivalents received by the patient hand, the proposed irradiation procedure for the IVNAA measurement of manganese in human hands [Arnold et al., 2002. Med. Phys. 29(11), 2718-2724] with normal (1 ppm) and elevated manganese content can be carried out with a reasonably low dose of 31 mSv to the hand. Sixty-three percent of the total dose equivalent is delivered by non-useful fast group (>10 keV); the filtration of this neutron group from the beam will further decrease the dose equivalent to the patient's hand

  6. Laterality and grip strength influence hand bone micro-architecture in modern humans, an HRpQCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Trousdale, William H; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Braga, José

    2017-06-01

    It is widely hypothesized that mechanical loading, specifically repetitive low-intensity tasks, influences the inner structure of cancellous bone. As such, there is likely a relationship between handedness and bone morphology. The aim of this study is to determine patterns in trabecular bone between dominant and non-dominant hands in modern humans. Seventeen healthy patients between 22 and 32 years old were included in the study. Radial carpal bones (lunate, capitate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, 1st, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals) were analyzed with high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Additionally, crush and pinch grip were recorded. Factorial analysis indicated that bone volume ratio, trabeculae number (Tb.N), bone surface to volume ratio (BS.BV), body weight, stature and crush grip were all positively correlated with principal components 1 and 2 explaining 78.7% of the variance. Volumetric and trabecular endostructural parameters (BV/TV, BS/BV or Tb.Th, Tb.N) explain the observed inter-individual variability better than anthropometric or clinical parameters. Factors analysis regressions showed correlations between these parameters and the dominant side for crush strength for the lunate (r 2 = 0.640, P modern human wrist. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  7. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Azouz, E.M.; Campbell, J.; Marton, D.; Morris, L.; Padovani, J.; Sprague, P.; Beluffi, G.; Berzero, G.F.; Cherubino, P.; Adelaide Children's Hospital; Hospital for Children, Perth; Montreal Children's Hospital, Quebec; Saint Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Children's Hospital, Denver, CO; Hopital des Enfants, 13 - Marseille; Pavia Univ.; Pavia Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  8. Bone indicators of grasping hands in lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fontanarrosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grasping is one of a few adaptive mechanisms that, in conjunction with clinging, hooking, arm swinging, adhering, and flying, allowed for incursion into the arboreal eco-space. Little research has been done that addresses grasping as an enhanced manual ability in non-mammalian tetrapods, with the exception of studies comparing the anatomy of muscle and tendon structure. Previous studies showed that grasping abilities allow exploitation for narrow branch habitats and that this adaptation has clear osteological consequences. The objective of this work is to ascertain the existence of morphometric descriptors in the hand skeleton of lizards related to grasping functionality. A morphological matrix was constructed using 51 morphometric variables in 278 specimens, from 24 genera and 13 families of Squamata. To reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to organize the original variables into a simpler system, three PCAs (Principal Component Analyses were performed using the subsets of (1 carpal variables, (2 metacarpal variables, and (3 phalanges variables. The variables that demonstrated the most significant contributions to the construction of the PCA synthetic variables were then used in subsequent analyses. To explore which morphological variables better explain the variations in the functional setting, we ran Generalized Linear Models for the three different sets. This method allows us to model the morphology that enables a particular functional trait. Grasping was considered the only response variable, taking the value of 0 or 1, while the original variables retained by the PCAs were considered predictor variables. Our analyses yielded six variables associated with grasping abilities: two belong to the carpal bones, two belong to the metacarpals and two belong to the phalanges. Grasping in lizards can be performed with hands exhibiting at least two different independently originated combinations of bones. The first is a combination of a highly

  9. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on

  10. Surface lesions of the bones of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J.; Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    Surface lesions involving the bones of the hand are uncommon. This pictorial review illustrates the spectrum of conditions including benign primary bone tumours, malignant primary bone tumours and non-neoplastic disorders. The review focuses on the radiographic appearances of these lesions and other techniques such as CT and MR imaging that may suggest a specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Right-handed fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Marina; Estalrrich, Almudena; Bondioli, Luca; Fiore, Ivana; Bermúdez de Castro, José-Maria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Rosas, Antonio; Frayer, David W

    2017-11-01

    Fossil hominids often processed material held between their upper and lower teeth. Pulling with one hand and cutting with the other, they occasionally left impact cut marks on the lip (labial) surface of their incisors and canines. From these actions, it possible to determine the dominant hand used. The frequency of these oblique striations in an array of fossil hominins documents the typically modern pattern of 9 right- to 1 left-hander. This ratio among living Homo sapiens differs from that among chimpanzees and bonobos and more distant primate relatives. Together, all studies of living people affirm that dominant right-handedness is a uniquely modern human trait. The same pattern extends deep into our past. Thus far, the majority of inferred right-handed fossils come from Europe, but a single maxilla from a Homo habilis, OH-65, shows a predominance of right oblique scratches, thus extending right-handedness into the early Pleistocene of Africa. Other studies show right-handedness in more recent African, Chinese, and Levantine fossils, but the sample compiled for non-European fossil specimens remains small. Fossil specimens from Sima del los Huesos and a variety of European Neandertal sites are predominately right-handed. We argue the 9:1 handedness ratio in Neandertals and the earlier inhabitants of Europe constitutes evidence for a modern pattern of handedness well before the appearance of modern Homo sapiens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Design of a phantom equivalent to measure bone-fluorine in a human's hand via delayed neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V; Inskip, M

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is an element that can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the total amount accumulated in the teeth or bones. In our laboratory, we have developed a non-invasive technique for the in vivo measurement of fluoride in bone using neutron activation analysis and performed the first pilot human study. Fluoride in humans is quantified by comparing the γ-ray signal from a person to the γ-ray signal obtained from appropriate anthropomorphic calibration phantoms. An identified problem with existing fluoride phantoms is contamination with aluminum. Aluminum creates an interfering γ-ray signal which, although it can be subtracted out, increases the uncertainty in the measurement and worsens the detection limit. This paper outlines a series of studies undertaken to develop a better calibration phantom for fluorine measurement, which does not have aluminum contamination. (paper)

  13. Simulation of X-ray irradiation on human hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, Fabiola; Montoya, Modesto

    2001-01-01

    Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP we simulate a human hand X-rays irradiation with radiodiagnostic energies to find the better range energy to make radiographs with the lowest dose and an optimal contrast. We calculate bone doses by considering a soft tissue - water - and calcium bone hand, which is irradiated with a million of X-rays photons from a punctual source. These photons are directed inside a conic angle on the hand. Afterwards, we simulate elements which normally compose bones (C, H, O, N, Mg, P, Ca, and S). We estimate bone dose considering: a) bone material (water, calcium and bone tissue); b) bone thickness (0.01; 0.1; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 3.0 cm); and c) source-hand distance (30, 50, 70 and 90 cm). We calculate photon transmission percent through soft tissue and bone tissue and the statistics from the number of photons that reach the radiographic film after passing through soft tissue or bone tissue for our geometric configuration. We found that we can obtain a good image contrast by using X-rays with energies in the range of 20 to 40 keV. (author)

  14. Fracture of phalanx from simple bone cyst: A rare bone lesion in the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Inozu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solitary bone cysts, also known as unicameral bone cysts or simple bone cysts, are benign tumors of the bone full of liquid. While typically seen on proximal humerus and femur bones, they are rarely seen on other bones. Simple bone cysts, diagnosed with X-ray. incidentally or for other reasons, are usually asymptomatic. In this case, a 25-year-old male patient with pathologic fracture of the proximal phalanx from an undiagnosed simple bone cyst was reported and referred to the authors' clinic to be treated with curettage. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 100-103

  15. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  16. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  17. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut; NILGESZ Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  18. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Macfarlane, D.G.; Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge; Fogelman, I.; Emery, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.)

  19. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Macfarlane, D.G. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology); Fogelman, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Emery, P. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology)

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.).

  20. Trabecular bone structure correlates with hand posture and use in hominoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdi J Tsegai

    Full Text Available Bone is capable of adapting during life in response to stress. Therefore, variation in locomotor and manipulative behaviours across extant hominoids may be reflected in differences in trabecular bone structure. The hand is a promising region for trabecular analysis, as it is the direct contact between the individual and the environment and joint positions at peak loading vary amongst extant hominoids. Building upon traditional volume of interest-based analyses, we apply a whole-epiphysis analytical approach using high-resolution microtomographic scans of the hominoid third metacarpal to investigate whether trabecular structure reflects differences in hand posture and loading in knuckle-walking (Gorilla, Pan, suspensory (Pongo, Hylobates and Symphalangus and manipulative (Homo taxa. Additionally, a comparative phylogenetic method was used to analyse rates of evolutionary changes in trabecular parameters. Results demonstrate that trabecular bone volume distribution and regions of greatest stiffness (i.e., Young's modulus correspond with predicted loading of the hand in each behavioural category. In suspensory and manipulative taxa, regions of high bone volume and greatest stiffness are concentrated on the palmar or distopalmar regions of the metacarpal head, whereas knuckle-walking taxa show greater bone volume and stiffness throughout the head, and particularly in the dorsal region; patterns that correspond with the highest predicted joint reaction forces. Trabecular structure in knuckle-walking taxa is characterised by high bone volume fraction and a high degree of anisotropy in contrast to the suspensory brachiators. Humans, in which the hand is used primarily for manipulation, have a low bone volume fraction and a variable degree of anisotropy. Finally, when trabecular parameters are mapped onto a molecular-based phylogeny, we show that the rates of change in trabecular structure vary across the hominoid clade. Our results support a link

  1. Simulation of irradiation X in human hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya Falcon, F.

    2001-01-01

    Use of the Monte Carlo code MCNP to simulate a human hand irradiation with radiation X of radio diagnosis energy, in order to find the best range of energy to obtain a radiography with the smallest dose and the biggest contrast [es

  2. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  3. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  4. Dosimetry of hands and human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harr, R.

    2008-12-01

    The human factor in facilities where open radioactive sources are managed it can be controlled through the use of the ring dosimetry, however, that these devices only provide qualitative information that is not extrapolated to legislative limits. lt is present the case analysis of hands dosimetry of female person with responsibility for professional standards and a very high profile with ratings that allow her to have a high level of knowledge of the basic standards, and because with an attitude and a culture rooted of radiation protection, among other qualities. Their records reveal a trend in which monthly doses are below the 7 mSv, and only occasionally are between 7 and 12 mSv per month and hand. The other case correspond to a technician, trained in radiological techniques, also with a high profile, with two courses for occupationally exposed personnel more than 10 annual retraining, and work experience of over 10 years as occupationally exposed personnel, in which knowledge of standards and because of the entrenched culture of radiation protection and their interest degree in the care of their exposure is still in a phase half, in this case also shows a trend in the monthly dose where found registers between 7 and 11 mSv per month and hand. The third case is of a second technician with less experience and most basic knowledge, his dose register not show a real trend, sometimes be found reads of irregular values as if the dosimeter is not used and some other times as if misused by exposing to purpose (was observed at least one reading above the monthly 30 mSv). By way of conclusion, it is noted that the hands dosimetry is a useful tool to monitor transactions through the data compilation susceptible to analysis with variations which can be placed in the context of the human factor. (Author)

  5. Radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraga, J.J.; Amrami, K.K.; Swee, R.G. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Wold, L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States).. Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology; Unni, K.K. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States). Dept. of Surgical Pathology

    2001-03-01

    The radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet are reviewed utilizing cases obtained from the Mayo Clinic patient files and the consultation files of Drs. D.C. Dahlin and K.K. Unni. This series consists of a total of 43 cases of pathologically proven Ewing's sarcoma involving the small bones of the hands and feet. The classic radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma in the long bones, including lytic, permeative destruction, aggressive periosteal reaction, cortical violation, and a soft tissue mass, are also seen in the bones of the hands and feet, with similar frequency. These classic features are most commonly present in lesions affecting the short tubular bones. Lesions affecting the tarsal bones more often demonstrate atypical radiographic features. These atypical radiographic appearances may play a role in the reported delay in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma within the tarsal bones. (orig.)

  6. Radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraga, J.J.; Amrami, K.K.; Swee, R.G.; Wold, L.; Unni, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet are reviewed utilizing cases obtained from the Mayo Clinic patient files and the consultation files of Drs. D.C. Dahlin and K.K. Unni. This series consists of a total of 43 cases of pathologically proven Ewing's sarcoma involving the small bones of the hands and feet. The classic radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma in the long bones, including lytic, permeative destruction, aggressive periosteal reaction, cortical violation, and a soft tissue mass, are also seen in the bones of the hands and feet, with similar frequency. These classic features are most commonly present in lesions affecting the short tubular bones. Lesions affecting the tarsal bones more often demonstrate atypical radiographic features. These atypical radiographic appearances may play a role in the reported delay in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma within the tarsal bones. (orig.)

  7. Establishment of age- and sex-adjusted reference data for hand bone mass and investigation of hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Jensen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    remission (0.0032 vs. 0.0058 g/cm(2)/year; p clinical practice, and only......BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by progressive joint destruction and loss of periarticular bone mass. Hand bone loss (HBL) has therefore been proposed as an outcome measure for treatment efficacy. A definition of increased HBL adjusted for age- and sex-related bone loss is lacking....... In this study, we aimed to: 1) establish reference values for normal hand bone mass (bone mineral density measured by digital x-ray radiogrammetry (DXR-BMD)); and 2) examine whether HBL is normalised in rheumatoid arthritis patients during treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFI). METHODS...

  8. Constraint Study for a Hand Exoskeleton: Human Hand Kinematics and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fai Chen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the number of projects studying the human hand from the robotic point of view has increased rapidly, due to the growing interest in academic and industrial applications. Nevertheless, the complexity of the human hand given its large number of degrees of freedom (DoF within a significantly reduced space requires an exhaustive analysis, before proposing any applications. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete summary of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the human hand as a preliminary step towards the development of hand devices such as prosthetic/robotic hands and exoskeletons imitating the human hand shape and functionality. A collection of data and constraints relevant to hand movements is presented, and the direct and inverse kinematics are solved for all the fingers as well as the dynamics; anthropometric data and dynamics equations allow performing simulations to understand the behavior of the finger.

  9. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porosis is incomplete and has prompted our interest to identify the type of effective osteogenic exercise. ... between aerobic and resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent ... paired glucose metabolism on bone health as well as to.

  10. User Interface Aspects of a Human-Hand Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifang Yi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the user interface design for a human-hand simulation system, a virtual environment that produces ground truth data (life-like human hand gestures and animations and provides visualization support for experiments on computer vision-based hand pose estimation and tracking. The system allows users to save time in data generation and easily create any hand gestures. We have designed and implemented this user interface with the consideration of usability goals and software engineering issues.

  11. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  12. The relationship between osteoarthritis of the hands, bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Z-scores at the wrist. Conclusions: Although there was no significant association between HOA and BMD, HOA is associated with increased bone turnover as demonstrated by the significant elevation in urinary DPD. These patients should be followed up to assess the need for medical treatment to prevent future fractures.

  13. Regulation of bone blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Boushel, Robert; Hellsten, Ylva

    2018-01-01

    of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on femoral bone marrow blood flow by positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during one leg dynamic exercise. In an additional group of healthy men, the role of adenosine (ADO) in the regulation of BBF during exercise......The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition.......036), but did not affect BBF significantly during exercise (5.5±1.4 ml/100g/min, p=0.25). On the other hand, while combined NOS and COX inhibition did not cause any further reduction of blood flow at rest (0.6±0.2 ml/100g/min), the combined blockade reduced BBF during exercise by ~21%, to 5.0±1.8 ml/100g/min (p...

  14. Atomic scale chemical tomography of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Brian; Wang, Xiaoyue; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Human bone is a complex hierarchical material. Understanding bone structure and its corresponding composition at the nanometer scale is critical for elucidating mechanisms of biomineralization under healthy and pathological states. However, the three-dimensional structure and chemical nature of bone remains largely unexplored at the nanometer scale due to the challenges associated with characterizing both the structural and chemical integrity of bone simultaneously. Here, we use correlative transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the first time, to our knowledge, to reveal structures in human bone at the atomic level. This approach provides an overlaying chemical map of the organic and inorganic constituents of bone on its structure. This first use of atom probe tomography on human bone reveals local gradients, trace element detection of Mg, and the co-localization of Na with the inorganic-organic interface of bone mineral and collagen fibrils, suggesting the important role of Na-rich organics in the structural connection between mineral and collagen. Our findings provide the first insights into the hierarchical organization and chemical heterogeneity in human bone in three-dimensions at its smallest length scale - the atomic level. We demonstrate that atom probe tomography shows potential for new insights in biomineralization research on bone.

  15. Measurement of hand bone mineral content using single-photon absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoll, J.J.; Smith, M.A.; Law, E.; Tothill, P.; Reid, D.; Brown, N.; Nuki, G.

    1987-01-01

    A single photon absorption imaging technique has been developed to assess the bone mass of the hand, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or bronchial asthma. A modified rectilinear scanner images the hand by transmission scanning in a water bath with a 7.4 GBq 125 I source. A microcomputer is used to calculate the bone mineral distribution, and the total bone mineral content (BMC) of the hand is determined from that distribution. The precision (coefficient of variation) of the measurement is 1.9%. A control population of 20 men and 58 women has been studied to determine normal variations in hand bone mineral content with age, sex, body size, hand volume and years since menopause. The normal men are found to have an average hand BMC of 25.1 g with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22%, which is reduced to 12% by normalising for body size using span. The normal women had an average hand BMC of 18.0 g +- 15%. The CV is reduced to 13% by normalising for span and years post-menopause. (author)

  16. Structural joint damage and hand bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Midtbøll Ørnbjerg

    2018-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pain, swelling and progressive destruction of the joints leading to loss of function and invalidity. The bone destruction in RA is characterised by two distinct features: structural joint damage and hand bone loss, and their prevention is an important treatment goal. Inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-inhibitors) have markedly improved the treatment options in RA patients who fail treatment with conventional synthetic Disease Modifying Anti Rheumatic Drugs (sDMARDS), but their effectiveness with regards to structural joint damage and hand bone loss, predictors thereof and the association with disease activity during treatment have mainly been investigated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with limited generalizability due to strict in- and exclusion criteria.
 The main aim of the PhD thesis was to assess and predict structural joint damage and hand bone loss in patients with early and established RA treated with sDMARDs and TNF-inhibitors. This was investigated in two cohorts: A) The "DANBIO X-ray study": an observational, nationwide, longitudinal cohort study of established RA patients treated in clinical practice who initiated TNF-inhibitor treatment after failure of sDMARDs and B) The "OPERA study": a randomized controlled trial of sDMARD-naïve patients with early RA treated with methotrexate (MTX) and intraarticular glucocorticoid injections in combination with adalimumab or placebo-adalimumab. Structural joint damage progression was assessed with the Sharp/van der Heijde radiographic method and hand bone loss was assessed with Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry. 
From the studies presented in the PhD thesis the following was concluded:
 Structural joint damage progression and hand bone loss were significantly lower during two years of TNF-inhibitor treatment compared to the previous two years of sDMARD-treatment in the DANBIO X-ray Study. The majority of patients had

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  18. Hand grip strength and maximum peak expiratory flow: determinants of bone mineral density of adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Lee-Andruske, Cynthia; de Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2018-03-02

    Maintaining and building healthy bones during the lifetime requires a complicated interaction between a number of physiological and lifestyle factors. Our goal of this study was to analyze the association between hand grip strength and the maximum peak expiratory flow with bone mineral density and content in adolescent students. The research team studied 1427 adolescent students of both sexes (750 males and 677 females) between the ages of 11.0 and 18.9 years in the Maule Region of Talca (Chile). Weight, standing height, sitting height, hand grip strength (HGS), and maximum peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured. Furthermore, bone mineral density (BMD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC) were determined by using the Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Hand grip strength and PEF were categorized in tertiles (lowest, middle, and highest). Linear regression was performed in steps to analyze the relationship between the variables. Differences between categories were determined through ANOVA. In males, the hand grip strength explained 18-19% of the BMD and 20-23% of the BMC. For the females, the percentage of variation occurred between 12 and 13% of the BMD and 17-18% of the BMC. The variation of PEF for the males was observed as 33% of the BMD and 36% of the BMC. For the females, both the BMD and BMC showed a variation of 19%. The HGS and PEF were divided into three categories (lowest, middle, and highest). In both cases, significant differences occurred in bone density health between the three categories. In conclusion, the HGS and the PEF related positively to the bone density health of both sexes of adolescent students. The adolescents with poor values for hand grip strength and expiratory flow showed reduced values of BMD and BMC for the total body. Furthermore, the PEF had a greater influence on bone density health with respect to the HGS of the adolescents of both sexes.

  19. Structural Integration and Control of Peerless Human-like Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Ankit; Muthu, P.; Karthikraj, V.; Latha, S.

    2018-04-01

    Limb damage can create severe disturbance in movement and operative abilities wherein the prosthetic rehabilitation has the potential to replace function and enhance the quality of life. This paper presents a humanlike prosthetic hand using such unique design concept of hand model using artificial bones, ligaments, and tendons controlled using Arduino. Amongst various platforms available, Arduino is known for its adaptability, adoration and low cost. The design of prosthetic hand has a unique structure with all carpal, metacarpal, and phalanges which are bones of the hand. These bones are attached to each other following the pattern of human hand using the polymeric rubber as a functioning ligament. Furthermore, this structure of finger is driven by tendons attached to all fingers and passes through the ligaments working as pulley resulting in more degrees of freedom. The motor can twitch the tendons to achieve the action of fingers. Thus the servos, controlled by an Arduino, are used to regulate the movement mechanism of the prosthetic hand.

  20. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hatala, E M; Hatala, K G; Hiles, S; Rabey, K N

    2016-06-23

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses.

  1. Durable Tactile Glove for Human or Robot Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa; Diftler, Myron A.; Huber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A glove containing force sensors has been built as a prototype of tactile sensor arrays to be worn on human hands and anthropomorphic robot hands. The force sensors of this glove are mounted inside, in protective pockets; as a result of this and other design features, the present glove is more durable than earlier models.

  2. A comparison of hand-wrist bone and cervical vertebral analyses in measuring skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Paola; Mancini, Marta; Andreani, Federico

    2006-11-01

    To compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand-wrist bone analysis and by cervical vertebral analysis. A radiographic hand-wrist bone analysis and cephalometric cervical vertebral analysis of 30 patients (14 males and 16 females; 7-18 years of age) were examined. The hand-wrist bone analysis was evaluated by the Bjork index, whereas the cervical vertebral analysis was assessed by the cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) method. To define vertebral stages, the analysis consisted of both cephalometric (13 points) and morphologic evaluation of three cervical vertebrae (concavity of second, third, and fourth vertebrae and shape of third and fourth vertebrae). These measurements were then compared with the hand-wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed by the Cohen kappa concordance index. The same procedure was repeated after 6 months and showed identical results. The Cohen kappa index obtained (mean +/- SD) was 0.783 +/- 0.098, which is in the significant range. The results show a concordance of 83.3%, considering that the estimated percentage for each case is 23.3%. The results also show a correlation of CVMS I with Bjork stages 1-3 (interval A), CVMS II with Bjork stage 4 (interval B), CVMS III with Bjork stage 5 (interval C), CVMS IV with Bjork stages 6 and 7 (interval D), and CVMS V with Bjork stages 8 and 9 (interval E). Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand-wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects.

  3. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  4. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium concentration in bone from an individual injected with 239 Pu has been determined, using the fission-track method. The data are consistent with those reported about 10 years ago by Welford and Baird for New York City area residents and by Hamilton in England. They are at variance with the more recent data of Welford et al

  5. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  6. [Progressive bone lengthening of the hand in congenital malformations. 41 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, G; Pajardi, G; Lamas, C; Medina, J; Navarro, R

    2001-09-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the experience of two Hand Units with progressive bone distraction lengthening, collecting 41 cases of hand skeleton lengthening for congenital malformations. The Ilizarov callostasis method was used in 31 cases and in 10 cases bone union was reestablished at a second stage with an iliac graft (2 cases), vascularized metacarpal bone graft (one case), and vascularized (one case) or nonvascularized (3 cases) toe epiphysis. In the last three cases of index lengthening, the distal part was translocated to the tip of the third, deepening at the same stage the first web. The most frequently treated malformation was symbrachydactyly (22 cases). Mean lengthening was 2.3 cm (0.9 to 3.5) with a mean treatment duration of 3.8 months (1.5 - 8.2). The "lengthening index" was 0.59. There was a significant difference between phalanx and metacarpal lengthening, but the amount of lengthening or treatment duration were not affected by technique (Ilizarov vs bone grafting) or age. The complication rate was 32%. There were two complete failures, one extensor tendon tear, 3 pin tract infections (one requiring interruption of the lengthening), 2 cases of relevant pain, 2 delayed unions, 2 angulations and 1 callus fracture, 1 metacarpophalangeal dislocation and 1 joint stiffness. Despite advances in micorsurgical toe transfer, there are still indications for bone lengthening in congenital malformations. The apparent simplicity of the technique can mask a certain number of complications, emphasizing the need for surgical experience. Progressive bone lengthening in congenital deformity has the advantage of preserving sensitivity and avoiding bone resorption. Callostasis does not increase the duration of treatment compared to bone graft.

  7. 3D Visual Sensing of the Human Hand for the Remote Operation of a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New low cost sensors and open free libraries for 3D image processing are making important advances in robot vision applications possible, such as three-dimensional object recognition, semantic mapping, navigation and localization of robots, human detection and/or gesture recognition for human-machine interaction. In this paper, a novel method for recognizing and tracking the fingers of a human hand is presented. This method is based on point clouds from range images captured by a RGBD sensor. It works in real time and it does not require visual marks, camera calibration or previous knowledge of the environment. Moreover, it works successfully even when multiple objects appear in the scene or when the ambient light is changed. Furthermore, this method was designed to develop a human interface to control domestic or industrial devices, remotely. In this paper, the method was tested by operating a robotic hand. Firstly, the human hand was recognized and the fingers were detected. Secondly, the movement of the fingers was analysed and mapped to be imitated by a robotic hand.

  8. Development of the long bones in the hands and feet of children: radiographic and MR imaging correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Clarke, Jeffrey P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yin, Hong [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Pathology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The long bones of the hands and feet in children have an epiphyseal end with a secondary center of ossification and an adjacent transverse physis. In contrast to other long bones in the body, the opposite end in the hands and feet, termed the non-epiphyseal end, is characterized by direct metaphyseal extension of bone to complete terminal ossification. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the developmental stages of each end of the long bones of the hands and feet with radiographic and MR imaging to provide a foundation from which to differentiate normal from abnormal growth. (orig.)

  9. In vivo quantification of bone-fluorine by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study of hand-bone-fluorine levels in a Canadian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Mike; Gräfe, James L; Aslam; Byun, Soo-Hyun; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M; Webber, Colin E; McNeill, Fiona E

    2012-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to fluorine (F) through their diet, occupation, environment and oral dental care products. Fluorine, at proper dosages, is believed to have positive effects by reducing the incidence of dental caries, but fluorine toxicity can occur when people are exposed to excessive quantities of fluorine. In this paper we present the results of a small pilot in vivo study on 33 participants living in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The mean age of participants was 45 ± 18 years with a range of 20–87 years. The observed calcium normalized hand-bone-fluorine concentrations in this small pilot study ranged from 1.1 to 8.8 mg F/g Ca. Every person measured in this study had levels of fluorine in bone above the detection limit of the system. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3.5 ± 0.4 mg F/g Ca. No difference was observed in average concentration for men and women. In addition, a significant correlation (r 2 = 0.55, p < 0.001) was observed between hand-bone-fluorine content and age. The amount of fluorine was found to increase at a rate of 0.084 ± 0.014 mg F/g Ca per year. There was no significant difference observed in this small group of subjects between the accumulation rates in men and women. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time data from in vivo measurement of fluorine content in humans by neutron activation analysis have been presented. The data determined by this technique were found to be consistent with results from ex vivo studies from other countries. We suggest that the data demonstrate that this low risk non-invasive diagnostic technique will permit the routine assessment of bone-fluorine content with potential application in the study of clinical bone-related diseases. This small study demonstrated that people in Southern Ontario are exposed to fluoride in measureable quantities, and that fluoride can be seen to accumulate in bone with age. However, all volunteers were found to have levels below those

  10. Radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages for orthodontic patients: hand-wrist bones or cervical vertebrae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chen, Mu-Hsiung; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-04-01

    The skeletal maturation status of a growing patient can influence the selection of orthodontic treatment procedures. Either lateral cephalometric or hand-wrist radiography can be used to assess skeletal development. In this study, we examined the correlation between the maturation stages of cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist bones in Taiwanese individuals. The study group consisted of 330 male and 379 female subjects ranging in age from 8 to 18 years. A total of 709 hand-wrist and 709 lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were assessed using National Taiwan University Hospital Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages were determined by the latest Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stage (CVMS) Index. Spearman's rank correlation was used to correlate the respective maturation stages assessed from the hand-wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae. The values of Spearman's rank correlation were 0.910 for males and 0.937 for females, respectively. These data confirmed a strong and significant correlation between CVMS and NTUH-SMI systems (p less than 0.001). After comparison of the mean ages of subjects in different stages of CVMS and NTU-SMI systems, we found that CVMS I corresponded to NTUH-SMI stages 1 and 2, CVMS II to NTUH-SMI stage 3, CVMS III to NTUHSMI stage 4, CVMS IV to NTUH-SMI stage 5, CVMS V to NTUH-SMI stages 6, 7 and 8, and CVMS VI to NTUH-SMI stage 9. Our results indicate that cervical vertebral maturation stages can be used to replace hand-wrist bone maturation stages for evaluation of skeletal maturity in Taiwanese individuals.

  11. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  12. Appendicular bone mass and knee and hand osteoarthritis in Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moji Kazuhiko

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that there is an inverse association between osteoarthritis (OA and osteoporosis. However, the relationship of bone mass to OA in a Japanese population whose rates of OA are different from Caucasians remains uncertain. Methods We studied the association of appendicular bone mineral density (second metacarpal; mBMD and quantitative bone ultrasound (calcaneus; stiffness index with knee and hand OA among 567 Japanese community-dwelling women. Knee and hand radiographs were scored for OA using Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L scales. In addition, we evaluated the presence of osteophytes and of joint space narrowing. The hand joints were examined at the distal and proximal interphalangeal (DIP, PIP and first metacarpophalangeal/carpometacarpal (MCP/CMC joints. Results After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI, stiffness index was significantly higher in women with K/L scale, grade 3 at CMC/MCP joint compared with those with no OA. Adjusted means of stiffness index and mBMD were significantly higher in women with definite osteophytes at the CMC/MCP joint compared to those without osteophytes, whereas there were no significant differences for knee, DIP and PIP joints. Stiffness index, but not mBMD, was higher in women with definite joint space narrowing at the CMC/MCP joint compared with those with no joint space narrowing. Conclusions Appendicular bone mass was increased with OA at the CMC/MCP joint, especially among women with osteophytes. Our findings suggest that the association of peripheral bone mass with OA for knee, DIP or PIP may be less clearcut in Japanese women than in other populations.

  13. Results of low-KV-immersion radiographs of the hand in hormonal and metabolic bone osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, F.; Schilling, M.

    1985-12-01

    The early detection of changes in the bones of the hand in hormonal and metabolic osteopathies is possible with the aid of soft tissue immersion radiographic technique combined with ''micro-radioscopy''. The informational value of this special method of investigation will be demonstrated by several examples from the 286 examinations of accentuated osteoporotic and osteomalacic and hyperparathyroidism changes of the skeleton. Structural changes in the normally mineralized and poorly mineralized bone as well as the neighbouring soft tissue (joint capsule, tendons, subdermal fatty tissue) and the skin layer itself can be demonstrated. Examinations following therapy in the hospital or in private practice using this painless special method can demonstrate changes of the macrostructure and during the process of healing within the bone. (orig.).

  14. Results of low-KV-immersion radiographs of the hand in hormonal and metabolic bone osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Schilling, M.

    1985-01-01

    The early detection of changes in the bones of the hand in hormonal and metabolic osteopathies is possible with the aid of soft tissue immersion radiographic technique combined with ''micro-radioscopy''. The informational value of this special method of investigation will be demonstrated by several examples from the 286 examinations of accentuated osteoporotic and osteomalacic and hyperparathyroidism changes of the skeleton. Structural changes in the normally mineralized and poorly mineralized bone as well as the neighbouring soft tissue (joint capsule, tendons, subdermal fatty tissue) and the skin layer itself can be demonstrated. Examinations following therapy in the hospital or in private practice using this painless special method can demonstrate changes of the macrostructure and during the process of healing within the bone. (orig.) [de

  15. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness. RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01 and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001. Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001, leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001 and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.

  16. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  17. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p35 In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  18. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  19. A CAD system and quality assurance protocol for bone age assessment utilizing digital hand atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, Arakadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Ferrara, Benjamin; Liu, Brent J.

    2007-03-01

    Determination of bone age assessment (BAA) in pediatric radiology is a task based on detailed analysis of patient's left hand X-ray. The current standard utilized in clinical practice relies on a subjective comparison of the hand with patterns in the book atlas. The computerized approach to BAA (CBAA) utilizes automatic analysis of the regions of interest in the hand image. This procedure is followed by extraction of quantitative features sensitive to skeletal development that are further converted to a bone age value utilizing knowledge from the digital hand atlas (DHA). This also allows providing BAA results resembling current clinical approach. All developed methodologies have been combined into one CAD module with a graphical user interface (GUI). CBAA can also improve the statistical and analytical accuracy based on a clinical work-flow analysis. For this purpose a quality assurance protocol (QAP) has been developed. Implementation of the QAP helped to make the CAD more robust and find images that cannot meet conditions required by DHA standards. Moreover, the entire CAD-DHA system may gain further benefits if clinical acquisition protocol is modified. The goal of this study is to present the performance improvement of the overall CAD-DHA system with QAP and the comparison of the CAD results with chronological age of 1390 normal subjects from the DHA. The CAD workstation can process images from local image database or from a PACS server.

  20. Hand bone mineral density reference values in a Turkish healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioglu, Kenan; Dogu, Beril; Sirzai, Hulya; Yilmaz, Figen; Kuran, Banu

    2017-12-01

    In this study we aimed at identifying the bone mineral density (BMD) reference values of hands, according to age, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and assessing the correlation of these values with lumbar and femoral BMD values. A total of 403 healthy women aged between 20 and 70 participated in our study. All BMD measurements are performed by DEXA method on both hands, anteroposterior lumbar spine (L2-L4) and right femur (femoral neck, total femur) regions. BMD results of all the patients were divided to 10-year age categories and evaluated in five subgroups in total (20-30 to 61-70). Among the 10-year age categories we found both dominant and non-dominant hand peak bone mass values in the 31-40 years age group (0.423 ± 0.039 g/cm², 0.410 ± 0.043 g/cm², respectively). Statistically significant positive correlation was defined between dominant and non-dominant hand BMD values and L2-L4 spine, femur neck and total femur values (for dominant hand r = 0.636, P = 0.0001; r = 0.645, P = 0.0001; r = 0.623; P = 0.0001; for non-dominant hand r = 0.624, P = 0.0001; r = 0.637, P = 0.0001, r = 0.623, P = 0.0001, respectively). Regarding the relationship of age and menopause with BMD results, a negative statistical relationship was observed among dominant and non-dominant hand, L2-L4 spine, femoral neck and total femur BMD values (P = 0.0001). Our study has provided hand BMD reference values in women aged between 20-70 years; further studies are needed to investigate the role of these values in identifying diseases causing osteoporosis in the hand and in evaluating treatment. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Registration-based segmentation with articulated model from multipostural magnetic resonance images for hand bone motion animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jou, I-Ming; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Su, Fong-Chin; Sun, Yung-Nien

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative measurements of hand bones, including volume, surface, orientation, and position are essential in investigating hand kinematics. Moreover, within the measurement stage, bone segmentation is the most important step due to its certain influences on measuring accuracy. Since hand bones are small and tubular in shape, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is prone to artifacts such as nonuniform intensity and fuzzy boundaries. Thus, greater detail is required for improving segmentation accuracy. The authors then propose using a novel registration-based method on an articulated hand model to segment hand bones from multipostural MR images. The proposed method consists of the model construction and registration-based segmentation stages. Given a reference postural image, the first stage requires construction of a drivable reference model characterized by hand bone shapes, intensity patterns, and articulated joint mechanism. By applying the reference model to the second stage, the authors initially design a model-based registration pursuant to intensity distribution similarity, MR bone intensity properties, and constraints of model geometry to align the reference model to target bone regions of the given postural image. The authors then refine the resulting surface to improve the superimposition between the registered reference model and target bone boundaries. For each subject, given a reference postural image, the proposed method can automatically segment all hand bones from all other postural images. Compared to the ground truth from two experts, the resulting surface image had an average margin of error within 1 mm (mm) only. In addition, the proposed method showed good agreement on the overlap of bone segmentations by dice similarity coefficient and also demonstrated better segmentation results than conventional methods. The proposed registration-based segmentation method can successfully overcome drawbacks caused by inherent artifacts in MR images and

  2. Diagnostic values of bone scintigram for painful disorders of the hand and the wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuhisa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kusunose, Koichi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Honjou, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    From April 1993 to April 1997, 43 patients underwent bone scintigraphic examination for various painful conditions in the hand and the wrist joint. Three hours after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq of TC-99m HMDP, wrist scintigram was obtained. Of 18 patients with ulnar wrist pain, 12 patients had positive scan. The accumulation pattern in the five cases of ulnocarpal abutment syndrome showed different patterns. Slight difference of the accumulation between the ulnar head and the ulnar styloid process was well differentiated. Each carpal bone could be well identified, but when two bones were overlapping as in the triquetrum and the pisiform, additional physical findings were helpful. Six patients showed negative scan. The two patients with positive triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tear but with negative bone scan showed no bony involvement, whereas those with TFC tear and positive scan were the ones having some bony disorders such as ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Of 25 patients with wrist pain other than ulnar pain, 14 patients had positive scan. The remaining 11 patients who had negative scan included three patients with occult ganglion, two with wrist sprain and six with various disorders. (K.H.)

  3. Diagnostic values of bone scintigram for painful disorders of the hand and the wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Kazuhisa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kusunose, Koichi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Honjou, Yuji [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    From April 1993 to April 1997, 43 patients underwent bone scintigraphic examination for various painful conditions in the hand and the wrist joint. Three hours after an intravenous injection of 740 MBq of TC-99m HMDP, wrist scintigram was obtained. Of 18 patients with ulnar wrist pain, 12 patients had positive scan. The accumulation pattern in the five cases of ulnocarpal abutment syndrome showed different patterns. Slight difference of the accumulation between the ulnar head and the ulnar styloid process was well differentiated. Each carpal bone could be well identified, but when two bones were overlapping as in the triquetrum and the pisiform, additional physical findings were helpful. Six patients showed negative scan. The two patients with positive triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tear but with negative bone scan showed no bony involvement, whereas those with TFC tear and positive scan were the ones having some bony disorders such as ulnocarpal abutment syndrome. Of 25 patients with wrist pain other than ulnar pain, 14 patients had positive scan. The remaining 11 patients who had negative scan included three patients with occult ganglion, two with wrist sprain and six with various disorders. (K.H.)

  4. Methods and theory in bone modeling drift: comparing spatial analyses of primary bone distributions in the human humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  5. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjørg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling...... is lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels...

  6. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, M., E-mail: marcin.wolski@curtin.edu.au; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W. [Tribology Laboratory, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia 6102 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS{sub Sta}), vertical (FS{sub V}) and horizontal (FS{sub H}) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early

  7. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, M.; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS Sta ), vertical (FS V ) and horizontal (FS H ) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early osteoarthritis

  8. In vivo quantification of bone-fluorine by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study of hand-bone-fluorine levels in a Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Mike; Gräfe, James L; Aslam; Byun, Soo-Hyun; Chettle, David R; Egden, Lesley M; Webber, Colin E; McNeill, Fiona E

    2012-03-01

    Humans can be exposed to fluorine (F) through their diet, occupation, environment and oral dental care products. Fluorine, at proper dosages, is believed to have positive effects by reducing the incidence of dental caries, but fluorine toxicity can occur when people are exposed to excessive quantities of fluorine. In this paper we present the results of a small pilot in vivo study on 33 participants living in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The mean age of participants was 45 ± 18 years with a range of 20-87 years. The observed calcium normalized hand-bone-fluorine concentrations in this small pilot study ranged from 1.1 to 8.8 mg F/g Ca. Every person measured in this study had levels of fluorine in bone above the detection limit of the system. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3.5 ± 0.4 mg F/g Ca. No difference was observed in average concentration for men and women. In addition, a significant correlation (r(2) = 0.55, p fluorine content and age. The amount of fluorine was found to increase at a rate of 0.084 ± 0.014 mg F/g Ca per year. There was no significant difference observed in this small group of subjects between the accumulation rates in men and women. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time data from in vivo measurement of fluorine content in humans by neutron activation analysis have been presented. The data determined by this technique were found to be consistent with results from ex vivo studies from other countries. We suggest that the data demonstrate that this low risk non-invasive diagnostic technique will permit the routine assessment of bone-fluorine content with potential application in the study of clinical bone-related diseases. This small study demonstrated that people in Southern Ontario are exposed to fluoride in measureable quantities, and that fluoride can be seen to accumulate in bone with age. However, all volunteers were found to have levels below those expected with clinical fluorosis, and only

  9. [Rare bone tumour of the hand: capillary haemangioma of the second finger: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chbani, L; Benmlih, A; Hammas, N; Znati, K; Marzouki, A; Chbani, B; Boutayeb, F; Amarti, A

    2011-04-01

    Primary vascular tumours of bone are rare. Haemangiomas occur as incidental findings in the skull or in the spine. A solitary haemangioma of the hand skeleton is rare and difficult in radiological and histological differential diagnosis. We report a case of a 23 year-old patient presenting with a capillary hemangioma of the left second finger of few months duration for which he underwent amputation. Postoperative evolution was good and showed no recurrence. We discuss this through observation and a review of the literature including the different clinical, radiological and pathological diagnostic problems associated with an unusual site for vascular proliferation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Measuring empathy for human and robot hand pain using electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Galli, Lisa; Ikeda, Ayaka; Itakura, Shoji; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2015-11-03

    This study provides the first physiological evidence of humans' ability to empathize with robot pain and highlights the difference in empathy for humans and robots. We performed electroencephalography in 15 healthy adults who observed either human- or robot-hand pictures in painful or non-painful situations such as a finger cut by a knife. We found that the descending phase of the P3 component was larger for the painful stimuli than the non-painful stimuli, regardless of whether the hand belonged to a human or robot. In contrast, the ascending phase of the P3 component at the frontal-central electrodes was increased by painful human stimuli but not painful robot stimuli, though the interaction of ANOVA was not significant, but marginal. These results suggest that we empathize with humanoid robots in late top-down processing similarly to human others. However, the beginning of the top-down process of empathy is weaker for robots than for humans.

  11. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  12. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  13. In vivo analysis of bone calcium by local neutron activation of the hand. Results osteoporotic and hemodialysed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, B.; Kuntz, D.; Comar, D.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis can be used to measure the total bone mass or simply the calcium mass or concentration of a bone segment, for example the hand bones or vertebrae. For a number of reason, dosimetric, technological but especially physiophatological we decided to use local activation technique. In generalized demineralising one diseases, particularly osteoporosis, the calcium content variations of one segment are in fast comparable to those of another, and more generally to the mineral content variations of the whole skeleton. It is true that ideally we should measure the mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae where the metabolic activity is especially high, and where damage may occur sooner or in any case is detected earlier in osteoporosis. However neutron irradiation of the vertebrae meets with certain technical problems and may also present difficulties in the interpretation of results. Furthermore in other bone diseases, hyperparathyroidism for instance and especially renal osteodystrophy, bone mineral loss is particularly premature and pronounced in the hand and we therefore decided for the moment to use the hand for the neutron activation analysis of bone calcium. The technique enabled us to measure the calcium concentration of the hand bones in hemodialysed subjects and in patients with primitive osteoporosis

  14. Maintained hand function and forearm bone health 14 months after an in-home virtual-reality videogame hand telerehabilitation intervention in an adolescent with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R; Warden, Stuart J; Fess, Elaine; Rabin, Bryan; Yonkman, Janell; Shirley, Bridget; Burdea, Grigore C

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality videogames can be used to motivate rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation can be used to improve access to rehabilitation. These uses of technology to improve health outcomes are a burgeoning area of rehabilitation research. So far, there is a lack of reports of long-term outcomes of these types of interventions. The authors report a 15-year-old boy with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and epilepsy because of presumed perinatal stroke who improved his plegic hand function and increased his plegic forearm bone health during a 14-month virtual reality videogame hand telerehabilitation intervention. A total of 14 months after the intervention ended, repeat evaluation demonstrated maintenance of both increased hand function and forearm bone health. The implications of this work for the future of rehabilitation in children with neurological disabilities are discussed in this article.

  15. Maintained Hand Function and Forearm Bone Health 14 Months After an In-Home Virtual-Reality Videogame Hand Telerehabilitation Intervention in an Adolescent With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Warden, Stuart J.; Fess, Elaine; Rabin, Bryan; Yonkman, Janell; Shirley, Bridget; Burdea, Grigore C.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality videogames can be used to motivate rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation can be used to improve access to rehabilitation. These uses of technology to improve health outcomes are a burgeoning area of rehabilitation research. So far, there is a lack of reports of long-term outcomes of these types of interventions. The authors report a 15-year-old boy with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and epilepsy because of presumed perinatal stroke who improved his plegic hand function and increased his plegic forearm bone health during a 14-month virtual reality videogame hand telerehabilitation intervention. A total of 14 months after the intervention ended, repeat evaluation demonstrated maintenance of both increased hand function and forearm bone health. The implications of this work for the future of rehabilitation in children with neurological disabilities are discussed in this article. PMID:21383228

  16. Human-like Compliance for Dexterous Robot Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Active Electromechanical Compliance (AEC) system that was developed for the Jau-JPL anthropomorphic robot. The AEC system imitates the functionality of the human muscle's secondary function, which is to control the joint's stiffness: AEC is implemented through servo controlling the joint drive train's stiffness. The control strategy, controlling compliant joints in teleoperation, is described. It enables automatic hybrid position and force control through utilizing sensory feedback from joint and compliance sensors. This compliant control strategy is adaptable for autonomous robot control as well. Active compliance enables dual arm manipulations, human-like soft grasping by the robot hand, and opens the way to many new robotics applications.

  17. Are human hands and feet affected by climate? A test of Allen's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lia; Lycett, Stephen J; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Pearson, Osbjorn M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that populations from cold, high-latitude regions tend to have relatively shorter limbs than populations from tropical regions, with most of the difference due to the relative length of the zeugopods (i.e., radius, ulna, tibia, fibula). This pattern has been explained either as the consequence of long-term climatic selection or of phenotypic plasticity, with temperature having a direct effect on bone growth during development. The aims of this study were to test whether this pattern of intra-limb proportions extended to the bones of the hands and feet, and to determine whether the pattern remained significant after taking into account the effects of neutral evolutionary processes related to population history. Measurements of the limb bones, including the first metatarsal and metacarpal, were collected for 393 individuals from 10 globally distributed human populations. The relationship between intra-limb indices and minimum temperature was tested using generalized least squares regression, correcting for spatial autocorrelation. The results confirmed previous observations of a temperature-related gradient in intra-limb proportions, even accounting for population history. This pattern extends to the hands, with populations from cold regions displaying a relatively shorter and stockier first metacarpal; however, the first metatarsal appears to be wider but not shorter in cold-adapted populations. The results suggest that climatic adaptation played a role in shaping variation in limb proportions between human populations. The different patterns shown by the hands and feet might be due to the presence of evolutionary constraints on the foot to maintain efficient bipedal locomotion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Bone scan and joint scan of hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Perdrisot, R.; Grilo, R.M.; Quenesson, E.; Bonnet, C.; Vergne, P.; Treves, R.; Bertin, P.; Boutros-Toni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of joint scan and bone scan of hands and feet, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, to localize the altered joints. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of joint scan were determined in comparison with clinical joint assessment. Fifteen patients (780 joints) were clinically examined (pain and synovitis); during the same day, a bone scan and a joint scan were realized by oxidronate 99m Tc intravenous injection. Patients were scanned 5 minutes (tissual time, T t ) and 3 hours 1/4 (bone time, T 0 ) after the administration. The uptake of the bi-phosphonate was evaluated with a qualitative method using a grey scale. The uptake of 99m Tc oxidronate was quantitated using an extra-articular region of interest. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the scan at Tt were 46%, 96%, 85% et 78%. The same parameters were 75%, 66%, 53% and 84% for the scan realized at T 0 . The joint scan has showed 22% of false positive. These false positives could be a consequence of an earlier detection of joint alterations by scan. The joint scan should forecast the evolution of joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  20. Techniques for small-bone lengthening in congenital anomalies of the hand and foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguella, J; Cabrera, M; Escolá, J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse three different lengthening techniques used in 31 small bones for congenital malformations of the hand and foot: 15 metacarpals, 12 metatarsals, 1 foot stump and 3 spaces between a previously transplanted phalanx end of the carpus or the metacarpal. Progressive lengthening with an external fixator device was performed in 23 cases: the callus distraction (callotasis) technique was used in 15 cases, whereas in the other 8 cases the speed of lengthening was faster and the defect bridged with a bone graft as a second stage. In another eight cases, a one-stage lengthening was performed. In the callotasis group, the total length gained ranged from 9 mm to 30 mm and the percentage of lengthening obtained (compared with the initial bone length) averaged 53.4%; in the fast lengthening group, the length gained ranged from 8 mm to 15 mm, and the average percentage of lengthening was 53.1%; and in the one-stage group, the length gained ranged from 7 mm to 15 mm, and the average percentage of lengthening was 43%. The overall complication rate was 22.5%.

  1. Bone loss in limbs with decreased or absent sensation: Ten year follow-up of the hands in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMoran, J.W.; Brand, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-seven patients with insensitive hands have been studied by correlating radiologic findings with occupational and medical history in order to better define causal factors in bone resorption. This study indicates that nonspecific infection and trauma are the reasons for bone resorption in 98% of cases. The role of intermittent pressure seems to be in soft tissue breakdown, which then allows bone to become infected. Bone resorption can be arrested at any stage of the disease by appropriate therapy of splinting and control of infection. (orig.)

  2. Kinetic study of human hand sodium using local in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen Boulakia, Francine.

    1978-01-01

    Using local 'in vivo' activation analysis, turnover of human hand sodium is studied in 14 subjects, 7 controls and 7 decalcified osteoporotics patients. The hand of each subject is irradiated with neutrons emitted by 52 Cf sources; the equivalent dose delivered is 8 cGy. The 24 Na activity variation is plotted as function of time and the experimental curve so obtained is fitted to two exponentials. Two compartements are identified: a rapidly exchangeable one, with a half life of 1 h; an other, with a very slow turnover, the half lifes varying from 79 h to 35 h as the calcium concentration becomes sub-normal. The ratios calcium to slowly exchangeable sodium and rapidly to slowly exchangeable sodium appear to be promising for the evaluation of bone disease [fr

  3. Recent advances in biodynamics of human hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ren G; Wu, John Z; Welcome, Daniel E

    2005-07-01

    The biodynamics of human hand-arm system is one of the most important foundations for the measurement, evaluation, and risk assessment of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) exposure. This paper presents a new conceptual model relating factors influencing cause-effect relationships for HTV exposure, a new study strategy, and a comprehensive review of the recent advances in the biodynamics closely associated with HTV exposure. The review covers the following five aspects: theoretical modeling of biodynamic responses, vibration transmissibility, driving-point biodynamic responses, evaluation of anti-vibration gloves, and applied forces. This review finds that some significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in the recent years. Several important issues and problems in the biodynamic measurement have been identified and resolved, which has significantly helped improve the reliability and accuracy of the experimental data. The results reported in recent years suggest that, from the point of view of biodynamics, the frequency weighting specified in ISO 5349-1 (2001) overestimates the low frequency effect but underestimates the high frequency effect on the fingers and hand. The major problems, issues, and topics for further studies are also outlined in this paper. It is anticipated that the further studies of the biodynamics of the system will eventually lead to establishment of a robust vibration exposure theory. Although this review focuses on the biodynamics of the hand-arm system, the fundamental concepts and some methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for the study of whole-body vibration exposure.

  4. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  5. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  6. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  7. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... DESCRIPTION The bones of the hand serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist and fingers move. When ...

  8. Tactile mouse generating velvet hand illusion on human palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadar Rajaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To enhance virtual reality (VR generated by tactile displays, we have focused on a novel tactile illusion, called the Velvet Hand Illusion (VHI. In VHI, moving two parallel wires back and forth between the two hands leads humans to perceive a velvet-like surface between their hands. In earlier studies, we revealed that the intensity of VHI could be controlled by a ratio (r/D, where r and D are the wire stroke and wire distance, respectively. According to these findings, we investigate in this study whether a common tactile display is able to produce VHI, and whether the ratio can also control VHI intensity. We prepare a dot-matrix display as a tactile display in which moving one line of the display’s pins is considered as a wire pattern. We investigate the VHI intensity with regard to changing the stroke r and the line distance D using paired comparison. Experimental results show that the VHI intensity is increased or decreased by changing r and D. We conclude that VHI can be created by the tactile display, and the intensity of VHI is controlled by changing the ratio of r/D.

  9. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in

  10. Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Darja; Campos, Iván Marcos; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Koren, Ana; Petridis, Petros; Zhang, Geping; Spitalnik, Patrice F.; Grayson, Warren L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the i...

  11. A Comparison of Hand Wrist Bone Analysis with Two Different Cervical Vertebral Analysis in Measuring Skeletal Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. M...

  12. A Comparison of Hand Wrist Bone Analysis with Two Different Cervical Vertebral Analysis in Measuring Skeletal Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. Materials and Methods: Hand wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 72 subjects aged between 7 and 16 years both male and female from the patients visiting Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, R.V. Dental College and Hospital. The 9 stages were reduced to 5 stages to compare with cervical vertebral maturation stage by Baccetti et al. The Bjork, Grave and Brown stages were reduced to six intervals to compare with cervical vertebral maturational index (CVMI) staging by Hassel and Farman. These measurements were then compared with the hand wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test. Results: There was no significant difference between the hand wrist analysis and the two different cervical vertebral analyses for assessing skeletal maturation. There was no significant difference between the two cervical vertebral analyses, but the CVMI method, which is visual method is less time consuming. Conclusion: Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects. PMID:25395791

  13. A comparison of hand wrist bone analysis with two different cervical vertebral analysis in measuring skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichai, Saravanan; Rajesh, M; Reddy, Naveen; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Reddy, Jayaprakash; Joshi, Bhavana

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal maturation is an integral part of individual pattern of growth and development and is a continuous process. Peak growth velocity in standing height is the most valid representation of the rate of overall skeletal growth. Ossification changes of hand wrist and cervical vertebrae are the reliable indicators of growth status of individual. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal maturation as measured by hand wrist bone analysis and cervical vertebral analysis. Hand wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms of 72 subjects aged between 7 and 16 years both male and female from the patients visiting Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, R.V. Dental College and Hospital. The 9 stages were reduced to 5 stages to compare with cervical vertebral maturation stage by Baccetti et al. The Bjork, Grave and Brown stages were reduced to six intervals to compare with cervical vertebral maturational index (CVMI) staging by Hassel and Farman. These measurements were then compared with the hand wrist bone analysis, and the results were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. There was no significant difference between the hand wrist analysis and the two different cervical vertebral analyses for assessing skeletal maturation. There was no significant difference between the two cervical vertebral analyses, but the CVMI method, which is visual method is less time consuming. Vertebral analysis on a lateral cephalogram is as valid as the hand wrist bone analysis with the advantage of reducing the radiation exposure of growing subjects.

  14. The feasibility study of in-vivo analysis of bone calcium by activation of hand with 5 Ci 238Pu-Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevimli, R.

    1985-01-01

    An in-vivo partial-body neutron activation technique (IVNAA) was used for evaluaton of the human bone. It was decided to use the hand for studies of osteroporosis. The 48 Ca(n,γ) 49 Ca reaction was employed (f=0.185%, I=900mb) and 5 Ci 238 Pu-Be isotopic neutron source. A sufficient precision was obtained by four 10 min irradiations of the hand phantom tubes, each followed by a 1000 sec counting period. A 5''x5'' NaI (Tl) well-type detector and a 1024 channel multichannel analyser were used for counting gamma rays. The neutron source, covered with 1 cm paraffin wax, is holding during the irradiation in hand

  15. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author's knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD.

  16. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  17. Validating in vivo Raman spectroscopy of bone in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy can non-destructively measure properties of bone related to mineral density, mineral composition, and collagen composition. Bone properties can be measured through the skin in animal and human subjects, but correlations between the transcutaneous and exposed bone measurements have only been reported for human cadavers. In this study, we examine human subjects to collect measurements transcutaneously, on surgically exposed bone, and on recovered bone fragments. This data will be used to demonstrate in vivo feasibility and to compare transcutaneous and exposed Raman spectroscopy of bone. A commercially available Raman spectrograph and optical probe operating at 785 nm excitation are used for the in vivo measurements. Requirements for applying Raman spectroscopy during a surgery are also discussed.

  18. Stiff Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Stiff Hands Email to a friend * required fields ...

  19. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. Human bone ingrowth into a porous tantalum acetabular cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Haidemenopoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous Tantalum is increasingly used as a structural scaffold in orthopaedic applications. Information on the mechanisms of human bone ingrowth into trabecular metal implants is rather limited. In this work we have studied, qualitatively, human bone ingrowth into a retrieved porous tantalum monoblock acetabular cup using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. According to the results and taking into account the short operational life (4 years of the implant, bone ingrowth on the acetabular cup took place in the first two-rows of porous tantalum cells to an estimated depth of 1.5 to 2 mm. The bone material, grown inside the first raw of cells, had almost identical composition with the attached bone on the cup surface, as verified by the same Ca:P ratio. Bone ingrowth has been a gradual process starting with Ca deposition on the tantalum struts, followed by bone formation into the tantalum cells, with gradual densification of the bone tissue into hydroxyapatite. A critical step in this process has been the attachment of bone material to the tantalum struts following the topology of the porous tantalum scaffold. These results provide insight to the human bone ingrowth process into porous tantalum implants.

  1. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  2. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  3. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (pnecrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M.; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Vanildo J. de M.; Lima, Lindeval F.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  5. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  6. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  7. The effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.; Karatzas, P.

    1974-11-01

    In order to study the effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bones, work was carried out on human and bovine bone tissue samples. Factors causing possible alterations in the mechanical structures of the preserved bone allografts were considered to be deep freezing (-35degC), lyophylization, irradiation, or a combination of lyophylization and irradiation. The latter could be shown to lower the mechanical strength of the bone. Crystal lattice of the bone did not show any alterations in x-ray diffraction pattern, following freeze drying and/or irradiation with doses up to 10 Mrad of gamma radiation. Deterioration in mechanical properties is probably due to damage to the organic phase of the bone matrix

  8. Early Pleistocene human hand phalanx from the Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Pablos, Adrián; Carretero, José Miguel; Huguet, Rosa; Valverdú, Josep; Martinón-Torres, María; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new Early Pleistocene proximal hand phalanx (ATE9-2) from the Sima del Elefante cave site (TE - Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain), ascribed to Homo sp., is presented and comparatively described in the context of the evolution of the genus Homo. The ATE9-2 specimen is especially important because of the paucity of hand bones in the human fossil record during the Early Pleistocene. The morphological and metrical analyses of the phalanx ATE9-2 indicate that there are no essential differences between it and comparator fossil specimens for the genus Homo after 1.3 Ma (millions of years ago). Similar to Sima de los Huesos and Neandertal specimens, ATE9-2 is a robust proximal hand phalanx, probably reflecting greater overall body robusticity in these populations or a higher gracility in modern humans. The age of level TE9 from Sima del Elefante and morphological and metrical studies of ATE9-2 suggest that the morphology of the proximal hand phalanges and, thus, the morphology of the hand could have remained stable over the last 1.2-1.3 Ma. Taking into account the evidence recently provided by a metacarpal from Kaitio (Kenya) from around 1.42 Ma, we argue that modern hand morphology is present in the genus Homo subsequent to Homo habilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  10. The Human Octopus: controlling supernumerary hands with the help of virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Aru, Jaan; Vasser, Madis; Zafra, Raul; Kulu, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the "human octopus" phenomenon where subjects controlled virtual supernumerary hands through hand tracking technology and virtual reality. Four experiments were developed to study how subjects (n=10) operate with different number and behaviour of supernumerary hands. The behaviours involved inserting movement delays to the virtual hands and adjusting their movement scale or position. It was found that having more hands to operate with does not necessarily mean higher success r...

  11. Registration-based Bone Morphometry for Shape Analysis of the Bones of the Human Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand A.; Leahy, Richard M.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that quantifies point-wise changes in surface morphology of the bones of the human wrist. The proposed method, referred to as Registration-based Bone Morphometry (RBM), consists of two steps: an atlas selection step and an atlas warping step. The atlas for individual wrist bones was selected based on the shortest l2 distance to the ensemble of wrist bones from a database of a healthy population of subjects. The selected atlas was then warped to the corresponding bones of individuals in the population using a non-linear registration method based on regularized l2 distance minimization. The displacement field thus calculated showed local differences in bone shape that then were used for the analysis of group differences. Our results indicate that RBM has potential to provide a standardized approach to shape analysis of bones of the human wrist. We demonstrate the performance of RBM for examining group differences in wrist bone shapes based on sex and between those of the right and left wrists in healthy individuals. We also present data to show the application of RBM for tracking bone erosion status in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26353369

  12. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-11-07

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques.

  13. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques. (paper)

  14. [Use of the induced membrane technique for the treatment of bone defects in the hand or wrist, in emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamans, B; Pauchot, J; Petite, H; Blanchet, N; Rochet, S; Garbuio, P; Tropet, Y; Obert, L

    2010-10-01

    A prospective study is reported concerning 11 cases of bone defect of the hand and wrist treated by the induced membrane technique. Ten men and one woman with an average age of 49 yrs (17-72) sustained a high-energy trauma with severe mutilation of digit and hand but with intact pulp. Eight cases of open finger fractures with composite loss of substance and three cases of bone and joint infection (thumb, wrist, fifth finger) were included. All cases were treated by the induced membrane technique which consists in stable fixation, flap if necessary, and in filling the bone defect by a cement methyl methacrylate polymere (PMMA) spacer. A secondary procedure at two months is needed where the cement is removed and the void is filled by cancellous bone. The key point of this induced membrane technique is to respect the foreign body membrane which formed around the cement spacer creating a biologic chamber. Bone union was evaluated prospectively by X-ray and CT scan by a surgeon not involved in the treatment. Failure was defined as non-union at one year, or uncontrolled sepsis at one month. Two cases failed to achieve bone union. No septic complications occurred and all septic cases were controlled. In nine cases, bone union was achieved within four months (three to 12). Evidence of osteoid formation was determined by a bone biopsy in one case. Masquelet first reported 35 cases of large tibial non-union defects treated by the induced membrane technique. The cement spacer promotes foreign body membrane induction constituting a biological chamber. Works on animal models reported by Pellissier and Viateau demonstrated membrane properties: secretion of growths factors (VEGF, TGF beta1, BMP2) and osteoinductive cellular activity. The induced membrane seems to mimic a neoperiosteum. This technique is useful in emergency or septic conditions where bone defects cannot be treated by shortening. It avoids microsurgery and is limited by availability of cancellous bone. Copyright

  15. Objective evaluation of cervical vertebral bone age' its reliability in comparison with hand-wrist bone age: by TW3 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Cms Krishna; Reddy, Vamsi Nilay; Sreedevi, Gojja; Ponnada, Swaroopa Rani; Priya, K Padma; Naik, B Raveendra

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the validity of a new method for evaluating skeletal maturation by assessing the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae seen in the cephalometric radiograph. This study consisted of a sample of 50 patients in the age group of 8 to 14 years of age. Chronologically, they were divided into six groups, based on the age consisting of a minimum of six to a maximum of 10 subjects. All the patients included in the study were females. The selected subjects were clinically examined and then age and date of birth of the patient in years and months was noted. Then lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs of the patient were taken on the same day with good clarity and contrast. The results suggested that cervical vertebral bone age on cephalometric radiographs calculated with this method is as reliable at estimating bone age as is the Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method on hand-wrist radiographs. By determining the cervical vertebral bone age, skeletal maturity can be evaluated in a detailed and objective manner with cephalometric radiographs. The ability to accurately appraise skeletal maturity from cervical vertebral maturation, without the need for additional radiographs, has the potential to improve orthodontic diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The technique's simplicity and ease of use should encourage this method as a frst level diagnostic tool to assess skeletal maturation. Clinical signifcance: This study revealed that the timing and sequence of ossifcation of the bones in hand and wrist and cervical vertebrae were able to relate the skeletal development of the various skeletal maturity indicators to a child's development. This method provided a mean with which one can determine the skeletal maturity of a person and thereby determine whether the possibility of potential growth existed.

  16. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubbioso, Raffaele; Raffin, Estelle; Karabanov, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representat......Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial...... in M1HAND. Like homotopic SAI, heterotopic SAF was somatotopically expressed in M1HAND. Together, the results provide first-time evidence that fast sensorimotor integration involves centre-inhibition and surround-facilitation in human M1HAND....

  17. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  18. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reorganization of the Human Somatosensory Cortex in Hand Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Catalan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Abnormalities of finger representations in the somatosensory cortex have been identified in patients with focal hand dystonia. Measuring blood flow with positron emission tomography (PET can be use to demonstrate functional localization of receptive fields. Methods: A vibratory stimulus was applied to the right thumb and little finger of six healthy volunteers and six patients with focal hand dystonia to map their receptive fields using H215O PET. Results: The cortical finger representations in the primary somatosensory cortex were closer to each other in patients than in normal subjects. No abnormalities were found in secondary somatosensory cortex, but the somatotopy there is less well distinguished. Conclusions: These data confirm prior electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging observations showing abnormalities of finger representations in somatosensory cortex of patients with focal hand dystonia.

  20. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora

    2018-01-01

    during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor......Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling...... signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e.g. selenium metabolism, Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, ketone body metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and catalytic cycle of mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs). On the other hand...

  1. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts....... Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone...

  2. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 OH 2 ], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 μm (±5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm -3 and 1.92 g.cm -3 respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content in the samples was then

  3. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  4. Qualitative Evaluation of Digital Hand X-rays is Not a Reliable Method to Assess Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndrewJ. Miller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: The gold standard for evaluating bone mineral density is dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA.  Prior studies have shown poor reliability using analog wrist X-rays in diagnosing osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate if there was improved diagnostic value to visual assessment of digital hand X-rays in osteoporosis screening. We hypothesized that similar to analog counterparts, digital hand X-rays have poor correlation and reliability in determining bone mineral density (BMD relative to DEXA.Methods: We prospectively evaluated female patients older than 65 years who presented to our hand clinic with digital hand and wrist X-rays as part of their evaluation over six months. Patients who had a fracture and were without DEXA scans within the past two years were excluded. Five fellowship-trained hand surgeons, blinded to DEXA T-scores, evaluated the x-rays over two assessments separated by four weeks and classified them as osteoporotic, osteopenic, or normal BMD.  Accuracy relative to DEXA T-score, interobserver and intraobserver rates were calculated.Results: Thirty four patients met the inclusion criteria and a total of 340 x-rays reviews were performed.  The assessments were correct in 169 cases (49% as compared to the DEXA T-scores. A mean weighted kappa coefficient of agreement between observers was 0.29 (range 0.02-0.41 reflecting a fair agreement. The first and second assessment for all five physicians was 0.46 (range 0.19-0.78 reflecting a moderate agreement.  Grouping osteoporosis and osteopenia together compared to normal, the accuracy, interobserver and intraobserver rates increased to 63%, 0.42 and 0.54 respectively.Conclusion: Abnormally low BMD is a common occurrence in patients treated for upper extremity disorders. There is poor accuracy relative to DEXA scan and only fair agreement in diagnosing osteoporosis using visual assessments of digital x-rays.

  5. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation dosimetry in human bone using electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate measurements of dose in bone are required in order to improve the dosimetry of systemic radiotherapy for osseous metastases. Bone is an integrating dosimeter which records the radiation history of the skeleton. During irradiation, electrons become trapped in the crystalline component of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite). The traps are very stable; at room temperature, emptying of the traps occurs with a half-life of many years. The population of trapped unpaired electrons is proportional to the radiation dose administered to the bone and can be measured in excised bone samples using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, irradiated with Co-60, were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K. At room temperature, the radiation-induced signal, with a g-value of 2.001 ± 0.001 increased linearly with absorbed dose above a lower threshold of 3 Gy, up to doses of 200 Gy. In contrast with pure hydroxyapatite, EPR spectra of excised human bone showed a broad 'native' signal, due to the organic component of bone, which masks the dosimetrically important signal. This native signal is highly variable from sample to sample and precludes the use of EPR as an absolute dosimetry technique. However, after subtraction of the background signal, irradiated human bone showed a linear response with a lower limit of measurement similar to that of synthetic hydroxyapatite. Bone is an in vivo linear dosimeter which can be exploited to develop accurate estimates of the radiation dose delivered during systemic radiotherapy and teletherapy. However, improved sensitivity of the EPR dosimetry technique is necessary before it can be applied reliably in clinical situations. (author)

  7. Compact DD generator based in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to determine sodium concentrations in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Mychaela Dawn; Neumann, Colby R; Zhang, Xinxin; Byrne, Patrick; Liu, Yingzi; Weaver, Connie M; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2018-04-16

    This study presents the development of a non-invasive method for monitoring Na in human bone. Many diseases, such as hypertension and osteoporosis, are closely associated with sodium (Na) retention in the human body. Na retention is generally evaluated by calculating the difference between dietary intake and excretion. There is currently no method to directly quantify Na retained in the body. Bone is a storage for many elements, including Na, which renders bone Na an ideal biomarker to study Na metabolism and retention. Approach: A customized compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator was used to produce neutrons for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA), with a moderator/ reflector/ shielding assembly optimized for human hand irradiation in order to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave and to limit radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. Main Results: The experimental results show that the system is able to detect sodium levels in the bone as low as 12 g Na/g dry bone with an effective dose to the body of about 27 μSv. The simulation results agree with the numbers estimated from the experiment. Significance: This is expected to be a feasible method for measuring the change of Na in bone. The low detection limit indicates this will be a useful system to study the association between Na retention and related diseases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  8. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  9. Bone age assessment in Hispanic children: digital hand atlas compared with the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, James Reza; Zhang, Aifeng; Vachon, Linda; Tsao, Sinchai

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment is most commonly performed with the use of the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) book atlas, which was developed in the 1950s. The population of theUnited States is not as homogenous as the Caucasian population in the Greulich and Pyle in the 1950s, especially in the Los Angeles, California area. A digital hand atlas (DHA) based on 1,390 hand images of children of different racial backgrounds (Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian) aged 0-18 years was collected from Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Statistical analysis discovered significant discrepancies exist between Hispanic and the G&P atlas standard. To validate the usage of DHA as a clinical standard, diagnostic radiologists performed reads on Hispanic pediatric hand and wrist computed radiography images using either the G&P pediatric radiographic atlas or the Children's Hospital Los Angeles Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) as reference. The order in which the atlas is used (G&P followed by DHA or vice versa) for each image was prepared before actual reading begins. Statistical analysis of the results was then performed to determine if a discrepancy exists between the two readings.

  10. Human motion retrieval from hand-drawn sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hung; Assa, Jackie; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of motion capture data increases the importance of motion retrieval. The majority of the existing motion retrieval approaches are based on a labor-intensive step in which the user browses and selects a desired query motion clip from the large motion clip database. In this work, a novel sketching interface for defining the query is presented. This simple approach allows users to define the required motion by sketching several motion strokes over a drawn character, which requires less effort and extends the users’ expressiveness. To support the real-time interface, a specialized encoding of the motions and the hand-drawn query is required. Here, we introduce a novel hierarchical encoding scheme based on a set of orthonormal spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions, which provides a compact representation, and avoids the CPU/processing intensive stage of temporal alignment used by previous solutions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can well retrieve the motions, and is capable of retrieve logically and numerically similar motions, which is superior to previous approaches. The user study shows that the proposed system can be a useful tool to input motion query if the users are familiar with it. Finally, an application of generating a 3D animation from a hand-drawn comics strip is demonstrated.

  11. Real-Time Hand Position Sensing Technology Based on Human Body Electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human-computer interactions (HCI based on hand gestures have been widely investigated. Here, we present a novel method to locate the real-time position of the hand using the electrostatics of the human body. This method has many advantages, including a delay of less than one millisecond, low cost, and does not require a camera or wearable devices. A formula is first created to sense array signals with five spherical electrodes. Next, a solving algorithm for the real-time measured hand position is introduced and solving equations for three-dimensional coordinates of hand position are obtained. A non-contact real-time hand position sensing system was established to perform verification experiments, and the principle error of the algorithm and the systematic noise were also analyzed. The results show that this novel technology can determine the dynamic parameters of hand movements with good robustness to meet the requirements of complicated HCI.

  12. [Comparation on Haversian system between human and animal bones by imaging analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Ling; Zheng, Jing; Yao, Ya-Nan; Chen, Sen; Wang, Hui-Pin; Chen, Li-Xian; Guo, Jing-Yuan

    2006-04-01

    To explore the differences in Haversian system between human and animal bones through imaging analysis and morphology description. Thirty-five slices grinding from human being as well as dog, pig, cow and sheep bones were observed to compare their structure, then were analysed with the researchful microscope. Plexiform bone or oeston band was not found in human bones; There were significant differences in the shape, size, location, density of Haversian system, between human and animal bones. The amount of Haversian lamella and diameter of central canal in human were the biggest; Significant differences in the central canal diameter and total area percentage between human and animal bones were shown by imaging analysis. (1) Plexiform bone and osteon band could be the exclusive index in human bone; (2) There were significant differences in the structure of Haversian system between human and animal bones; (3) The percentage of central canals total area was valuable in species identification through imaging analysis.

  13. Morphological and metric aberrations of the hand-bones in patients with mongolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochels, R.; Schmid, F.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of 2758 X-rays of the hands of 1047 patients with mongolism showed some morphological and metric aberrations: We discovered pseudoepiphyses in 82,4%, a brachymesophalangia in 67%, a dysmesophalangia in 4,6% and clinodactyly in 56,4%. The length of the hands of the patients with mongolism is in all ages shorter than in controls; there is also a distinct acromicria. These alterations are interpreted as a sign of the cerebral affection as well as a general aberration of the mesenchyma. (orig.) [de

  14. Association of bone edema with the progression of bone erosions quantified by hand magnetic resonance imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisbona, Maria Pilar; Pàmies, Anna; Ares, Jesús; Almirall, Miriam; Navallas, Maria; Solano, Albert; Maymó, Joan

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the association of synovitis, bone marrow edema (BME), and tenosynovitis in the progression of erosions quantified by hand magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 year in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in remission. A total of 56 of 196 patients with early RA in remission at 1 year and with available MRI data at baseline and at 12 months were included. MRI images were assessed according to the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) system. Persistent remission was defined as 28-joint Disease Activity Score-erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≤ 2.6 and/or Simplified Disease Activity Index ≤ 3.3 and/or the new boolean American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism remission criteria for a continuous period of at least 6 months. Progression of bone erosions was defined as an increase of 1 or more units in annual RAMRIS score for erosions compared to baseline. At 1 year, the majority of patients with RA in sustained remission showed some inflammatory activity on MRI (94.6% synovitis, 46.4% BME, and 58.9% tenosynovitis) and 19 of the 56 patients (33.9%) showed MRI progression of bone erosions. A significant difference was observed in MRI BME at 1 year, with higher mean score in patients with progression compared to nonprogression of erosions (4.8 ± 5.6 and 1.4 ± 2.6, p = 0.03). Subclinical inflammation was identified by MRI in 96.4% of patients with RA in sustained clinical remission. Significantly higher scores of BME after sustained remission were observed in patients with progression of erosions compared to patients with no progression. The persistence of higher scores of BME may explain the progression of bone erosions in patients with persistent clinical remission.

  15. Use of californium-252 neutron irradiator for in-vivo analysis of the bone calcium content of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, A.; Leitienne, P.; Zech, P.Y.; Traeger, J.; Doyen, J.B.; Breton, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    With californium-252 it is easy to obtain a high neutron flux of the order of 10 9 n/s. The mean energy of this radiation, which is close on 2 MeV, activates calcium very well. The authors describe a storage and irradiator unit with a 100 μg californium source, with which it will henceforth be possible to develop this technique of measuring the calcium of the hand in a hospital. The test programme has three distinct phases: (1) irradiation of the biological target for 10 min; (2) after a transfer period of 30 s, detection of the radiation emitted by the 49 Ca for 600 s; (3) processing of the numerical data received, which are transmitted on line to a T 1600 calculator. The weight is found by comparing the activity induced in the unknown calcium mass with that induced in a phantom chosen as the activity standard. The reproducibility of the method is of the order of 3% (5% at the worst). The gross standardized result is edited automatically. For physical and clinical reasons, the hand is chosen as the reference part of the body in 70 control subjects. The local irradiation dose is less than 2 rem. The bone calcium content is 14.3+-1.9 g in men and 10.1+-1.3 g in women. In clinical application of the technique it is necessary to differentiate between the normal calcium content and the calcium content found with a pathological state. This makes it necessary to express the measurement in the form of a volume mass (rho). The volume of the hand skeleton (V in cm 3 ) is calculated from the corresponding bone surface (S in cm 2 ) measured by planimetry with the relationship V=8.925 exp 0.0205.S, found after studying 80 hand skeletons. In our control subjects the calcium bone volume mass was 0.288 g/cm 3 in men and 0.282 g/cm 3 in women. There is a very significant difference (p<0.001) in a population of 88 subjects with chronic renal insufficiencies at the terminal stage: rho=0.233 in men and 0.235 in women

  16. Differentiating human versus non-human bone by exploring the nutrient foramen: implications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vail; Beckett, Sophie; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone. The nutrient foramen and its canal were analysed in six femora and humeri of human, sheep (Ovies aries) and pig (Sus scrofa) species. The location, position and direction of the nutrient foramina were measured macroscopically. The length of the canal, angle of the canal, circumference and area of the entrance of the foramen were measured from CT images. Macroscopic analysis revealed the femora nutrient foramina are more proximal, whereas humeri foramina are more distal. The human bones and sheep humerus conform to the perceived directionality, but the pig bones and sheep femur do not. Amongst the parameters measured in the CT analysis, the angle of the canal had a discriminatory power. This study shows the potential of this technique to be used independently or complementary to other methods in distinguishing between human and non-human bone in forensic anthropology.

  17. New hand at the helm of CERN Human Resources

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Human resources is more than just an administrative function, said CERN's new HR Department head, Carla Bryois, in an interview with the Bulletin. Human resources management is about getting the best out of an organization's staff. That's good for the organisation as a whole, and it's good for the individual. A suitable task for a psychologist, you might think? And that's exactly the kind of person who has just taken over as head of CERN's Human Resources Department. Carla Bryois, who has Dutch and Swiss nationality, took up her duties on 1 April, and brings with her a wealth of experience from the private sector. Her career began with a degree in psychology and social sciences from the Geneva school made famous by Jean Piaget. From there, she went on to specialise in clinical psychology before taking a career break to raise a family. Carla Bryois, CERN's new HR Department head Returning to work, she moved from academic to occupational psychology, taking up a position in human resources with Elsevier scien...

  18. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226 Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  19. Strontium-90 content of human bone collected in 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.

    1969-01-01

    This report follows report CEA-R-3381 and presents the strontium 90 content of human bones collected in 1967 in the Paris area. The main trend is much the same as during 1966; contamination levels are falling down in infants up to 5 year old. Beyond this age, the values are the same or experience a slight increase. (authors) [fr

  20. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human pathogens have provided invaluable insights into their evolutionary history and prevalence in space and time. Most of these studies were based on DNA extracted from teeth or postcranial bones. In contrast, no pathogen DNA has been reported from the petro...

  1. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  2. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  3. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, H. H. Hans; van der Merwe, A. E. Lida

    2016-01-01

    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e.,

  4. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC

    1997-01-01

    We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...... strain and failure energy showed maxima at younger ages. These age-related variations (except for failure energy) were non-linear. Tissue density and mineral concentration were constant throughout life, whereas apparent density (the amount of bone) varied with ultimate stress. Collagen density (the...... amount of collagen) varied with failure energy. Collagen concentration was maximal at younger ages but varied little with age. Our results suggest that the decrease in mechanical properties of trabecular bone such as Young's modulus and ultimate stress is mainly a consequence of the loss of trabecular...

  5. 99m-Tc HMDP bone scintigraphic findings of gouty arthropathy of both hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Domstad, P.A.; Purcell, M.; DeLand, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    The 99m Tc hydroxy methylene diphosphonate scintigraphic findings of both hands are correlated to the radiographic findings in a patient with a 30-year history of gouty arthropathy. Scintigraphic differentiation of the type of arthritis on the basis of uptake pattern is difficult. However, the findings of rheumatoid arthritis are confined to the joints and usually the involvement is symmetrical. With gout there is a tendency toward asymmetrical, bilateral, multifocal joint involvement with areas of intense abnormal uptake; because of the associated soft tissue swelling, the intense uptake usually extends beyond the involved joints. (author)

  6. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    Best Poster 5Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants AuthorsBabiker , H.; Ding M.; Overgaard S.InstitutionOrthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Clinical Institute, University of Southern...... from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants...... with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: DBM; DBM/CB with ratio of 1/3; DBM/allograft with ratio of 1/3; or allograft (Gold standard), respectively. Standardised surgical procedure was used1. At sacrifice, 6 weeks after surgery, both distal femurs were harvested...

  7. Single treatment with ethanol hand rub is ineffective against human rhinovirus--hand washing with soap and water removes the virus efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Korpela, Terttu; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Amiryousefi, Ali; Ziegler, Thedi; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani

    2012-03-01

    Ethanol-containing hand rubs are used frequently as a substitute for hand washing with water and soap. However, not all viruses are inactivated by a short term rubbing with alcohol. The capacity of a single round of instructed and controlled hand cleaning with water and soap or ethanol-containing hand rub, respectively, was tested for removal of human rhinovirus administered onto the skin of healthy volunteers on the back of the hands. Hand washing with soap and water appeared to be much more efficient for removing rhinoviruses from skin than rubbing hands with an ethanol-containing disinfectant. After washing with soap and water the virus was detected in 3/9 (33.3%) test persons from the left hand and 1/9 (11.1%) cases from the right hand, whereas the virus was detected invariably by real-time RT-PCR from both hands after cleaning with alcohol hand rub (P-value soap can clean efficiently hands contaminated with the virus responsible for an extensive share of common cold episodes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  9. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.

  10. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  11. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Zin, Carolyn; Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter; D'Lima, Darryl; Sah, Robert L; McKittrick, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  13. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  14. The hand of Homo naledi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  15. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Cyril D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A, 85% (hand-rub B and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w. For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A, 630 mg (B, and 358 mg (C. The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A, 1.1% (B, and 0.9% (C. After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A, 1542 mg (B, and 477 mg (C. The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A, 1.1% (B, and 0.5% (C. The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min, after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes. Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe.

  16. Human bone marrow stem cell-encapsulating calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its injectability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for orthopedic applications. However, a literature search revealed no report on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) encapsulation in CPC for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs in alginate hydrogel beads and then incorporate them into CPC, CPC–chitosan and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds. Chitosan and degradable fibers were used to mechanically reinforce the scaffolds. After 21 days, that the percentage of live cells and the cell density of hBMSCs inside CPC-based constructs matched those in alginate without CPC, indicating that the CPC setting reaction did not harm the hBMSCs. Alkaline phosphate activity increased by 8-fold after 14 days. Mineral staining, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the cells. The amount of hBMSC-synthesized mineral in CPC–chitosan–fiber matched that in CPC without chitosan and fibers. Hence, adding chitosan and fibers, which reinforced the CPC, did not compromise hBMSC osteodifferentiation and mineral synthesis. In conclusion, hBMSCs were encapsulated in CPC and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds for the first time. The encapsulated cells remained viable, osteodifferentiated and synthesized bone minerals. These self-setting, hBMSC-encapsulating CPC-based constructs may be promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20451676

  17. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  18. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  19. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26 Mg(n,γ) 27 Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4π geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27 Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1σ). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96±1.25 (±1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in vitro

  20. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  1. Hominin hand bone fossils from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa (1998-2003 excavations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Travis Rayne; Heaton, Jason L; Clarke, Ron J; Stratford, Dominic

    2018-05-01

    We describe eleven hominin metacarpals and phalanges recovered from Jacovec Cavern and Member 4 of the Sterkfontein Formation between 1998 and 2003. Collectively, the fossils date in excess of 2.0 Ma, and are probably attributable to Australopithecus africanus and/or Australopithecus prometheus. When combined with results of previous studies on Australopithecus postcranial functional morphology, the new data presented here suggest that at least some late Pliocene and/or early Pleistocene hominins from Sterkfontein were arboreally adept. This finding accords with the reconstruction of the site's >2.0 Ma catchment area as well-vegetated and containing significant woody components. In addition, most of the new specimens described here evince morphologies that indicate the hands from which they derived lacked complete modern humanlike manual dexterity, which is integral to the manufacture and use of intentionally shaped stone tools. The absence of lithic artifacts from both stratigraphic units from which the fossils were excavated is consistent with this conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The BoneXpert method for automated determination of skeletal maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Kreiborg, Sven; Juul, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Bone age rating is associated with a considerable variability from the human interpretation, and this is the motivation for presenting a new method for automated determination of bone age (skeletal maturity). The method, called BoneXpert, reconstructs, from radiographs of the hand, the borders...... component analysis; 3) the consensus bone age concept that defines bone age of each bone as the best estimate of the bone age of the other bones in the hand; 4) a common bone age model for males and females; and 5) the unified modelling of TW and GP bone age. BoneXpert is developed on 1559 images...

  3. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ghodadra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neil Ghodadra, Kern SinghDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Over one million fractures occur per year in the US and are associated with impaired healing increasing patient morbidity, stress, and economic costs. Despite improvements in surgical technique, internal fixation, and understanding of biologics, fracture healing is delayed or impaired in up to 4% of all fractures. Complications due to impaired fracture healing present therapeutic challenges to the orthopedic surgeon and often lead to chronic functional and psychological disability for the patient. As a result, it has become clinically desirable to augment mechanical fixation with biologic strategies in order to accelerate osteogenesis and promote successful arthrodesis. The discovery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP has been pivotal in understanding the biology of fracture healing and has been a source of intense clinical research as an adjunct to fracture treatment. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies in animals have elucidated the complex biologic interactions between BMPs and cellular receptors and have convincingly demonstrated rhBMP-2 to be a safe, effective treatment option to enhance bone healing. Multiple clinical trials in trauma surgery have provided level 1 evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 as a safe and effective treatment of fractures. Human clinical trials have provided further insight into BMP-2 dosage, time course, carriers, and efficacy in fracture healing of tibial defects. These promising results have provided hope that a new biologic field of technology has emerged as a useful adjunct in the treatment of skeletal injuries and conditions.Keywords: bone morphogenic protein-2, bone fracture, bone healing

  5. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D.

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

  6. Hands in Systemic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... hands, being composed of many types of tissue, including blood vessels, nerves, skin and skin-related tissues, bones, and muscles/tendons/ligaments, may show changes that reflect a ...

  7. Determination of Sr90 activity in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Anamelia Habib

    1970-01-01

    Several studies have been published in the literature on the extent and levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by fallout from nuclear weapon tests. According to UNSCEAR, these studies cover a great number of:-areas of the developed world, though large, areas of Asia, Africa and South-America are left aside with only, unsatisfactory information about the levels, of radioactive contamination. In 1968, UNSCEAR recommended that a survey on the contamination of biological materials such as human - bone by fission products and particularly Sr 90 should be encouraged on those areas where only fragmentary information was available. UNSCEAR recommendations call upon the fact that many individuals on such areas of the world have been exposed to Sr 90 contamination from birth to their adult area. Therefore, that group have an Sr 90 skeletal burden very much different from people exposed only at adult age. Based on these considerations, UNSCEAR recommendations called for Sr 90 analysis on human bones from different age groups. In Brazil, studies on the of Sr 90 in human bone are practically non-existent, except for the year of 1959. Following UNSCEAR recommendations, we decided to perform such a survey on Sr 90 levels in human bones. Samples were collected from individuals that died in Rio de Janeiro from accidents. These samples were firstly classified according to social level in very poor and poor groups. Samples were then classified in three age groups ranging 0-18, 18-30 and 30-40 years of age. Results show that levels found in the Brazilian age groups are close to the ones observed in Chile (1969), Argentina and Australia (1966-1968) and slightly, higher than -those observed in Venezuela, Senegal and Jamaica (1969). If one compares the results obtained for the North and South hemispheres respectively, one sees that there was a more pronounced decrease in the levels of Sr 90 content of the of some regions of South America. Our results show no

  8. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  9. Neovascular niche for human myeloma cells in immunodeficient mouse bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Iriuchishima

    Full Text Available The interaction with bone marrow (BM plays a crucial role in pathophysiological features of multiple myeloma (MM, including cell proliferation, chemoresistance, and bone lesion progression. To characterize the MM-BM interactions, we utilized an in vivo experimental model for human MM in which a GFP-expressing human MM cell line is transplanted into NOG mice (the NOG-hMM model. Transplanted MM cells preferentially engrafted at the metaphyseal region of the BM endosteum and formed a complex with osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A subpopulation of MM cells expressed VE-cadherin after transplantation and formed endothelial-like structures in the BM. CD138(+ myeloma cells in the BM were reduced by p53-dependent apoptosis following administration of the nitrogen mustard derivative bendamustine to mice in the NOG-hMM model. Bendamustine maintained the osteoblast lining on the bone surface and protected extracellular matrix structures. Furthermore, bendamustine suppressed the growth of osteoclasts and mesenchymal cells in the NOG-hMM model. Since VE-cadherin(+ MM cells were chemoresistant, hypoxic, and HIF-2α-positive compared to the VE-cadherin(- population, VE-cadherin induction might depend on the oxygenation status. The NOG-hMM model described here is a useful system to analyze the dynamics of MM pathophysiology, interactions of MM cells with other cellular compartments, and the utility of novel anti-MM therapies.

  10. A synergy-based hand control is encoded in human motor cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bianchi, Matteo; Marino, Hamal; Gabiccini, Marco; Guidi, Andrea; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Pietrini, Pietro; Bicchi, Antonio; Santello, Marco; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain controls hand movements to carry out different tasks is still debated. The concept of synergy has been proposed to indicate functional modules that may simplify the control of hand postures by simultaneously recruiting sets of muscles and joints. However, whether and to what extent synergic hand postures are encoded as such at a cortical level remains unknown. Here, we combined kinematic, electromyography, and brain activity measures obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a variety of movements towards virtual objects. Hand postural information, encoded through kinematic synergies, were represented in cortical areas devoted to hand motor control and successfully discriminated individual grasping movements, significantly outperforming alternative somatotopic or muscle-based models. Importantly, hand postural synergies were predicted by neural activation patterns within primary motor cortex. These findings support a novel cortical organization for hand movement control and open potential applications for brain-computer interfaces and neuroprostheses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13420.001 PMID:26880543

  11. Selection of suitable hand gestures for reliable myoelectric human computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Claudia F; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2015-04-09

    Myoelectric controlled prosthetic hand requires machine based identification of hand gestures using surface electromyogram (sEMG) recorded from the forearm muscles. This study has observed that a sub-set of the hand gestures have to be selected for an accurate automated hand gesture recognition, and reports a method to select these gestures to maximize the sensitivity and specificity. Experiments were conducted where sEMG was recorded from the muscles of the forearm while subjects performed hand gestures and then was classified off-line. The performances of ten gestures were ranked using the proposed Positive-Negative Performance Measurement Index (PNM), generated by a series of confusion matrices. When using all the ten gestures, the sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 97.8%. After ranking the gestures using the PNM, six gestures were selected and these gave sensitivity and specificity greater than 95% (96.5% and 99.3%); Hand open, Hand close, Little finger flexion, Ring finger flexion, Middle finger flexion and Thumb flexion. This work has shown that reliable myoelectric based human computer interface systems require careful selection of the gestures that have to be recognized and without such selection, the reliability is poor.

  12. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process

  13. An in vitro 3D bone metastasis model by using a human bone tissue culture and human sex-related cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanna, Francesca; Borsari, Veronica; Brogini, Silvia; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Parrilli, Annapaola; Cepollaro, Simona; Cadossi, Matteo; Martini, Lucia; Mazzotti, Antonio; Fini, Milena

    2016-11-22

    One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively. Bone tissue discarded from total hip replacement surgery was cultured in a rolling apparatus system in a normoxic or hypoxic environment. Gene expression profile, protein levels, histological, immunohistochemical and four-dimensional (4D) micro-CT analyses showed a noticeable specificity of breast and prostate cancer cells for bone colonization and ingrowth, thus highlighting the species-specific and sex-specific osteotropism and the need to widen the current knowledge on cancer-bone metastasis spread in human bone tissues. The results of this study support the application of this model in preclinical studies on bone metastases and also follow the 3R principles, the guiding principles, aimed at replacing/reducing/refining (3R) animal use and their suffering for scientific purposes.

  14. Effect of gender and hand laterality on pain processing in human neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Mio; Kanda, Katsuya; Hirata, Michio; Kusakawa, Isao; Suzuki, Chieko

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies in adults have reported that handedness and gender can affect pain perception. However, it is currently unclear when these differences emerge in human development. Therefore, we examined prefrontal responses to pain stimulation among newborns during their first acute pain experience after birth. Forty newborns at 4-6 days postnatal age were observed during clinically required blood sampling while prefrontal activation was measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Blood sampling in this study was the first experience of a procedure involving skin breaking for these infants. We divided subjects into a right-hand stimulation group (n=21) and a left-hand stimulation group (n=19), depending on whether blood was sampled from the right or the left hand. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of several variables on the magnitude of the oxy-Hb value in response to pain stimulus, including stimulus side (right hand or left hand), gender (male or female), recording side (right prefrontal area or left prefrontal area) and interactions between these variables. The data revealed a significant effect of stimulus side (F (1, 72)=9.892, P=0.002), showing that the right-hand stimulation induced a greater prefrontal activation than the left-hand stimulation. No significant gender difference or interactions were found. Our findings suggest that hand laterality affects pain perception even in neonates. However, gender differences in pain perception did not appear to occur during the neonatal period. Further investigations using brain-imaging techniques are required to identify laterality- or gender-related differences in pain processing in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group......, the tibial defect was filled manually with Osteoset pellets, in the control group the defect was left empty. CTs of the defect were taken on the first day after the operation, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We found about the same amount of bone in the defect in the Osteoset and control groups...... after 6 weeks, 3, and 6 months. In the control group, but not in the Osteoset group, the bone volume increased from 6 weeks to 3 months. The Osteoset pellets were almost resorbed after 6 weeks....

  16. Optical coherence tomography, In vivo human hand explorer, optical coherence microscope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The hand palm is an important human body part primarily for physical manipulation of the environment. For example, palmar hyperhidriotics report a low quality of life due to excessive palmar sweating disrupting normal palm use. As a body part...

  17. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    , such as apparent, apparent ash and collagen densities of human tibial trabecular bone have significant relationships with age. Tissue density and mineral concentration remain constant throughout life. Trabecular bone is tougher in the younger age, i.e. fracture requires more energy. Collagen density was the single......Initiated and motivated by clinical and scientific problems such as age-related bone fracture, prosthetic loosening, bone remodeling, and degenerative bone diseases, much significant research on the properties of trabecular bone has been carried out over the last two decades. This work has mainly...... focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...

  18. 17p13.3 microduplications are associated with split-hand/foot malformation and long-bone deficiency (SHFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Christine M; Bulman, Dennis E; Jarinova, Olga; Rogers, Richard Curtis; Clarkson, Kate B; DuPont, Barbara R; Dwivedi, Alka; Bartel, Frank O; McDonell, Laura; Schwartz, Charles E; Boycott, Kym M; Everman, David B; Graham, Gail E

    2011-11-01

    Split-hand/foot malformation with long-bone deficiency (SHFLD) is a relatively rare autosomal-dominant skeletal disorder, characterized by variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Although several chromosomal loci for SHFLD have been identified, the molecular basis and pathogenesis of most SHFLD cases are unknown. In this study we describe three unrelated kindreds, in which SHFLD segregated with distinct but overlapping duplications in 17p13.3, a region previously linked to SHFLD. In a large three-generation family, the disorder was found to segregate with a 254 kb microduplication; a second microduplication of 527 kb was identified in an affected female and her unaffected mother, and a 430 kb microduplication versus microtriplication was identified in three affected members of a multi-generational family. These findings, along with previously published data, suggest that one locus responsible for this form of SHFLD is located within a 173 kb overlapping critical region, and that the copy gains are incompletely penetrant.

  19. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  20. Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the chemical bonding between titanium and bone has been examined only through a few mechanical detachment tests. Therefore, in this study, a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium mini-implant was removed from a human patient after 2 months of placement in order to identify the chemical integration mechanism for nanoscale osseointegration of titanium implants. To prepare a transmission electron microscopy (TEM specimen, the natural state was preserved as much as possible by cryofixation and scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM-FIB milling without any chemical treatment. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning TEM (STEM/electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS were used to investigate the chemical composition and structure at the interface between the titanium and bone tissue. HRTEM and EDS data showed evidence of crystalline hydroxyapatite and intermixing of bone with the oxide layer of the implant. The STEM/EELS experiment provided particularly interesting results: carbon existed in polysaccharides, calcium and phosphorus existed as tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and titanium existed as oxidized titanium. In addition, the oxygen energy loss near edge structures (ELNESs showed a possibility of the presence of CaTiO3. These STEM/EELS results can be explained by structures either with or without a chemical reaction layer. The possible existence of the osseohybridization area and the form of the carbon suggest that reconsideration of the standard definition of osseointegration is necessary.

  1. Synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe study of human bone tumor slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Zhao Limin; Wang Zhouguang; Shao Hanru; Li Guangcheng; Wu Yingrong; He Wei; Lu Jianxin; He Rongguo

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described. Using the bovine liver as the standard reference, the minimum detection limit (MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe. The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated. The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed. (author)

  2. Mechanical properties of human bone-tendon-bone grafts preserved by different methods and radiation sterilised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, A.; Gut, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Patellar tendon auto and allografts are commonly used in orthopaedic surgery for reconstruction of the anterior crucial ligaments (ACL). Autografts are mainly used for primary reconstruction, while allografts are useful for revision surgery. To avoid the risk of infection diseases transmission allografts should be radiation-sterilised. As radiation-sterilisation is supposed to decrease the mechanical strength of tendon tissue, it is important to establish methods of allografts preservation and sterilisation resulting in their best quality and safety. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength of the central one third of human patellar tendon (as used for ACL reconstruction), preserved by different methods (deep fresh freezing, lyophilisation) and subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. Bone-tendon-bone grafts were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendon with both patellar and tibial attachments. BTB grafts were preserved by deep freezing, glicerolisation or lyophilisation and radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. To estimate mechanical properties all samples were subjected to tensile tests to failure using Instron system. Before these tests all lyophilised grafts were rehydrated. We found decrease of tensile strength of irradiated grafts compared to non-irradiated controls. Obtained results of the mechanical testing of studied grafts indicate their potential usefulness for clinical applications.(Author)

  3. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.; Schmid, D. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples fr...

  4. Comparison of human and electronic observation for the measurement of compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Miguel Almeida O; Marra, Alexandre R; Magnus, Thyago Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Dias; Prado, Marcelo; de Souza Santini, Tales Roberto; da Silva Victor, Elivane; Ishibe, Eder Issao; Pavão Dos Santos, Oscar Fernando; Edmond, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring of hand hygiene is an important part of the improvement of hospital quality indicators. This study was prospectively performed over a 14-week (electronic observer) period from December 3, 2013-March 9, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in an adult step-down unit. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (RFID - ZigBee; i-Healthsys, São Carlos, Brazil) (electronic observer), which counts each activation of the alcohol gel dispenser to direct observation (human observer) using the iScrub application. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, we found that the electronic observer identified 414 hand hygiene episodes, whereas the human observers identified 448 episodes. Therefore, we found 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-95%) overall concordance (414/448), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.92). Our RFID (ZigBee) system showed good accuracy (92%) and is a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  6. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify...

  7. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Email to a friend * required ...

  8. Hand Gesture Modeling and Recognition for Human and Robot Interactive Assembly Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gesture recognition is essential for human and robot collaboration. Within an industrial hybrid assembly cell, the performance of such a system significantly affects the safety of human workers. This work presents an approach to recognizing hand gestures accurately during an assembly task while in collaboration with a robot co-worker. We have designed and developed a sensor system for measuring natural human-robot interactions. The position and rotation information of a human worker's hands and fingertips are tracked in 3D space while completing a task. A modified chain-code method is proposed to describe the motion trajectory of the measured hands and fingertips. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM method is adopted to recognize patterns via data streams and identify workers' gesture patterns and assembly intentions. The effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by experimental results. The outcome demonstrates that the proposed system is able to automatically segment the data streams and recognize the gesture patterns thus represented with a reasonable accuracy ratio.

  9. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  10. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C.; Gehrchen, P.M.; Kiaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws. OBJECTIVE......: The validity of 2 bone remodeling algorithms was evaluated by comparing against prospective bone mineral content measurements. Also, the potential stress shielding effect was examined using the 2 bone remodeling algorithms and the experimental bone mineral data. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In previous studies...... operated on with pedicle screws between L4 and L5. The stress shielding effect was also examined. The bone remodeling results were compared with prospective bone mineral content measurements of 4 patients. They were measured after surgery, 3-, 6- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: After 1 year...

  11. RGBD Video Based Human Hand Trajectory Tracking and Gesture Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of human hand trajectory tracking and gesture trajectory recognition based on synchronized color and depth video is considered. Toward this end, in the facet of hand tracking, a joint observation model with the hand cues of skin saliency, motion and depth is integrated into particle filter in order to move particles to local peak in the likelihood. The proposed hand tracking method, namely, salient skin, motion, and depth based particle filter (SSMD-PF, is capable of improving the tracking accuracy considerably, in the context of the signer performing the gesture toward the camera device and in front of moving, cluttered backgrounds. In the facet of gesture recognition, a shape-order context descriptor on the basis of shape context is introduced, which can describe the gesture in spatiotemporal domain. The efficient shape-order context descriptor can reveal the shape relationship and embed gesture sequence order information into descriptor. Moreover, the shape-order context leads to a robust score for gesture invariant. Our approach is complemented with experimental results on the settings of the challenging hand-signed digits datasets and American sign language dataset, which corroborate the performance of the novel techniques.

  12. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R

    2011-06-01

    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety.

  13. The application of force-sensing resistor sensors for measuring forces developed by the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonovas, A; Harrison, A J L; Hoult, S; Sammut, D

    2004-01-01

    Most attempts to measure forces developed by the human hand have been implemented by placing force sensors on the object of interaction. Other researchers have placed sensors just on the subject's fingertips. In this paper, a system is described that measures forces over the entire hand using thin-film sensors and associated electronics. This system was developed by the authors and is able to obtain force readings from up to 60 thin-film sensors at rates of up to 400 samples/s per sensor. The sensors can be placed anywhere on the palm and/or fingers of the hand. The sensor readings, together with a video stream containing information about hand posture, are logged into a portable computer using a multiplexer, analogue-to-digital converter and software developed for the purpose. The system has been successfully used to measure forces involved in a range of everyday tasks such as driving a vehicle, lifting saucepans and hitting a golf ball. In the latter case, results are compared with those from an instrumented golf club. Future applications include the assessment of hand strength following disease, trauma or surgery, and to enable quantitative ergonomic investigations.

  14. Understanding Human Hand Gestures for Learning Robot Pick-and-Place Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-I Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Programming robots by human demonstration is an intuitive approach, especially by gestures. Because robot pick-and-place tasks are widely used in industrial factories, this paper proposes a framework to learn robot pick-and-place tasks by understanding human hand gestures. The proposed framework is composed of the module of gesture recognition and the module of robot behaviour control. For the module of gesture recognition, transport empty (TE, transport loaded (TL, grasp (G, and release (RL from Gilbreth's therbligs are the hand gestures to be recognized. A convolution neural network (CNN is adopted to recognize these gestures from a camera image. To achieve the robust performance, the skin model by a Gaussian mixture model (GMM is used to filter out non-skin colours of an image, and the calibration of position and orientation is applied to obtain the neutral hand pose before the training and testing of the CNN. For the module of robot behaviour control, the corresponding robot motion primitives to TE, TL, G, and RL, respectively, are implemented in the robot. To manage the primitives in the robot system, a behaviour-based programming platform based on the Extensible Agent Behavior Specification Language (XABSL is adopted. Because the XABSL provides the flexibility and re-usability of the robot primitives, the hand motion sequence from the module of gesture recognition can be easily used in the XABSL programming platform to implement the robot pick-and-place tasks. The experimental evaluation of seven subjects performing seven hand gestures showed that the average recognition rate was 95.96%. Moreover, by the XABSL programming platform, the experiment showed the cube-stacking task was easily programmed by human demonstration.

  15. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other

  16. Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to information provided by human and artificial hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M A; Delise, Justin; De Los Reyes, Andres; Ford, Kathy; Starnes, Blair; Dennen, Weston

    2014-03-01

    Even young humans show sensitivity to the accuracy and reliability of informants' reports. Children are selective in soliciting information and in accepting claims. Recent research has also investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) sensitivity to agreement among human informants. Such research utilizing a common human pointing gesture to which dogs are sensitive in a food retrieval paradigm suggests that dogs might choose among informants according to the number of points exhibited, rather than the number of individuals indicating a particular location. Here, we further investigated dogs' use of information from human informants using a stationary pointing gesture, as well as the conditions under which dogs would utilize a stationary point. First, we explored whether the number of points or the number of individuals more strongly influenced dogs' choices. To this end, dogs encountered a choice situation in which the number of points exhibited toward a particular location and the number of individuals exhibiting those points conflicted. Results indicated that dogs chose in accordance with the number of points exhibited toward a particular location. In a second experiment, we explored the possibility that previously learned associations drove dogs' responses to the stationary pointing gesture. In this experiment, dogs encountered a choice situation in which artificial hands exhibited a stationary pointing gesture toward or away from choice locations in the absence of humans. Dogs chose the location to which the artificial hand pointed. These results are consistent with the notion that dogs may respond to a human pointing gesture due to their past-learning history.

  17. In vitro induction of alkaline phosphatase levels predicts in vivo bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk-Jan Prins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that are produced by ex vivo expansion is for use in in vivo bone tissue engineering. Cultured stromal cells are a mixture of cells at different stages of commitment and expansion capability, leading to a heterogeneous cell population that each time can differ in the potential to form in vivo bone. A parameter that predicts for in vivo bone forming capacity is thus far lacking. We employed single colony-derived BMSC cultures to identify such predictive parameters. Using limiting dilution, we have produced sixteen single CFU-F derived BMSC cultures from human bone marrow and found that only five of these formed bone in vivo. The single colony-derived BMSC strains were tested for proliferation, osteogenic-, adipogenic- and chondrogenic differentiation capacity and the expression of a variety of associated markers. The only robust predictors of in vivo bone forming capacity were the induction of alkaline phosphatase, (ALP mRNA levels and ALP activity during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The predictive value of in vitro ALP induction was confirmed by analyzing “bulk-cultured” BMSCs from various bone marrow biopsies. Our findings show that in BMSCs, the additional increase in ALP levels over basal levels during in vitro osteogenic differentiation is predictive of in vivo performance.

  18. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  19. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; d'Avella, Andrea; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yury

    2018-01-01

    Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free) arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating) arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries ("quadrupedal" arm-leg coordination) during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and coordinate steps during

  20. Human-Human Interaction Forces and Interlimb Coordination During Side-by-Side Walking With Hand Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed. Subjects walked at their natural cadences or following a metronome. Limb kinematics, hand contact 3D interaction forces and EMG activity of 12 upper limb muscles were recorded. Overall, unintentional step frequency locking was observed during about 40% of time in 88% of pairs walking with hand contact. On average, the amplitude of contact arm oscillations decreased while the contralateral (free arm oscillated in the same way as during normal walking. Interestingly, EMG activity of the shoulder muscles of the contact arm did not decrease, and their synergistic pattern remained similar. The amplitude of interaction forces and of trunk oscillations was similar for synchronized and non-synchronized steps, though the synchronized steps were characterized by significantly more regular orientations of interaction forces. Our results further support the notion that gait synchronization during natural walking is common, and that it may occur through interaction forces. Conservation of the proximal muscle activity of the contact (not oscillating arm is consistent with neural coupling between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generation circuitries (“quadrupedal” arm-leg coordination during human gait. Overall, the findings suggest that individuals might integrate force interaction cues to communicate and

  1. Human DPSCs fabricate vascularized woven bone tissue: A new tool in bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paino, F.; Noce, M.L.; Giuliani, A.; de Rosa, A.; Mazzoni, F.; Laino, L.; Amler, Evžen; Papaccio, G.; Desiderio, V.; Tirino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 8 (2017), s. 699-713 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : bone differentiation * bone regeneration * bone tissue engineering Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Orthopaedics Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2016

  2. Maintained Hand Function and Forearm Bone Health 14 Months After an In-Home Virtual-Reality Videogame Hand Telerehabilitation Intervention in an Adolescent With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Warden, Stuart J.; Fess, Elaine; Rabin, Bryan; Yonkman, Janell; Shirley, Bridget; Burdea, Grigore C.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality videogames can be used to motivate rehabilitation, and telerehabilitation can be used to improve access to rehabilitation. These uses of technology to improve health outcomes are a burgeoning area of rehabilitation research. So far, there is a lack of reports of long-term outcomes of these types of interventions. The authors report a 15-year-old boy with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and epilepsy because of presumed perinatal stroke who improved his plegic hand function and increa...

  3. 3D Reconstruction of human bones based on dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binkai; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Jinjin

    2017-11-01

    An effective method for reconstructing a 3D model of human bones from computed tomography (CT) image data based on dictionary learning is proposed. In this study, the dictionary comprises the vertices of triangular meshes, and the sparse coefficient matrix indicates the connectivity information. For better reconstruction performance, we proposed a balance coefficient between the approximation and regularisation terms and a method for optimisation. Moreover, we applied a local updating strategy and a mesh-optimisation method to update the dictionary and the sparse matrix, respectively. The two updating steps are iterated alternately until the objective function converges. Thus, a reconstructed mesh could be obtained with high accuracy and regularisation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has the potential to obtain high precision and high-quality triangular meshes for rapid prototyping, medical diagnosis, and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of postoperative temporal bone defect: an animal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Školoudík, L.; Chrobok, V.; Kalfert, D.; Kočí, Zuzana; Syková, Eva; Chumak, Tetyana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef; Laco, J.; Dědková, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Filip, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2016), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0963-6897 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Human bone marrow * Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) * Middle ear surgery * Temporal bone Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.006, year: 2016

  5. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  6. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, M Lindsay; Melvani, Sharmila; Druce, Julian; Barr, Ian G; Ballard, Susan A; Johnson, Paul D R; Mastorakos, Tasoula; Birch, Christopher

    2009-02-01

    Although pandemic and avian influenza are known to be transmitted via human hands, there are minimal data regarding the effectiveness of routine hand hygiene (HH) protocols against pandemic and avian influenza. Twenty vaccinated, antibody-positive health care workers had their hands contaminated with 1 mL of 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)(50)/0.1 mL live human influenza A virus (H1N1; A/New Caledonia/20/99) before undertaking 1 of 5 HH protocols (no HH [control], soap and water hand washing [SW], or use of 1 of 3 alcohol-based hand rubs [61.5% ethanol gel, 70% ethanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution, or 70% isopropanol plus 0.5% chlorhexidine solution]). H1N1 concentrations were assessed before and after each intervention by viral culture and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The natural viability of H1N1 on hands for >60 min without HH was also assessed. There was an immediate reduction in culture-detectable and PCR-detectable H1N1 after brief cutaneous air drying--14 of 20 health care workers had H1N1 detected by means of culture (mean reduction, 10(3-4) TCID(50)/0.1 mL), whereas 6 of 20 had no viable H1N1 recovered; all 20 health care workers had similar changes in PCR test results. Marked antiviral efficacy was noted for all 4 HH protocols, on the basis of culture results (14 of 14 had no culturable H1N1; (P< .002) and PCR results (P< .001; cycle threshold value range, 33.3-39.4), with SW statistically superior (P< .001) to all 3 alcohol-based hand rubs, although the actual difference was only 1-100 virus copies/microL. There was minimal reduction in H1N1 after 60 min without HH. HH with SW or alcohol-based hand rub is highly effective in reducing influenza A virus on human hands, although SW is the most effective intervention. Appropriate HH may be an important public health initiative to reduce pandemic and avian influenza transmission.

  7. Learning robotic eye-arm-hand coordination from human demonstration: a coupled dynamical systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot.

  8. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  10. Age-related variations in the microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, M.; Odgaard, A.; Linde, F.

    2002-01-01

    -related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone. One hundred and sixty cylindrical cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal proximal tibiae from 40 donors, aged 16-85 years. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned......, and microstructural properties were determined. The specimens were then tested in compression to obtain Young's modulus. The degree of anisotropy, mean marrow space volume, and bone surface-to-volume ratio increased significantly with age. Bone volume fraction, mean trabecular volume, and bone surface density...

  11. Enhancement of bone formation in rabbits by recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnberg, A.; Brosjoe, O.; Laaftman, P.; Nilsson, O.; Stroemberg, L.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of human recombinant growth hormone on diaphyseal bone in 40 adult rabbits. The diaphyseal periosteum of one femur in each animal was mechanically stimulated by a nylon cerclage band. The bands induced an increase in bone formation, bone mineral content, and maximum torque capacity of the diaphyseal bone at 1 and 2 months. Growth hormone enhanced the anabolic effect of the cerclage bands on bone metabolism, evidenced by a further increase in torsional strength of the femurs. (au) (32 refs.)

  12. Monosynaptic Ia projections from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm motoneurones in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Pauvert, V; Nicolas, G; Pierrot-Deseilligny, E

    2000-05-15

    Heteronymous Ia excitatory projections from intrinsic hand muscles to human forearm motoneurones (MNs) were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied after electrical stimuli were applied to the median and ulnar nerve at wrist level and to the corresponding homonymous nerve at elbow level. Homonymous facilitation, occurring at the same latency as the H reflex, and therefore attributed to monosynaptic Ia EPSPs, was found in all the sampled units. In many MUs an early facilitation was also evoked by heteronymous low-threshold afferents from intrinsic hand muscles. The low threshold (between 0.5 and 0.6 times motor threshold (MT)) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce this effect indicate that it is due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents. Evidence for a similar central delay (monosynaptic) in heteronymous as in homonymous pathways was accepted when the difference in latencies of the homonymous and heteronymous peaks did not differ from the estimated supplementary afferent conduction time from wrist to elbow level by more than 0.5 ms (conduction velocity in the fastest Ia afferents between wrist and elbow levels being equal to 69 m s-1). A statistically significant heteronymous monosynaptic Ia excitation from intrinsic hand muscles supplied by both median and ulnar nerves was found in MUs belonging to all forearm motor nuclei tested (although not in ECU MUs after ulnar stimulation). It was, however, more often found in flexors than in extensors, in wrist than in finger muscles and in muscles operating in the radial than in the ulnar side. It is argued that the connections of Ia afferents from intrinsic hand muscles to forearm MNs, which are stronger and more widely distributed than in the cat

  13. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  14. A word in the hand: action, gesture and mental representation in humans and non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Erica A.; Beilock, Sian; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The movements we make with our hands both reflect our mental processes and help to shape them. Our actions and gestures can affect our mental representations of actions and objects. In this paper, we explore the relationship between action, gesture and thought in both humans and non-human primates and discuss its role in the evolution of language. Human gesture (specifically representational gesture) may provide a unique link between action and mental representation. It is kinaesthetically close to action and is, at the same time, symbolic. Non-human primates use gesture frequently to communicate, and do so flexibly. However, their gestures mainly resemble incomplete actions and lack the representational elements that characterize much of human gesture. Differences in the mirror neuron system provide a potential explanation for non-human primates' lack of representational gestures; the monkey mirror system does not respond to representational gestures, while the human system does. In humans, gesture grounds mental representation in action, but there is no evidence for this link in other primates. We argue that gesture played an important role in the transition to symbolic thought and language in human evolution, following a cognitive leap that allowed gesture to incorporate representational elements. PMID:22106432

  15. β-cryptoxanthin regulates bone resorption related-cytokine production in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Ichioka, Hiroaki; Honjo, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Oseko, Fumishige; Kita, Masakazu; Mazda, Osam; Kanamura, Narisato

    2013-07-01

    β-cryptoxanthin (β-cry) is a type of carotenoid found in certain fruits and vegetables. Although it has been shown that β-cry inhibits alveolar bone resorption, the molecular mechanisms for this have not yet been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effects of β-cry on bone resorption related-cytokine production in human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. hPDL cells were stimulated with β-cry (1×10(-7)mol/l), mechanical stress (1 or 6MPa), and P. gingivalis. The production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were analyzed by RT-PCR and ELISA. The production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was not induced in hPDL cells after stimulation with β-cry, although these cytokines were produced after stimulation with P. gingivalis. On the other hand, IL-6 and IL-8 were produced after exposure to 6MPa of mechanical stress. The production of IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly decreased by the addition of β-cry. Furthermore, β-cry up-regulated the production of OPG, but not RANKL. β-cry inhibited the production of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by mechanical stress and periodontopathogenic bacteria in hPDL cells. Moreover, β-cry up-regulated OPG production. These results suggest that β-cry may prevent bone resorption in periodontitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  17. Anatomical variation of human thoracic rib in dry bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nalini Konkani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ribs are essential structure of osseous thorax and provide information that aids in the interpretation of radiologic images. The purpose of this study to investigate variations in thoracic rib and its morphological & clinical importance. So, In present study attempted to find out additional intercostal spaces due to bifurcation of ribs, less intercostal space due to fusion of ribs, variation of the normal ribs like, gap in the rib, fusion of one rib to another at a shaft of rib. Congenital abnormalities of the ribs are usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.Material & Method: The study was carried out in Bone Store of Department of Anatomy, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Study was carried out on 500 human dried ribs. And the variations in the ribs are studied. We got variation in the human ribs and studied. Result : Variations were seen like out of 500 ribs, Bifid rib having two ends 9(1.8%, rib having bifid space 2(0.4%, fusion rib at the level of shaft 1(0.2%, fusion of first rib and second rib 1(0.2%,first rib having two ends 1(0.2%. Conclusion: Bifid rib is an anatomical variant where the sternal end of the rib is cleaved into two. So we can rule out mesodermal abnormalities, parenchymal lung disease, chest wall tumor or costal fracture.

  18. Autologous Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Human Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Paola; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Nano, Rita; Sordi, Valeria; Melzi, Raffaella; Mercalli, Alessia; Scavini, Marina; Esposito, Antonio; Peccatori, Jacopo; Cantarelli, Elisa; Messina, Carlo; Bernardi, Massimo; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Staudacher, Carlo; Doglioni, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Secchi, Antonio; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the current site of choice for pancreatic islet transplantation, even though it is far from being ideal. We recently have shown in mice that the bone marrow (BM) may be a valid alternative to the liver, and here we report a pilot study to test feasibility and safety of BM as a site for islet transplantation in humans. Four patients who developed diabetes after total pancreatectomy were candidates for the autologous transplantation of pancreatic islet. Because the patients had contraindications for intraportal infusion, islets were infused in the BM. In all recipients, islets engrafted successfully as shown by measurable posttransplantation C-peptide levels and histopathological evidence of insulin-producing cells or molecular markers of endocrine tissue in BM biopsy samples analyzed during follow-up. Thus far, we have recorded no adverse events related to the infusion procedure or the presence of islets in the BM. Islet function was sustained for the maximum follow-up of 944 days. The encouraging results of this pilot study provide new perspectives in identifying alternative sites for islet infusion in patients with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, this is the first unequivocal example of successful engraftment of endocrine tissue in the BM in humans. PMID:23733196

  19. Skeletal development of the hand and wrist: digital bone age companion - a suitable alternative to the Greulich and Pyle atlas for bone age assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, Paul M.; Altes, Talissa A.; McIlhenny, Joan; Gaskin, Cree M.; Patrie, James

    2017-01-01

    To assess reader performance and subjective workflow experience when reporting bone age studies with a digital bone age reference as compared to the Greulich and Pyle atlas (G and P). We hypothesized that pediatric radiologists would achieve equivalent results with each method while digital workflow would improve speed, experience, and reporting quality. IRB approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Two pediatric radiologists performed research interpretations of bone age studies randomized to either the digital (Digital Bone Age Companion, Oxford University Press) or G and P method, generating reports to mimic clinical workflow. Bone age standard selection, interpretation-reporting time, and user preferences were recorded. Reports were reviewed for typographical or speech recognition errors. Comparisons of agreement were conducted by way of Fisher's exact tests. Interpretation-reporting times were analyzed on the natural logarithmic scale via a linear mixed model and transformed to the geometric mean. Subjective workflow experience was compared with an exact binomial test. Report errors were compared via a paired random permutation test. There was no difference in bone age determination between atlases (p = 0.495). The interpretation-reporting time (p < 0.001) was significantly faster with the digital method. The faculty indicated preference for the digital atlas (p < 0.001). Signed reports had fewer errors with the digital atlas (p < 0.001). Bone age study interpretations performed with the digital method were similar to those performed with the Greulich and Pyle atlas. The digital atlas saved time, improved workflow experience, and reduced reporting errors relative to the Greulich and Pyle atlas when integrated into electronic workflow. (orig.)

  20. Skeletal development of the hand and wrist: digital bone age companion - a suitable alternative to the Greulich and Pyle atlas for bone age assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Paul M. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Altes, Talissa A. [University of Missouri, Department of Radiology, Columbia, MO (United States); McIlhenny, Joan; Gaskin, Cree M. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Health Evaluation Sciences, PO Box 800717, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To assess reader performance and subjective workflow experience when reporting bone age studies with a digital bone age reference as compared to the Greulich and Pyle atlas (G and P). We hypothesized that pediatric radiologists would achieve equivalent results with each method while digital workflow would improve speed, experience, and reporting quality. IRB approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Two pediatric radiologists performed research interpretations of bone age studies randomized to either the digital (Digital Bone Age Companion, Oxford University Press) or G and P method, generating reports to mimic clinical workflow. Bone age standard selection, interpretation-reporting time, and user preferences were recorded. Reports were reviewed for typographical or speech recognition errors. Comparisons of agreement were conducted by way of Fisher's exact tests. Interpretation-reporting times were analyzed on the natural logarithmic scale via a linear mixed model and transformed to the geometric mean. Subjective workflow experience was compared with an exact binomial test. Report errors were compared via a paired random permutation test. There was no difference in bone age determination between atlases (p = 0.495). The interpretation-reporting time (p < 0.001) was significantly faster with the digital method. The faculty indicated preference for the digital atlas (p < 0.001). Signed reports had fewer errors with the digital atlas (p < 0.001). Bone age study interpretations performed with the digital method were similar to those performed with the Greulich and Pyle atlas. The digital atlas saved time, improved workflow experience, and reduced reporting errors relative to the Greulich and Pyle atlas when integrated into electronic workflow. (orig.)

  1. Bone Healing in Transverse Maxillary Defects with Different Surgical Procedures Using Anorganic Bovine Bone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Victor; Matthijs, Andries; Borie, Eduardo; Fuentes, Ramón; Valdivia-Gandur, Iván; Engelke, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The centripetal resorption of maxilla is a continuous process after tooth loss. For treatment of deficient bone sites, autologous bone grafts may be used, as an alternative, biomaterials can be applied which do not require intra- or extraoral donor sites. The present report we describe the use of anorganic bovine bone (ABB) based on three case reports under different modes: Membrane, rigid barrier and connective tissue graft. Clinical results show that under all conditions, sufficient hard ti...

  2. Comparison of bioengineered human bone construct from four sources of osteogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Angela Min-Hwei; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Tan, Kok-Keong; Tan, G H; Mokhtar, Sabarul Afian; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Othman, Fauziah; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji

    2005-01-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.

  3. Inhibition of radio cobalt uptake by human bone powder using Mg and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, A.T.A.; Mohamed, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Human bone powder samples of 30 - 40 Μ in diameter were prepared from human bone femurs as fat free (FFB), protein free (PEB) or left untreated as a raw bone powder (RB). The uptake of 60 Co by these types of bone powder took the sequence : PFB > FFB> RB. Stable ions of magnesium and nickel exhibit an inhibition or competing effect on the uptake process of 60 Co. The competing effect did not disturb the uptake sequence. The competing effect of nickel was higher than magnesium

  4. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * ...

  5. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of porous-coated titanium implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    matrix (DBM), alone or in combination with allograft or commercially available human cancellous bone (CB), may replace allografts, as they have the capability of inducing new bone and improving implant fixation through enhancing bone ongrowth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect...... of DBM alone, DBM with CB, or allograft on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants. DBM100 and CB produced from human tissue were included. Both materials are commercially available. DBM granules are placed in pure DBM and do not contain any other carrier. Titanium alloy implants, 10 mm long × 10...... mm diameter, were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of eight skeletally mature sheep. Thus, four implants with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: (a) DBM; (b) DBM:CB at a ratio of 1:3; (c) DBM:allograft at a ratio of 1:3; or (d) allograft...

  6. Is the corticomedullary index valid to distinguish human from nonhuman bones: a multislice computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2013-09-10

    The first step in the identification process of bone remains is to determine whether they are of human or nonhuman origin. This issue may arise when only a fragment of bone is available, as the species of origin is usually easily determined on a complete bone. The present study aims to assess the validity of a morphometric method used by French forensic anthropologists to determine the species of origin: the corticomedullary index (CMI), defined by the ratio of the diameter of the medullary cavity to the total diameter of the bone. We studied the constancy of the CMI from measurements made on computed tomography images (CT scans) of different human bones, and compared our measurements with reference values selected in the literature. The measurements obtained on CT scans at three different sites of 30 human femurs, 24 tibias, and 24 fibulas were compared between themselves and with the CMI reference values for humans, pigs, dogs and sheep. Our results differed significantly from these reference values, with three exceptions: the proximal quarter of the femur and mid-fibular measurements for the human CMI, and the proximal quarter of the tibia for the sheep CMI. Mid-tibial, mid-femoral, and mid-fibular measurements also differed significantly between themselves. Only 22.6% of CT scans of human bones were correctly identified as human. We concluded that the CMI is not an effective method for determining the human origin of bone remains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a parametric kinematic model of the human hand and a novel robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, T M W; Vaidyanathan, R; Burgess, S C; Turton, A J; Melhuish, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the integration of a kinematic model of the human hand during cylindrical grasping, with specific focus on the accurate mapping of thumb movement during grasping motions, and a novel, multi-degree-of-freedom assistive exoskeleton mechanism based on this model. The model includes thumb maximum hyper-extension for grasping large objects (~> 50 mm). The exoskeleton includes a novel four-bar mechanism designed to reproduce natural thumb opposition and a novel synchro-motion pulley mechanism for coordinated finger motion. A computer aided design environment is used to allow the exoskeleton to be rapidly customized to the hand dimensions of a specific patient. Trials comparing the kinematic model to observed data of hand movement show the model to be capable of mapping thumb and finger joint flexion angles during grasping motions. Simulations show the exoskeleton to be capable of reproducing the complex motion of the thumb to oppose the fingers during cylindrical and pinch grip motions. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 outcomes for maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-Hao; Lim, Glendale; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Giannobile, William V; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on sinus volumetric and histometric changes after sinus floor augmentation compared to a conventional approach of non-biologic bone grafting materials. An electronic search of 4 databases (January 1990-February 2015), including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central, and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. Human clinical trials with data on comparison of sinus volumetric and/or histometric outcomes with and without the use of rhBMP-2 in sinus grafting procedures, with ≥10 augmentation sites in each study group, and with a follow-up period of at least 6 months, were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to analyze weighted mean difference (WMD) and confidence interval (CI) for the recorded variables according to PRISMA guidelines. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analyses showed that the WMD of vertical bone height gain was -0.14 mm (95% CI = -1.91 to 1.62 mm, P = 0.87), the WMD of bone density was -142.42 mg/cm 3 (95% CI = -310.62-25.78 mg/cm 3 , P = 0.10), the WMD of the percentage of vital bone was -4.59% (95% CI = -11.73-2.56%, P = 0.21), and the WMD of the percentage of residual bone grafting materials was -9.90% (95% CI = -26.38-6.58%, P = 0.21). The comparison of implant survival rate presented an overall risk ratio of 1.00 (95% CI = 0.94-1.07). The two approaches (conventional bone grafting compared to BMPs) demonstrated comparable effectiveness for both clinical and histomorphometric measures. This systematic review revealed that the use of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus floor augmentation achieved similar clinical and histometric outcomes when compared to conventional sinus grafting procedures after a healing period of 6-9 months. However, previous studies showed the morbidity and other patient-reported outcomes were improved in

  10. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin. In addition, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of legumain activity led to precocious OB differentiation and increased vertebral mineralization in zebrafish. Finally, we show that localized increased expression of legumain in bone marrow adipocytes was inversely correlated with adjacent trabecular bone mass in a cohort of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our data suggest that altered proteolytic activity of legumain in the bone microenvironment contributes to decreased bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  12. Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention. Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators…

  13. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  14. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  15. Humans can integrate feedback of discrete events in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Christian; Segil, Jacob L; Clemente, Francesco; ff Weir, Richard F; Edin, Benoni

    2014-11-01

    Providing functionally effective sensory feedback to users of prosthetics is a largely unsolved challenge. Traditional solutions require high band-widths for providing feedback for the control of manipulation and yet have been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we have explored a strategy that relies on temporally discrete sensory feedback that is technically simple to provide. According to the Discrete Event-driven Sensory feedback Control (DESC) policy, motor tasks in humans are organized in phases delimited by means of sensory encoded discrete mechanical events. To explore the applicability of DESC for control, we designed a paradigm in which healthy humans operated an artificial robot hand to lift and replace an instrumented object, a task that can readily be learned and mastered under visual control. Assuming that the central nervous system of humans naturally organizes motor tasks based on a strategy akin to DESC, we delivered short-lasting vibrotactile feedback related to events that are known to forcefully affect progression of the grasp-lift-and-hold task. After training, we determined whether the artificial feedback had been integrated with the sensorimotor control by introducing short delays and we indeed observed that the participants significantly delayed subsequent phases of the task. This study thus gives support to the DESC policy hypothesis. Moreover, it demonstrates that humans can integrate temporally discrete sensory feedback while controlling an artificial hand and invites further studies in which inexpensive, noninvasive technology could be used in clever ways to provide physiologically appropriate sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics with much lower band-width requirements than with traditional solutions.

  16. Response of induced bone defects in horses to collagen matrix containing the human parathyroid hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrom, Kristin C; Bertone, Alicia L; Wisner, Erik R; Weisbrode, Stephen E

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) gene in collagen matrix could safely promote bone formation in diaphyseal or subchondral bones of horses. 8 clinically normal adult horses. Amount, rate, and quality of bone healing for 13 weeks were determined by use of radiography, quantitative computed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis. Diaphyseal cortex and subchondral bone defects of metacarpi were filled with hPTH(1-34) gene-activated matrix (GAM) or remained untreated. Joints were assessed on the basis of circumference, synovial fluid analysis, pain on flexion, lameness, and gross and histologic examination. Bone volume index was greater for cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM, compared with untreated defects. Bone production in cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM positively correlated with native bone formation in untreated defects. In contrast, less bone was detected in hPTH(1-34) GAM-treated subchondral bone defects, compared with untreated defects, and histology confirmed poorer healing and residual collagen sponge. Use of hPTH(1-34) GAM induced greater total bone, specifically periosteal bone, after 13 weeks of healing in cortical defects of horses. The hPTH(1-34) GAM impeded healing of subchondral bone but was biocompatible with joint tissues. Promotion of periosteal bone formation may be beneficial for healing of cortical fractures in horses, but the delay in onset of bone formation may negate benefits. The hPTH(1-34) GAM used in this study should not be placed in articular subchondral bone defects, but contact with articular surfaces is unlikely to cause short-term adverse effects.

  17. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  18. (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy of the hand: comparing the use of novel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and routine NaI(Tl) detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulikov, Victoria; Lerman, Hedva; Kesler, Mikhail; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced in the field of nuclear medicine in cardiology and breast imaging. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of the novel detectors (CZT) compared to that of the routine NaI(Tl) in bone scintigraphy. A dual-headed CZT-based camera dedicated originally to breast imaging has been used, and in view of the limited size of the detectors, the hands were chosen as the organ for assessment. This is a clinical study. Fifty-eight consecutive patients (total 116 hands) referred for bone scan for suspected hand pathology gave their informed consent to have two acquisitions, using the routine camera and the CZT-based camera. The latter was divided into full-dose full-acquisition time (FD CZT) and reduced-dose short-acquisition time (RD CZT) on CZT technology, so three image sets were available for analysis. Data analysis included comparing the detection of hot lesions and identification of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 69 hot lesions were detected on the CZT image sets; of these, 61 were identified as focal sites of uptake on NaI(Tl) data. On FD CZT data, 385 joints were identified compared to 168 on NaI(Tl) data (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in delineation of joints between FD and RD CZT data as the latter identified 383 joints. Bone scintigraphy using a CZT-based gamma camera is associated with improved lesion detection and anatomic definition. The superior physical characteristics of this technique raised a potential reduction in administered dose and/or acquisition time without compromising image quality.

  19. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  20. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Results: Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%. The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. Conclusions: This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  1. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  2. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  3. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting...

  4. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for retinal vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To examine the potential of intravitreally implanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to affect vascular repair and the blood-retina barrier in mice and rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy or retinal ischaemia-reperfusion damage. Three study groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 18 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received BMSCs injected intravitreally. Control groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 12 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received an intravitreal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. We applied immunohistological techniques to measure retinal vascularization, spectroscopic measurements of intraretinally extravasated fluorescein-conjugated dextran to quantify the blood-retina barrier breakdown, and histomorphometry to assess retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell count. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, the study group with intravitreally injected BMSCs as compared with the control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) smaller area of retinal neovascularization. In the diabetic retinopathy model, study group and control group did not differ significantly in the amount of intraretinally extravasated dextran. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, on the 7th day after retina injury, the retina was significantly thicker in the study group than in the control group (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell count (p = 0.36). Intravitreally implanted human BMSCs were associated with a reduced retinal neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model and with a potentially cell preserving effect in the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model. Intravitreal BMSCs may be of potential interest for the therapy of retinal vascular disorders. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley

  5. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    pestis. Based on shotgun sequencing data, four of these five plague victims showed clearly detectable levels of Y.pestis DNA in the teeth, whereas all the petrous bones failed to produce Y.pestis DNA above baseline levels. A broader comparative metagenomic analysis of teeth and petrous bones from 10...

  6. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    intestine. The hormone is known as an incretin hormone, but preclinical studies have suggested that it may also influence bone metabolism, showing both antiresorptive and anabolic effects as reflected by changes in biomechanical measures, microarchitecture, and activity of the bone cells in response to GIP...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafts in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: Review of 501 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Fahradyan, Artur; Gould, Daniel J; Liang, Fan; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Urbinelli, Leo; Nguyen, JoAnna T; Magee, William; Yen, Stephen; Urata, Mark M

    2017-08-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction using iliac crest bone graft is considered standard of care for children with complete cleft lip and palate at the time of mixed dentition. Harvesting bone may result in donor-site morbidity and additional operating time and length of hospitalization. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with a demineralized bone matrix is an alternative bone source for alveolar cleft reconstruction. The authors investigated the outcomes of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix versus iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction by reviewing postoperative surgical complications and cleft closure. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 258 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix procedures (mean follow-up, 2.9 years) and 243 iliac crest bone graft procedures (mean follow-up, 4.1 years) on 414 patients over a 12-year period. The authors compared complications, canine eruption, and alveolar cleft closure between the two groups. In the rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix group, one patient required prolonged intubation because of intraoperative airway swelling not thought to be caused by rhBMP-2, 36 reported facial swelling and one required outpatient steroids as treatment, and 12 had dehiscence; however, half of these complications resolved without intervention. Twenty-three of the 228 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix patients and 28 of the 242 iliac crest bone graft patients required repeated surgery for alveolar cleft repair. Findings for canine tooth eruption into the cleft site through the graft were similar between the groups. The rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative for alveolar cleft repair. The authors found no increase in serious adverse events with the use of this material. Local complications, such as swelling and minor wound dehiscence, predominantly improved without intervention. Therapeutic, III.

  8. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  9. MESOLITHIC HUMAN BONES FROM THE UPPER VOLGA BASIN : RADIOCARBON AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, A. L.; Alexandrovskaya, E. I.; Zhilin, M. I.; van der Plicht, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human bones from 3 Mesolithic sites in the Upper Volga basin were analyzed for trace elements, and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The radiocarbon dates of the bones correspond to the Mesolithic era. However, some dates differ from those obtained for the enclosing deposits and for the

  10. Establishing quiescence in human bone marrow stem cells leads to enhanced osteoblast marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rumman, Mohammad; Kassem, Moustapha

    Human bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hBMSC) are cells that retain a multi-lineage differentiation potential and are thus increasingly being investigated for use in clinical applications. In vivo BMSC, which comprise approximately 0.1% of the bone marrow compartment, are thought to mai...

  11. Penetration of flomoxef into human maxillary and mandibular bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, H H; Sugihara, T; Yoshida, T; Kawashima, K; Ohura, T

    1995-09-01

    Penetration of flomoxef into the maxillary and mandibular bones was assayed clinically to provide data about its usefulness for the prevention of postoperative infection after maxillofacial surgery. Twenty-one patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery at our department were given flomoxef 2 g dissolved in 20 ml of physiological saline intravenously over 3 minutes during operation, and the serum, maxillary and mandibular concentrations were measured 1, 3, and 6 hours after injection by the band culture method using Escherichia coli 7437 as the indicator strain. The mean concentrations were 53.4, 16.1, and 2.6 micrograms/ml, respectively, in the serum, 17.6, 7.8, and 1.0 micrograms/g in maxillary bone, and 16.4, 4.2, and 0.9 micrograms/g in mandibular bone. The mean bone:serum ratios at 1, 3, and 6 hours were 33.0%, 48.2%, and 36.8%, respectively, for maxillary bone, and 30.7%, 26.2%, and 35.7% for mandibular bone. When compared with previously reported data on the bone:serum ratios in jaw of various other intravenous antibiotics, our results show that penetration of flomoxef into maxillary and mandibular bone is extremely high. As all the intramaxillary and intramandibular concentrations exceed its MIC80 values against clinical isolates of bacteria frequently isolated in cases of infection in the oral and maxillofacial region, it is apparent that one intravenous shot of flomoxef 2 g allows penetration of the drug into the maxillary and mandibular bones at effective concentrations. Flomoxef is therefore potentially useful for the prevention and treatment of infections in the oral and maxillofacial region, as it has excellent penetration into the maxillary and mandibular bones.

  12. A novel cortical target to enhance hand motor output in humans with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinyi; Federico, Paolo; Perez, Monica A

    2017-06-01

    A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4.3 ms; I-wave protocol) or at an interstimulus interval in-between I-waves (3.5 ms; control protocol) on separate days in a randomized order. Late I-waves are thought to arise from trans-synaptic cortical inputs and have a crucial role in the recruitment of spinal motor neurons following spinal cord injury. Motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, paired-pulse intracortical inhibition, spinal motor neuron excitability (F-waves), index finger abduction force and electromyographic activity as well as a hand dexterity task were measured before and after both protocols in 15 individuals with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury and 17 uninjured participants. We found that motor evoked potentials size increased in spinal cord injury and uninjured participants after the I-wave but not the control protocol for ∼30 to 60 min after the stimulation. Intracortical inhibition decreased and F-wave amplitude and persistence increased after the I-wave but not the control protocol, suggesting that cortical and subcortical networks contributed to changes in corticospinal excitability. Importantly, hand motor output and hand dexterity increased in individuals with spinal cord injury after the I-wave protocol. These results provide the first evidence that late synaptic input to corticospinal neurons may represent a novel therapeutic target for improving motor function

  13. Changes in hand bone mineral density and the association with the level of disease activity in patients with RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, L.; Guler-Yuksel, M.; de Beus, W.M.; Ronday, H.K.; Speyer, I.; Huizinga, T.W.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Allaart, C.F.; Lems, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine if metacarpal bone mineral density (mBMD) gain occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). If mBMD loss is driven by inflammation, we expect to find mBMD gain in patients who are in remission. Methods. mBMD was measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry in consecutive

  14. Computed tomography evaluation of human mandibles with regard to layer thickness and bone density of the cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwardt, Jutta; Meissner, H.; Weber, A.; Reitemeier, B.; Laniado, M.

    2013-01-01

    Application of function-restoring individual implants for the bridging of defects in mandibles with continuity separation requires a stable fixation with special use of the cortical bone stumps. Five section planes each of 100 computed tomographies of poly-traumatized patients' jaws were used for measuring the thickness of the cortical layer and the bone density of the mandible. The CT scans of 28 female and 72 male candidates aged between 12 and 86 years with different dentition of the mandible were available. The computed tomographic evaluations of human mandibles regarding the layer thickness of the cortical bone showed that the edge of the mandible in the area of the horizontal branch possesses the biggest layer thickness of the whole of the lower jaws. The highest medians of the cortical bone layer thickness were found in the area of the molars and premolars at the lower edge of the lower jaws in 6-o'clock position, in the area of the molars in the vestibular cranial 10-o'clock position and in the chin region lingual-caudal in the 4-o'clock position. The measurement of the bone density showed the highest values in the 8-o'clock position (vestibular-caudal) in the molar region in both males and females. The average values available of the bone density and the layer thickness of the cortical bone in the various regions of the lower jaw, taking into consideration age, gender and dentition, are an important aid in practice for determining a safe fixation point for implants in the area of the surface layer of the mandible by means of screws or similar fixation elements. (orig.)

  15. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangpeng; Zhao Li; Cui Lei; Liu Wei; Cao Yilin

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 μm in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. β-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In β-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in β-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering

  16. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangpeng [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Zhao Li [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cui Lei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Liu Wei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cao Yilin [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China)

    2007-06-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 {mu}m in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. {beta}-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In {beta}-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in {beta}-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  17. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G V; Tandon, L

    1999-07-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  18. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Tandon, L.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  19. Double nerve intraneural interface implant on a human amputee for robotic hand control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Paolo M; Micera, Silvestro; Benvenuto, Antonella; Carpaneto, Jacopo; Cavallo, Giuseppe; Citi, Luca; Cipriani, Christian; Denaro, Luca; Denaro, Vincenzo; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ferreri, Florinda; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Rigosa, Jacopo; Rossini, Luca; Tombini, Mario; Dario, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The principle underlying this project is that, despite nervous reorganization following upper limb amputation, original pathways and CNS relays partially maintain their function and can be exploited for interfacing prostheses. Aim of this study is to evaluate a novel peripheral intraneural multielectrode for multi-movement prosthesis control and for sensory feed-back, while assessing cortical reorganization following the re-acquired stream of data. Four intrafascicular longitudinal flexible multielectrodes (tf-LIFE4) were implanted in the median and ulnar nerves of an amputee; they reliably recorded output signals for 4 weeks. Artificial intelligence classifiers were used off-line to analyse LIFE signals recorded during three distinct hand movements under voluntary order. Real-time control of motor output was achieved for the three actions. When applied off-line artificial intelligence reached >85% real-time correct classification of trials. Moreover, different types of current stimulation were determined to allow reproducible and localized hand/fingers sensations. Cortical organization was observed via TMS in parallel with partial resolution of symptoms due to the phantom-limb syndrome (PLS). tf-LIFE4s recorded output signals in human nerves for 4 weeks, though the efficacy of sensory stimulation decayed after 10 days. Recording from a number of fibres permitted a high percentage of distinct actions to be classified correctly. Reversal of plastic changes and alleviation of PLS represent corollary findings of potential therapeutic benefit. This study represents a breakthrough in robotic hand use in amputees. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-CT characterization of human trabecular bone in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, John; Albert, Carolyne; Smith, Peter; Molthen, Robert; Harris, Gerald

    2011-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic syndrome affecting collagen synthesis and assembly. Its symptoms vary widely but commonly include bone fragility, reduced stature, and bone deformity. Because of the small size and paucity of human specimens, there is a lack of biomechanical data for OI bone. Most literature has focused on histomorphometric analyses, which rely on assumptions to extrapolate 3-D properties. In this study, a micro-computed tomography (μCT) system was used to directly measure structural and mineral properties in pediatric OI bone collected during routine surgical procedures. Surface renderings suggested a poorly organized, plate-like orientation. Patients with a history of bone-augmenting drugs exhibited increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and connectivity density (Eu.Conn.D). The latter two parameters appeared to be related to OI severity. Structural results were consistently higher than those reported in a previous histomorphometric study, but these differences can be attributed to factors such as specimen collection site, drug therapy, and assumptions associated with histomorphometry. Mineral testing revealed strong correlations with several structural parameters, highlighting the importance of a dual approach in trabecular bone testing. This study reports some of the first quantitative μCT data of human OI bone, and it suggests compelling possibilities for the future of OI bone assessment.

  1. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  2. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens

  3. Non-primary motor areas in the human frontal lobe are connected directly to hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitti, S; Määttä, S; Säisänen, L; Könönen, M; Vanninen, R; Hannula, H; Mervaala, E; Karhu, J

    2008-04-15

    Structural studies in primates have shown that, in addition to the primary motor cortex (M1), premotor areas are a source of corticospinal tracts. The function of these putative corticospinal neuronal tracts in humans is still unclear. We found frontal non-primary motor areas (NPMAs), which react to targeted non-invasive magnetic pulses and activate peripheral muscles as fast as or even faster than those in M1. Hand muscle movements were observed in all our subjects about 20 ms after transcranial stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 6 and 8). Stimulation of NPMA could activate both proximal and distal upper limb muscles with the same delay as a stimulation of the M1, indicating converging motor representations with direct functional connections to the hand. We suggest that these non-primary cortical motor representations provide additional capacity for the fast execution of movements. Such a capacity may play a role in motor learning and in recovery from motor deficits.

  4. CD146/MCAM defines functionality of human bone marrow stromal stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of surface markers for prospective isolation of functionally homogenous populations of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) is highly relevant for cell therapy protocols. Thus, we examined the possible use of CD146 to subtype a heterogeneous hMSC...... population. METHODS: Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated two distinct hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cell populations from the telomerized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (hMSC-TERT). Cells were examined for differences in their size, shape and texture by using high...... and adipocytes on the basis of gene expression and protein production of lineage-specific markers. In vivo, hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cells formed bone and bone marrow organ when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice. Bone was enriched in hMSC-CD146(-) cells (12.6 % versus 8.1 %) and bone...

  5. Using modern human cortical bone distribution to test the systemic robusticity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baab, Karen L; Copes, Lynn E; Ward, Devin L; Wells, Nora; Grine, Frederick E

    2018-06-01

    The systemic robusticity hypothesis links the thickness of cortical bone in both the cranium and limb bones. This hypothesis posits that thick cortical bone is in part a systemic response to circulating hormones, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone, possibly related to physical activity or cold climates. Although this hypothesis has gained popular traction, only rarely has robusticity of the cranium and postcranial skeleton been considered jointly. We acquired computed tomographic scans from associated crania, femora and humeri from single individuals representing 11 populations in Africa and North America (n = 228). Cortical thickness in the parietal, frontal and occipital bones and cortical bone area in limb bone diaphyses were analyzed using correlation, multiple regression and general linear models to test the hypothesis. Absolute thickness values from the crania were not correlated with cortical bone area of the femur or humerus, which is at odds with the systemic robusticity hypothesis. However, measures of cortical bone scaled by total vault thickness and limb cross-sectional area were positively correlated between the cranium and postcranium. When accounting for a range of potential confounding variables, including sex, age and body mass, variation in relative postcranial cortical bone area explained ∼20% of variation in the proportion of cortical cranial bone thickness. While these findings provide limited support for the systemic robusticity hypothesis, cranial cortical thickness did not track climate or physical activity across populations. Thus, some of the variation in cranial cortical bone thickness in modern humans is attributable to systemic effects, but the driving force behind this effect remains obscure. Moreover, neither absolute nor proportional measures of cranial cortical bone thickness are positively correlated with total cranial bone thickness, complicating the extrapolation of these findings to extinct species where only cranial

  6. Variable Thumb Moment Arm Modeling and Thumb-Tip Force Production of a Human-Like Robotic Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Taylor D; Deshpande, Ashish D

    2017-10-01

    The anatomically correct testbed (ACT) hand mechanically simulates the musculoskeletal structure of the fingers and thumb of the human hand. In this work, we analyze the muscle moment arms (MAs) and thumb-tip force vectors in the ACT thumb in order to compare the ACT thumb's mechanical structure to the human thumb. Motion data are used to determine joint angle-dependent MA models, and thumb-tip three-dimensional (3D) force vectors are experimentally analyzed when forces are applied to individual muscles. Results are presented for both a nominal ACT thumb model designed to match human MAs and an adjusted model that more closely replicates human-like thumb-tip forces. The results confirm that the ACT thumb is capable of faithfully representing human musculoskeletal structure and muscle functionality. Using the ACT hand as a physical simulation platform allows us to gain a better understanding of the underlying biomechanical and neuromuscular properties of the human hand to ultimately inform the design and control of robotic and prosthetic hands.

  7. Identification of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 3 as a Novel Gene Affecting Human Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brum, A M; Leije, M; J, Schreuders-Koedam

    2017-01-01

    is diminished and more adipocytes are seen in the bone marrow, suggesting a shift in MSC lineage commitment. Identification of specific factors that stimulate osteoblast differentiation from human MSCs may deliver therapeutic targets to treat osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes...... an in vivo human bone formation model in which hMSCs lentivirally transduced with the CLIC3 overexpression construct were loaded onto a scaffold (hydroxyapatite-tricalcium-phosphate), implanted under the skin of NOD-SCID mice, and analyzed for bone formation 8 weeks later. CLIC3 overexpression led to a 15...

  8. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  9. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH 1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  10. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  11. Effects of combined hydroxyapatite and human platelet rich plasma on bone healing in rabbit model: radiological, macroscopical, hidtopathological and biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Meimandi Parizi, A; Shafiei-Sarvestani, Z; Bigham, A S

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. On the other hand, human platelet rich plasma (hPRP) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factor. A combination of hPRP and hydroxyapatite is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of hydroxyapatite and hPRP on osteogenesis in vivo, using rabbit model bone healing. A critical size defect of 10 mm long was created in the radial diaphysis of 36 rabbit and either supplied with hydroxyapatite-human PRP or hydroxyapatite or was left empty (control group). Radiographs of each forelimb were taken postoperatively on 1st day and then at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks post injury to evaluate bone formation, union and remodeling of the defect. The operated radiuses of half of the animals in each group were removed on 56th postoperative day and were grossly and histopathologically evaluated. In addition, biomechanical test was conducted on the operated and normal forearms of the other half of the animals of each group. This study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-humanPRP, could promote bone regeneration in critical size defects with a high regenerative capacity. The results of the present study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-hPRP could be an attractive alternative for reconstruction of the major diaphyseal defects of the long bones in animal models.

  12. Design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand posture controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Weir, Richard F ff

    2014-03-01

    An ideal myoelectric prosthetic hand should have the ability to continuously morph between any posture like an anatomical hand. This paper describes the design and validation of a morphing myoelectric hand controller based on principal component analysis of human grasping. The controller commands continuously morphing hand postures including functional grasps using between two and four surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes pairs. Four unique maps were developed to transform the EMG control signals in the principal component domain. A preliminary validation experiment was performed by 10 nonamputee subjects to determine the map with highest performance. The subjects used the myoelectric controller to morph a virtual hand between functional grasps in a series of randomized trials. The number of joints controlled accurately was evaluated to characterize the performance of each map. Additional metrics were studied including completion rate, time to completion, and path efficiency. The highest performing map controlled over 13 out of 15 joints accurately.

  13. The effect of magnesium ion implantation into alumina upon the adhesion of human bone derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, C.R.; Zreiqat, H.; O'Dell, R.; Noorman, J.; Evans, P.; Dalton, B.A.; McFarland, C.; Steele, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Our group is investigating the potential of modifying the surface atomic layers of biomaterials by ion beam implantation in order to stimulate adhesion of bone cells to these treated biomaterials. In this study alumina that had been implanted with magnesium ions (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ), was compared to unmodified alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) for the adhesion of cells cultured from explanted human bone. The attachment and spreading of cultured human bone derived cells onto (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was significantly enhanced as compared to Al 2 O 3 . The role of adsorption of serum adhesive glycoproteins firbronectin (Fn) and vitronectin (Vn) in the adhesion of human bone derived cells to (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was determined. (Author)

  14. The correlation between R2' and bone mineral measurements in human vertebrae: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brismar, T.B.; Karlsson, M.; Li, T.Q.; Ringertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether MR imaging of trabecular bone structure using magnetic inhomogeneity measurements is related to the amount of bone mineral in human vertebrae. Weight, bone mineral content (BMC DXA ), bone mineral per area (BMA DXA ) and bone mineral density (BMD CT ) were determined in 12 defatted human lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) by weighing, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and CT. Inhomogeneity caused by susceptibility differences between trabecular bone and surrounding water was studied with MR imaging at 1.5 T using the GESFIDE sequence. The pulse sequence determines the transverse relaxation rate R2 * and its two components, the non-reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2) and the reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2'; i. e. relaxation rate due to magnetic susceptibility) in a single scan. Voxel size was 0.9 x 1.9 x 5.0 mm. Positive significant correlations between R2' and weight, BMC DXA , BMA DXA and BMD CT were observed (r > 0.61 and p DXA and BMD CT (r > 0.66 and p DXA . Thus, R2' measurements are related to the amount of bone mineral, but they also provide information which is not obtainable from bone mineral measurements. (orig.) (orig.)

  15. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P < 0.05) in longitudinal bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  16. Clinical uses of radiosterilized freeze-dried human bone: its application in buccomaxillary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsohn, B.; Taramasso, F.; Godoy, J.; Wodowoz, O.; Saldias, M.; Silva, W.; Machin, D.; Sanchez, G.; Alvarez, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the uses of different human bone tissue allografts in bucomaxillary surgery between 2005 and 2007. Presentation of our experience using single freeze dried bone allografts and associated to bovine collagen membranes (commercial registered). Twenty patients were treated with cortical struts, cancellous chips, morsellized and morsellized demineralized bone. All the grafts were processed at the INDT multi tissue bank from cardiac arrest and brain death cadaveric donors. All the tissues were radiosterilized by Gamma radiation. Bone allografts were used: 1) to optimize bone support increasing maxillar or mandible bone before implant surgery. 2) in dehiscences and fissures during the implant surgery. 3) to stimulate bone regeneration in alveolar cavity, post-apicectomies, and cystectomies as well as for bone defects. The patients were periodically evaluated using standardized protocols. All the cases were successful showing clinic and radiologically osseointegration after 6 and 12 months. Results were evaluated considering surgical technique and patients bucomaxillary rehabilitation. Clinical uses of bone allografts confirm in our experience, as scientific literature outcomes shows, are useful in patients that refuses autografts ablation. (Author)

  17. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  18. No Effect of TETRA Hand Portable Transmission Signals on Human Cognitive Function and Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2010-01-01

    Current radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines rest on well-established thermal effects. However, recent research into analogue and digital transmission fields at levels covered by the exposure guidelines has indicated possible detrimental effects on human cognitive performance. To investi......Current radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines rest on well-established thermal effects. However, recent research into analogue and digital transmission fields at levels covered by the exposure guidelines has indicated possible detrimental effects on human cognitive performance....... To investigate this, we conducted a controlled climate chamber study of possible changes in cognitive performance in healthy volunteers exposed to transmission signals from TETRA hand portables (TETRA handsets). The trial deployed a balanced, randomized, double-blinded cross-over design. Performance on different...... paper-and-pencil, auditory and computer-based cognitive tasks was monitored in 53 male volunteers (mean age 36.41 years, SD 8.35) during 45-min exposure to a TETRA handset and sham control signals remotely controlled from a laboratory more than 100 km away. The main cognitive outcome was the Trail...

  19. Expression profiling of microRNAs in human bone tissue from postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Ugarte, Laura; Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Nonell, Lara; Balcells, Susana; Arnal, Magdalena; Nogues, Xavier; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Grinberg, Daniel; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Bone tissue is composed of several cell types, which express their own microRNAs (miRNAs) that will play a role in cell function. The set of total miRNAs expressed in all cell types configures the specific signature of the bone tissue in one physiological condition. The aim of this study was to explore the miRNA expression profile of bone tissue from postmenopausal women. Tissue was obtained from trabecular bone and was analyzed in fresh conditions (n = 6). Primary osteoblasts were also obtained from trabecular bone (n = 4) and human osteoclasts were obtained from monocyte precursors after in vitro differentiation (n = 5). MicroRNA expression profiling was obtained for each sample by microarray and a global miRNA analysis was performed combining the data acquired in all the microarray experiments. From the 641 miRNAs detected in bone tissue samples, 346 (54%) were present in osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. The other 46% were not identified in any of the bone cells analyzed. Intersection of osteoblast and osteoclast arrays identified 101 miRNAs shared by both cell types, which accounts for 30-40% of miRNAs detected in these cells. In osteoblasts, 266 miRNAs were detected, of which 243 (91%) were also present in the total bone array, representing 38% of all bone miRNAs. In osteoclasts, 340 miRNAs were detected, of which 196 (58%) were also present in the bone tissue array, representing 31% of all miRNAs detected in total bone. These analyses provide an overview of miRNAs expressed in bone tissue, broadening our knowledge in the microRNA field.

  20. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Carinhena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. METHODS: The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS, 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance.

  1. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinhena, Glauber; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. Methods The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS), 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. Results and Conclusions Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance. PMID:25279522

  2. Decoding Individual Finger Movements from One Hand Using Human EEG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jania; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) is an assistive technology, which decodes neurophysiological signals generated by the human brain and translates them into control signals to control external devices, e.g., wheelchairs. One problem challenging noninvasive BCI technologies is the limited control dimensions from decoding movements of, mainly, large body parts, e.g., upper and lower limbs. It has been reported that complicated dexterous functions, i.e., finger movements, can be decoded in electrocorticography (ECoG) signals, while it remains unclear whether noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) signals also have sufficient information to decode the same type of movements. Phenomena of broadband power increase and low-frequency-band power decrease were observed in EEG in the present study, when EEG power spectra were decomposed by a principal component analysis (PCA). These movement-related spectral structures and their changes caused by finger movements in EEG are consistent with observations in previous ECoG study, as well as the results from ECoG data in the present study. The average decoding accuracy of 77.11% over all subjects was obtained in classifying each pair of fingers from one hand using movement-related spectral changes as features to be decoded using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The average decoding accuracy in three epilepsy patients using ECoG data was 91.28% with the similarly obtained features and same classifier. Both decoding accuracies of EEG and ECoG are significantly higher than the empirical guessing level (51.26%) in all subjects (pEEG as in ECoG, and demonstrates the feasibility of discriminating finger movements from one hand using EEG. These findings are promising to facilitate the development of BCIs with rich control signals using noninvasive technologies. PMID:24416360

  3. Clinical assessment of bone quality of human extraction sockets after conversion with growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Geurs, Nico; Vassilopoulos, Philip; Reddy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), alone or in combination with growth factors in extraction sockets, on subjective assessment of bone quality during implant placement. Forty-one patients whose treatment plan involved extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups: Group 1, collagen plug (control); Group 2, FDBA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug; Group 3, FDBA/β-TCP/platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/collagen plug; Group 4, FDBA/β-TCP/recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB)/collagen plug. After 8 weeks of healing, implants were placed. The clinicians assessed bone quality according to the Misch classification. A benchtop calibration exercise test was conducted to evaluate agreement and accuracy of operators in recognizing different bone qualities. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means (LS means). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. P .05). Inclusion of bone grafting is associated with a shift from D4 quality to D3 quality bone. Inclusion of PRP in bone grafting eliminates the incidence of D4 bone, establishing D3 and D2 quality bone as prevalent (56% vs. 42%, respectively). Inclusion of rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP in combination with the bone grafting has the same effect, although D2 quality is less prevalent. When compared to sockets grafted with FDBA/β-TCP/collagen plug alone, the sockets with growth factors demonstrated fewer residual bone graft particles. (1) Inclusion of bone grafting enhanced bone quality as assessed during implant placement. (2) Overall inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB enhanced subjective bone quality, eliminating incidence of D4 quality in human extraction sockets. (3) The use of PRP or rhPDGF-BB may

  4. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in augmentation procedures: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Jaques; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Claudino, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients.

  5. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  6. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of purinergic receptor polymorphisms in human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselius, Anke; Bours, Martijn J L; Agrawal, Ankita

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Variations in a number of genes have been shown to associate with bone turnover and risk of osteoporosis. P2 purinergic receptors are proteins that have ATP or other nucleotides as their natural ligands. Various P2Y and P2X...

  8. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  9. Bone maturation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb. [Closure of epiphyseal centers in hands and wrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Keehn, R J; Ihno, Y; Hattori, F; Kogure, T; Imamura, K

    1972-01-20

    Five hundred and fifty-six subjects exposed while in utero to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs, and comparison subjects were observed by posteroanterior hand and wrist roentgenograms for epiphyseal closure. There were delays in closure of 6-7 and 8-9 months for males and females respectively, as compared for Japanese and American children. These findings did not correlate with the A-bomb exposure doses of the mothers of these children. Brachymesophalangia occurred in 11% of males and 19% of females in Hiroshima. Possible contributory factors to the relative delay in maturation are discussed. (auth)

  10. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  11. Heavy metals in human bones in different historical epochs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, M J; Moreno, J M; Moreno-Clavel, J; Vergara, N; García-Sánchez, A; Guillamón, A; Portí, M; Moreno-Grau, S

    2005-09-15

    The concentration of the metals lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and iron was determined in bone remains belonging to 30 individuals buried in the Region of Cartagena dating from different historical periods and in eight persons who had died in recent times. The metals content with respect to lead, cadmium and copper was determined either by anodic stripping voltammetry or by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the concentrations present in the bone remains. In all cases, zinc and iron were quantified by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead concentrations found in the bone remains in our city are greater than those reported in the literature for other locations. This led to the consideration of the sources of these metals in our area, both the contribution from atmospheric aerosols as well as that from the soil in the area. Correlation analysis leads us to consider the presence of the studied metals in the analysed bone samples to be the consequence of analogous inputs, namely the inhalation of atmospheric aerosols and diverse contributions in the diet. The lowest values found in the studied bone remains correspond to the Neolithic period, with similar contents to present-day samples with respect to lead, copper, cadmium and iron. As regards the evolution over time of the concentrations of the metals under study, a clear increase in these is observed between the Neolithic period and the grouping made up of the Bronze Age, Roman domination and the Byzantine period. The trend lines used to classify the samples into 7 periods show that the maximum values of lead correspond to the Roman and Byzantine periods. For copper, this peak is found in the Byzantine Period and for iron, in the Islamic Period. Zinc shows an increasing tendency over the periods under study and cadmium is the only metal whose trend lines shows a decreasing slope.

  12. Mechanisms Inducing Low Bone Density in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro–computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:21509823

  13. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Danielsen, CC

    2002-01-01

    structure and mechanical properties. In this study, 160 cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal human tibiae aged from 16 to 85 years at post-mortem. The specimens underwent micro-CT and the microstructural properties were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods. The specimens...... were tested to determine the mechanical properties and the physical/compositional properties were evaluated. The type of structure together with anisotropy correlated well with Young's modulus of human tibial cancellous bone. The plate-like structure reflected high mechanical stress and the rod......-like structure low mechanical stress. There was a strong correlation between the type of trabecular structure and the bone-volume fraction. The most effective microstructural properties for predicting the mechanical properties of cancellous bone seem to differ with age....

  14. Locating the scala media in the fixed human temporal bone for therapeutic access: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, H; Fagan, P; Oleskevich, S

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the location of the scala media in relation to the round window niche in human temporal bones. Ten human temporal bones were investigated by radical mastoidectomy and promontory drill-out. Temporal bone laboratory. The distance from the scala media to the anterior edge of the round window niche, measured by Fisch's stapedectomy measuring cylinders. The scala media was identified at the transection point of a vertical line 1.6 to 2.2 mm (mean=1.8 mm; standard deviation=0.2) anterior to the anterior edge of the round window niche and a horizontal line 0.2 mm inferior to the lower border of the oval window. This report demonstrates the point of entry into the scala media via the promontory in fixed temporal bone models, which may provide a site of entry for stem cells and gene therapy insertion.

  15. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  16. Comparative pathogenesis of radium-induced intracortical bone lesions in humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Morgan, J.P.; Parks, N.J.; Farnham, J.E.; Littman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An interlaboratory research team from our Laboratory and the Center for Human Radiobiology at Argonne National Laboratory has performed an initial comparison of intracortical lesions in the long bones of dog and man following chronic radium deposition in the skeleton. The sequential radiographic appearance and morphology of radiation osteodystrophy is discussed. The role of osteodystrohy in the evaluation of bone tumors in the dog is examined

  17. The human touch: skin temperature during the rubber hand illusion in manual and automated stroking procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Rohde

    Full Text Available A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI. The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants perceive body ownership over a rubber hand if they see it being stroked in synchrony with their own occluded hand. The current study set out to replicate this result, i.e., psychologically induced cooling of the stimulated hand using an automated stroking paradigm, where stimulation was delivered by a robot arm (PHANToM(TM force-feedback device. After we found no evidence for hand cooling in two experiments using this automated procedure, we reverted to a manual stroking paradigm, which is closer to the one employed in the study that first produced this effect. With this procedure, we observed a relative cooling of the stimulated hand in both the experimental and the control condition. The subjective experience of ownership, as rated by the participants, by contrast, was strictly linked to synchronous stroking in all three experiments. This implies that hand-cooling is not a strict correlate of the subjective feeling of hand ownership in the RHI. Factors associated with the differences between the two designs (differences in pressure of tactile stimulation, presence of another person that were thus far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect.

  18. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  19. Human Bone Matrix Changes During Deep Saturation Dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    urine concentrations of Ntx have been demonstrated in bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary hyperthyroidism , and Paget’s disease. Also... loss in divers, and that the differentials likely came from the gas- induced osmosis model.30 4 The same facility was used for both dives and...Other demographic data such as age, height, weight , and diving experience were also collected for later correlational analyses. The dive took place

  20. SERPINB2 is a novel TGFβ-responsive lineage fate determinant of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, Mona; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Atteya, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β1, a multifunctional regulator of cell growth and differentiation, is the most abundant bone matrix growth factor. During differentiation of human bone stromal cells (hBMSCs), which constitute bone marrow osteoblast (OS) and adipocyte (AD) progenitor cells, continuous TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) treat...

  1. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2017-03-01

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R 2 =0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Patient-specific in silico models can quantify primary implant stability in elderly human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Juri A; Hofmann, Urs A T; Christen, Patrik; Favre, Jean M; Ferguson, Stephen J; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2018-03-01

    Secure implant fixation is challenging in osteoporotic bone. Due to the high variability in inter- and intra-patient bone quality, ex vivo mechanical testing of implants in bone is very material- and time-consuming. Alternatively, in silico models could substantially reduce costs and speed up the design of novel implants if they had the capability to capture the intricate bone microstructure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate a micro-finite element model of a multi-screw fracture fixation system. Eight human cadaveric humerii were scanned using micro-CT and mechanically tested to quantify bone stiffness. Osteotomy and fracture fixation were performed, followed by mechanical testing to quantify displacements at 12 different locations on the instrumented bone. For each experimental case, a micro-finite element model was created. From the micro-finite element analyses of the intact model, the patient-specific bone tissue modulus was determined such that the simulated apparent stiffness matched the measured stiffness of the intact bone. Similarly, the tissue modulus of a small damage region around each screw was determined for the instrumented bone. For validation, all in silico models were rerun using averaged material properties, resulting in an average coefficient of determination of 0.89 ± 0.04 with a slope of 0.93 ± 0.19 and a mean absolute error of 43 ± 10 μm when correlating in silico marker displacements with the ex vivo test. In conclusion, we validated a patient-specific computer model of an entire organ bone-implant system at the tissue-level at high resolution with excellent overall accuracy. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:954-962, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Zach S; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V; Tamaresis, John S; Bachmann, Michael H; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J; Contag, Christopher H; King, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  6. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs’ identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  7. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects. PMID:27118977

  8. Monitoring of Bone Loss Biomarkers in Human Sweat: A Non-Invasive, Time Efficient Means of Monitoring Bone Resorption Markers under Micro and Partial Gravity Loading Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project was to validate the concept that the rate and extent of unloading-induced bone loss in humans can be assessed by monitoring the...

  9. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relationships among ultrasonic and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in human calcaneus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Keith A; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Dreher, Maureen L; Sadoughi, Saghi; Zhu, Shan; Keaveny, Tony M

    2017-10-01

    Clinical bone sonometers applied at the calcaneus measure broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound. However, the relation of ultrasound measurements to bone strength is not well-characterized. Addressing this issue, we assessed the extent to which ultrasonic measurements convey in vitro mechanical properties in 25 human calcaneal cancellous bone specimens (approximately 2×4×2cm). Normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, and broadband ultrasound backscatter were measured with 500kHz transducers. To assess mechanical properties, non-linear finite element analysis, based on micro-computed tomography images (34-micron cubic voxel), was used to estimate apparent elastic modulus, overall specimen stiffness, and apparent yield stress, with models typically having approximately 25-30 million elements. We found that ultrasound parameters were correlated with mechanical properties with R=0.70-0.82 (pmechanical properties beyond that provided by bone quantity alone (p≤0.05). Adding ultrasound variables to linear regression models based on bone quantity improved adjusted squared correlation coefficients from 0.65 to 0.77 (stiffness), 0.76 to 0.81 (apparent modulus), and 0.67 to 0.73 (yield stress). These results indicate that ultrasound can provide complementary (to bone quantity) information regarding mechanical behavior of cancellous bone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Localized ridge defect augmentation using human pericardium membrane and demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Arun Kumar; Ravindran, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    Patient wanted to restore her lost teeth with implants in the lower left first molar and second premolar region. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) revealed inadequate bone width and height around future implant sites. The extraction socket of second premolar area revealed inadequate socket healing with sparse bone fill after 4 months of extraction. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using a collagen physical resorbable barrier made of human pericardium (HP) to augment localized alveolar ridge defects for the subsequent placement of dental implants. Ridge augmentation was done in the compromised area using Puros® demineralized bone matrix (DBM) Putty with chips and an HP allograft membrane. Horizontal (width) and vertical hard tissue measurements with CBCT were recorded on the day of ridge augmentation surgery, 4 month and 7 months follow-up. Intra oral periapical taken 1 year after implant installation showed minimal crestal bone loss. Bone volume achieved through guided bone regeneration was a gain of 4.8 mm horizontally (width) and 6.8 mm vertically in the deficient ridge within a period of 7 months following the procedure. The results suggested that HP Allograft membrane may be a suitable component for augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects in conjunction with DBM with bone chips.

  12. Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

  13. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  14. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  15. Histomorphometric quantification of human pathological bones from synchrotron radiation 3D computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson

    2011-01-01

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify pathological samples of human bone. Samples of human bones were cut into small blocks (8 mm x 8 mm x 10 mm) with a precision saw and then imaged. The computed microtomographies were obtained at SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Italy). The obtained 3D images yielded excellent resolution and details of intra-trabecular bone structures, including marrow present inside trabeculae. Histomorphometric quantification was compared to literature as well. (author)

  16. Maxillary anterior ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Ryan K; Mealey, Brian L; Mills, Michael P; Thoma, Daniel S; Schoolfield, John; Cochran, David L; Mellonig, Jim

    2014-01-01

    No human studies exist on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as a sole graft material for lateral ridge augmentation in large ridge defect sites. This series evaluates the treatment outcome of maxillary anterior lateral ridge augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS. Twenty patients were treated with rhBMP-2/ACS and fixation screws for space maintenance. Cone beam volumetric tomography measurements were used to determine gain in ridge width, and a bone core biopsy was obtained. The mean horizontal ridge gain was 1.2 mm across sites, and every site gained width.

  17. Multi-element determination in cancellous bone of human femoral head by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanxun Zhang; Yongping Zhang; Yongpeng Tong; Shijing Qiu; Xiaotao Wu; Kerong Dai

    1996-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in cancellous bone of human femoral head from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck broken. The specimen preparation and experimental procedure are described in detail. Using the t test, the results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in control group are higher than those in patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The physiological functions of metallic elements in human bone are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M. Jayed, E-mail: zed.hossain06@gmail.com; Rahman, M. Moshiur, E-mail: razib-121@yahoo.com; Alam, Morshed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  19. Osteogenic potential of the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene activated nanobone putty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-bin; Sun, Li; Yang, Shu-hua; Zhang, Yu-kun; Hu, Ru-yin; Fu, De-hao

    2008-04-20

    Nanobone putty is an injectable and bioresorbable bone substitute. The neutral-pH putty resembles hard bone tissue, does not contain polymers or plasticizers, and is self-setting and nearly isothermic, properties which are helpful for the adhesion, proliferation, and function of bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) gene activated nanobone putty in inducing ectopic bone formation, and the effects of the hBMP2 gene activated nanobone putty on repairing bone defects. Twenty four Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups. The nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid was injected into the right thigh muscle pouches of the mice (experiment side). The nanobone putty + blank plasmid or nanobone putty was injected into the left thigh muscle pouches of the group 1 (control side 1) or group 2 (control side 2), respectively. The effects of ectopic bone formation were evaluated by radiography, histology, and molecular biology analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after operation. Bilateral 15 mm radial defects were made in forty-eight rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid; Group B, putty + blank plasmid; Group C, nanobone putty only. Six rabbits with left radial defects served as blank controls. The effect of bone repairing was evaluated by radiography, histology, molecular biology, and biomechanical analysis at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. The tissue from the experimental side of the mice expressed hBMP2. Obvious cartilage and island-distributed immature bone formation in implants of the experiment side were observed at 2 weeks after operation, and massive mature bone observed at 4 weeks. No bone formation was observed in the control side of the mice. The ALP activity in the experiment side of the mice was higher than that in the control side. The tissue of Group A rabbits expressed hBMP2 protein and higher ALP level. The new bone

  20. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  1. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  2. Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training

  3. Sorption behavior of human bone powder towards 60 Co and 65 Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; Essa, M.W.A.; Mohamed, S.A.; Molokhia, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Human bone powder 30-40 Μ in diameter was prepared from human bone femurs as fat-free (FFB), protein-free (PFB) or left untreated as raw bone powder (RB). The sorption behavior of human bone powder towards 60 Co and 65 Zn was studied. The uptake changed with the type of bone powder to be : PFB>FFB>RB. The increase in the concentration of cobalt(from 10 -6 to 10 -1 Mole/litre)and of zinc (from 10 -7 to 10 -4 M/1) increased the uptake of 60 Co and 65 Zn. Freunclich-type isotherm was successfully applied on the uptake data of both ions and the slopes of these isotherms were, nearly, directly proportional to their uptake values. The uptake was found to be less influenced by the PH. In case of cobalt the uptake increased till PH 4, followed by a plateau till PH 8 while in case of zinc the PH effect is much less pronounced

  4. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Immune Humanization of Immunodeficient Mice Using Diagnostic Bone Marrow Aspirates from Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses. PMID:24830425

  6. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  7. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Dong Qianggang; Yao Ming; Shi Meiping; Ye Jianding; Zhao Langxiang; Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong; Xie Wenhui; Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi; Li Yao; Huang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as an

  8. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-fluorine in humans by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M; Gräfe, J L; Aslam; Byun, S H; Chettle, D R; Egden, L M; Orchard, G M; Webber, C E; McNeill, F E

    2012-01-01

    Fluorine (F) plays an important role in dental health and bone formation. Many studies have shown that excess fluoride (F − ) can result in dental or skeletal fluorosis, while other studies have indicated that a proper dosage of fluoride may have a protective effect on bone fracture incidence. Fluorine is stored almost completely in the skeleton making bone an ideal site for measurement to assess long-term exposure. This paper outlines a feasibility study of a technique to measure bone-fluorine non-invasively in the human hand using in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) via the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F reaction. Irradiations were performed using the Tandetron accelerator at McMaster University. Eight NaI(Tl) detectors arranged in a 4π geometry were employed for delayed counting of the emitted 1.63 MeV gamma ray. The short 11 s half-life of 20 F presents a difficult and unique practical challenge in terms of patient irradiation and subsequent detection. We have employed two simultaneous timing methods to determine the fluorine sensitivity by eliminating the interference of the 1.64 MeV gamma ray from the 37 Cl(n,γ) 38 Cl reaction. The timing method consisted of three counting periods: an initial 30 s (sum of three 10 s periods) count period for F, followed by a 120 s decay period, and a subsequent 300 s count period to obtain information pertaining to Ca and Cl. The phantom minimum detectable limit (M DL ) determined by this method was 0.96 mg F/g Ca. The M DL was improved by dividing the initial timing period into three equal segments (10 s each) and combining the results using inverse variance weighting. This resulted in a phantom M DL of 0.66 mg F/g Ca. These detection limits are comparable to ex vivo results for various bones in the adult skeleton reported in the literature. Dosimetry was performed for these irradiation conditions. The equivalent dose for each phantom measurement was determined to be 30 mSv. The effective dose was however low, 35 µSv, which is

  9. METHODS USED FOR THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BONES AND JOINTS RECONSTRUCTION. NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL HUMAN JOINTS VIRTUAL SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Laurentiu Dragos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the problems, which appear in every human joint, it is very important to know the anatomy and morphology of the human bones and the way in which the components are working together to realize a normal functionality. For this purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high degree of difficulty. First, it was used a CT or MRI device to obtain the parallel sections to study each component of the bone. A 3D scanner can be used only for the outer geometry. In the second step the images were transferred to a 2D CAD software, like AutoCAD, where the outer and inner contours of the bone were approximate to polygonal lines composed by many segments. After this, the contours were transferred to a 3D CAD software, like SolidWorks, where, step by step, and section by section, was defined the virtual bone component. Additionally to the main shape can be attached other Loft, Round or Dome shapes. For some components, as vertebrae, mandible or skull bones, can be used a preliminary model obtained by parallel sections. Starting from this, the model can be defined using the main 3D curves and we can get the final virtual solid model. In some simulations, the soft components, as muscles or ligaments, were included in simulations using non-linear virtual springs. Also, sometimes were used implants or prosthetic elements. In the final of the paper, were extracted important conclusions.

  10. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields ...

  11. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  12. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion.

  13. Age-related changes in cutaneous sensation in the healthy human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation deteriorates with age. It is not known if this change is consistent over the entire hand or if sensation is affected by changes in skin mechanics. Cutaneous perceptual thresholds were tested at eight sites in the glabrous skin and two in the hairy skin of both hands in 70 subjects (20-88 years), five male and five female per decade, using calibrated von Frey filaments, two-point discrimination, and texture discrimination. Venous occlusion at the wrist (40 ± 10 mmHg) and moisturizer were used to alter skin mechanics. Cutaneous thresholds increased significantly with age (p sensation varied according to the site tested with smaller changes on the fingers compared to the palm. Two-point discrimination deteriorated with age (p = 0.046), but with no interaction between sex, handedness, or changes in skin mechanics. There were no significant differences for texture discrimination. Changes in skin mechanics improved cutaneous thresholds in the oldest males after moisturizing (p = 0.001) but not otherwise. These results emphasize the complex pattern of age-related deterioration in cutaneous sensation with differences between sexes, the hands, sites on the hand, and the mode of testing. As the index fingertip is not a sensitive indicator of sensory decline, the minimum assessment of age-related changes in cutaneous sensation should include both hands, and sites on the palm.

  14. Pleiotrophin commits human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells towards hypertrophy during chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderlique, Thibault; Henault, Emilie; Lebouvier, Angelique; Frescaline, Guilhem; Bierling, Phillipe; Rouard, Helene; Courty, José; Albanese, Patricia; Chevallier, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a growth factor present in the extracellular matrix of the growth plate during bone development and in the callus during bone healing. Bone healing is a complicated process that recapitulates endochondral bone development and involves many cell types. Among those cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are able to differentiate toward chondrogenic and osteoblastic lineages. We aimed to determine PTN effects on differentiation properties of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) under chondrogenic induction using histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PTN dramatically potentiated chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by a strong increase of collagen 2 protein, and cartilage-related gene expression. Moreover, PTN increased transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as MMP13, collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced calcification and the content of collagen 10 protein. These effects are dependent on PTN receptors signaling and PI3 K pathway activation. These data suggest a new role of PTN in bone regeneration as an inducer of hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSC.

  15. Pleiotrophin commits human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells towards hypertrophy during chondrogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Bouderlique

    Full Text Available Pleiotrophin (PTN is a growth factor present in the extracellular matrix of the growth plate during bone development and in the callus during bone healing. Bone healing is a complicated process that recapitulates endochondral bone development and involves many cell types. Among those cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are able to differentiate toward chondrogenic and osteoblastic lineages. We aimed to determine PTN effects on differentiation properties of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC under chondrogenic induction using histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PTN dramatically potentiated chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by a strong increase of collagen 2 protein, and cartilage-related gene expression. Moreover, PTN increased transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as MMP13, collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced calcification and the content of collagen 10 protein. These effects are dependent on PTN receptors signaling and PI3 K pathway activation. These data suggest a new role of PTN in bone regeneration as an inducer of hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSC.

  16. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V, chromium (Cr, and calcium (Ca and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C, cortical bone (CB, and spongy bone (SB samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i the amount of consumed beer and (ii seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone.

  17. Ultrasound arthroscopy of human knee cartilage and subchondral bone in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liukkonen, Jukka; Lehenkari, Petri; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Joukainen, Antti; Virén, Tuomas; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Arthroscopic ultrasound imaging enables quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. However, the potential of this technique for evaluation of subchondral bone has not been investigated in vivo. In this study, we address this issue in clinical arthroscopy of the human knee (n = 11) by determining quantitative ultrasound (9 MHz) reflection and backscattering parameters for cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, in each knee, seven anatomical sites were graded using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system based on (i) conventional arthroscopy and (ii) ultrasound images acquired in arthroscopy with a miniature transducer. Ultrasound enabled visualization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. ICRS grades based on ultrasound images were higher (p ultrasound-based ICRS grades were expected as ultrasound reveals additional information on, for example, the relative depth of the lesion. In line with previous literature, ultrasound reflection and scattering in cartilage varied significantly (p ultrasound parameters and structure or density of subchondral bone could be demonstrated. To conclude, arthroscopic ultrasound imaging had a significant effect on clinical grading of cartilage, and it was found to provide quantitative information on cartilage. The lack of correlation between the ultrasound parameters and bone properties may be related to lesser bone change or excessive attenuation in overlying cartilage and insufficient power of the applied miniature transducer. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  19. Selective inhibition of B lymphocytes in TBTC-treated human bone marrow long-term culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M.; Bowe, G.; Pieters, R.; Gribaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC) is well known for its immunotoxic effect, in particular towards immature thymocytes. TBTC is also known to induce adipocyte differentiation in primary human bone marrow cultures, which is reflected in the decrease in a number of adipocyte-derived cytokines, chemokines and

  20. Direct radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis of the Darra-i-Kur (Afghanistan) human temporal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douka, Katerina; Slon, Viviane; Stringer, Chris; Potts, Richard; Hübner, Alexander; Meyer, Matthias; Spoor, Fred; Pääbo, Svante; Higham, Tom

    2017-06-01

    The temporal bone discovered in the 1960s from the Darra-i-Kur cave in Afghanistan is often cited as one of the very few Pleistocene human fossils from Central Asia. Here we report the first direct radiocarbon date for the specimen and the genetic analyses of DNA extracted and sequenced from two areas of the bone. The new radiocarbon determination places the find to ∼4500 cal BP (∼2500 BCE) contradicting an assumed Palaeolithic age of ∼30,000 years, as originally suggested. The DNA retrieved from the specimen originates from a male individual who carried mitochondrial DNA of the modern human type. The petrous part yielded more endogenous ancient DNA molecules than the squamous part of the same bone. Molecular dating of the Darra-i-Kur mitochondrial DNA sequence corroborates the radiocarbon date and suggests that the specimen is younger than previously thought. Taken together, the results consolidate the fact that the human bone is not associated with the Pleistocene-age deposits of Darra-i-Kur; instead it is intrusive, possibly re-deposited from upper levels dating to much later periods (Neolithic). Despite its Holocene age, the Darra-i-Kur specimen is, so far, the first and only ancient human from Afghanistan whose DNA has been sequenced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Progesterone Promotes Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synthesize Fibronectin via ERK Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yong; Chen, Jing-Li; Huang, Shu; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan; Bi, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether the progesterone can promote fibronection (FN) synthesis by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to explore the potential underlying mechanism. The human bone marrow MSCs were cultured in a serum-free medium with progesterone for 72 hours, the MTT test was performed to observe the proliferation status and adhension ability of the treated cells. Western blot was used to detect the content of FN in MSDs with GAPDH as the internal reference, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, as well as the FN content in MSC treated by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2. The progesterone at a range of certain doses not effect on the proliferation of human bone marrow MSCs. Progesterone (25 µg/L) treatment enhanced the FN expression and adherent ability of marrow MSCs. Progesterone could induce prompt phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and its promoting effects on FN synthesis was reversed by PD98059. The progesterone can promote FN synthesis by human bone marrow MSCs via ERK 1/2 pathway, and it might be used to culture MSCs in serum-free medium.

  2. Strontium-90 content of human bones collected from 1962 to 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.

    1967-01-01

    The aim of this report is essentially to present results of 90 Sr determination made on human bones collected in the Paris region from 1962 to 1966. The results are classified according to the year and the age-group in, two tables and one figure which show the general evolution of the contamination during this period. (author) [fr

  3. The Human Figure Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele

    2003-01-01

    There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…

  4. Spontaneous gene transfection of human bone cells using 3D mineralized alginate-chitosan macrocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of nonviral gene therapy remains uncertain because of low transfection efficiencies and high toxicities compared with viral-based strategies. We describe a simple system for transient transfection of continuous human cell lines, with low toxicity, using mineral-coated chitosan and alginate capsules. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate transfection of Saos-2 and MG63 human osteosarcoma continuous cell lines with gfp, LacZ reporter genes, and a Sox-9 carrying plasmid, to illustrate expression of a functional gene with therapeutic relevance. We show that continuous cell lines transfect with significant efficiency of up to 65% possibly through the interplay between chitosan and DNA complexation and calcium/phosphate-induced translocation into cells entrapped within the 3D polysaccharide based environment, as evidenced by an absence of transfection in unmineralized and chitosan-free capsules. We demonstrated that our transfection system was equally effective at transfection of primary human bone marrow stromal cells. To illustrate, the Sox-9, DNA plasmid was spontaneously expressed in primary human bone marrow stromal cells at 7 days with up to 90% efficiency in two repeats. Mineralized polysaccharide macrocapsules are gene delivery vehicles with a number of biological and practical advantages. They are highly efficient at self-transfecting primary bone cells, with programmable spatial and temporal delivery prospects, premineralized bone-like environments, and have no cytotoxic effects, as compared with many other nonviral systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  6. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  7. [Comparison of fluoride concentrations in human, dog, fox and raccoon dog bones from northwestern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the XXth there has been a constant increase in fluoride (F-) emissions into the environment, mainly due to the development of industry, the fluoridation of drinking water, and the widespread use of toothpaste containing fluoride. All these factors have resulted in an intensive accumulation of F- in the bodies of vertebrates, mainly in their bones. It is therefore reasonable to estimate the F- concentration in humans and other long-lived mammals. Accordingly, ecotoxicologists worldwide have looked for mammalian species that may serve as good bioindicators of environmental fluoride pollution. In contrast to ungulates, long-lived domestic mammals and wild carnivores have rarely been used for this purpose (including the dog, fox and raccoon dog). The main aims of this study were to: 1) investigate F- concentrations in bones obtained from humans, dog, fox and raccoon dog from northwestern Poland, 2) perform intra- and inter-specific comparisons of F- concentrations in the studied mammalian bones against the background of environmental and living conditions, 3) examine the relationship between concentrations of F- in bones and the age or age category of the studied mammals. The study material comprised bones of the hip joint obtained from 36 patients who underwent hip replacement in Szczecin, 43 dogs from Szczecin veterinary clinics, 32 foxes and 18 raccoon dogs provided by hunters, with the whole test material consisting of 129 samples. The indications of F- (using potentiometry with Thermo Orion ion-selective electrodes) were performed in triplicate. The F- concentration was expressed on a dry weight basis. Interspecific analysis showed that the largest number of differences in the concentrations of F- were between the fox and raccoon, and then between the dog and fox, and then between the dog and the wild canids (foxes and raccoon dogs together). Close statistically significant differences were also found between the samples from humans and the

  8. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: osteogenesis in vivo as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yinze; Ma, Qingjun; Cui, Fuzhai; Zhong, Yanfeng

    2009-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, intrinsic deficiencies exist for the autologous transplantation strategy of constructing artificial bone with MSCs derived from bone marrow of patients. In this study, MSCs-like cells were isolated from human umbilical cords and were expanded in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that cells from the fourth passage were positive for CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD105 whereas they were negative for CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD117. Furthermore, these cells expressed HLA-A, B, C (MHC-I), but not HLA-DP, DQ, DR (MHC-II), or costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86. Following incubation in specific inductive media for 3 weeks, cultured cells were shown to possess potential to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic or chondrogenic lineages in vitro. The umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) were loaded with a biomimetic artificial bone scaffold material before being implanted subcutaneously in the back of Balb/c nude mice for four to twelve weeks. Our results revealed that UC-MSCs loaded with the scaffold displayed capacity of osteogenic differentiation leading to osteogenesis with human origin in vivo. As a readily available source of seed cells for bone tissue engineering, UC-MSCs should have broad application prospects.

  9. Severely impaired bone material quality in Chihuahua zebrafish resembles classical dominant human osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Imke A K; Schmidt, Felix N; Wölfel, Eva M; Plumeyer, Christine; Milovanovic, Petar; Gioia, Roberta; Tonelli, Francesca; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Jähn, Katharina; Besio, Roberta; Forlino, Antonella; Busse, Björn

    2018-04-17

    Excessive skeletal deformations and brittle fractures in the vast majority of patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are a result of substantially reduced bone quality. Since the mechanical competence of bone is dependent on the tissue characteristics at small length scales, it is of crucial importance to assess how osteogenesis imperfecta manifests at the micro- and nanoscale of bone. In this context, the Chihuahua (Chi/ +) zebrafish, carrying a heterozygous glycine substitution in the α1 chain of collagen type I, has recently been proposed as suitable animal model of classical dominant OI, showing skeletal deformities, altered mineralization patterns and a smaller body size. This study assessed the bone quality properties of Chi/+ at multiple length scales using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry, quantitative back-scattered electron imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoindentation and X-ray microscopy. At the skeletal level, Chi/+ display smaller body size, deformities and fracture calli in the ribs. Morphological changes at the whole bone level showed that the vertebrae in Chi/+ had a smaller size, smaller thickness and distorted shape. At the tissue level, Chi/+ displayed a higher degree of mineralization, lower collagen maturity, lower mineral maturity, altered osteoblast morphology, and lower osteocyte lacunar density compared to WT. The alterations in the cellular, compositional and structural properties of Chi/+ bones bear an explanation for the impaired local mechanical properties, which promote an increase in overall bone fragility in Chi/ +. The quantitative assessment of bone quality in Chi/+ thus further validates this mutant as an important model reflecting osseous characteristics associated with human classical dominant osteogenesis imperfecta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: uri@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: clinicaguimaraes@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2015-07-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B.; Guimaraes, Rodrigo P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  12. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  13. Establishment of one-axis vibration test system for measurement of biodynamic response of human hand-arm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Nobuyuki; Hosoya, Naoki; Maeda, Setsuo

    2008-12-01

    Prolonged exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) due to use of hand-held power tools leads to an increased occurrence of symptoms of disorders in the vascular, neurological, and osteo-articular systems of the upper limbs called hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Biodynamic responses of the hand-arm system to vibration can be suggestive parameters that give us better assessment of exposure to HAV and fundamental data for design of low-vibration-exposure power tools. Recently, a single axis hand-arm vibration system has been installed in the Japan National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The aims of this study were to obtain the fundamental dynamic characteristics of an instrumented handle and to validate the performance and measurement accuracy of the system applied to dynamic response measurement. A pseudo-random vibration signal with a frequency range of 5-1,250 Hz and a power spectrum density of 1.0 (m/s2)2/Hz was used in this study. First the dynamic response of the instrumented handle without any weight was measured. After this measurement, the dynamic response measurement of the handle with weights mounted on the handle was performed. The apparent mass of a weight itself was obtained by using the mass cancellation method. The mass of the measuring cap on the instrumented handle was well compensated by using the mass cancellation method. Based on the 10% error tolerance, this handle can reliably measure the dynamic response represented by an apparent mass with a minimum weight of 2.0 g in a frequency range of 10.0 to 1,000 Hz. A marked increase in the AM magnitude of the weights of 15 g and 20 g in frequency ranges greater than 800 Hz is attributed not to the fundamental resonance frequency of the handle with weights, but to the fixation of the weight to the measuring cap. In this aspect, the peak of the AM magnitude can be reduced and hence should not be an obstacle to the biodynamic response measurement of the human hand-arm system. On the

  14. Automated processing of human bone marrow grafts for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, J; Zeiler, T; Zimmermanm, R; Weisbach, V; Mitschulat, H; Schmid, H; Beyer, J; Siegert, W; Eckstein, R

    1993-01-01

    Prior to purging or cryopreservation, we concentrated 21 bone marrow (BM) harvests using a modification of the 'grancollect-protocol' of the Fresenius AS 104 cell separator with the P1-Y set. Within 40-70 min, the initial marrow volume of 1,265 ml (+/- 537 ml) was processed two to three times. A mean of 47% (+/- 21%) of the initial mononuclear cells was recovered in a mean volume of 128 ml (+36 ml). The recovery of clonogenic cells, measured by CFU-GM assays, was 68% (+/- 47%). Red blood cells in the BM concentrates were reduced to 7% (+/- 4%) of the initial number. The procedure was efficient and yielded a BM cell fraction suitable for purging, cryopreservation and transplantation. At this time, 10 of the 21 patients whose BM was processed using this technique have been transplanted. Seven of these 10 patients have been grafted using the BM alone. Three of the 10 patients showed reduced cell viability and colony growth in the thawed BM samples, and therefore obtained BM and peripheral blood-derived stem cells. All transplanted patients showed an evaluable engraftment, achieving 1,000 granulocytes per microliter of peripheral blood in a mean of 18 days.

  15. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  16. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  17. The effects of smoke hand grenades on human lung cells and bacteria for toxicity screening purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Langenberg, J.P.; Tuinman, I.L.; Alblas, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to signaling smoke is almost impossible to avoid, and may have adverse health effects. Hand grenades with signaling smoke are used during training and/or military operations. To obtain the most realistic results when estimating the toxicity of the smoke, not only the smoke–forming

  18. Manual activity shapes structure and function in contralateral human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granert, Oliver; Peller, Martin; Gaser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    which was designed to improve handwriting-associated dystonia. Initially the dystonic hand was immobilized for 4 weeks with the intention to reverse faulty plasticity. After immobilization, patients accomplished a motor re-training for 8 weeks. T1-weighted MRIs of the whole brain and single-pulse TMS...

  19. Robotic hand project

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçizmeli, Cengiz; Çakır, Gökçe; Tükel, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechatronic based robotic hand is controlled by the position data taken from the glove which has flex sensors mounted to capture finger bending of the human hand. The angular movement of human hand’s fingers are perceived and processed by a microcontroller, and the robotic hand is controlled by actuating servo motors. It has seen that robotic hand can simulate the movement of the human hand that put on the glove, during tests have done. This robotic hand can be used not only...

  20. Warm hands, cold heart: progressive whole-body cooling increases warm thermosensitivity of human hands and feet in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Morris, Nathan B; Jay, Ollie

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Investigations on inhibitory/facilitatory modulation of vision, touch and pain show that conditioning stimuli outside the receptive field of testing stimuli modulate the central processing of visual, touch and painful stimuli. We asked whether contextual modulation also exists in human temperature integration. What is the main finding and its importance? Progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (the conditioning stimulus) significantly increased local thermosensitivity to skin warming but not cooling (the testing stimuli) in a dose-dependent fashion. In resembling the central mechanisms underlying endogenous analgesia, our findings point to the existence of an endogenous thermosensory system in humans that could modulate local skin thermal sensitivity to facilitate thermal behaviour. Although inhibitory/facilitatory central modulation of vision and pain has been investigated, contextual modulation of skin temperature integration has not been explored. Hence, we tested whether progressive decreases in whole-body mean skin temperature (T sk ; a large conditioning stimulus) alter the magnitude estimation of local warming and cooling stimuli applied to hairy and glabrous skin. On four separate occasions, eight men (27 ± 5 years old) underwent a 30 min whole-body cooling protocol (water-perfused suit; temperature, 5°C), during which a quantitative thermosensory test, consisting of reporting the perceived magnitude of warming and cooling stimuli (±8°C from 30°C baseline) applied to the hand (palm/dorsum) and foot (sole/dorsum), was performed before cooling and every 10 min thereafter. The cooling protocol resulted in large progressive reductions in T sk [10 min, -3.36°C (95% confidence interval -2.62 to -4.10); 20 min, -5.21°C (-4.47 to -5.95); and 30 min, -6.32°C (-5.58 to -7.05); P fashion. In highlighting a novel feature of human temperature integration, these findings point to the existence

  1. [Synthetic human calcitonin in Paget's disease of bone and osteoporosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A

    1981-01-30

    Synthetic human calcitonin was used in the treatment of 26 patients over a period of 1-14 months. 17 patients had Paget's disease of the bone, 6 postmenopausal osteoporosis and 3 Sudeck's syndrome. Subjective improvement (reduction of pain, improvement of mobility) was found in 15 patients with Paget's disease, in 4 females with postmenopausal osteoporosis and in all 3 patients with Sudeck's syndrome. Radiographic improvement of bone changes developed only very slowly. These results were confirmed by diminution of the exchangeable calcium pool indicating reduction of rates of osseous degradation. Calcitonin tolerance was acceptable. Transitory nausea and occasional vomiting occurred in 3 patients.

  2. Fluorine determination in human and animal bones by particle-induced gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, Chaturvedula S.; Hoffmann, Peter; Ortner, Hugo M.; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Blondiaux, Gilbert; Tessier, Yves; Petri, Hermann; Aras, Namik K.; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine was determined in the iliac crest bones of patients and in ribs collected from postmortem investigations by particle-induced gamma-ray emission based on the 19 F(p,pγ) 19 F reaction, using 20/2.5 MeV protons. The results indicate that for 68% of the human samples the F concentration is in the range 500-1999 μg g -1 . For comparison purposes fluorine was also determined in some animal bones; in some animal tissues lateral profiles of fluorine were measured. (abstract)

  3. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  4. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water on human chromosomes of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Sawada, Shozo; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    One of the major toxic effluent from nuclear power industries is tritiated water (HTO), which is released into the environment in large quantities. Low dose radiation effects and dose rate effects of HTO on human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells are not well studied. The present study was performed to investigate dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies in the human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, by HTO in-vitro exposure at low dose ranges of 0.1 to 1 Gy. Go lymphocytes and bone marrow cells were incubated for 10 - 150 minutes with HTO at 2 cGy/min. Also 60 Co γ and 137 Cs γ rays were used as controls. Dicentric chromosomes were scored in 1,000 to 2,000 cells of each experimental series. The RBE values of HTO at low dose range for the induction of dicentric chromosomes and chromatid type aberrations were 2.7 in lymphocytes and approximately 3.8 in bone marrow cells with respect to 60 Co γ ray, respectively. Also lymphocytes were chronically exposed to HTO for 24 to 72 hrs at lower dose rates (0.2 and 0.05 cGy/min). The yields of dicentrics and rings decreased with the reduction in the dose rate of HTO, presenting a clear dose rate effects of HTO. These results provide an useful information for the assessment for health risk in humans exposed to low concentration level to HTO. (author)

  5. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.

  6. Quantifying temporal bone morphology of great apes and humans: an approach using geometric morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles A; Lynch, John M; Kimbel, William H

    2002-01-01

    The hominid temporal bone offers a complex array of morphology that is linked to several different functional systems. Its frequent preservation in the fossil record gives the temporal bone added significance in the study of human evolution, but its morphology has proven difficult to quantify. In this study we use techniques of 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify differences among humans and great apes and discuss the results in a phylogenetic context. Twenty-three landmarks on the ectocranial surface of the temporal bone provide a high level of anatomical detail. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to register (adjust for position, orientation and scale) landmark data from 405 adults representing Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. Principal components analysis of residuals from the GPA shows that the major source of variation is between humans and apes. Human characteristics such as a coronally orientated petrous axis, a deep mandibular fossa, a projecting mastoid process, and reduced lateral extension of the tympanic element strongly impact the analysis. In phenetic cluster analyses, gorillas and orangutans group together with respect to chimpanzees, and all apes group together with respect to humans. Thus, the analysis contradicts depictions of African apes as a single morphotype. Gorillas and orangutans lack the extensive preglenoid surface of chimpanzees, and their mastoid processes are less medially inflected. These and other characters shared by gorillas and orangutans are probably primitive for the African hominid clade. PMID:12489757

  7. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  8. Physico chemical study of the uptake of some radionuclides by the human bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human bone femurs were freed from flesh and marrow, crushed and ground to a grain size below 50 in diameter. Fat was extracted from one third of the powder (FFB). protein was extracted from the second third (PFB) and the third portion was without any treatment as raw bone powder (RB). Physical and chemical properties of bone powder such as density, chemical composition, calcium content, and nitrogen content were investigated. Experimental procedures followed two techniques: - Schweitzer and Nehls technique (164) where a large reaction vessel was used. - Harrison et al technique (90) where the batch system was used. Counting systems applied were : beta counting for 89 Sr and gamma counting for 60 Co and 6 5 Zn

  9. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  10. Interleukin-1β modulates endochondral ossification by human adult bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mumme

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines present in the milieu of the fracture site are important modulators of bone healing. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β on the main events of endochondral bone formation by human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC, namely cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation/remodelling of the resulting hypertrophic cartilage. Low doses of IL-1β (50 pg/mL enhanced colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-f and -osteoblastic (CFU-o number (up to 1.5-fold and size (1.2-fold in the absence of further supplements and glycosaminoglycan accumulation (1.4-fold upon BM-MSC chondrogenic induction. In osteogenically cultured BM-MSC, IL-1β enhanced calcium deposition (62.2-fold and BMP-2 mRNA expression by differential activation of NF-κB and ERK signalling. IL-1β-treatment of BM-MSC generated cartilage resulted in higher production of MMP-13 (14.0-fold in vitro, mirrored by an increased accumulation of the cryptic cleaved fragment of aggrecan, and more efficient cartilage remodelling/resorption after 5 weeks in vivo (i.e., more TRAP positive cells and bone marrow, less cartilaginous areas, resulting in the formation of mature bone and bone marrow after 12 weeks. In conclusion, IL-1β finely modulates early and late events of the endochondral bone formation by BM-MSC. Controlling the inflammatory environment could enhance the success of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of fractures by resident MSC and as well as improve the engineering of implantable tissues.

  11. Effects of bone damage on creep behaviours of human vertebral trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Szarko, Matthew; Wang, Yue; Luo, Jin

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of patients suffering with vertebral fractures can develop progressive spinal deformities over time. The mechanism underlying such clinical observation, however, remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that creep deformation of the vertebral trabeculae may play a role. Using the acoustic emission (AE) technique, this study investigated effects of bone damage (modulus reduction) on creep behaviours of vertebral trabecular bone. Thirty-seven human vertebral trabeculae samples were randomly assigned into five groups (A to E). Bones underwent mechanical tests using similar experimental protocols but varied degree of bone damage was induced. Samples first underwent creep test (static compressive stress of 0.4MPa) for 30min, and then were loaded in compression to a specified strain level (0.4%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 4% for group A to E, respectively) to induce different degrees of bone damage (0.4%, no damage control; 1.0%, yield strain; 1.5%, beyond yield strain, 2.5% and 4%, post-ultimate strains). Samples were creep loaded (0.4MPa) again for 30min. AE techniques were used to monitor bone damage. Bone damage increased significantly from group A to E (P30% of modulus reduction in group D and E. Before compressive loading, creep deformation was not different among the five groups and AE hits in creep test were rare. After compressive loading, creep deformation was significantly greater in group D and E than those in other groups (Pcreep test were significantly greater in group D and E than in group A, B, and C (Pcreep deformation may occur even when the vertebra was under physiological loads. The boosted creep deformation observed may be attributed to newly created trabecular microfractures. Findings provide a possible explanation as to why some vertebral fracture patients develop progressive spinal deformity over time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Humans can integrate force feedback to toes in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Alessandro; Edin, Benoni B; Vecchi, Fabrizio; Carrozza, Maria C; Johansson, Roland S

    2009-12-01

    Tactile sensory feedback is essential for dexterous object manipulation. Users of hand myoelectric prostheses without tactile feedback must depend essentially on vision to control their device. Indeed, improved tactile feedback is one of their main priorities. Previous research has provided evidence that conveying tactile feedback can improve prostheses control, although additional effort is required to solve problems related to pattern recognition learning, unpleasant sensations, sensory adaptation, and low spatiotemporal resolution. Still, these studies have mainly focused on providing stimulation to hairy skin regions close to the amputation site, i.e., usually to the upper arm. Here, we explored the possibility to provide tactile feedback to the glabrous skin of toes, which have mechanical and neurophysiological properties similar to the fingertips. We explored this paradigm in a grasp-and-lift task, in which healthy participants controlled two opposing digits of a robotic hand by changing the spacing of their index finger and thumb. The normal forces applied by the robotic fingertips to a test object were fed back to the right big and second toe. We show that within a few lifting trials, all the participants incorporated the force feedback received by the foot in their sensorimotor control of the robotic hand.

  13. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roforth, Matthew M., E-mail: roforth.matthew@mayo.edu; Khosla, Sundeep, E-mail: khosla.sundeep@mayo.edu; Monroe, David G., E-mail: monroe.david@mayo.edu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  14. Free Radicals Formation of Irradiated Lyophilized Can-Cellous Human and Bovine Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Basril; Sudiro, Sutjipto; Hilmy, Nazly

    2000-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of lyophilized human and bovine bone as allograft and xenograft have been produced and used in orthopaedic practice in Indonesia routinely. It is well known from radio biologic studies that one of the most pronounce effects of ionizing radiation on biologic species produced the free radicals that influence the physico-chemical as well as the mechanical properties of irradiated bone. The aim of our study is to investigate the free radicals formation of irradiated lyophilized cancellous triple A bone (Autolyzed Antigen-Extracted Allograft) produced by Batan Research Tissue Bank in Jakarta. The cancellous triple A were prepared according to AATB (American Association of Tissue Bank) method. Gamma Irradiations was done at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy with a dose rate of 7,5 kGy/h at room temperature (30 o C± 2 o C). Measurements of free radicals was done at 24 o C ±1 o C within 30 minutes after irradiational and measurement were continued up to 9 months of storage using a JES-REIX ESR Spectrophotometer (JEOL) with Mn exp. ++ standard. Parameters measured, were the effects of mechanical grinding, water immersion and irradiation dose on free radicals formation in the bone. Results show that the signal area of ESR spectra from irradiated bovine bone of 30 kGy was higher than those of human bone I.e. 1,4 x 10 exp. 7 dan 6,4 x 10 exp. 6 Au (arbitrary unit)/g samples respectively. The signal of ESR spectra increased linearly with increasing dose in the range of 10-30 kGy and it will reduce about 30% caused by water immersion. The ESR signal reduced sharply after 2 days and gradually decreased up to 14 days and then became constant up to 9 months of storage at room temperature. A certain method of crushing can produce free radicals. Key Words: free radical, irradiation, allograft, xenograft, mechanical-grinding

  15. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C. E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C. A.

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in "El Cóporo", an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone's black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  16. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-10-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the (19)F(n,γ)(20)F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10(8) n s(-1) and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure.

  17. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the "1"9F(n,γ)"2"0F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10"8 n s"−"1 and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure. (paper)

  18. Low radiation dose impact on human bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    Immediately after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster it was assumed that osteoporosis would develop in a few young adult males (the so-called 'cleaners') who took part in the cleanup operations. The following factors were taken into consideration: Low external irradiation of whole body including skeleton; Non-uniform irradiation of thyroid and parathyroid glands by iodine radionuclides, as well as the different radiosensitivity of these organs (imbalance of parathormone and calcitonine); Intoxication from lead dropped from helicopters into the destroyed reactor as well as cadmium, a constituent of the nuclear reactor construction (a suppressive action of Pb and Cd on normal growth and the functioning of osteoblasts); Chronic stress arising in the cleaners following a huge amount of negative information from the mass media about the unhealthy consequences of exposure (imbalance of Ca-regulating hormones, including an excess of glucocorticoids). Despite substantiated assumption, all the efforts of national and international programs during the after-disaster period were mostly aimed at early diagnoses of thyroid and blood diseases. No attention was paid to osteoporosis problems of the cleaners. Only since 1997, the DXA method (Bone Densitometer LUNAR DPX-L) has been used to determine spinal and femoral BMD. To date, 162 men aged 30 to 50 have been examined, that is, those who were 18 to 35 years old during cleanup operations. In addition, the total body composition (tissue, fat, lean, BMD, BMC) as well as height and body mass was determined by DXA in every subject. A control group consisted of 188 randomly selected healthy men of the same age. Using the T score and the WHO recommendation changes in either spinal or femoral BMD that could be classified as osteopenia (77 cleaners, 47.5 %) and osteoporosis (9 cleaners, 5.6 %) were found in 86 of 162 cleaners. No great changes in height and body composition were found in cleaners. The incidence of osteopenia and

  19. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on muscle and bone research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas; Van Loon, Jack J W A; Bloomfield, Susan; Vico, Laurence; Chopard, Angele; Rittweger, Joern; Kyparos, Antonios; Blottner, Dieter; Vuori, Ilkka; Gerzer, Rupert; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit. Analog environments, such as bed rest and/or isolation environments, may be employed in conjunction with large sample sizes to understand sex differences in countermeasure effectiveness, as well as interaction of exercise with pharmacologic, nutritional, immune system, sleep and psychological countermeasures. Studies of musculoskeletal biomechanics, involving both human subject and computer simulation studies, are essential to developing strategies to avoid bone fractures or other injuries to connective tissue during exercise and extravehicular activities. Animal models may be employed to understand effects of the space environment that cannot be modeled using human analog studies. These include studies of radiation effects on bone and muscle, unraveling the effects of genetics on bone and muscle loss, and characterizing the process of fracture healing in the mechanically unloaded and immuno-compromised spaceflight environment. In addition to setting the stage for evidence-based management of musculoskeletal health in long-duration space missions, the body of knowledge acquired in the process of addressing this array of scientific problems will lend insight into the understanding of terrestrial health conditions such as age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  20. Insights into the effects of tensile and compressive loadings on human femur bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaldar, Raviraj; Pilli, S C; Putti, B B

    2014-01-01

    Fragile fractures are most likely manifestations of fatigue damage that develop under repetitive loading conditions. Numerous microcracks disperse throughout the bone with the tensile and compressive loads. In this study, tensile and compressive load tests are performed on specimens of both the genders within 19 to 83 years of age and the failure strength is estimated. Fifty five human femur cortical samples are tested. They are divided into various age groups ranging from 19-83 years. Mechanical tests are performed on an Instron 3366 universal testing machine, according to American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) standards. The results show that stress induced in the bone tissue depends on age and gender. It is observed that both tensile and compression strengths reduces as age advances. Compressive strength is more than tensile strength in both the genders. The compression and tensile strength of human femur cortical bone is estimated for both male and female subjecting in the age group of 19-83 years. The fracture toughness increases till 35 years in male and 30 years in female and reduces there after. Mechanical properties of bone are age and gender dependent.

  1. Acetabular reconstruction with human and bovine freeze-dried bone grafts and a reinforcement device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rosito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is a cohort trial (1997-2005 of 49 patients submitted to an acetabular component revision of a total hip arthroplasty, using impacted human and bovine freeze-dried cancellous bone grafts (H&FDBG and a reinforcement device. OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical/radiographic graft incorporation capability between cancellous bone grafts. PATIENTS/METHODS: There were two groups: I (n=26 receiving human grafts and II (n=25 receiving bovine grafts. The average follow-up times were 55 and 49 months, respectively. Clinical analysis was based on the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, and the radiographic analysis involved an established score based on Conn's et al. criteria for radiographic bone incorporation. RESULTS: No clinical/radiographic differences were found between the groups and both showed an overall rate of 88.5% and 76% of graft incorporation (p=0.424. CONCLUSION: The results presented here are comparable to those in the literature with the use of deep-FG. Therefore, cancellous bone grafts can be safely and adequately used in acetabular component revision in total hip arthroplasty.

  2. Determination of calcium in foot, hand and vertebrae of man by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajchik, V.E.; Kondrashev, A.E.; Dubrovin, A.P.; Korelo, A.M.; Morukov, B.V.; Orlov, O.I.

    1990-01-01

    Methods and devices for in vivo neutron activation determination of calcium content in human foot, hand and vertebrae were developed. It is ascertained that calcium content in skeleton is subjected to seasonal cyclicity. Bones of foot have the minimum content of the element in winter-spring period and the maximum one in summer-autumn period. For vertebrae and hand the inverse dependence is characteristic. Average level of seasonal variations in calcium content in the bones of hand and vertebrae is 10-11%, that of foot - 18-19%. Amplitudes of seasonal variations in the content of calcium in vertebrae, hand and foot are interrelated. 5 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Early and late radiation response of human skin following chronic exposure of the hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, U.; Arndt, D.; Thormann, T.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical examinations on 45 radiation workers with chronical low-level exposures to their hands revealed that accumulated doses in the range of 15 to 30 Sv (1500 to 3000 rem) may already produce macroscopically unconspicuous early alterations of the vessel system within the corium as well as epidermal hyperplasia. Therefore, the annual permissible dose equivalent of 0.75 Sv (75 rem) recommended by ICRP for the skin of the extremities appears unjustifiably high and should be reduced to 0.30 Sv (30 rem), the limit valid for the remaining areas of skin. (author)

  4. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Human histologic evaluation of anorganic bovine bone mineral combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB in maxillary sinus augmentation: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Garber, David; Hanratty, James J; McAllister, Bradley S; Nevins, Marc L; Salama, Maurice; Schupbach, Peter; Wallace, Steven; Bernstein, Simon M; Kim, David M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to examine the potential for improved bone regenerative outcomes in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures when recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (0.3 mg/mL) is combined with particulate anorganic bovine bone mineral. The surgical outcomes in all treated sites were uneventful at 6 to 8 months, with sufficient regenerated bone present to allow successful placement of maxillary posterior implants. Large areas of dense, well-formed lamellar bone were seen throughout the intact core specimens in more than half of the grafted sites. Abundant numbers of osteoblasts were noted in concert with significant osteoid in all sites, indicating ongoing osteogenesis. A number of cores demonstrated efficient replacement of the normally slowly resorbing anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix particles with newly formed bone when the matrix was saturated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Plasma Cells in Normal Human Bone Marrow by High-Resolution Flow Cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Loken, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  7. Comparison of naturally occurring and ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in humans and dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, F.; Herten, M. van; Sager, M.; Bieling, K.; Sculean, A.; Becker, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare naturally occuring and ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in humans and dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four partially and fully edentulous patients undergoing peri-implant bone augmentation procedures due to

  8. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes.

  9. The Plastic Nature of the Human Bone-Periodontal Ligament-Tooth Fibrous Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sunita P.; Kurylo, Michael P.; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hurng, Jonathan; Herber, Ralf-Peter; Ryder, Mark I.; Altoe, Virginia; Aloni, Shaul; Feng, Jian Q. (Jerry); Webb, Samuel; Marshall, Grayson W.; Curtis, Donald; Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates bony protrusions within a narrowed periodontal ligament space (PDL-space) of a human bone-PDL-tooth fibrous joint by mapping structural, biochemical, and mechanical heterogeneity. Higher resolution structural characterization was achieved via complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano transmission X-ray microscopy (nano-TXM), and micro tomography (Micro XCT™). Structural heterogeneity was correlated to biochemical and elemental composition, illustrated via histochemistry and microprobe X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF), and mechanical heterogeneity evaluated by AFM-based nanoindentation. Results demonstrated that the narrowed PDL-space was due to invasion of bundle bone (BB) into PDL-space. Protruded BB had a wider range with higher elastic modulus values (2-8 GPa) compared to lamellar bone (0.8-6 GPa), and increased quantities of Ca, P and Zn as revealed by μ-XRF. Interestingly, the hygroscopic 10-30 μm interface between protruded BB and lamellar bone exhibited higher X-ray attenuation similar to cement lines and lamellae within bone. Localization of the small leucine rich proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) responsible for mineralization was observed at the PDL-bone interface and around the osteocyte lacunae. Based on these results, it can be argued that the LB-BB interface was the original site of PDL attachment, and that the genesis of protruded BB identified as protrusions occurred as a result of shift in strain. We emphasize the importance of bony protrusions within the context of organ function and that additional study is warranted. PMID:24063947

  10. Effect of polygonimitin C on bone formation and resorption in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of polygonimitin C (PC) on bone formation and resorption in human osteoblast-like MG63 cells. Methods: MG63 cells were treated with PC at doses of 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/mL for 48 h, with an untreated group as control. The effect of PC on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MG63 cells ...

  11. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Fibrin in Otitis Media: Analysis of Human and Chinchilla Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachern, Patricia A; Kwon, Geeyoun; Briles, David E; Ferrieri, Patricia; Juhn, Steven; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Paparella, Michael M; Tsuprun, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial resistance in acute otitis can result in bacterial persistence and biofilm formation, triggering chronic and recurrent infections. To investigate the middle ear inflammatory response to bacterial infection in human and chinchilla temporal bones. Six chinchillas underwent intrabullar inoculations with 0.5 mL of 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 2. Two days later, we counted bacteria in middle ear effusions postmortem. One ear from each chinchilla was processed in paraffin and sectioned at 5 µm. The opposite ear was embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned at a thickness of 1 µm, and stained with toluidine blue. In addition, we examined human temporal bones from 2 deceased donors with clinical histories of otitis media (1 with acute onset otitis media, 1 with recurrent infection). Temporal bones had been previously removed at autopsy, processed, embedded in celloidin, and cut at a thickness of 20 µm. Sections of temporal bones from both chinchillas and humans were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunolabeled with antifibrin and antihistone H4 antibodies. Histopatological and imminohistochemical changes owing to otitis media. Bacterial counts in chinchilla middle ear effusions 2 days after inoculation were approximately 2 logs above initial inoculum counts. Both human and chinchilla middle ear effusions contained bacteria embedded in a fibrous matrix. Some fibers in the matrix showed positive staining with antifibrin antibody, others with antihistone H4 antibody. In acute and recurrent otitis media, fibrin and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the host inflammatory response to bacterial infection. In the early stages of otitis media the host defense system uses fibrin to entrap bacteria, and NETs function to eliminate bacteria. In chronic otitis media, fibrin and NETs appear to persist.

  12. Morphological studies at subchondral bone structures in human early arthrosis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometric studies using an image analysis system were performed simultaneously on hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage and subchondral cancellous bone of human tibial heads for detailed information about the pathogenesis of arthrosis. Joint structures need to be fully detected in three dimensions since measurement values are more affected by topographical aspects than by either age, or sex, or arthrosin stage. Mechanical factors were found to affect essentially the initiation and progression of arthrosis. Results are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [de

  13. Effect of low oxygen tension on the biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Seong; Ko, Young Jong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong-Ik; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under ambient conditions does not replicate the low oxygen environment of normal physiological or pathological states and can result in cellular impairment during culture. To overcome these limitations, we explored the effect of hypoxia (1 % O2) on the biological characteristics of MSCs over the course of different culture periods. The following biological characteristics were examined in human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxia for 8 week...

  14. Micro/Nano Structural Tantalum Coating for Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Ding; Youtao Xie; Kai Li; Liping Huang; Xuebin Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Recently, tantalum has been attracting much attention for its anticorrosion resistance and biocompatibility, and it has been widely used in surface modification for implant applications. To improve its osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs), a micro/nano structure has been fabricated on the tantalum coating surface through the combination of anodic oxidation and plasma spraying method. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the modified coating were co...

  15. [Bacteriological study of oral cavity of people of Mexican origin to determine etiology agents of human infections in hand bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañedo-Guzmán, Cristhyan Baruch; Espinosa-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Guzmán-Murillo, María Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Hand infections secondary to human bites often leave serious consequences on the functioning of the hand. Such infections are caused by different bacteria. Most bacteriological studies have been made to people of Anglo-Saxon origin or descent, and based on these findings; provide treatment to patients of different origins which may not always be as effective. Descriptive, internal stratified 17 patients were isolated samples of oral cavity and dental plaque bacterial species to identify and define the possible treatment according to the species identified. Microorganisms were isolated Gram (+) and Gram (-) belonging to the normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque in all the cases studied, presenting a variable number of microorganisms according to age but not by sex. The group of Gram-positive bacteria isolated showed sensitivity to: erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. In the group of Gram negative: kanamycin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, E. Corrodens sensitive to the group of quinolones as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin as well as ceftriaxone and cefoperazone sulbactam. The bacterial species that are commonly found in normal flora of the oral cavity and dental plaque may be potential pathogens in a hand injury where to find the appropriate conditions for their development.

  16. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Instrumental activation and X-ray fluorescent analysis of human bone in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.Y.

    1994-01-01

    A complex of methods for the in-vitro and in-vivo bone analysis was developed. Among the in-vitro methods are: INAA with reactor and 14 MeV neutrons, IGAA with 25 MeV linear accelerator; XRF with 55 Fe, 109 Cd, 241 Am radionuclide sources. Twenty-five elements could be analyzed by it: N, F, Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tb, Hg, and Pb. Among the in-vivo methods are: INAA of band, foot and spine Ca and limb bone tumour Ca, Na and Cl with 238 Pu-Be neutron sources; IGAA of N and P in limb bone tumours; XRF of tooth Ca, Zn, Sr and Pb with 109 Cs radionuclide sources. The methods developed were used both in clinical and experimental medicine for studying the healthy human and animal bone with different diseases and environmental influence. (author) 28 refs.; 7 tabs

  18. Comparative kinetic analysis of89 Sr,60 Co and65 Zn Uptake by human bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fatah, A.T.A.; Essa, M.W.A.; Mohamed, S.A.; Molokhia, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Human bone powder samples were prepared from recent femurs. The Bone particles range between 30 and 40 MU in diameter. One portion of this powder was prepared fat-free (FFB), the second portion as protein-free (PFB) and the last portion was left as raw bone powder-(RB). The sequence of uptake of 89 Sr by these types of bone powder is : FFB > RB > PFB, while that of 60 Co and 65 Zn is: PFB > FFB > RB. Kinetic analysis of the uptake curves of the 3 isotopes indicated that these processes proceed in 3 distinct steps; very fast initial, moderate intermediate and slow last step. The obtained rates of uptake indicated that : (1) the uptake by PEB is faster in its third step than the other types, (2) the most predominant step in case of 89 Sr and 60 Co is the third step (ion exchange step) while in case of 65 Zn it is the first step (physical adsorption), (3) defatenisation or deproteinisation, in general, inhances the uptake process

  19. Bone tissue engineering with human mesenchymal stem cell sheets constructed using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Ito, Akira; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2007-08-01

    An in vitro reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues without the use of scaffolds may be an alternative strategy for tissue engineering. We have developed a novel tissue engineering strategy, termed magnetic force-based tissue engineering (Mag-TE), in which magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) with a positive charge at the liposomal surface, and magnetic force were used to construct 3D tissue without scaffolds. In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) magnetically labeled with MCLs were seeded onto an ultra-low attachment culture surface, and a magnet (4000 G) was placed on the reverse side. The MSCs formed multilayered sheet-like structures after a 24-h culture period. MSCs in the sheets constructed by Mag-TE maintained an in vitro ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, or chondrocytes after a 21-day culture period using each induction medium. Using an electromagnet, MSC sheets constructed by Mag-TE were harvested and transplanted into the bone defect in the crania of nude rats. Histological observation revealed that new bone surrounded by osteoblast-like cells was formed in the defect area 14 days after transplantation with MSC sheets, whereas no bone formation was observed in control rats without the transplant. These results indicated that Mag-TE could be used for the transplantation of MSC sheets using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force, providing novel methodology for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14 C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14 C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment

  1. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E., E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Chavez, E. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A. [Centro INAH Zacatecas, Miguel Auza No. 205, Col. Centro, Zacatecas/Zacatecas CP 98000 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: {sup 14}C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The {sup 14}C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  2. Changes of the proliferation kinetics of human bone marrow in vivo through hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, E.

    1982-01-01

    A 10-hour oral continuous infusion with hydroxyurea (HU) at a non-toxic concentration was performed in 20 malignoma patients with undisturbed bone marrow. Bone marrow taken before, during and after HU-administration was examined for 3H-TdR incorporation by means of autoradiography and liquid scintimetry, for cell phase distribution by means of flow cytophotometry, morphologically and by means of CFUc. 3H-TdR incorporation into bone marrow cells dropped to 16% of the initial value under HU and rose to 156% 10 h after HU-effect terminated. Cytophotometry did not furnish any proof of a decrease of S-phase cells or increase of cells in G 1 -to-S-transition during HU. S-cells rise to 129% of the initial value 10 h after having fallen below minimum inhibition concentration. Under HU, there is an equal number of cells in S which incorporate much less 3H-thymidine; after HU more S-cells incorporate more 3H-thymidine than before HU. During HU action, DNA synthesis activity is reduced to 17% and reaches the initial value with 105% afterwards. In human bone marrow, hydroxyurea in non-toxic concentration causes a temporary DNA synthesis inhibition in terms of activity reduction and partial arrest in S. A stop-and-go of the cell cycle effected by HU does not occur; the effect is rather a slow-down of DNA synthesis. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S S; Mohamad, M; Syazarina, S O; Nafisah, W Y

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain

  4. Hand grips strength effect on motor function in human brain using fMRI: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S. S.; Mohamad, M.; Syazarina, S. O.; Nafisah, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods of motor tasks for fMRI scanning have been evolving from simple to more complex tasks. Motor tasks on upper extremity were applied in order to excite the increscent of motor activation on contralesional and ipsilateral hemispheres in brain. The main objective of this study is to study the different conditions for motor tasks on upper extremity that affected the brain activation. Ten healthy right handed with normal vision (3 male and 7 female, age range=20-30 years, mean=24.6 years, SD=2.21) participated in this study. Prior to the scanning, participants were trained on hand grip tasks using rubber ball and pressure gauge tool outside the scanner. During fMRI session, a block design with 30-s task blocks and alternating 30-s rest periods was employed while participants viewed a computer screen via a back projection-mirror system and instructed to follow the instruction by gripping their hand with normal and strong grips using a rubber ball. Statistical Parametric mapping (SPM8) software was used to determine the brain activation. Both tasks activated the primary motor (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal and ventral of premotor cortex area (PMA) in left hemisphere while in right hemisphere the area of primary motor (M1) somatosensory was activated. However, the comparison between both tasks revealed that the strong hand grip showed the higher activation at M1, PMA and SMA on left hemisphere and also the area of SMA on right hemisphere. Both conditions of motor tasks could provide insights the functional organization on human brain.

  5. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Peng, Lei; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been well established as an ideal source of cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications. Boron (B) is a notable trace element in humans; so far, the effects of boron on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (0, 1, 10,100, and 1,000 ng/ml) on osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. In this study, BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs was no different from the control group when added with B at the concentration of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml respectively (P > 0.05); in contrast, 1,000 ng/ml B inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs at days 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). By ALP staining, we discovered that BMSCs treated with 10 and 100 ng/ml B presented a higher ALP activity compared with control (P < 0.05). By real-time PCR, we detected the messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and bone morphogenetic proteins 7 were also increased in 10 and 100 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). The calcium depositions were increased in 1 and 10 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). Taken all together, it was the first time to report that B could increase osteogenic effect by stimulating osteogenic differentiation-related marker gene synthesis during the proliferation and differentiation phase in human BMSCs and could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  6. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  7. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  8. Mapping the Pairwise Choices Leading from Pluripotency to Human Bone, Heart, and Other Mesoderm Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kyle M; Chen, Angela; Koh, Pang Wei; Deng, Tianda Z; Sinha, Rahul; Tsai, Jonathan M; Barkal, Amira A; Shen, Kimberle Y; Jain, Rajan; Morganti, Rachel M; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B; George, Benson M; Wernig, Gerlinde; Salomon, Rachel E A; Chen, Zhenghao; Vogel, Hannes; Epstein, Jonathan A; Kundaje, Anshul; Talbot, William S; Beachy, Philip A; Ang, Lay Teng; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-07-14

    Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints. This strategy enabled the generation of human bone and heart progenitors that could engraft in respective in vivo models. Mapping stepwise chromatin and single-cell gene expression changes in mesoderm development uncovered somite segmentation, a previously unobservable human embryonic event transiently marked by HOPX expression. Collectively, this roadmap enables navigation of mesodermal development to produce transplantable human tissue progenitors and uncover developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Animals, Kids & Books: A Guide for Putting Humane Books into the Hands of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Barbara

    This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,…

  10. Immunohistochemical characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel (NanoBone(r)) osteogenesis: a study on biopsies from human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas; Michel, Barbara; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2008-10-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials may be osteogenic, osteoconductive or osteoinductive. To test for these probable characteristics in a new nanoporous grafting material consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone(s)), applied in humans, we studied biopsies from 12 patients before dental implantation following various orofacial augmentation techniques with healing times of between 3.5 and 12 months. Sections from decalcified specimens were investigated using histology, histochemistry [periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and immunohistochemistry, with markers for osteogenesis, bone remodelling, resorption and vessel walls (alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type I, ED1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, runx2 and Von-Willebrand factor). Histologically, four specific stages of graft transformation into lamellar bone could be characterized. During early stages of healing, bone matrix proteins were absorbed by NanoBone(s) granules, forming a proteinaceous matrix, which was invaded by small vessels and cells. We assume that the deposition of these molecules promotes early osteogenesis in and around NanoBone(s) and supports the concomitant degradation probably by osteoclast-like cells. TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were localized directly on the granular surfaces. Runx2-immunoreactive pre-osteoblasts, which are probably involved in direct osteogenesis forming woven bone that is later transformed into lamellar bone, were attracted. Graft resorption and bone apposition around the graft granules appear concomitantly. We postulate that NanoBone(s) has osteoconductive and biomimetic properties and is integrated into the host's physiological bone turnover at a very early stage.

  11. Identification of transcriptional macromolecular associations in human bone using browser based in silico analysis in a giant correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Sjur; Sachse, Daniel; Olstad, Ole K; Gautvik, Vigdis T; Sanderson, Paul; Datta, Harish K; Berg, Jens P; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2013-03-01

    Intracellular signaling is critically dependent on gene regulatory networks comprising physical molecular interactions. Presently, there is a lack of comprehensive databases for most human tissue types to verify such macromolecular interactions. We present a user friendly browser which helps to identify functional macromolecular interactions in human bone as significant correlations at the transcriptional level. The molecular skeletal phenotype has been characterized by transcriptome analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies from 84 postmenopausal women through quantifications of ~23,000 mRNA species. When the signal levels were inter-correlated, an array containing >260 million correlations was generated, thus recognizing the human bone interactome at the RNA level. The matrix correlation and p values were made easily accessible by a freely available online browser. We show that significant correlations within the giant matrix are reproduced in a replica set of 13 male vertebral biopsies. The identified correlations differ somewhat from transcriptional interactions identified in cell culture experiments and transgenic mice, thus demonstrating that care should be taken in extrapolating such results to the in vivo situation in human bone. The current giant matrix and web browser are a valuable tool for easy access to the human bone transcriptome and molecular interactions represented as significant correlations at the RNA-level. The browser and matrix should be a valuable hypothesis generating tool for identification of regulatory mechanisms and serve as a library of transcript relationships in human bone, a relatively inaccessible tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period.

  13. A high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces low-efficacy bone regeneration in sinus augmentation: a histomorphometric analysis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji-Youn; Kim, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the efficacy of bone regeneration at the early stage of healing in rabbit sinuses grafted with a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier soaked in a high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Both maxillary sinuses of eight male rabbits were used. The sinus on one side (assigned randomly) was grafted with BCP loaded with rhBMP-2 (1.5 mg/ml; test group) using a soaking method, while the other was grafted with saline-soaked BCP (control group). After a 2-week healing period, the sinuses were analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. The total augmented area and soft tissue space were significantly larger in the test group than in the control group, whereas the opposite was true for the area of residual material and newly formed bone. Most of the new bone in the test group was localized to the Schneiderian membrane (SM), while very little bone formation was observed in the window and center regions of the sinus. New bone was distributed evenly in the control group sinuses. Within the limitations of this study, it appeared that application of a high concentration of rhBMP-2 soaked onto a BCP carrier inhibited bone regeneration from the pristine bone and increased soft tissue swelling and inflammatory response at the early healing stage of sinus augmentation, although osteoinductive potential was found along the SM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cell in a rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Li, Guoqi; Wu, Shaoling; Zhang, Baiyu; Wan, Qing; Yu, Ding; Zhou, Ruijun; Ma, Chao

    2014-07-08

    Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  15. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  16. Telomerase reverse transcriptase mediated immortalization of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Teng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs were transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene with lipofection method. The hTERT transfected hMSCs of passage 100 underwent chondrogenesis induction with dexamethasone, transforming the growth factor β and vitamin C, osteogenesis induction with dexamethasone, β glycerophosphoric acid and vitamin C, and cardiomyocyte induction with 5-azacytidine. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of induction, immunocytochemistry was performed to detect the expressions of type I and II collagen and osteocalcin, and alizarin red staining was performed to detect the bone nodule formation in osteogenesis induction. Immunocytochemistry was carried out to detect the striated muscle actin expression in cardiomyocytes. The hMSCs undergoing successful transfection were positive for the hTERT. The hTERT transfected cells were grown in vitro successfully and passaged for 136 generations. Results showed that these cells could be induced to differentiate into chondrocytes, bone and myocardial cells. Introduction of exogenous hTERT into hMSCs could achieve immortalized hMSCs with the potential of multi-directional differentiation. Thus, these cells could be applied as seed cells in tissue engineering.

  17. Variability of tissue mineral density can determine physiological creep of human vertebral cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Shertok, Daniel; Ching Tee, Boon; Yeni, Yener N

    2011-06-03

    Creep is a time-dependent viscoelastic deformation observed under a constant prolonged load. It has been indicated that progressive vertebral deformation due to creep may increase the risk of vertebral fracture in the long-term. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of creep with trabecular architecture and tissue mineral density (TMD) parameters in human vertebral cancellous bone at a physiological static strain level. Architecture and TMD parameters of cancellous bone were analyzed using microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in specimens cored out of human vertebrae. Then, creep and residual strains of the specimens were measured after a two-hour physiological compressive constant static loading and unloading cycle. Creep developed (3877 ± 2158 με) resulting in substantial levels of non-recoverable post-creep residual strain (1797 ± 1391 με). A strong positive linear correlation was found between creep and residual strain (r = 0.94, p creep rate. The TMD variability (GL(COV)) was the strongest correlate of creep rate (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). This result suggests that TMD variability may be a useful parameter for estimating the long-term deformation of a whole vertebral body. The results further suggest that the changes in TMD variability resulting from bone remodeling are of importance and may provide an insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying progressive failure of vertebral bodies and development of a clinical fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation Studies of the Human Movement Analysis Panel for Hand/Arm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charles D.; Walton, Ashley; Slevin, John T.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Umberger, Gloria; Smoot, Kyle; Schulze, Emily; Gash, Don

    2007-01-01

    The human movement analysis panel (HMAP) measures separable components of arm motion and simple and complex finger coordination. HMAP testing takes 30 minutes to administer. In separate experiments we have validated the HMAP against the standard grooved pegboard and measures of gait speed, and demonstrated important learning effects over both short durations of days, and longer intervals of months to years in normal subjects of different ages. Stepwise regression demonstrated the strongest co...

  19. Plutonium and uranium in human bones from areas surrounding the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sakaguchi, Aya; Shinohara, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the present levels of 239,240Pu and U in residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, more than 70 bone samples were obtained at autopsy. The subjects ranged in age from 30 to 86 years (mean 59.3+/-12.9). Most of the samples consisted of victims who died of various diseases. Plutonium and U were radiochemically separated and determined by alpha-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of 239,240Pu and 238U observed were 0.050+/-0.041 mBq/g-ash (vertebrae 71, long-bones 18) and 0.28+/-0.13 mBq/g-ash (22.8+/-10.6 microg U/kg-ash) (vertebrae 58, long bones 16), respectively. The present 239,240Pu levels were within the range found for human bone samples from other countries due solely to global fallout in the early 1980s. The average U concentration was close to the estimate (mean 22.5 microg U/kg-ash) for the UK, and about 10 times higher than those estimated for residents in New York City and Japan. By assuming that the average concentration of 239,240Pu in bone samples is the value at 45 years after instantaneous inhalation in 1955, the initial total intake and the effective dose for 45 years were estimated as 10 Bq and 0.2 mSv, respectively. The annual intake of total U (234,235,238U) and its effective dose for 60 years were estimated as 30 Bq for adult and 0.1 mSv, respectively, for chronic ingestion.

  20. The evaluation of lyophilized polymer matrices for administering recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, S S; Rodgers, J B; DeLuca, P P

    1996-07-01

    Novel unitary devices, prepared by lyophilization of viscous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC), were evaluated as sustained-release delivery systems for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In vitro characterization of the unitary devices, which contained rhBMP-2-loaded poly (d,l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) bioerodible particles (BEPs), was conducted over a 2-month period. Determinations included buffer uptake, mass and molecular weight loss and rhBMP-2 release from the unitary devices. CMC devices imbibed approximately 16 times their weight of buffer, while with MC, equilibrium uptake was approximately 6 times the dry weight of the devices. Overall mass loss percentages were approximately 55 and 35%, respectively, for CMC and MC devices. rhBMP-2 release from the devices was essentially a triphasic process: an initial phase during which "free" protein (rhBMP-2 present on the surface and within the pores of the PLGA BEPs) was released, a lag period during which no release was discerned, and then release of "bound" rhBMP-2 (protein adsorbed to the BEPs). The release of bound protein correlated with the mass loss of the polymer which began after 3 weeks. Release from the unitary devices was lower than that from the BEPs alone, due to a retardation effect of the gelled CMC/MC polymers. In rabbits in which full-thickness cranial bone defects were created, the implants were well tolerated and induced significant new bone growth during an 8-week evaluation period. The CMC devices appear to have induced bone earlier (at 2 weeks), but this did not affect eventual 8-week results. CMC devices without rhBMP-2 appeared to provide some bone conduction, in contrast to the blank MC devices.

  1. Bioactive Ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone: Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Deepak K; Fukuda, A; Matsushita, T; Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2011-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a useful technique for preparing three-dimensional porous bodies with complicated internal structures directly from titanium (Ti) powders without any intermediate processing steps, with the products being expected to be useful as a bone substitute. In this study the necessary SLM processing conditions to obtain a dense product, such as the laser power, scanning speed, and hatching pattern, were investigated using a Ti powder of less than 45 μm particle size. The results show that a fully dense plate thinner than 1.8 mm was obtained when the laser power to scanning speed ratio was greater than 0.5 and the hatch spacing was less than the laser diameter, with a 30 μm thick powder layer. Porous Ti metals with structures analogous to human cancellous bone were fabricated and the compressive strength measured. The compressive strength was in the range 35-120 MPa when the porosity was in the range 75-55%. Porous Ti metals fabricated by SLM were heat-treated at 1300 °C for 1h in an argon gas atmosphere to smooth the surface. Such prepared specimens were subjected to NaOH, HCl, and heat treatment to provide bioactivity. Field emission scanning electron micrographs showed that fine networks of titanium oxide were formed over the whole surface of the porous body. These treated porous bodies formed bone-like apatite on their surfaces in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. In vivo studies showed that new bone penetrated into the pores and directly bonded to the walls within 12 weeks after implantation into the femur of Japanese white rabbits. The percentage bone affinity indices of the chemical- and heat-treated porous bodies were significantly higher than that of untreated implants. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and human freeze-dried bone graft : An experimental study in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Najafi, Mohammad; Semyari, Hassan; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Bone regeneration is an important concern in periodontal treatment and implant dentistry. Different biomaterials and surgical techniques have been used for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and human freeze-dried bone graft (FDBG) in regeneration of rabbit calvarium bony defects by histologic and histomorphometric evaluation. In this experimental study, three similar defects, measuring 8 mm in diameter, were created in the calvaria of 16 white New Zealand rabbits. Two defects were filled with FDBG and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel, while the other one remained unfilled to be considered as control. All the defects were covered with collagen membranes. During the healing period, two animals perished; so 14 rabbits were divided into two groups: half of them were euthanized after 6 weeks of healing and the other half after 12 weeks. The specimens were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric examinations for assessment of the following variables: percentage of bone formation and residual graft material, inflammation scores, patterns of bone formation and type of newly formed bone. The percentages of new bone formation after 6 weeks were 14.22 ± 7.85, 21.57 ± 6.91, and 20.54 ± 10.07% in FDBG, NanoBone, and control defects. These values were 27.54 ± 20.19, 23.86 ± 6.27, and 26.48 ± 14.18% in 12-week specimens, respectively. No significant differences were found in the amount of bone formation between the groups. With regard to inflammation, the control and NanoBone groups showed significantly less inflammation compared to FDBG at the 6-week healing phase (P = 0.04); this difference was not significant in the 12-week specimens. Based on the results of this experimental study, both NanoBone and FDBG exhibited a similar effect on bone formation.

  3. In utero transplantation of human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shiu-Huey; Kuo, Tom K; Liu, Ming; Lee, Oscar K

    2006-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be isolated from human bone marrow and possess the potential to differentiate into progenies of embryonic mesoderm. However, current evidence is based predominantly on in vitro experiments. We used a murine model of in utero transplantation (IUT) to study the engraftment capabilities of human MSCs. MSCs were obtained from bone marrow by negative immunoselection and limiting dilution, and were characterized by flow cytometry and by in vitro differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs were transplanted into fetal mice at a gestational age of 14 days. Engraftment of human MSCs was determined by flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MSCs engrafted into tissues originating from all three germ layers and persisted for up to 4 months or more after delivery, as evidenced by the expression of the human-specific beta-2 microglobulin gene and by FISH for donor-derived cells. Donor-derived CD45+ cells were detectable in the peripheral blood of recipients, suggesting the participation of MSCs in hematopoiesis at the fetal stage. This model can further serve to evaluate possible applications of MSCs. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  4. Yeast-2-Hybrid data file showing progranulin interactions in human fetal brain and bone marrow libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Tegeder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progranulin deficiency in humans is associated with neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We performed a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen using human full-length progranulin as bait to assess the interactions of progranulin. Progranulin was screened against human fetal brain and human bone marrow libraries using the standard Matchmaker technology (Clontech. This article contains the full Y2H data table, including blast results and sequences, a sorted table according to selection criteria for likely positive, putatively positive, likely false and false preys, and tables showing the gene ontology terms associated with the likely and putative preys of the brain and bone marrow libraries. The interactions with autophagy proteins were confirmed and functionally analyzed in "Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy" (C. Altmann, S. Hardt, C. Fischer, J. Heidler, H.Y. Lim, A. Haussler, B. Albuquerque, B. Zimmer, C. Moser, C. Behrends, F. Koentgen, I. Wittig, M.H. Schmidt, A.M. Clement, T. Deller, I. Tegeder, 2016 [1].

  5. Yeast-2-Hybrid data file showing progranulin interactions in human fetal brain and bone marrow libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-12-01

    Progranulin deficiency in humans is associated with neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We performed a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen using human full-length progranulin as bait to assess the interactions of progranulin. Progranulin was screened against human fetal brain and human bone marrow libraries using the standard Matchmaker technology (Clontech). This article contains the full Y2H data table, including blast results and sequences, a sorted table according to selection criteria for likely positive, putatively positive, likely false and false preys, and tables showing the gene ontology terms associated with the likely and putative preys of the brain and bone marrow libraries. The interactions with autophagy proteins were confirmed and functionally analyzed in "Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy" (C. Altmann, S. Hardt, C. Fischer, J. Heidler, H.Y. Lim, A. Haussler, B. Albuquerque, B. Zimmer, C. Moser, C. Behrends, F. Koentgen, I. Wittig, M.H. Schmidt, A.M. Clement, T. Deller, I. Tegeder, 2016) [1].

  6. Interleukin-3 Does Not Affect the Differentiation of Mast Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Kentaro, Sakai; Maeno, Toshitaka; Suga, Tatsuo; Miura, Toru; Takai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    Although IL-3 is commonly used for culture of human progenitor-derived mast cells together with Stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, the effect of IL-3 on human mast cell differentiation has not been well elucidated. Human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors were cultured for up to 12 weeks in the presence of rhSCF and rhIL-6 either with rhIL-3 (IL-3 (+)) or without rhIL-3 (IL-3 (−)) for the initial 1-week of culture. Total cell number increased at 2 weeks in IL-3 (+), as compared to IL-3 (−), but changes in the appearance of mast cells were delayed. When IL-3 was present for the initial 1-week culture, granules looked more mature with IL-3 than without IL-3. However, tryptase and chymase contents, and surface antigen expression (CD18, CD51, CD54, and CD117) were not altered by IL-3. Surface expression and mRNA level of FcεRIα and histamine release by crosslinking of FcεRIα did not differ from one preparation to the next. GeneChip analysis revealed that no significant differences were observed between IL-3 (+) and IL-3 (−) cells either when inactivated or activated by aggregation of FcεRIα. These findings indicate that initial incubation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors with IL-3 does not affect the differentiation of mast cells. PMID:18214796

  7. Theobromine Upregulates Osteogenesis by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and Accelerates Bone Development in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bret H; Ylostalo, Joni; Browder, Elizabeth; McNeill, Eoin P; Bartosh, Thomas J; Rawls, H Ralph; Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Gregory, Carl A

    2017-03-01

    Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development. With its excellent safety profile and resistance to pharmacokinetic elimination, we reasoned that it might be an excellent natural osteoanabolic supplement during pregnancy, lactation and early postnatal growth. To determine whether THB had an effect on human osteoprogenitors, we subjected primary human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to osteogenic assays after exposure to THB in vitro and observed that THB exposure increased the rate of osteogenesis and mineralization by hMSCs. Moreover, THB exposure resulted in a list of upregulated mRNA transcripts that best matched an osteogenic tissue expression signature as compared to other tissue expression signatures archived in several databases. To determine whether oral administration of THB resulted in improved skeletal growth, we provided pregnant rats with chow supplemented with THB during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, offspring received THB continuously until postnatal day 50 (approximately 10 mg kg -1 day -1 ). Administration of THB resulted in neonates with larger bones, and 50-day-old offspring accumulated greater body mass, longer and thicker femora and superior tibial trabecular parameters. The accelerated growth did not adversely affect the strength and resilience of the bones. These results indicate that THB increases the osteogenic potential of bone marrow osteoprogenitors, and dietary supplementation of a safe dose of THB to expectant mothers and during the postnatal period

  8. Monitoring Dynamic Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and Human Bone Tissue in a Co-Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contag, Christopher H.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Bammer, Marie C.; Hardy, Jonathan W.; Schmidt, Tobi L.; Maloney, William J.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bone is a preferential site of breast cancer metastasis and models are needed to study this process at the level of the microenvironment. We have used bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and multiplex biomarker immunoassays to monitor dynamic breast cancer cell behaviors in co-culture with human bone tissue. Procedures Femur tissue fragments harvested from hip replacement surgeries were co-cultured with luciferase-positive MDA-MB-231-fLuc cells. BLI was performed to quantify breast cell division and track migration relative to bone tissue. Breast cell colonization of bone tissues was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Biomarkers in co-culture supernatants were profiled with MILLIPLEX® immunoassays. Results BLI demonstrated increased MDA-MB-231-fLuc proliferation (pbones, and revealed breast cell migration toward bone. Immunohistochemistry illustrated MDA-MB-231-fLuc colonization of bone, and MILLIPLEX® profiles of culture supernatants suggested breast/bone crosstalk. Conclusions Breast cell behaviors that facilitate metastasis occur reproducibly in human bone tissue co-cultures and can be monitored and quantified using BLI and multiplex immunoassays. PMID:24008275

  9. Integrin expression by human osteoblasts cultured on degradable polymeric materials applicable for tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohamed; Lu, Helen H; Shah, Asist K; Chang, Richard; Hickok, Noreen J; Tuan, Rocky S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-01-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers in the field of orthopaedic surgery has gained increased popularity, as surgical pins and screws, and as potential biological scaffolds for repairing cartilage and bone defects. One such group of polymers that has gained considerable attention are the polyesters, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA), because of their minimal tissue inflammatory response, favorable biocompatibility and degradation characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate human osteoblastic cell adherence and growth on PLAGA and PLA scaffolds by examining integrin receptor (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1) expression. Primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone adhered efficiently to both PLAGA and PLA, with the rate of adherence on PLAGA comparable to that of control tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and significantly higher than on PLA polymers at 3, 6 and 12 h. Human osteoblastic phenotypic expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was positive on both degradable matrices, whereas osteocalcin levels were significantly higher on cells grown on PLAGA than on PLA composites. Interestingly, the integrin subunits, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1 were all expressed at higher levels by osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than those on PLA as analyzed by westerns blots and by flow cytometry. Among the integrins, alpha2, beta5 and beta1 showed the greatest difference in levels between the two surfaces. Thus, both PLA and PLAGA support osteoblastic adhesion and its accompanying engagement of integrin receptor and expression of osteocalcin and ALP. However PLAGA consistently appeared to be a better substrate for osteoblastic cells based on these parameters. This study is one of the first to investigate the ability of primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone to adhere to the biodegradable polymers PLAGA and PLA, and to examine the expression of their key

  10. Human Studies of Vertical and Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Comparing Different Types of Bone Graft Materials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Suraj; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). Currently, autogenous bone is labeled as the "gold standard" because of faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. No systematic review has currently determined whether there is a difference in implant success between various bone augmentation materials. The purpose of this article was to systematically review comparative human studies of vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation comparing different types of bone graft materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). A MEDLINE search was conducted under the 3 search concepts of bone augmentation, dental implants, and alveolar ridge augmentation. Studies pertaining to socket grafts or sinus lifts were excluded. Case reports, small case series, and review papers were excluded. A bias assessment tool was applied to the final articles. Overall, 219 articles resulted from the initial search, and 9 articles were included for final analysis. There were no discernible differences in implant success between bone augmentation materials. Generally, patients preferred nonautogenous bone sources as there were fewer hospital days, less pain, and better recovery time. Two articles had industrial support; however, conclusions of whether that support influenced the outcomes could not be determined. Future comparative studies should compare nonautogenous bone sources and have longer follow-up times.

  11. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells on Fresh and Aged Fullerene C60 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vacik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS. We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Growth and potential damage of human bone-derived cells on fresh and aged fullerene c60 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Bacakova, Lucie; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri

    2013-04-26

    Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year) and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  15. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  16. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Höppner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands.

  17. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  18. Trabecular bone microstructure is impaired in the proximal femur of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia J; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lai, Andrew; Nardo, Lorenzo; Facchetti, Luca; Pasco, Courtney; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Han, Misung; Parrott, Amanda Hutton; Tien, Phyllis; Krug, Roland

    2018-02-01

    There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Eight HIV-infected men and 11 healthy age-matched controls were recruited and informed consent was obtained before each scan. High-resolution MRI of the proximal femur was performed using fully balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) on a 3T system. Three volumes of interest at corresponding anatomic locations across all subjects were defined based on registrations of a common template. Four MR-based trabecular microstructural parameters were analyzed at each region: fuzzy bone volume fraction (f-BVF), trabecular number (Tb.N), thickness (Tb.Th), and spacing (Tb.Sp). In addition, the distal radius and distal tibia were imaged with HR-pQCT. Four HR-pQCT-based microstructural parameters were analyzed: trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Tb.Sp. Total hip and spine aBMD were determined from DXA. Microstructural bone parameters derived from MRI at the proximal femur and from HR-pQCT at the distal tibia showed significantly lower bone quality in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. In contrast, DXA aBMD data showed no significant differences between HIV

  19. Interleukin-17A increases leptin production in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Minsoo

    2012-03-01

    Lineage commitment of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) to adipocytes or osteoblasts has been suggested as a model system to study the relationship between type II diabetes and abnormal bone metabolism. Leptin and IL-17A inhibit adipogenesis whereas they promote osteogenesis in MSCs. Due to pathophysiologic roles of IL-17A in human metabolic diseases and bone metabolism, it was evaluated whether IL-17A-dependent inverse regulation on adipogenesis and osteogenesis was related to endogenous leptin production in hBM-MSCs. In the analysis of adiponectin and leptin secretion profiles of hBM-MSCs in response to various combinations of differentiation inducing factors, it was found that dexamethasone, a common molecule used for both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs. Importantly, the level of leptin production during osteogenesis in hBM-MSCs was higher than that during adipogenesis, implicating a significant leptin production in extra-adipose tissues. IL-17A increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs and also under the condition of osteogenesis. In spite of direct inhibition on adipogenesis, IL-17A up-regulated leptin production in hBM-MSC-derived adipocytes. Anti-leptin antibody treatment partially antagonized the IL-17A dependent inhibition of adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs, suggesting a role of leptin in mediating the inverse regulation of IL-17A on osteogenesis and adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. Therefore, the IL-17A-induced leptin production may provide a key clue to understand a molecular mechanism on the lineage commitment of hBM-MSCs into adipocytes or osteoblasts. In addition, leptin production in extra-adipose tissues like MSCs and osteoblasts should be considered in future studies on leptin-associated human diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D Synchrotron μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis on human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Wegrzynek, D.; Roschger, P.; Simon, R.; Staub, S.; Falkenberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between μ-x-ray fluorescence tomography and confocal μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF) will be presented. These techniques were used to study the three dimensional (3D) elemental distribution in human bone. Since bone shows very strong inhomogeneities in structure as well as in distribution of the chemical elements, two dimensional (2D) analysis (element mapping) of the samples always led to difficulties in interpreting the results and assigning elemental distributions to microscopic structures. Tomography scans in fluorescence and absorption mode have been carried out simultaneously at the fluo-topo beamline at ANKA, Karlsruhe, to determine the distribution of the elements over the depth of the previously prepared sample from human patella. A monochromatized x-ray beam (17 keV) from a bending magnet station focused by a compound refractive lens to a beamsize of 10 x 5 μm was used to perform the measurements. The transmitted beam signal measured with the SD detector was utilized to apply a simplified absorption correction to XRF tomographic images. Based on the XRF sinograms the elemental distribution within the object cross-section was reconstructed by means of filtered backprojection. The same section of human bone has been analyzed by confocal μ-XRF at HASYLAB, Hamburg, Germany beamline L. With this experiment two polycapillary half lenses were used; one for focusing the previously monochromatized primary x-ray beam onto the sample and the second half lens in front of a Si(Li) detector to get a small inspected area. By overlapping the two foci of the lenses a very well defined volume of investigation could be defined. Scanning the sample up- and downstream it was possible to determine the elemental distribution in depth of the sample. An absorption correction has been applied to get a corrected fluorescence image of the sample. Both methods showed consistent results and allowed a precise localization of the elements of interest. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  2. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  3. Characterization of human erythroid burst-promoting activity derived from bone marrow conditioned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.N.; Ogawa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow conditioned media (BMCM) increases burst number and the incorporation of 59 Fe into heme by bursts when peripheral blood or bone marrow cells are cultured at limiting serum concentrations. Burst-promoting activity (BPA) has now been purified approximately 300-fold from this source by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and absorption chromatography on hydroxyapatite agarose gel. Marrow BPA increased burst number and hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. A larger increase in Hb synthesis than in burst number was consistently observed, which was probably a consequence of the increase in the number of cells per burst that occurs in the presence of BPA. The role of BPA in culture could be distinguished from erythropoietin (Ep), since no bursts grew in the absence of Ep, whether or not BPA was present, and since it had no effect on the growth of erythroid colonies scored at day 5 of culture. Our purified fraction did not support the growth of CFU-C in culture. Activity was stable at temperatures of 70 degrees C or lower for 10 min; exposure to 80 degrees C resulted in approximately 50% loss of activity. BPA was completely inactivated by treatment at 100 degrees C for 10 min. Thus, human bone marrow cells produce a heat-sensitive factor that specifically promotes the growth of early erythroid progenitors in culture

  4. [Consensus statement: recommendations for the management of metabolic bone disease in human immunodeficiency virus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Esteban; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Reyes García, Rebeca; Carpintero, Pedro; Casado, José Luis; Del Pino Montes, Javier; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Maalouf, Jorge; Negredo, Eugenia; Ocampo, Antonio; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    To provide practical recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of metabolic bone disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Members of scientific societies related to bone metabolism and HIV: Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GeSIDA), Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), Sociedad Española de Investigación Ósea y del Metabolismo Mineral (SEIOMM), and Sociedad Española de Fractura Osteoporótica (SEFRAOS). A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, and papers in English and Spanish with a publication date before 28 May 2013 were included. Recommendations were formulated according to GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) setting both their strength and the quality of supporting evidence. Working groups were established for each major part, and the final resulting document was later discussed in a face-to-face meeting. All the authors reviewed the final written document and agreed with its content. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations on the detection and treatment of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. What do bones tell us? The study of human skeletons from the perspective of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrieri, Brigida; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Human remains are present in a number of contexts. Some of these are archaeological burial sites, which can comprise individual or mass graves burials. Human remains are usually found buried (or cremated), but they can also be found in museums and in universities, as part of their anatomical collections. Human remains can be found in churches as relics, in ossuaries, and as part of objects. Hence human remains refer to not just a complete skeleton, but also apart of a bone or tooth, hair and mummified remains. In more recent forensic, police or medico-legal cases, human skeletal remains can be found in a number of contexts, such as fire scenes, natural disasters, clandestine graves, or on the surface in open areas (e.g. a woodland). One aspect ofphysical anthropology is that which studies human skeletal remains in order to reconstruct the past, understand human variation, and provide information about the deceased individuals, such as their age at death, sex, ancestry, stature, pathological conditions or traumatic injuries; the remains from medico-legal or police cases fall under the branch offorensic anthropology.

  6. A New Profile Shape Matching Stereovision Algorithm for Real-time Human Pose and Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new profile shape matching stereovision algorithm that is designed to extract 3D information in real time. This algorithm obtains 3D information by matching profile intensity shapes of each corresponding row of the stereo image pair. It detects the corresponding matching patterns of the intensity profile rather than the intensity values of individual pixels or pixels in a small neighbourhood. This approach reduces the effect of the intensity and colour variations caused by lighting differences. As with all real-time vision algorithms, there is always a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed. This algorithm achieves a balance between the two to produce accurate results for real-time applications. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed algorithm is tested for human pose and hand gesture recognition to control a smart phone and an entertainment system.

  7. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans, 37 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 years using instrumental neutron activation analysis. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) age- or sex-related differences in the Ca/P ratio were observed. The mean value (M±SD) for the investigated parameter for the whole group studied, 2.33±0.34, was within a very wide range of published data and close to the median value

  9. Trace element determination in human bones using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarski, Sila; Saiki, Mitiko; Borelli, Aurelio; Batalha, Joao R.F.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained in the analysis of rib bone samples from normal human individuals by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. In these analyses, the elements Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn were found at the ppm level and the elements Ca and P at the level of percentage. The precision and the of the results were evaluated by using biological reference materials NIST SRM 1577a Bovine Liver, IAEA A-11 Milk powder, NIES CRM 9 Sargasso e NIES CRM 10A Rice Flour Unpolished. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Pulsatile and steady-state hemodynamics of the human patella bone by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzam, Parisa; Zirak, Peyman; Durduran, Turgut; Binzoni, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac cycle related pulsatile behavior of the absorption and scattering coefficients of diffuse light and the corresponding alterations in hemoglobin concentrations in the human patella was studied. The pulsations in scattering is considerably smaller than absorption. The difference in amplitude of absorption coefficient pulsations for different wavelengths was translated to pulsations in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, which leads to strong pulsations in the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. The physiological origin of the observed signals was confirmed by applying a thigh-cuff. Moreover, we have investigated the optical and physiological properties of the patella bone and their changes in response to arterial cuff occlusion. (paper)

  11. Pulsatile and steady-state hemodynamics of the human patella bone by diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Zirak, Peyman; Binzoni, Tiziano; Durduran, Turgut

    2013-08-01

    The cardiac cycle related pulsatile behavior of the absorption and scattering coefficients of diffuse light and the corresponding alterations in hemoglobin concentrations in the human patella was studied. The pulsations in scattering is considerably smaller than absorption. The difference in amplitude of absorption coefficient pulsations for different wavelengths was translated to pulsations in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, which leads to strong pulsations in the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. The physiological origin of the observed signals was confirmed by applying a thigh-cuff. Moreover, we have investigated the optical and physiological properties of the patella bone and their changes in response to arterial cuff occlusion.

  12. Glycation of human cortical and cancellous bone captures differences in the formation of Maillard reaction products between glucose and ribose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna E Sroga

    Full Text Available To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25-30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation or ribose (ribosylation. Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women. More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples. Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar

  13. 3D pose estimation and motion analysis of the articulated human hand-forearm limb in an industrial production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz

    2010-09-01

    This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Below the Callus Surface: Applying Paleohistological Techniques to Understand the Biology of Bone Healing in Skeletonized Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Sandra; Keenleyside, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bone trauma is a common occurrence in human skeletal remains. Macroscopic and imaging scrutiny is the approach most currently used to analyze and describe trauma. Nevertheless, this line of inquiry may not be sufficient to accurately identify the type of traumatic lesion and the associated degree of bone healing. To test the usefulness of histology in the examination of bone healing biology, we used an integrative approach that combines gross inspection and microscopy. Six bone samples belonging to 5 adult individuals with signs of bone trauma were collected from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection from the Museu Bocage (Lisbon, Portugal). Previous to sampling, the lesions were described according to their location, morphology, and healing status. After sampling, the bone specimens were prepared for plane light and polarized light analysis. The histological analysis was pivotal: (1) to differentiate between types of traumatic lesions; (2) to ascertain the posttraumatic interval, and (3) to diagnose other associated pathological conditions. The outer surface of a bone lesion may not give a complete picture of the biology of the tissue's response. Accordingly, microscopic analysis is essential to differentiate, characterize, and classify trauma signs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  16. Increased bone marrow blood flow in sickle cell anemia demonstrated by thallium-201 and Tc-99m human albumin microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Rucknagel, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Lower extremity vascularity in nine patients with sickle cell anemia was studied by intra-arterial /sup 99m/Tc human albumin microspheres or intravenous thallium-201. In eight patients, the normal pattern of greater muscle than bone activity was reversed with marked tracer localization in skeletal parts usually not visualized. In four cases, there were distinct focal abnormalities in the femurs and tibias which correlated with defects on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scans. TC-99m pyrophosphate bone scans demonstrated normal uptake in the same areas. The scintigraphic findings indicate a markedly increased relative bone marrow blood flow

  17. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  18. Damage characterization on human femur bone by means of ultrasonics and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strantza, M; Boulpaep, F; Van Hemelrijck, D; Aggelis, D G; Polyzos, D; Louis, O

    2015-01-01

    Human bone tissue is characterized as a material with high brittleness. Due to this nature, visible signs of cracking are not easy to be detected before final failure. The main objective of this work is to investigate if the acoustic emission (AE) technique can offer valuable insight to the fracture process of human femur specimens as in other engineering materials characterization. This study describes the AE activity during fracture of whole femur bones under flexural load. Before fracture, broadband AE sensors were used in order to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, were also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for the AE monitoring during fracture. After the ultrasonic study, the samples were partly cast in concrete and fixed as cantilevers. A point load was applied on the femur head, which due to the test geometry resulted in a combination of two different patterns of fracture, bending and torsion. Two AE broadband sensors were placed in different points of the sample, one near the fixing end and the other near the femur head. Preliminary analysis shows that parameters like the number of acquired AE signals and their amplitude are well correlated with the load history. Furthermore, the parameters of rise time and frequency can differentiate the two fracture patterns. Additionally, AE allows the detection of the load at the onset of fracture from the micro-cracking events that occur at the early loading stages, allowing monitoring of the whole fracture process. Parameters that have been used extensively for monitoring and characterization of fracture modes of engineering materials seem to poses characterization power in the case of bone tissue monitoring as well. (paper)

  19. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1 George Teel,1 Christopher M O’Brien,1 Taisen Zhuang,1 Michael Keidar,1 Lijie Grace Zhang1–3 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium’s osseointegration involves inducing biomimetic nanotopography to enhance cell–implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications

  20. Comparison of in vitro biocompatibility of NanoBone(®) and BioOss(®) for human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Douglas, Timothy; Zamponi, Christiane; Becker, Stephan T; Sherry, Eugene; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Warnke, Frauke; Wiltfang, Jörg; Warnke, Patrick H

    2011-11-01

    Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering seeded with the patient's own cells might be used as a preferable method to repair bone defects in the future. With the emerging new technologies of nanostructure design, new synthetic biomaterials are appearing on the market. Such scaffolds must be tested in vitro for their biocompatibility before clinical application. However, the choice between a natural or a synthetic biomaterial might be challenging for the doctor and the patient. In this study, we compared the biocompatibility of a synthetic bone substitute, NanoBone(®) , to the widely used natural bovine bone replacement material BioOss(®) . The in vitro behaviour of human osteoblasts on both materials was investigated. Cell performance was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell vitality staining and four biocompatibility tests (LDH, MTT, WST, BrdU). We found that both materials showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. The MTT proliferation test was superior for Nanobone(®) . Both scaffolds caused only little damage to human osteoblasts and justify their clinical application. However, NanoBone(®) was able to support and promote proliferation of human osteoblasts slightly better than BioOss(®) in our chosen test set-up. The results may guide doctors and patients when being challenged with the choice between a natural or a synthetic biomaterial. Further experiments are necessary to determine the comparison of biocompatibility in vivo. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  2. Identification of senescence-associated genes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eunsook; Hong, Su; Kang, Jaeku; Woo, Junghoon; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Jongho; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several specialized cell types, including bone, cartilage, and fat cells. The proliferative capacity of hBMMSCs paves the way for the development of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, long-term in vitro culture of hBMMSCs leads to a reduced life span of the cells due to senescence, which leads eventually to growth arrest. To investigate the molecular mechanism behind the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs, microarray analysis was used to compare the expression profile