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Sample records for human hair protein

  1. Protein biosynthesis in cultured human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1980-10-31

    A new technique has been used for culturing human keratinocytes. The cells grow on the basement membrane-like capsules of bovine lenses. Lens cells were removed from the capsules by rigid trypsinization. In order to exclude any contamination with remaining living cells the isolated capsules were irradiated with X-rays at a dose of 10,000 rad. In this way human epithelial cells can be brought in culture from individual hair follicles. Since feeder cells are not used in this culture technique, the biosynthesis of keratinocyte proteins can be studied in these cultures. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble, and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions revealing protein patterns identical to those of intact hair follicles. Product analysis of the urea-soluble fractions of microdissected hair follicles shows that the protein pattern of the cultured keratinocytes resembles the protein pattern of the hair follicle sheath. Studies on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene revealed that the enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) is present in cultured hair follicle cells. A possible use of our culture system for eventual detection of inherited predisposition for smoking-dependent lung cancer is discussed.

  2. Protein biosynthesis in isolated human scalp hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorken, A J; Weterings, P J; Bloemendal, H

    1979-02-15

    The present study demonstrates that protein biosynthesis can be studied in single isolated human scalp hair follicles. The matrix and the sheath are the main regions where amino acids are built in. Incorporation is linear for at least five hours. The newly synthesized proteins can be separated into a water-soluble, a urea-soluble and a urea-insoluble fraction. Product analysis has been performed on the first two fractions, revealing different protein patterns.

  3. Is there any relationship between decreased AgNOR protein synthesis and human hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz, R; Tasdemir, S; Dogan, H

    2012-11-01

    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated proteins (AgNORs) play roles in cell proliferation and a variety of diseases. We attempted to determine whether decreased NOR protein synthesis causes human hair loss. We studied 21 healthy males who suffered hair loss on the frontal/vertex portion of the head. Hair root cells from normal and hair loss sites were stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per site were evaluated and the AgNOR number and NORa/TNa proportions of individual cells were determined using a computer program. The cells from normal sites had significantly higher AgNOR counts than those from hair loss sites. Also, the cells from the normal sites had significantly higher NORa/TNa than cells from the hair loss sites. In the normal sites, the cells demonstrated more NOR protein synthesis than cells in hair loss sites. Therefore, decreased NOR protein synthesis appears to be related to hair loss in humans.

  4. A genetic electrophoretic variant of high-sulfur hair proteins for forensic hair comparisons. I. Characterization of variant high-sulfur proteins of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, B

    1989-02-01

    In a survey of the proteins from human hair, a genetic electrophoretic variant has been observed in the high-sulfur protein region. S-carboxymethylated proteins were examined by 15% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9. Out of 150 unrelated samples of Japanese head hairs analyzed, 107 showed 6 major high-sulfur protein bands (normal) and the remaining 43 samples showed an additional high-sulfur protein band (variant). Of 21 Caucasian samples analyzed only one variant sample was found. Characterization of the proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis evidenced a variant protein spot which showed an apparent molecular weight of 30 k Da. Isoelectric points of the high-sulfur proteins ranged from 3.25-3.55 and that of variant protein band from 3.3-3.4. Family studies of 21 matings resulting in 49 children indicated that this variant was inherited in an autosomal fashion.

  5. Preparation of scaffolds from human hair proteins for tissue-engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Vipin; Verma, Poonam; Ray, Alok R; Ray, Pratima

    2008-01-01

    Human hair proteins were isolated and purified for the fabrication of tissue-engineering scaffolds. Their cellular compatibility was studied using NIH3T3 mice fibroblast cells. The proteins were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for molecular weights and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for their isoelectric points (pIs). The molecular weights of keratins were in the range of 40-60 kilo-Daltons (kDa) and of matrix proteins were in the range of 15-30 kDa. The pIs of keratins were found to be in the range of 4.5-5.3. Sponges of the proteins were formed by lyophilization. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to examine the surface. Swelling studies were carried out in phosphate buffer saline at physiological pH 7.4. The hydrophilic character of the protein surface was studied by determining an average contact angle, which came to be 37 0 . The wells of tissue culture plates were coated with these proteins for studying the attachment and morphology of the cells. The protein detachment study was done to ensure the adsorption of proteins on the wells until the completion of the experiments. The cellular growth on a protein-coated surface showed three-dimensional 'bulged' morphology due to cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. The sponges of human hair proteins supported more cells for a longer period than control. The morphology and cell proliferation studies exhibited by NIH3T3 cells on these proteins have shown their potential to be used as tissue-engineering scaffolds with better cell-cell contacts and leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV)-mediated cell-matrix interactions

  6. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  8. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  9. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  10. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  11. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  12. Global ecology and the human hair composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, L.I.; Kist, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    As an example of the mapping of human hair composition, the territory of Uzbekistan was chosen. The data and the maps obtained were compared with the environmental situation and medical statistics. World maps were drawn on the basis of various authors' data. The possibility of using human hair for radioactivity studies is discussed on the basis of data obtained in the Chernobyl area. The proposed scheme of human hair analysis may be used for world mapping for chemical elements, radionuclides, pesticides, dioxides, PCBs, etc., either to picture the global situation or as a health status on the level of populations. (author) 27 refs. 8 figs; 1 tab

  13. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  14. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differentiation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Verhagen, H; Wirtz, P; Vermorken, A J

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes, cultured on the bovine eye lens capsule, is studied by light and electron microscopy. The hair follicle keratinocytes in the stratified cultures are characterized by the presence of numerous tonofilaments, desmosomes and lysosomes and by the presence of glycogen accumulations. The cells in the upper layers develop a cornified envelope. Moreover, an incomplete basal lamina is found between the capsule and the basal cells. However, some features of epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, such as keratohyalin granules and stratum corneum formation, are absent. Analysis of the polypeptides by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also reveals differences between the cultured hair follicle cells and epidermis, whilst the patterns of cultured cells and hair follicle sheaths are similar. The morphological and protein biosynthetic aspects of terminal differentiation of the keratinocytes in vitro are correlated. These results are discussed in the light of the findings with cultured epidermal keratinocytes, reported in the literature.

  16. Trace elements determination in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Jose

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cd and Al, in human hair sampled from 23 young men during 24 months were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additional determination of mercury and volatile elements were made by using accessory MHS-10. Statistical treatment of data is presented for each person and element. The pre-treatment of hair carried out with an organic solvent to remove the superficial pollutants is explained. (The author)

  17. Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ü Basmanav, F Buket; Cau, Laura; Tafazzoli, Aylar

    2016-01-01

    Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant...... in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments...... and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic...

  18. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuyun; Zhang Yongbao

    2005-01-01

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  19. Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber,...

  20. Revisiting the Phylogeny of the Animal Formins: Two New Subtypes, Relationships with Multiple Wing Hairs Proteins, and a Lost Human Formin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruyne, David

    2016-01-01

    Formins are a widespread family of eukaryotic cytoskeleton-organizing proteins. Many species encode multiple formin isoforms, and for animals, much of this reflects the presence of multiple conserved subtypes. Earlier phylogenetic analyses identified seven major formin subtypes in animals (DAAM, DIAPH, FHOD, FMN, FMNL, INF, and GRID2IP/delphilin), but left a handful of formins, particularly from nematodes, unassigned. In this new analysis drawing from genomic data from a wider range of taxa, nine formin subtypes are identified that encompass all the animal formins analyzed here. Included in this analysis are Multiple Wing Hairs proteins (MWH), which bear homology to formin N-terminal domains. Originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster and other arthropods, MWH-related proteins are also identified here in some nematodes (including Caenorhabditis elegans), and are shown to be related to a novel MWH-related formin (MWHF) subtype. One surprising result of this work is the discovery that a family of pleckstrin homology domain-containing formins (PHCFs) is represented in many vertebrates, but is strikingly absent from placental mammals. Consistent with a relatively recent loss of this formin, the human genome retains fragments of a defunct homologous formin gene.

  1. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  2. Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

  3. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  4. Mammalian keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs) subgenomes: disentangling hair diversity and adaptation to terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Maldonado, Emanuel; Vasconcelos, Vítor; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2014-09-10

    Adaptation of mammals to terrestrial life was facilitated by the unique vertebrate trait of body hair, which occurs in a range of morphological patterns. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), the major structural hair shaft proteins, are largely responsible for hair variation. We exhaustively characterized the KRTAP gene family in 22 mammalian genomes, confirming the existence of 30 KRTAP subfamilies evolving at different rates with varying degrees of diversification and homogenization. Within the two major classes of KRTAPs, the high cysteine (HS) subfamily experienced strong concerted evolution, high rates of gene conversion/recombination and high GC content. In contrast, high glycine-tyrosine (HGT) KRTAPs showed evidence of positive selection and low rates of gene conversion/recombination. Species with more hair and of higher complexity tended to have more KRATP genes (gene expansion). The sloth, with long and coarse hair, had the most KRTAP genes (175 with 141 being intact). By contrast, the "hairless" dolphin had 35 KRTAPs and the highest pseudogenization rate (74% relative to the 19% mammalian average). Unique hair-related phenotypes, such as scales (armadillo) and spines (hedgehog), were correlated with changes in KRTAPs. Gene expression variation probably also influences hair diversification patterns, for example human have an identical KRTAP repertoire as apes, but much less hair. We hypothesize that differences in KRTAP gene repertoire and gene expression, together with distinct rates of gene conversion/recombination, pseudogenization and positive selection, are likely responsible for micro and macro-phenotypic hair diversification among mammals in response to adaptations to ecological pressures.

  5. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  6. Human hair as a pollutant dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hashimi, A.

    1991-01-01

    Human hair has been proved to be a better dosimeter than even blood for tracing most of the heavy metal toxins when they penetrate the biosphere. The high precision of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) enabled researchers to elegantly differentiate between endogenous and exogenous contamination and thoroughly study poisonings caused by these physiologically-unimportant elements. Extensive volume of bench-scale work has been accomplished in these laboratories to show the capacity of INAA to detect the presence of 10 nuclides (or more) with a precision of about 5%. The principal objective of the present study is to employ this assaying power and the tendency of scalp hair to uptake heavy metals from aqueous solutions, to design a dosimeter which can easily be used by the environmentalists. The findings should also be of interest to the waste-management people who are searching for a cost-effective technique to remove these pollutants from relatively large volumes of industrial effluents

  7. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Jang, S.G.; Chung, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 10 4 -10 6 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  8. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  10. Incorporation of tritium into hair proteins of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Ardelt, W.; Szot, Z.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and relatively rapid procedure for the extraction and fractionation of hair proteins, was elaborated and used for an analysis of rat hair proteins, tritiated in vivo. The most radioactive protein, containing over 6% of the initial hair radioactivity, was isolated in a homogeneous state. The protein had a molecular weight of about 190,000 daltons, and showed high proportions of glutamic acid, cysteine, aspartic acid, serine, and glycine and a low content of methionine and histidine. More than 80% of total tritium radioactivity incorporated into this protein was distributed among indispensable phenylalanine (30.3%) and, isoleucine (17.2%), valine (17.6%), proline (10,5%) and tyrosine (8.4%). The highest values of specific radioactivity were recorded for phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and methionine. The radioactivity recovered in the amino acids is due to the presence of firmly bound tritium. (author)

  11. Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber, the tip link, and the linkages that anchor the taller stereocilia's actin cytoskeleton core to the shorter adjacent stereocilia and the elusive mechanotransduction channels, explaining the deafness phenotype when these molecular interactions are perturbed. The conundrum is that photoreceptors lack a synonymous mechanotransduction apparatus, and so a common theory for Usher protein function in the two neurosensory cell types affected in Usher syndrome is lacking. Recent evidence linking photoreceptor cell dysfunction in the shaker 1 mouse model for Usher syndrome to light-induced protein translocation defects, combined with localization of an Usher protein interactome at the periciliary region of the photoreceptors suggests Usher proteins might regulate protein trafficking between the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. A distinct Usher protein complex is trafficked to the ribbon synapses of hair cells, and synaptic defects have been reported in Usher mutants in both hair cells and photoreceptors. This review aims to clarify what is known about Usher protein function at the synaptic and apical poles of hair cells and photoreceptors and the prospects for identifying a unifying pathobiological mechanism to explain deaf/blindness in Usher syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of tracer elements in human hair using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jing; Gao Deyu; Zhao Li; Li Hong

    2004-01-01

    Using chemical addition method to calibrate absorption effect, trace element in human hair are analyzed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Based on practical samples of human hair, the relative matrix absorption efficienty is determined, and the relation ship between which and the most important componet Ca is fitted. The contents of Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn in the human hair are analyzed using the calibrated constants. A group of standard human hair samples are analyzed and the results are compared with the recommended value of the National Standard. The measured values show a good coincidence with the recommended values. Comparing to the GB, the deviations are Ca 0.28%, Fe 0.99%, Cu 2.6%, Zn 0; the relative errors are Ca 2.2%, Fe 1.7%, Cu 2.2%, Zn 1.1%, and the sensitivity is ≤2.2%. This method may be used to determine the tracing elements in human hair. (authors)

  13. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon; Yun, Jun-Won; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated...

  14. Zebrafish Models for the Mechanosensory Hair Cell Dysfunction in Usher Syndrome 3 Reveal That Clarin-1 Is an Essential Hair Bundle Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Suhasini R; Chen, Daniel H-C; Chou, Shih-Wei; Zang, Jingjing; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Stepanyan, Ruben; McDermott, Brian M; Alagramam, Kumar N

    2015-07-15

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3) is characterized by progressive loss of hearing and vision, and varying degrees of vestibular dysfunction. It is caused by mutations that affect the human clarin-1 protein (hCLRN1), a member of the tetraspanin protein family. The missense mutation CLRN1(N48K), which affects a conserved N-glycosylation site in hCLRN1, is a common causative USH3 mutation among Ashkenazi Jews. The affected individuals hear at birth but lose that function over time. Here, we developed an animal model system using zebrafish transgenesis and gene targeting to provide an explanation for this phenotype. Immunolabeling demonstrated that Clrn1 localized to the hair cell bundles (hair bundles). The clrn1 mutants generated by zinc finger nucleases displayed aberrant hair bundle morphology with diminished function. Two transgenic zebrafish that express either hCLRN1 or hCLRN1(N48K) in hair cells were produced to examine the subcellular localization patterns of wild-type and mutant human proteins. hCLRN1 localized to the hair bundles similarly to zebrafish Clrn1; in contrast, hCLRN1(N48K) largely mislocalized to the cell body with a small amount reaching the hair bundle. We propose that this small amount of hCLRN1(N48K) in the hair bundle provides clarin-1-mediated function during the early stages of life; however, the presence of hCLRN1(N48K) in the hair bundle diminishes over time because of intracellular degradation of the mutant protein, leading to progressive loss of hair bundle integrity and hair cell function. These findings and genetic tools provide an understanding and path forward to identify therapies to mitigate hearing loss linked to the CLRN1 mutation. Mutations in the clarin-1 gene affect eye and ear function in humans. Individuals with the CLRN1(N48K) mutation are born able to hear but lose that function over time. Here, we develop an animal model system using zebrafish transgenesis and gene targeting to provide an explanation for this phenotype

  15. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (P EOCl EPOCl <0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  16. Comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic products sold in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The average total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations in the scalp hair of females using mercury based cosmetic creams and soaps ranged from 7.0 ± 0.4 to 880 ± 12 ppm. Highest T-Hg concentrations ...

  17. Sorption of radiocalcium on human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovic, M.; Pilecka, N.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption of 45 Ca on hair from a 45 CaCl 2 solution (2.5x10 -3 mol l -1 ) was studied. The calcium amounts sorbed in 1 min to 5 h range between 0.8 and 7.2% with respect to the originally present calcium in hair. (author) 3 refs

  18. Quantitative analysis and classification of AFM images of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, S P; Monteiro, V F; Longo, E; Ferreira, M M C

    2004-07-01

    The surface topography of human hair, as defined by the outer layer of cellular sheets, termed cuticles, largely determines the cosmetic properties of the hair. The condition of the cuticles is of great cosmetic importance, but also has the potential to aid diagnosis in the medical and forensic sciences. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been demonstrated to offer unique advantages for analysis of the hair surface, mainly due to the high image resolution and the ease of sample preparation. This article presents an algorithm for the automatic analysis of AFM images of human hair. The cuticular structure is characterized using a series of descriptors, such as step height, tilt angle and cuticle density, allowing quantitative analysis and comparison of different images. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by a classification study. Thirty-eight AFM images were measured, consisting of hair samples from (a) untreated and bleached hair samples, and (b) the root and distal ends of the hair fibre. The multivariate classification technique partial least squares discriminant analysis is used to test the ability of the algorithm to characterize the images according to the properties of the hair samples. Most of the images (86%) were found to be classified correctly.

  19. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Seyda; Ozbey, Turan

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with ΔHpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (G mean ) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  20. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Serial cultivation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the serial cultivation of adult human hair follicle keratinocytes. Plucked scalp hair follicles, placed on bovine eye lens capsules as a growth substrate, give rise to quickly expanding colonies within a few days. After trypsinization, the cells are replated with irradiated 3T3 cells as 'feeders'. Using this combination of techniques the keratinocytes can be subcultured up to four times. In this way about 10(7) keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. Moreover, the technique enables cryogenic storage of the cells, allowing for instance, convenient transportation. Subcultured hair follicle keratinocytes can be plated on glass coverslips. This allows immunofluorescence studies. The keratin cytoskeletons visualized using an antiserum against human keratin.

  2. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  4. Association Between Human Hair Loss and the Expression Levels of Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, and UBTF Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Sener; Eroz, Recep; Dogan, Hasan; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Kara, Murat; Engin, Ragip Ismail; Turkez, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions, also known as argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, are associated with ribosomal genes. The main function of the nucleolus is the rapid production of ribosomal subunits, a process that must be highly regulated to provide the appropriate levels for cellular proliferation and cell growth. There are no studies in the literature addressing the expression and function of nucleolar component proteins, including nucleophosmin, nucleolin and the upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF), in human follicular hair cells. Nineteen healthy males who had normal and sufficient hair follicles on the back of the head, but exhibited hair loss on the frontal/vertex portions of the head and 14 healthy males without hair loss were included in the current study. Gene expression levels were measured by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In the individuals suffering from alopecia, the total expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF were lower in normal sites than in hair loss sites. Strong expression level correlations were detected between: nucleophosmin and nucleolin; nucleophosmin and UBTF, and nucleolin and UBTF for both groups. There was an association between human hair loss and the expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF genes.

  5. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs.

  6. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated dorsal skin of mice, gold thread or polyglycolic acid (PGA) thread, similarly to 5% minoxidil, significantly increased the number of hair follicles on day 14 after implantation. And, hair re-growth promotion in the gold threadimplanted mice were significantly higher than that in PGA thread group on day 11 after depilation. In particular, the skin tissue of gold thread-implanted mice showed stronger PCNA staining and higher collagen density compared with control mice. These results indicate that gold thread implantation can be an effective way to promote hair re-growth although further confirmatory study is needed for more information on therapeutic mechanisms and long-term safety. PMID:29399026

  7. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  8. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin grande content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the sbnd SSsbnd groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans and trans-gauche-trans contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation shows that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, the author concluded that the sbnd SSsbnd groups, which have a GGG conformation were decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin was changed to the random coil structure, or eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the reduction in the protein density of the virgin human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.

  9. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, W.; Dharmvanij, W; Chongkum, S.

    1998-01-01

    Hair samples from students aged between 7 to 22 years old were analysed by neutron activation analysis at nuclear research reactor TRR-1.M1. From qualitative analysis of short-lived isotopes, A1, V, Ca, I, Cl, Mn, and Na were found. The quantity of those elements can be classified into three groups. The first group is A1, Ca, Na and Cl with variance less than 10%. The second group is V and I with variance between 10% to 50% and the third group, Mn, two samples have concentration about 12 times higher than the others

  10. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  11. A method for culturing human hair follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1981-01-01

    For the first time a method for culturing human hair follicle cells is described. The bovine eye lens capsule, a basement membrane-like structure, is used as the substrate for the cultures. In a culture medium supplemented with hydrocortisone and insulin about 70% of the original follicles will form growing colonies of diploid keratinocytes.

  12. Hair root diameter measurement as an indicator of protein deficiency in nonhospitalized alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregar, R R; Gordon, M; Whitney, E N

    1978-02-01

    Protein status of alcoholics admitted to a detoxification center was investigated with a view to adapting a hair root test for use in screening for protein deficiency. Hair root volume and hair root diameter had previously been shown to correlate well with hair root protein and to be sensitive indicators of protein deficiency. Hair root volumes in this study correlated well with mean maximum hair root diameters (n = 35, r = 0.9), which were simpler to measure, so diameter measurements were used. Mean maximum hair root diameters (range 0.02 to 0.19 mm) correlated with plasma RNase concentrations (range 6000 to 14,000 units/ml; n = 17, r = -0.7). Mean hair diameters of 84 alcoholics averaged 0.0864 +/- 0.0366 mm; those of 25 nonalcoholics were significantly greater: 0.100 +/- 0.0254 mm (P less than 0.05). Frequency of occurrence of hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less was significantly higher in 71 alcoholics (29.5%) than in 23 nonalcoholics (8.6%) matched by age. Mean hair root diameters of 0.06 mm or less therefore can be used to signify protein deficiency where more expensive or technically demanding tests are not feasible. Protein deficiency occurs extensively in non hospitalized alcoholics. This method enables staff to single out those clients most likely to be in need of nutritional counseling and therapy.

  13. Enhancement of cell wall protein SRPP expression during emergent root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Takada, Natsuki; Sato, Ryosuke; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-10-03

    SRPP is a protein expressed in seeds and root hairs and is significantly induced in root hairs under phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. Root hairs in the knockout mutant srpp-1 display defects, i.e., suppression of cell growth and cell death. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of SRPP during cell elongation of root hairs and compared the transcript levels in several mutants with short root hairs. The mRNA level was increased in wild-type plants and decreased in mutants with short root hairs. Induction of SRPP expression by Pi starvation occurred one or two days later than induction of Pi-deficient sensitive genes, such as PHT1 and PHF1. These results indicate that the expression of SRPP is coordinated with root hair elongation. We hypothesize that SRPP is essential for structural robustness of the cell walls of root hairs.

  14. Implication of Human Hair in Regaining Spilled Oil Further Creating A Production Rise in Oyster Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, U.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 4.9 million liters of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Oil spill may be as huge as of 8 million barrels (The Persian Gulf oil spill of 1991). Oil-water separation processes using polymeric or inorganic membranes have been proposed as effective and cost competitive technologies but in present the commercial use of membrane in treatment of spilled oil is currently limited by their low efficiency as well as high capital and operating cost. Indian hair-market is a billion-dollar industry yearly exporting thousands of tones of thick and dark hairs. Hairs contain keratin, a family of fibrous structural proteins been proved to adsorb oils. Laboratory results conclude that one gram of human hair can selectively adsorb about 15.5301 grams of crude oil over water, following Frendlich's isotherm. We seek hair mats made up of hairs of size ≤5 inches, costing 37/ton from selected parts of Indian hair market. With a known adsorbing efficiency of 95% towards crude oil, an estimated desorption efficiency of 70% oil worth 0.8M per year can be regained in crude form from U.S. waters only. To ensure solid waste management of hairs, hair mats left with 30% of adsorbed oil can be utilized in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, a 20-34/kg crop that grows best in 20-25°C ,80-90% relative humidity and oily conditions. This will reduce the growing period of crop ensuring yearly profit of $6.06M in U.S. only engaging variety of stakeholders over borders. Results thus obtained in this study present an economic, safer and sustainable technique to minimize oil loss due to oil spill in waters further ensuring a low labor-low cost technique of waste management that enhances the growth of an in-demand crop. Keywords: Oil Spill, Human Hair Mats, Adsorb, Oyster Mushrooms

  15. Forensic Human Hair Examination and Comparison in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M

    2005-01-01

    Forensic hair examination and comparison is often undervalued as evidence. Significant information can be developed from a thorough microscopic examination and comparison of human and animal hairs that can assist criminal and civil investigations. Animal hairs can be distinguished easily from human hairs and often can be specified to a genus, species, or even breed. Human hairs often can be identified as to their body area origin and the racial ancestry of the person from whom they originated. Additionally, damage, disease, or cosmetic treatments can be identified and described. Finally, suitable hairs can be compared microscopically with known hair samples to determine if they could have come from the same source. This application is now being augmented by mitochondrial DNA analysis, which enhances the information already available from a microscopic examination of evidentiary hairs. Training and qualification of forensic hair examiners is crucial to the quality and reliability of forensic hair examinations. Many of the weaknesses in forensic hair examinations seen to date are a result of inadequate training of forensic hair examiners and a lack of understanding about the fundamental nature of the examination of hairs. Mitochondrial DNA offers a chance for the rehabilitation and validation of microscopical examination of human, and potentially animal, hairs. Copyright © 2005 Central Police University.

  16. A new path in defining light parameters for hair growth: Discovery and modulation of photoreceptors in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscone, Serena; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Raafs, Bianca; Bikker, Jan W; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Farjo, Nilofer; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2017-09-01

    Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches. The functional significance of Opsin 3 was assessed by silencing its expression in the hair follicle cells followed by a transcriptomic profiling. Proprietary LED-based devices emitting two discrete visible wavelengths were used to access the effects of selected optical parameters on hair growth ex vivo and outer root sheath cells in vitro. The expression of OPN2 (Rhodopsin) and OPN3 (Panopsin, Encephalopsin) was detected in the distinct compartments of skin and anagen hair follicle. Treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of blue light with 453 nm central wavelength significantly prolonged anagen phase in hair follicles ex vivo that was correlated with sustained proliferation in the light-treated samples. In contrast, hair follicle treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of 689 nm light (red light) did not significantly affect hair growth ex vivo. Silencing of OPN3 in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells resulted in the altered expression of genes involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis, and abrogated stimulatory effects of blue light (3.2 J/cm 2 ; 453 nm) on proliferation in the outer root sheath cells. We provide the first evidence that (i) OPN2 and OPN3 are expressed in human hair follicle, and (ii) A 453 nm blue light at low radiant exposure exerts a positive effect on hair growth ex vivo, potentially via interaction with OPN3. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:705-718, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  17. New method in the criminalistics: neutron-activation analysis of the human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, I.; Simonits, A.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the neutron activation analysis for the examination of human hair for criminological purposes is discussed. Earlier Nal scintillation detector and 256-channels analyzer were used and only form trace elements could be detected in the hair. Recently using Ge/Li detector and a 1024-channels analyzer 11 trace elements were detected in the human hair. (H.E.)

  18. Repair of traumatized mammalian hair cells via sea anemone repair proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ciao; Smith, Karen Müller; Watson, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian hair cells possess only a limited ability to repair damage after trauma. In contrast, sea anemones show a marked capability to repair damaged hair bundles by means of secreted repair proteins (RPs). Previously, it was found that recovery of traumatized hair cells in blind cavefish was enhanced by anemone-derived RPs; therefore, the ability of anemone RPs to assist recovery of damaged hair cells in mammals was tested here. After a 1 h incubation in RP-enriched culture media, uptake of FM1-43 by experimentally traumatized murine cochlear hair cells was restored to levels comparable to those exhibited by healthy controls. In addition, RP-treated explants had significantly more normally structured hair bundles than time-matched traumatized control explants. Collectively, these results indicate that anemone-derived RPs assist in restoring normal function and structure of experimentally traumatized hair cells of the mouse cochlea. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The mechanosensory structure of the hair cell requires clarin-1, a protein encoded by Usher syndrome III causative gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ruishuang; Melki, Sami; Chen, Daniel H-C; Tian, Guilian; Furness, David N; Oshima-Takago, Tomoko; Neef, Jakob; Moser, Tobias; Askew, Charles; Horwitz, Geoff; Holt, Jeffrey R; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Alagramam, Kumar N

    2012-07-11

    Mutation in the clarin-1 gene (Clrn1) results in loss of hearing and vision in humans (Usher syndrome III), but the role of clarin-1 in the sensory hair cells is unknown. Clarin-1 is predicted to be a four transmembrane domain protein similar to members of the tetraspanin family. Mice carrying null mutation in the clarin-1 gene (Clrn1(-/-)) show loss of hair cell function and a possible defect in ribbon synapse. We investigated the role of clarin-1 using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. We show by immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recordings of Ca(2+) currents and membrane capacitance from inner hair cells that clarin-1 is not essential for formation or function of ribbon synapse. However, reduced cochlear microphonic potentials, FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] loading, and transduction currents pointed to diminished cochlear hair bundle function in Clrn1(-/-) mice. Electron microscopy of cochlear hair cells revealed loss of some tall stereocilia and gaps in the v-shaped bundle, although tip links and staircase arrangement of stereocilia were not primarily affected by Clrn1(-/-) mutation. Human clarin-1 protein expressed in transfected mouse cochlear hair cells localized to the bundle; however, the pathogenic variant p.N48K failed to localize to the bundle. The mouse model generated to study the in vivo consequence of p.N48K in clarin-1 (Clrn1(N48K)) supports our in vitro and Clrn1(-/-) mouse data and the conclusion that CLRN1 is an essential hair bundle protein. Furthermore, the ear phenotype in the Clrn1(N48K) mouse suggests that it is a valuable model for ear disease in CLRN1(N48K), the most prevalent Usher syndrome III mutation in North America.

  20. Environment as reflected in human tissue and hair: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, I.M.; Lenihan, J.M.A.; Smith, H.

    1974-01-01

    This study looks at variations in trace metal content of a range of human tissues over a period of 10 years, extended comparison of metal concentrations in hair specimens over 200 years, the influence of geographical location on trace element levels in hair and nails and investigates groups of people with particular exposure problems. It is found that there has been little or no change in the concentration of some of the trace elements in human tissue over the past ten years. An extended survey of hair over the past 200 years shows a similar result. Investigation of trace element levels from widely separated localities also indicates little or no change in metal concentrations. It appears from these studies that man's contamination from his environment has remained fairly constant with respect to time and place. However it is shown in further studies that local pockets of significant exposure, e.g., particular professions, industry, agriculture and self-medication, do occur and certainly warrant close attention

  1. Development of a stiffness-angle law for simplifying the measurement of human hair stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I K; Park, S C; Lee, Y R; Bin, S A; Hong, Y D; Eun, D; Lee, J H; Roh, Y S; Kim, B M

    2018-04-01

    This research examines the benefits of caffeine absorption on hair stiffness. To test hair stiffness, we have developed an evaluation method that is not only accurate, but also inexpensive. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness culminated in a model, called the Stiffness-Angle Law, which describes the elastic properties of hair and can be widely applied to the development of hair care products. Small molecules (≤500 g mol -1 ) such as caffeine can be absorbed into hair. A common shampoo containing 4% caffeine was formulated and applied to hair 10 times, after which the hair stiffness was measured. The caffeine absorption of the treated hair was observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with a focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness consists of a regular camera and a support for single strands of hair. After attaching the hair to the support, the bending angle of the hair was observed with a camera and measured. Then, the hair strand was weighed. The stiffness of the hair was calculated based on our proposed Stiffness-Angle Law using three variables: angle, weight of hair and the distance the hair was pulled across the support. The caffeine absorption was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The concentration of amide bond in the hair certainly increased due to caffeine absorption. After caffeine was absorbed into the hair, the bending angle and weight of the hair changed. Applying these measured changes to the Stiffness-Angle Law, it was confirmed that the hair stiffness increased by 13.2% due to caffeine absorption. The theoretical results using the Stiffness-Angle Law agree with the visual examinations of hair exposed to caffeine and also the known results of hair stiffness from a previous report. Our evaluation method combined with our proposed Stiffness-Angle Law effectively provides an accurate and inexpensive evaluation technique for measuring bending stiffness of human hair. © 2018

  2. The Mechanosensory Structure of the Hair Cell Requires Clarin-1, a Protein Encoded by Usher Syndrome III Causative Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ruishuang; Melki, Sami; Chen, Daniel H.-C.; Tian, Guilian; Furness, David; Oshima-Takago, Tomoko; Neef, Jakob; Moser, Tobias; Askew, Charles; Horwitz, Geoff; Holt, Jeffrey; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Alagramam, Kumar N.

    2012-01-01

    Mutation in the clarin-1 gene results in loss of hearing and vision in humans (Usher syndrome III), but the role of clarin-1 in the sensory hair cells is unknown. Clarin-1 is predicted to be a four transmembrane domain protein similar to members of the tetraspanin family. Mice carrying null mutation in the clarin-1 (Clrn1−/−) gene show loss of hair cell function and a possible defect in ribbon synapse. We investigated the role of clarin-1 using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. We show by immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recordings of Ca2+ currents and membrane capacitance from IHCs that clarin-1 is not essential for formation or function of ribbon synapse. However, reduced cochlear microphonic potentials, FM1-43 loading and transduction currents pointed to diminished cochlear hair bundle function in Clrn1−/− mice. Electron microscopy of cochlear hair cells revealed loss of some tall stereocilia and gaps in the v-shaped bundle, although tip-links and staircase arrangement of stereocilia were not primarily affected by Clrn1−/− mutation. Human clarin-1 protein expressed in transfected mouse cochlear hair cells localized to the bundle; however, the pathogenic variant, p.N48K, failed to localize to the bundle. The mouse model generated to study the in vivo consequence of p. N48K in clarin-1 (Clrn1N48K) supports our in vitro and Clrn1−/− mouse data and the conclusion that CLRN1 is an essential hair bundle protein. Further, the ear phenotype in the Clrn1N48K mouse suggests that it is a valuable model for ear disease in CLRN1N48K, the most prevalent Usher III mutation in North America. PMID:22787034

  3. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic and antimony in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Yukio; Isono, Hideo; Kozuka, Hiroshi.

    1975-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and antimony in human hair samples is studied. The sample of hair (100 mg) irradiated for 5 hours with a neutron flux of 2.1x10 12 n/cm 2 s was decomposed with a sulfuric-nitric acid mixture after addition of each 5 mg of arsenic and antimony as carrier. Arsine and stibine were evolved from the solution of decomposed hair by reduction with 3 g of granular zinc and were absorbed in 0.1N iodine solution for half an hour. Metal arsenic was separated from iodine solution by precipitation with sodium hypophosphite, followed by precipitation of antimony as sulfide with thioacetamide. These precipitates were dissolved and their gamma-ray spectra were measured with a well type 3''x3'' NaI(TI) detector equipped with a 200 channel pulse-height analyzer. After the measurement of gamma-ray spectra, the chemical yields were determined by colorimetric methods. The relative standard deviations were 7% and 4% for 0.01 μg As and 0.024 μg Sb, respectively. The sensitivity of this method was estimated to be 1x10 -3 μg for arsenic and 2x10 -3 μg for antimony. (auth.)

  4. Greying of the human hair: a worldwide survey, revisiting the '50' rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhard, S; Lozano, I; Loussouarn, G

    2012-10-01

    While numerous papers have reported on the biological mechanisms of human hair pigmentation and greying, epidemiological descriptions of both natural hair colour and the greying process, worldwide, remain scarce. To assess hair colour and greying in a large world sample of human subjects, and to revisit the validity of the 50/50/50 rule of thumb, which states that 'at age 50 years, 50% of the population has at least 50% grey hair'. The natural hair colour of 4192 healthy male and female volunteers was assessed using a sensorial expert evaluation through the comparison of each volunteer's hair with standard swatches. Hair colour was studied according to age, gender and ethnic or geographical origin. Overall we observed that between 45 and 65 years of age, 74% of people were affected by grey hair with a mean intensity of 27%. Men harboured significantly more grey hair than women. Both age at onset and rate of greying with age appeared to be clearly linked to ethnic/geographical origin. Subjects of Asian and African descent showed less grey hair than those of caucasian origin, at comparable ages, confirming previously reported data. Calculating the percentage of people showing at least 50% grey hair coverage at age 50 years leads to a global range of 6-23%, according to ethnic/geographical origin and natural hair colour: well below that expressed by the '50' rule of thumb. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-15

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:16507890

  8. Human scalp hair follicles are both a target and a source of prolactin, which serves as an autocrine and/or paracrine promoter of apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyper-prolactinemia.

  9. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  10. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nanotribological characterization of human hair and skin using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaTorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-01-01

    Healthy hair and skin is highly desired. Characterization of their morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties) is essential to enhance understanding of hair and skin and to advance the science. Literature on the tribological characterization of hair and skin is scarce to date. The paper presents nanotribological data and analysis on hair (Caucasian, Asian, and African hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and treated conditions) and synthetic hair and skin, as well as roughness data of human skin replica. Roughness statistics are presented to characterize the vertical and spatial surface parameters. Average coefficient of friction values were determined for each ethnicity and hair type, and are discussed. The directionality dependence of friction is also discussed. Magnitude and spatial distribution of adhesive force are used to estimate thickness and distribution of the conditioner film

  12. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Chen, Nianhuan

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of cellular structure and physical and mechanical properties of hair are essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Although the morphology of the cellular structure of human hair has been traditionally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, these techniques provide limited capability to in situ study of the physical and mechanical properties of human hair in various environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) overcomes these problems and can be used for characterization in ambient conditions without requiring specific sample preparations and surface treatment. In this study, film thickness, adhesive forces and effective Young's modulus of various hair surfaces were measured at different environments (humidity and temperature) using force calibration plot technique with an AFM. Torsional resonance mode phase contrast images were also taken in order to characterize the morphology and cellular structure changes of human hair at different humidity. The correlation between the nanomechanical properties and the cellular structure of hair is discussed

  14. Characterisation of cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation in a maximally proliferative human epithelial tissue: Lessons from the human hair follicle matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Brunken, Lars; Peake, Michael; Shahmalak, Asim; Chaves, Asuncion; Poblet, Enrique; Ceballos, Laura; Gandarillas, Alberto; Paus, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21 CIP1 , p27 KIP1 and p57 KIP2 ) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression. K85 expression coincided with loss or reduction in cell cycle activity markers, including in situ DNA synthesis (EdU incorporation), Ki-67, phospho-histone H3 and cyclins A and B1, affirming a post-mitotic state of pre-cortical HF keratinocytes. Expression of CIP/KIP proteins was found abundantly within the proliferative hair matrix, concomitant with a role in cell cycle checkpoint control. p21 CIP1 , p27 KIP1 and cyclin E persisted within post-mitotic keratinocytes of the pre-cortex, whereas p57 KIP2 protein decreased but became nuclear. These data imply a supportive role for CIP/KIP proteins in maintaining proliferative arrest, differentiation and anti-apoptotic pathways, promoting continuous hair bulb growth and hair shaft formation in anagen VI. Moreover, post-mitotic hair matrix regions contained cells with enlarged nuclei, and DNA in situ hybridisation showed cells that were >2N in the pre-cortex. This suggests that CIP/KIP proteins might counterbalance cyclin E to control further rounds of DNA replication in a cell population that has a propensity to become tetraploid. These data shed new light on the in situ-biography of human hair matrix keratinocytes on their path of active cell cycling, arrest and terminal differentiation, and showcase the human HF as an excellent, clinically

  15. Speciation of arsenic in human nail and hair from arsenic-affected area by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.

    2003-01-01

    Nail and hair are rich in fibrous proteins, i.e., α-keratins that contain abundant cysteine residues (up to 22% in nail and 10-14% in hair). Although they are metabolically dead materials in the epidermis, the roots are highly influenced by the health status of the living beings and their analyses are used as a tool to monitor occupational and environmental exposure to toxic elements. The aims of the present study are to speciate arsenicals in human nail and hair and also to judge whether they should be used as a biomarker to arsenic (As) exposure and/or toxicity. All human fingernail and hair samples (n = 47) were collected from the As-affected area of West Bengal, India. Speciation of arsenicals in water extracts of fingernails and hair at 90 degree sign C was carried out by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS). Fingernails contained iAs III (58.6%), iAs V (21.5), MMA V (7.7), DMA III (9.2), and DMA V (3.0), and hair contained iAs III (60.9%), iAs V (33.2), MMA V (2.2), and DMA V (3.6). Fingernails contained DMA III , but hair did not. The higher percentage of iAs III both in fingernails and hair than that of iAs V suggests more affinity of iAs III to keratin. Although all arsenicals in fingernails and hair correlate to As exposure positively, As speciation in fingernails seems to be more correlated with arsenism than that in hair. Exogenous contamination is a confounding factor for hair to consider it as a biomarker, whereas this is mostly absent in fingernails, which recommends it to be a better biomarker to arsenic exposure. DMA III content in fingernails and DMA V contents in both fingernails and hair could be the biomarker to As exposure

  16. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Na [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chen, Yan [Central Laboratory, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Wang, Zhengmin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Guoling [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Qin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Otolaryngology Institute of Fujian Province, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Zheng-Yi, E-mail: Zheng-yi_chen@meei.harvard.edu [Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Li, Huawei, E-mail: hwli@shmu.edu.cn [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  17. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. ► Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. ► Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. ► Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  18. Amino acid δ13C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen using liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; McCullagh, James S. O.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel method for the chromatographic separation and measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of individual amino acids in hair proteins and bone collagen using the LC-IsoLink system, which interfaces liquid chromatography (LC) with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS......). This paper provides baseline separation of 15 and 13 of the 18 amino acids in bone collagen and hair proteins, respectively. We also describe an approach to analysing small hair samples for compound-specific analysis of segmental hair sections. The LC/IRMS method is applied in a historical context...... by the delta(13)C analysis of hair proteins and bone collagen recovered from six individuals from Uummannaq in Greenland. The analysis of hair and bone amino acids from the same individual, compared for the first time in this study, is of importance in palaeodietary reconstruction. If hair proteins can be used...

  19. Differential Expression of Proteins Associated with the Hair Follicle Cycle - Proteomics and Bioinformatics Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Hair follicle cycling can be divided into the following three stages: anagen, catagen, and telogen. The molecular signals that orchestrate the follicular transition between phases are still unknown. To better understand the detailed protein networks controlling this process, proteomics and bioinformatics analyses were performed to construct comparative protein profiles of mouse skin at specific time points (0, 8, and 20 days. Ninety-five differentially expressed protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF as 44 proteins, which were found to change during hair follicle cycle transition. Proteomics analysis revealed that these changes in protein expression are involved in Ca2+-regulated biological processes, migration, and regulation of signal transduction, among other processes. Subsequently, three proteins were selected to validate the reliability of expression patterns using western blotting. Cluster analysis revealed three expression patterns, and each pattern correlated with specific cell processes that occur during the hair cycle. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis indicated that the differentially expressed proteins impacted multiple biological networks, after which detailed functional analyses were performed. Taken together, the above data may provide insight into the three stages of mouse hair follicle morphogenesis and provide a solid basis for potential therapeutic molecular targets for this hair disease.

  20. AFM friction and adhesion mapping of the substructures of human hair cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James R.; Tsibouklis, John; Nevell, Thomas G.; Breakspear, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, values of the microscale friction coefficient, the tip (silicon nitride) - surface adhesion force and the corresponding adhesion energy, for the substructures that constitute the surface of human hair (European brown hair) have been determined from Amonton plots. The values, mapped for comparison with surface topography, corresponded qualitatively with the substructures’ plane surface characteristics. Localised maps and values of the frictional coefficient, extracted avoiding scale edge effects, are likely to inform the formulation of hair-care products and treatments.

  1. Molecular evolution of the keratin associated protein gene family in mammals, role in the evolution of mammalian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2008-08-23

    Hair is unique to mammals. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), which contain two major groups: high/ultrahigh cysteine and high glycine-tyrosine, are one of the major components of hair and play essential roles in the formation of rigid and resistant hair shafts. The KRTAP family was identified as being unique to mammals, and near-complete KRTAP gene repertoires for eight mammalian genomes were characterized in this study. An expanded KRTAP gene repertoire was found in rodents. Surprisingly, humans have a similar number of genes as other primates despite the relative hairlessness of humans. We identified several new subfamilies not previously reported in the high/ultrahigh cysteine KRTAP genes. Genes in many subfamilies of the high/ultrahigh cysteine KRTAP genes have evolved by concerted evolution with frequent gene conversion events, yielding a higher GC base content for these gene sequences. In contrast, the high glycine-tyrosine KRTAP genes have evolved more dynamically, with fewer gene conversion events and thus have a lower GC base content, possibly due to positive selection. Most of the subfamilies emerged early in the evolution of mammals, thus we propose that the mammalian ancestor should have a diverse KRTAP gene repertoire. We propose that hair content characteristics have evolved and diverged rapidly among mammals because of rapid divergent evolution of KRTAPs between species. In contrast, subfamilies of KRTAP genes have been homogenized within each species due to concerted evolution.

  2. Nanotribological and nanomechanical characterization of human hair using a nanoscratch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Human hair ({approx}50-100 {mu}m in diameter) is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures, and is of great interest for both cosmetic science and materials science. Characterization of nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair including the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance is essential to develop better shampoo and conditioner products and advance biological and cosmetic science. In this paper, the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance of Caucasian and Asian hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and conditioner-treated conditions are measured using a nanoscratch technique with a Nano Indenter II system. The scratch tests were performed on both the single cuticle cell and multiple cuticle cells of each hair sample, and the scratch wear tracks were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after the scratch tests. The effect of soaking on the coefficient of friction, scratch resistance, hardness and Young's modulus of hair surface were also studied by performing experiments on hair samples which had been soaked in de-ionized water for 5 min. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair as a function of hair structure (hair of different ethnicity), damage, treatment and soaking are discussed.

  3. Nanotribological and nanomechanical characterization of human hair using a nanoscratch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Guohua; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-01-01

    Human hair (∼50-100 μm in diameter) is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures, and is of great interest for both cosmetic science and materials science. Characterization of nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair including the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance is essential to develop better shampoo and conditioner products and advance biological and cosmetic science. In this paper, the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance of Caucasian and Asian hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and conditioner-treated conditions are measured using a nanoscratch technique with a Nano Indenter II system. The scratch tests were performed on both the single cuticle cell and multiple cuticle cells of each hair sample, and the scratch wear tracks were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after the scratch tests. The effect of soaking on the coefficient of friction, scratch resistance, hardness and Young's modulus of hair surface were also studied by performing experiments on hair samples which had been soaked in de-ionized water for 5 min. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair as a function of hair structure (hair of different ethnicity), damage, treatment and soaking are discussed

  4. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  5. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  6. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  7. The quantitative determination of uranium in human hair by fission track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.J.; Bentley, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Human hairs containing a uranium burden were placed in contact with a mica sheet as the recording matrix and irradiated in a thermal neutron flux. The fission fragment tracks penetrating the mica were etched and counted. Calculations have been made to show the losses due to the fission fragment range being less than the diameter of the hair and for the variation of track density with distance from the line of contact between the hair and the mica. Experimental data from 50 μm diameter hair and those derived by calculation were compared. (author)

  8. Sonic Hedgehog Initiates Cochlear Hair Cell Regeneration through Downregulation of Retinoblastoma Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:23211596

  9. Analysis of pollutants in human scalp hair in Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdulla, W.A.; Rashid, S.M.; Yousef, A.

    1985-01-01

    Scalp hair, urine and blood samples from volunteers selected from different areas surrounding Cairo were collected for study by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and conventional methods. The results for 14 elements in hair show some variation between the different regions. Qualitatively there is a slight difference of abundance of the investigated elements. Broadly speaking the presence of major elements is dominant. No relationship was observed between the elemental composition of hair and urine. (author)

  10. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  13. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  15. Trace metal pollutants in Filipino human head hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Beltran, I.L.; Cruz, C.C. (Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman, Quezon City)

    Hair samples from residents of different geographical locations in the Philippines were analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Baseline values of these elements in hair were obtained for the different regions and for the total population sampled.

  16. Trace metal pollutants in Filipino human head hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Beltran, I.L.; Cruz, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Hair samples from residents of different geographical locations in the Philippines were analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Baseline values of these elements in hair were obtained for the different regions and for the total population sampled. (author)

  17. Topographical and Tribological Characteristics of Asian Human Hair Cuticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topography and frictional force of Asian black male and female hair cuticles at different locations are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM and friction force microscopy (FFM. The frictional values, mapped for comparison with surface morphology, corresponded qualitatively with the structures’ plane surface characteristics. The results indicate that the hair surface was damaged and modified at different temperatures and heating times. The height of the female hair at a blowing temperature of 60°C after a duration of 2 min between the cuticle edge and cuticle surface was approximately 440–556 nm. The adhesion phenomenon occurs on the hair surface and interface. The cuticles do not vary after the heating; however, the hair damage sustained increases with serious deterioration.

  18. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  19. A study on human hair element content as monitor for trace elements pollution in Eg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.; Metwally, E.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element content in human is a suitable indicator of exposure to trace element pollutants. Concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from more than 23 individuals have been determined. The collected hair samples were classified into four groups collected from workers at nuclear research center and others far away from the center. Neutron activation analysis technique was used in the preset study. The data reported for trace elements content in different hair samples were discussed. Significant differences were observed for several elements levels. comparative studies demonstrated that the concentration of some elements in hair of exposed workers, are greater than those corresponding to non exposed workers. Also, there was no clear significant correlation between the elements content of different hair samples and the age of the donors

  20. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of computer keyboards), there have been no metagenomic evaluations of human hairs-a substrate commonly encountered during forensic practice. This present study attempts to address this forensic capability gap, by conducting a qualitative assessment into the applicability of metagenomic analyses of human scalp and pubic hair. Forty-two DNA extracts obtained from human scalp and pubic hairs generated a total of 79,766 reads, yielding 39,814 reads post control and abundance filtering. The results revealed the presence of unique combinations of microbial taxa that can enable discrimination between individuals and signature taxa indigenous to female pubic hairs. Microbial data from a single co-habiting couple added an extra dimension to the study by suggesting that metagenomic analyses might be of evidentiary value in sexual assault cases when other associative evidence is not present. Of all the data generated in this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data generated from pubic hair held the most potential for forensic applications. Metagenomic analyses of human hairs may provide independent data to augment other forensic results and possibly provide association between victims of sexual assault and offender when other associative evidence is absent. Based on results garnered in the present study, we believe that with further development, bacterial profiling of hair will become a valuable addition to the forensic toolkit.

  1. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  2. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  3. Role for a Novel Usher Protein Complex in Hair Cell Synaptic Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Rutledge, Joseph; Gratton, Michael Anne; Flannery, John; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell synaptic maturation are not well understood. Cadherin-23 (CDH23), protocadherin-15 (PCDH15) and the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1) have been implicated in the development of cochlear hair cell stereocilia, while clarin-1 has been suggested to also play a role in synaptogenesis. Mutations in CDH23, PCDH15, VLGR1 and clarin-1 cause Usher syndrome, characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Here we show developmental expression of these Usher proteins in afferent spiral ganglion neurons and hair cell synapses. We identify a novel synaptic Usher complex comprised of clarin-1 and specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR1. To establish the in vivo relevance of this complex, we performed morphological and quantitative analysis of the neuronal fibers and their synapses in the Clrn1−/− mouse, which was generated by incomplete deletion of the gene. These mice showed a delay in neuronal/synaptic maturation by both immunostaining and electron microscopy. Analysis of the ribbon synapses in Ames waltzerav3J mice also suggests a delay in hair cell synaptogenesis. Collectively, these results show that, in addition to the well documented role for Usher proteins in stereocilia development, Usher protein complexes comprised of specific protein isoforms likely function in synaptic maturation as well. PMID:22363448

  4. Role for a novel Usher protein complex in hair cell synaptic maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Zallocchi

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell synaptic maturation are not well understood. Cadherin-23 (CDH23, protocadherin-15 (PCDH15 and the very large G-protein coupled receptor 1 (VLGR1 have been implicated in the development of cochlear hair cell stereocilia, while clarin-1 has been suggested to also play a role in synaptogenesis. Mutations in CDH23, PCDH15, VLGR1 and clarin-1 cause Usher syndrome, characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Here we show developmental expression of these Usher proteins in afferent spiral ganglion neurons and hair cell synapses. We identify a novel synaptic Usher complex comprised of clarin-1 and specific isoforms of CDH23, PCDH15 and VLGR1. To establish the in vivo relevance of this complex, we performed morphological and quantitative analysis of the neuronal fibers and their synapses in the Clrn1-/- mouse, which was generated by incomplete deletion of the gene. These mice showed a delay in neuronal/synaptic maturation by both immunostaining and electron microscopy. Analysis of the ribbon synapses in Ames waltzer(av3J mice also suggests a delay in hair cell synaptogenesis. Collectively, these results show that, in addition to the well documented role for Usher proteins in stereocilia development, Usher protein complexes comprised of specific protein isoforms likely function in synaptic maturation as well.

  5. In search of decoding the syntax of the bioelements in human hair - A critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momčilović, Berislav; Prejac, Juraj; Skalny, Anatoly Viktorovich; Mimica, Ninoslav

    2018-04-12

    The principles and practice of assessing the human body nutritional status or its environmental exposure through hair bioelement analysis are presented; herein the term "bioelements" is used as a common denominator for the major elements, trace elements and ultra-trace elements that are found in the human body. The accumulation of bioelements in the hair followed the statistical Power Law and the resulting sigmoid curve can be zoned into five regions in the ascending order of abundance (Low, Marginal, Adequate, High, and Excessive). The Adequate linear region of the bioassay sigmoid curve may be further subdivided into Low adequate, Recommended, and Ample adequate sub regions in a 60:30:10 ratio. Phosphorus was the most invariant bioelement since its hair concentration varies minimally regardless of the geographical place of living, the twenty years' time interval between the analyses, sex, race and instrumentation, i.e., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) atomic emission spectrometry (AES), and inductively plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). The osteotrophic (bone seeking) bioelements: Ca, Mg, and Sr, were 2.5 times more abundant in the hair of women than men. Two principal electrolytes of the body (Na, K) of the multi-bioelement hair profile were markedly increased in the depressed subjects diagnosed according to the American Psychiatric Association MSD-IV classification criteria. This increase in the hair Na and K of the depressed subjects was also associated with the decrease of vasopressin in the peripheral blood. The factor analysis revealed strong association of depression with sex (women > men in a 2.5:1 ratio), and with the metals from the Nieboer-Richardson series which form strong covalent bonds with proteins. We propose that the biological roots of depression are related to the non-specific impairment of the intracellular osmotic balance and ionic gradient due to the Na + K + ATPase failure from whatever cause acting either separately or in combination

  6. The study of chemical forms of mercury in human hair and other bio-environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, K.; Benes, P.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the continued studies on methods of analysis for forms of mercury in hair, and of the distribution of mercury among inorganic and organic forms in human hair are described. A new method for determining methylmercury has been developed, based on the selective leaching of methylmercury from hair using 2M hydrochioric acid. This method was used, in combination with the determination of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry, for the analysis of mercury forms in three samples of human hair and two samples of fish homogenate. Good reproducibility of parallel determinations was obtained. The results were compared with literature data for the samples, or with the results of the analysis of the same samples by extraction method described earlier. Good agreement was also found between these methods. Further experiments were concerned with the study of the effect of radiation sterilization on the forms of mercury in hair, of the speciation of 203 Hg formed by irradiation of hair in nuclear reactor and with the labelling of a large batch of human hair with methylmercury. (author)

  7. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all

  9. Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epi...

  10. Serially cultured keratinocytes from human scalp hair follicles: a tool for cytogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Jansen, B A; Vermorken, A J

    1983-01-01

    Keratinocytes originating from adult human hair follicles, the most convenient biopsy tissue, can be serially cultured using a combination of two techniques. Primary cultures are established using plucked scalp hair follicles and the bovine eye lens capsule as a growth substrate. Subsequently, cells from these cultures are serially cultivated in the presence of irradiated 3T3 cells as feeders. By this combination of techniques many keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. These cultures, appropriately treated with colchicine, can provide an adequate number of metaphases suitable for chromosome studies.

  11. Determination of persistent organohalogenated pollutants in human hair reference material (BCR 397): an interlaboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Udai [Health Canada, Product Safety Laboratory, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Covaci, Adrian [University of Antwerp, Toxicological Center, Wilrijk (Belgium); Ryan, John Jake [Health Canada, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Emond, Andre [Health Canada, Environmental Research Division, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0L2 (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    A human powdered hair material (BCR 397) was tested for its content in persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Using different methods, three laboratories (two from Canada and one from Belgium) analysed a powdered hair sample to evaluate some methodologies and to obtain consensus values for selected POPs. Measured values for all PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE were within a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 15%. These first results contribute to the accuracy and precision for POPs quantification in hair and render test results more comparable among different laboratories. (orig.)

  12. XIRP2, an Actin-Binding Protein Essential for Inner Ear Hair-Cell Stereocilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah I. Scheffer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the inner ear are mechanoreceptors for hearing and balance, and proteins highly enriched in hair cells may have specific roles in the development and maintenance of the mechanotransduction apparatus. We identified XIRP2/mXinβ as an enriched protein likely to be essential for hair cells. We found that different isoforms of this protein are expressed and differentially located: short splice forms (also called XEPLIN are targeted more to stereocilia, whereas two long isoforms containing a XIN-repeat domain are in both stereocilia and cuticular plates. Mice lacking the Xirp2 gene developed normal stereocilia bundles, but these degenerated with time: stereocilia were lost and long membranous protrusions emanated from the nearby apical surfaces. At an ultrastructural level, the paracrystalline actin filaments became disorganized. XIRP2 is apparently involved in the maintenance of actin structures in stereocilia and cuticular plates of hair cells, and perhaps in other organs where it is expressed.

  13. Advanced analysis of metal distributions in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Skinner, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of techniques (secondary electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence) were utilized to distinguish metal contamination occurring in hair arising from endogenous uptake from an individual exposed to a polluted environment, in this case a lead smelter. Evidence was sought for elements less affected by contamination and potentially indicative of biogenic activity. The unique combination of surface sensitivity, spatial resolution, and detection limits used here has provided new insight regarding hair analysis. Metals such as Ca, Fe, and Pb appeared to have little representative value of endogenous uptake and were mainly due to contamination. Cu and Zn, however, demonstrate behaviors worthy of further investigation into relating hair concentrations to endogenous function.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Herber, R.F.M.

    1981-11-01

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  15. Chronic periapical periodontitis containing mature human hair shaft: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mohammad Owaise; Yar, Riaz; Oliver, Richard

    2011-04-01

    A case is reported of a 44-year-old male who was referred with persistent pus discharge associated with his UL2 which had been root treated on two occasions. Radiographic examination revealed a radiolucency of approximately 8 mm diameter. An apicectomy was performed and histopathological examination revealed the presence of mature birefringent hair-shaft structures within a chronic periapical periodontitis. This article presents a rare occurrence, the presence of human hair in the periapical tissues.

  16. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  17. Mechanism of Cuticle Hole Development in Human Hair Due to UV-Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Maeda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hair is easily damaged by ultraviolet (UV radiation, bleaching agents or permanent wave treatments, and as damage progresses, hair loses its gloss, develops split ends and breaks. However, the causes of hair damage due to UV radiation have not yet been clarified. We discovered that in one mechanism facilitating damage to wet hair by UV radiation, the unsaturated fatty acids in wet hair produce hydroxy radicals upon exposure to UV radiation, and these radicals produce cuticle holes between the cuticle layers. In wet hair exposed to UV radiation, cuticle holes were produced only between the cuticle layers, whereas when human hair was immersed in a solution containing hydroxy radicals produced by Fenton’s reaction, a random production of cuticle holes was noted. It is thought that hydroxy radicals are produced only between the cuticle layers by exposure to UV radiation, and cuticle holes are formed only in this region because one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, with a bis-allyl hydrogen, is found between the cuticle layers.

  18. The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.A.; Chatt, A.

    1994-01-01

    Scalp hair has been recognized as a tissue which incorporates elements into its structure during the growth process, after which it becomes separated from the continual metabolic activity of the body. It has many advantages for being used as an indicator for screening population groups exposed to environmental pollutants. Such usage is not free from criticisms. Sometimes the so-called ''normal ranges'' of trace elements in hair quoted in the literature can be wide. Various factors can influence the trace element content of hair. In this report we have attempted to summarize the available literature on the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, selenium and chromium in human scalp hair. (author). 135 refs, 5 tabs

  19. Estimation of lead and zinc in human hair using atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, S.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements analysis in hair can be useful in studying the impact of environmental and dietary factors on human in general for lead and zinc content in hair. Samples of people of different age groups, sex with varied living habits of the individual living in different areas of Sind, urban as well as rural areas were of special interest to be studied to find correlation of socioeconomic factors and the presence of these elements in hair samples. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age, sex and physiological status and environmental pollution affect composition of hair. The method of sample preparation and use of atomic absorption techniques providing unequivocal and direct estimation of metals in ppm/ppb range to arrive upon conclusion. (author)

  20. Determination of uranium in human hair by acid digestion and FIAS-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnen, R.; Kol, R.; Laichter, Y.; Marcus, P.; Lorber, A.; Karpas, Z.; Halicz, L.

    2000-01-01

    The content of heavy metals in human hair may serve as an indicator of occupational or environmental exposure of metal compounds. However, before such exposure can be determined, the level of the element in a 'normal' population must be established. The concentration of uranium in human hair was measured by flow injection - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FIAS-ICPMS) after acid digestion of the hair samples. All hair samples were rinsed in order to remove external contamination prior to the digestion in a 2:1 solution of concentrated nitric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide. The limit of detection of the method, for a 50 mg hair sample, was 0.015 μg/g, mainly due to the presence of impurities in the hydrogen peroxide. The range of uranium concentration in the initial test group was found to be 0.01-0.18 μg/g. The mean and median values of the entire study population were 0.062 and 0.050 μg U/g hair, respectively. Differences between the following sub-populations: male and female, smokers and non-smokers and people below and above 45 years of age were examined. The only statistically significant difference was found in the latter group (p=0.03). (author)

  1. A study of Polonium in human hair and in fur from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, H; Ranebo, Y.; Henriksson, F.; Rääf, C.L.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Human hair and hair from animals might serve as good indicators for internal contamination, allowing for the quantification of general environmental levels of certain radioactive elements. From a sampling, analytical and hygienic point of view it would be advantageous to study hair instead of urine and faeces samples. There have been several investigations concerning Polonium in hair. The purpose of this study was to investigate if hair from humans and fur from animals constitute as matrixes for the estimation of the body burden of 210 Po. Human hair taken from 26 individuals from Sweden was analyzed for its 210 Po content. The resulting activity concentration of 210 Po ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 Bq/kg for individuals between the ages of 3 to 32 years and range from 0.5 to 11.5 Bq/kg for individuals between the ages of 32 to 60. This is in agreement with results presented in other studies. The 210 Po in hair might be due to external contamination or in vivo build up from 210 Pb. To help quantify these sources of contamination a couple of human volunteers ingested known amounts of 209 Po (which does not exist in nature). Results from the study showed that 209 Po was rather rapidly detected in the hair samples Human hair consists of 45% Carbon, 7% Hydrogen, 28% Oxygen, 15% Nitrogen and 5% Sulphur. The central core consists of polypeptide chains with hydrogen and disulphide bindings. It is suggested that the sulphide binding is the reason for transfer of Polonium into the hair. Samples from horses; mane, fur, and tail showed activity concentration levels ranging from 6 to 17 Bq/kg, with no significant differences between the various sample types. Fur samples taken from Muskox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations, i.e. 260 Bq/kg. This was expected since the animal graze over vast surface and consumes large amounts of lichen. Deposited radionuclides accumulate in lichens. Fur samples taken from other animals i.e. moose, hare, wild boar, roe deer, and sheep (lamb

  2. Improved radiocarbon analyses of modern human hair to determine the year-of-death by cross-flow nanofiltered amino acids: common contaminants, implications for isotopic analysis, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guaciara M; De La Torre, Hector A Martinez; Boudin, Mathieu; Bonafini, Marco; Saverwyns, Steven

    2015-10-15

    In forensic investigation, radiocarbon ((14)C) measurements of human tissues (i.e., nails and hair) can help determine the year-of-death. However, the frequent use of cosmetics can bias hair (14)C results as well as stable isotope values. Evidence shows that hair exogenous impurities percolate beyond the cuticle layer, and therefore conventional pretreatments are ineffective in removing them. We conducted isotopic analysis ((14)C, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and C/N) of conventionally treated and cross-flow nanofiltered amino acid (CFNAA)-treated samples (scalp- and body-hair) from a single female subject using fingernails as a reference. The subject studied frequently applies a permanent dark-brown dye kit to her scalp-hair and uses other care products for daily cleansing. We also performed pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analyses of CFNAA-treated scalp-hair to identify contaminant remnants that could possibly interfere with isotopic analyses. The conventionally treated scalp- and body-hair showed (14)C offsets of ~21‰ and ~9‰, respectively. These offsets confirm the contamination by petrochemicals in modern human hair. A single CFNAA extraction reduced those offsets by ~34%. No significant improvement was observed when sequential extractions were performed, as it appears that the procedure introduced some foreign contaminants. A chromatogram of the CFNAA scalp-hair pyrolysis products showed the presence of petroleum and plant/animal compound residues, which can bias isotopic analyses. We have demonstrated that CFNAA extractions can partially remove cosmetic contaminants embedded in human hair. We conclude that fingernails are still the best source of keratin protein for year-of-death determinations and isotopic analysis, with body-hair and/or scalp-hair coupled with CFNAA extraction a close second. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty ...

  4. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1975-01-01

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .sec -1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  5. Fluorine-induced apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-hui; Li, Xiao-li; Yang, Zhuang-qun; Xu, Min

    2010-12-01

    Fluoride is an essential trace element for human body; however, exposure to high amounts of fluoride has been documented to be correlated with an increasing risk of hair loss. To date, little is known about the mechanism(s) of how fluoride affects hair follicles. Here, we demonstrated that middle (1.0 mmol/L) and high (10.0 mmol/L) concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) significantly inhibited hair follicle elongation in vitro, but low NaF (0.1 mmol/L) showed little influence. Moreover, treatment with high levels of NaF resulted in a marked increase in terminal dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the outer layer of the outer root sheath, the dermal sheath, and the lower bulb matrix surrounding dermal papilla. Furthermore, the enhanced apoptosis was coupled with an increased oxidative stress manifested as higher malondialdehyde content. Additionally, the presence of selenium considerably antagonized the effects of middle NaF on hair follicles, with regard to either the suppression of hair growth or the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, exposure to high levels of fluoride compromises hair follicle growth and accelerate cell apoptosis in vitro. The toxicity of fluoride can be reduced by selenium, at least partially via the suppression of intracellular oxidative stress.

  6. PIXE analysis of trace elements in human hair of patients with liver disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolormaa, O.; Tsuji, M.; Kawasaki, K.; Narantsetseg, S.; Hattori, T.

    2006-01-01

    Human hairs of cirrhosis, acute viral hepatitis patients and healthy people in Ulaanbaatar, capital city of Mongolia, were analyzed for the presence of heavy elements by PIXE spectrometry using 2.5 MeV proton beam at the Tokyo Institute of Technology Van de Graaff Laboratory. The samples were dissolved in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then a 20μl aliquot was dropped on a Nuclepore Track-etch Membrane. The IAEA Reference Hair IAEA-086 certified reference material was used in order to verify accuracy of the method and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. To determine the interaction among nine elements in hair, correlation coefficients were evaluated for several pairs of elements. in the group of healthy control, no correlation between elements was identified. Opposite to this, the strong positive correlations were observed for Zn and Ca or Fe; Mn and Ca or Ti; Sr and Zn or Fe in the patients hair. In the present study, the mean concentrations of Ca, Ti, As and Sr in Mongolian patients were higher than those in the hair of normal people in Japan, Mongolia, Iran and Indonesia. The levels of Cu, Zn and Mn concentration in hair of normal people were almost the same for all the cohorts. (Author)

  7. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  8. Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Peng, Jia-Xi; Hong, Yi-Guo; Feng, Xin-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Hair has long been recognized as a good biomarker for human exposure to Hg. The mercury concentrations in 14 species of marine fish and hair samples from 177 coastal residents in Hainan, South China Sea were investigated to assess the status of mercury exposure associated with marine fish consumption. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the fish muscles were 0.094 ± 0.008 and 0.066 ± 0.006 μg/gww, respectively, which were far below the limit considered safe for consumption (0.5 μg/g). The average THg concentrations in hair of adults (1.02 ± 0.92 μg/g) were lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level of 2.2 μg/g. However, 23.7% of children had a hair THg level exceeding the RfD level of 1μg/g, indicating a great risk of Hg exposure to children via fish consumption. The concentration of THg in hair was significantly correlated with fish consumption but not with gender-specific fish intake. With higher fish consumption frequency, the fishermen had significantly elevated hair Hg levels compared to the students and the other general public, who had similar hair THg levels but different fish consumption patterns, indicating the existence of other sources of Hg exposure to the residents of Hainan Island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  10. Characterization of Glass Fibre – Coconut Coir– Human Hair Hybrid Composites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Senthilnathan; A Gnanavel Babu; G. B. Bhaskar; KGS. Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials arranged in the form of layer one on the other layer using binding material through some prescribed methods. In the Glass fibre coconut fibre human hair hybrid composite method, the epoxy resin is used as binding material, in which one layer is formed of glass fibre, followed by coconut fibre and then by human hair. By using hand layup method and by changing the above arrangement of layers, six types of laminates are prepared by u...

  11. Study on the Analytical Method for Determination of P-32 in Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Lubis, E.; Sarwani

    1996-01-01

    Neutron doses due to accident criticality can be estimated by measuring of radionuclide of neutron activation products in human hair. In this work, the analytical method for the determination of P-32 in neutron irradiated hair sample by G.A Siwabessy reactor has been studied. This analytical method consists of dissolving of human hair sample by 10 M HNO3, separation dan purification of P-32 by precipitation as ammonium molibdophosphate finally, the precipitate was measured by low backgroundα/βcounter. The minimum detectable activity of P-32 was 0,05 Bq at a background of 4,6 cpm and with a counting efficiency of 55 % for a 30 minute counting time

  12. Determination of trace uranium in human hair by nuclear track detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; En, Zinaida; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jae Ki

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a usefulness of nuclear analytical technique in assessing and comparing the concentration levels through the analysis of uranium using human hair sample in the field of environment. A fission track detection technique was applied to determine the uranium concentration in human hair. Hair samples were collected from two groups of people - a) workers not dealing with uranium directly, and b) workers possibly contaminated with uranium. The concentration of 235 U for the first group varied from <1 to 39 ng/g and the second group can be estimated up to the level of μg/g. Radiographs of heavy-duty work samples contained high dense 'hot spots' along a single hair. After washing in acetone and distilled water, external contamination was not totally removed. Insoluble uranium compounds were not completely washed out. The (n, f)-radiography technique, having high sensitivity, and capable of getting information on uranium content at each point of a single hair, is an excellent tool for environmental monitoring

  13. Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, a spontaneous mouse Lmna mutation modeling human laminopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Odgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10. FINDINGS: Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the Lmna gene, causing a single amino acid change, L52R, in the coiled coil rod domain of lamin A and C proteins. Cranial sutures in Dhe/+ mice failed to close. Gene expression for collagen types I and III in sutures was deficient. Skulls were small and disproportionate. Skeletons of Dhe/+ mice were hypomineralized and total body fat was deficient in males. In homozygotes, skin and oral mucosae were dysplastic and ulcerated. Nuclear morphometry of cultured cells revealed gene dose-dependent blebbing and wrinkling. CONCLUSION: Dhe mice should provide a useful new model for investigations of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.

  14. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Evidence for alpha-MSH binding sites on human scalp hair follicles: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, P. B.; Ghanem, G. E.; Lejeune, F. J.; Bos, J. D.; Westerhof, W.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha-MSH, considered an important pigmentation hormone, binds to melanocytes and is thought to stimulate melanogenesis through a cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanism. The binding of alpha-MSH to follicular melanocytes has been investigated in human hair of different colors, ranging from black to blond

  16. Determination of arsenic in human hair by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, I.; Ansar Kabootar Ahangi, M.; Sadegh Keramati, M. [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Waste Management Dept., Tehran (Iran)

    2002-03-01

    The method described below was developed for the purposes of the determination of micro quantities of arsenic in human hair. The nuclear research reactor of the AEOI, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, was used for the irradiation of 150 mg hair samples for a period of 20 hours. Radiochemical methods were used for the separation of interfering ions. The total arsenic concentrations found in over 100 samples ranged from 0.01 to 4 ppm, with the detection limit for arsenic being reported to lie between 0.1 and 0.01 ppm. (orig.)

  17. Eyebrow hairs from actinic keratosis patients harbor the highest number of cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ines; Lehmann, Mandy D; Kogosov, Vlada; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2013-04-24

    Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (pAK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK.

  18. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  20. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  1. Limited hair cell induction from human induced pluripotent stem cells using a simple stepwise method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiroe; Skerleva, Desislava; Kitajiri, Shin-ichiro; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Ito, Juichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki

    2015-07-10

    Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) cells are expected to contribute to exploring useful tools for studying the pathophysiology of inner ear diseases and to drug discovery for treating inner ear diseases. For this purpose, stable induction methods for the differentiation of human iPS cells into inner ear hair cells are required. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of a simple induction method for inducing the differentiation of human iPS cells into hair cells. The induction of inner ear hair cell-like cells was performed using a stepwise method mimicking inner ear development. Human iPS cells were sequentially transformed into the preplacodal ectoderm, otic placode, and hair cell-like cells. As a first step, preplacodal ectoderm induction, human iPS cells were seeded on a Matrigel-coated plate and cultured in a serum free N2/B27 medium for 8 days according to a previous study that demonstrated spontaneous differentiation of human ES cells into the preplacodal ectoderm. As the second step, the cells after preplacodal ectoderm induction were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for induction of differentiation into otic-placode-like cells for 15 days. As the final step, cultured cells were incubated in a serum free medium containing Matrigel for 48 days. After preplacodal ectoderm induction, over 90% of cultured cells expressed the genes that express in preplacodal ectoderm. By culture with bFGF, otic placode marker-positive cells were obtained, although their number was limited. Further 48-day culture in serum free media resulted in the induction of hair cell-like cells, which expressed a hair cell marker and had stereocilia bundle-like constructions on their apical surface. Our results indicate that hair cell-like cells are induced from human iPS cells using a simple stepwise method with only bFGF, without the use of xenogeneic cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generation of inner ear organoids containing functional hair cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karl R; Nie, Jing; Longworth-Mills, Emma; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lee, Jiyoon; Holt, Jeffrey R; Hashino, Eri

    2017-06-01

    The derivation of human inner ear tissue from pluripotent stem cells would enable in vitro screening of drug candidates for the treatment of hearing and balance dysfunction and may provide a source of cells for cell-based therapies of the inner ear. Here we report a method for differentiating human pluripotent stem cells to inner ear organoids that harbor functional hair cells. Using a three-dimensional culture system, we modulate TGF, BMP, FGF, and WNT signaling to generate multiple otic-vesicle-like structures from a single stem-cell aggregate. Over 2 months, the vesicles develop into inner ear organoids with sensory epithelia that are innervated by sensory neurons. Additionally, using CRISPR-Cas9, we generate an ATOH1-2A-eGFP cell line to detect hair cell induction and demonstrate that derived hair cells exhibit electrophysiological properties similar to those of native sensory hair cells. Our culture system should facilitate the study of human inner ear development and research on therapies for diseases of the inner ear.

  3. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  4. Human Scalp Hair as an Indicator of Exposure to the Environmental Toxin β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoné Downing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or aerosol exposure to the environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA is a putative risk factor for the development of sporadic neurodegenerative disease. There are many potential sources of BMAA in the environment, but BMAA presence and quantities are highly variable. It has been suggested that BMAA in human hair may serve as an indicator of exposure. We sought to evaluate the use of the BMAA content of human scalp hair as an indicator of exposure, as well as the correlation between specific lifestyle or dietary habits, reported as hypothesised exposure risk factors, and BMAA in hair. Scalp hair samples and questionnaires were collected from participants in a small residential village surrounding a freshwater impoundment renowned for toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Data suggested a positive correlation between hair BMAA content and consumption of shellfish, and possibly pork. No statistically significant correlations were observed between hair BMAA content and residential proximity to the water or any other variable. Hair BMAA content was highly variable, and in terms of exposure, probably reflects primarily dietary exposure. However, the BMAA content of human hair may be affected to a great extent by several other factors, and as such, should be used with caution when evaluating human BMAA exposure, or correlating exposure to neurodegenerative disease incidence.

  5. Eyebrow hairs from actinic keratosis patients harbor the highest number of cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Methods Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. Results The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (p< 0.001) and 37% of normal skin (28/75, median 4 types) (p< 0.001), respectively. A total of 228 HPV infections were found in eyebrow hairs compared to only 92 HPV infections in AK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Conclusions Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK. PMID:23618013

  6. Study of arsenic contents in human hair of contrast sites in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, M.A.; Hossain, S.M.; Arafat, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in human hair samples of a highly polluted site namely Boro Dudpalila village, Damurhuda, Chuadanga and nonpolluted sites of Goainghat and Sylhet Sadar thanas were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Samples were irradiated in the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor of Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh and PARR-2 of Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad, Pakistan at a thermal neutron flux of order 10 12 n/cm 2 /s for 3 hours. Decay time was about 2 days. Measurement time was 2700 sec for Dhaka and 1800 sec for Islamabad laboratories. HPGe detectors were used for γ-ray measurement. Ranges of arsenic concentrations in Chuadanga and Sylhet samples were found to be 1.04±0.06 to 48.66±1.32 and <0.20 to 0.84±0.04 ppm, respectively. Minimum detection limit of arsenic in the hair samples was found to be 0.20 ppm. All Chuadanga samples exceeded the normal level of arsenic in human hair (1 ppm). In the study it was found that both males and females are affected and there was generally no consistency in the arsenic levels in hair of the members of the same family. (author)

  7. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120–220 μm and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: ► Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. ► Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. ► Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function ► Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. ► A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  8. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Walter; Spelt, Cornelis E; Bliek, Mattijs; de Vries, Michel; Wit, Niek; Faraco, Marianna; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca M

    2016-03-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) from Arabidopsis thaliana and associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein AN1 activate, together with the MYB protein AN2, anthocyanin biosynthesis and, together with the MYB protein PH4, distinct genes, such as PH1 and PH5, that acidify the vacuole. To understand how AN1 and AN11 activate anthocyanin biosynthetic and PH genes independently, we isolated PH3. We found that PH3 is a target gene of the AN11-AN1-PH4 complex and encodes a WRKY protein that can bind to AN11 and is required, in a feed-forward loop, together with AN11-AN1-PH4 for transcription of PH5. PH3 is highly similar to TTG2, which regulates hair development, tannin accumulation, and mucilage production in Arabidopsis. Like PH3, TTG2 can bind to petunia AN11 and the Arabidopsis homolog TTG1, complement ph3 in petunia, and reactivate the PH3 target gene PH5. Our findings show that the specificity of WD40-bHLH-MYB complexes is in part determined by interacting proteins, such as PH3 and TTG2, and reveal an unanticipated similarity in the regulatory circuitry that controls petunia vacuolar acidification and Arabidopsis hair development. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium Regulates Molecular Interactions of Otoferlin with Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor (SNARE) Proteins Required for Hair Cell Exocytosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Neeliyath A.; Drescher, Marian J.; Morley, Barbara J.; Kelley, Philip M.; Drescher, Dennis G.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in otoferlin, a C2 domain-containing ferlin family protein, cause non-syndromic hearing loss in humans (DFNB9 deafness). Furthermore, transmitter secretion of cochlear inner hair cells is compromised in mice lacking otoferlin. In the present study, we show that the C2F domain of otoferlin directly binds calcium (KD = 267 μm) with diminished binding in a pachanga (D1767G) C2F mouse mutation. Calcium was found to differentially regulate binding of otoferlin C2 domains to target SNARE (t-SNARE) proteins and phospholipids. C2D–F domains interact with the syntaxin-1 t-SNARE motif with maximum binding within the range of 20–50 μm Ca2+. At 20 μm Ca2+, the dissociation rate was substantially lower, indicating increased binding (KD = ∼10−9) compared with 0 μm Ca2+ (KD = ∼10−8), suggesting a calcium-mediated stabilization of the C2 domain·t-SNARE complex. C2A and C2B interactions with t-SNAREs were insensitive to calcium. The C2F domain directly binds the t-SNARE SNAP-25 maximally at 100 μm and with reduction at 0 μm Ca2+, a pattern repeated for C2F domain interactions with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. In contrast, C2F did not bind the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-1 (VAMP-1). Moreover, an antibody targeting otoferlin immunoprecipitated syntaxin-1 and SNAP-25 but not synaptobrevin-1. As opposed to an increase in binding with increased calcium, interactions between otoferlin C2F domain and intramolecular C2 domains occurred in the absence of calcium, consistent with intra-C2 domain interactions forming a “closed” tertiary structure at low calcium that “opens” as calcium increases. These results suggest a direct role for otoferlin in exocytosis and modulation of calcium-dependent membrane fusion. PMID:24478316

  10. The diversity of the human hair colour assessed by visual scales and instrumental measurements. A worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, I; Saunier, J B; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G

    2017-02-01

    To study (i) the diversity of the natural colour of the human hair through both visual assessment of hair tone levels and colorimetric measurements of hair strands collected from 2057 human male and female volunteers, from 23 regions of the world and (ii) the correlation between visual assessments and colorimetric measurements. Hair strands were analysed by a spectrocolorimeter under the L*, a*, b* referential system and scored in vivo by experts before sampling, through standardized visual reference scales based on a 1-10 range. Results show that from a typological aspect, black or dark brown hairs largely predominate among studied ethnic groups, whereas Caucasian or derived populations exhibit the widest palette of medium to fair shades, partly explaining some past interbreeding among populations. Instrumental measurements clearly confirm that a given colour of a pigmented hair, at the exclusion of red hairs, is mostly governed by two components, L* and b*, from the L*, a*, b* reference system. The comparisons between visual assessments and instrumental data show that these appear closely linked. Darker hairs show close or subtle variations in L*, a*, b* parameters, making their individual colour differentiation calling for technical improvements in colorimetric measurements. The latter are likely governed by other physical factors such as shape, diameter and shine. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Isolation and Analysis of Keratins and Keratin-Associated Proteins from Hair and Wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Harland, Duane P

    2016-01-01

    The presence of highly cross-linked protein networks in hair and wool makes them very difficult substrates for protein extraction, a prerequisite for further protein analysis and characterization. It is therefore imperative that these cross-links formed by disulfide bridges are first disrupted for the efficient extraction of proteins. Chaotropes such as urea are commonly used as efficient extractants. However, a combination of urea and thiourea not only improves recovery of proteins but also results in improved resolution of the keratins in 2DE gels. Reductants also play an important role in protein dissolution. Dithiothreitol effectively removes keratinous material from the cortex, whereas phosphines, like Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, remove material from the exocuticle. The relative extractability of the keratins and keratin-associated proteins is also dependent on the concentration of chaotropes, reductants, and pH, thus providing a means to preferentially extract these proteins. Ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM(+)[Cl](-)) are known to solubilize wool by disrupting noncovalent interactions, specifically intermolecular hydrogen bonds. BMIM(+)[Cl](-) proved to be an effective extractant of wool proteins and complementary in nature to chaotropes such as urea and thiourea for identifying unique peptides of wool proteins using mass spectrometry (MS). Successful identification of proteins resolved by one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS is highly dependent on the optimal recovery of its protease-digested peptides with an efficient removal of interfering substances. The detergent sodium deoxycholate used in conjunction with Empore™ disks improved identification of proteins by mass spectrometry leading to higher percentage sequence coverage, identification of unique peptides and higher score. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  13. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction of amphetamine-type stimulants in human hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Pantaleão, Lorena; Bismara Paranhos, Beatriz Aparecida Passos; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-09-07

    A fast method was optimized and validated in order to quantify amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, AMP; methamphetamine, MAMP; fenproporex, FPX; 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA; and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA) in human hair samples. The method was based in an initial procedure of decontamination of hair samples (50 mg) with dichloromethane, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and extraction of the amphetamines using hollow-fiber liquid-phase micro extraction (HF-LPME) in the three-phase mode. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for identification and quantification of the analytes. The LoQs obtained for all amphetamines (around 0.05 ng/mg) were below the cut-off value (0.2 ng/mg) established by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed to be simple and precise. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 10.6% and 11.4%, respectively, with the use of only two deuterated internal standards (AMP-d5 and MDMA-d5). By using the weighted least squares linear regression (1/x²), the accuracy of the method was satisfied in the lower concentration levels (accuracy values better than 87%). Hair samples collected from six volunteers who reported regular use of amphetamines were submitted to the developed method. Drug detection was observed in all samples of the volunteers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic and environmental aspects of neutron activation analysis of single human hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1976-01-01

    A new analytical procedure consisting of special washing step, irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 , and Ge(Li) spectrometry enabled to determine as many as 14 elements in a 3 cm segment of a single human hair by neutron activation analysis. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were studied using a new statistical criterion for elimination/identification and an appropriate computer program was constructed. Hair dimensions as measured microscopically were used as additional individualizing attributes. It was shown that despite the dif--ficulties originating from from a relatively large intrinsic variation of the trace element concentration over one head, elimination of most or nearly all of the ''suspects'' could be achieved in simulated cases. Distincly elevated levels of Au as well as Cu and Ag were found in hair of some groups of persons working under specific conditions thus confirming the importance of the environmental factor related to some kinds of occupation. (author)

  16. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  17. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  18. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  19. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  20. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  1. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 μg/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 μg/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 μg/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 μg/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians

  2. Study on correlation of trace elements in human hair and internal organs by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuandi; Zhuang Guisun; Zhang Yuanxun

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 24 human males, aged 35-60 years were collected from Shanghai, People's Republic of China, to study possible relationships between the trace element content in hair and internal tissues. Samples of hair, kidney-cortex and lung were collected and analyzed. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedure was developed based on a simple group extraction scheme using zinc-diethyl dithiocarbamate and methyl-isobutyl ketone-iodide. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn were measured following this procedure. In addition, the elements Se, Na, Mg, Cl, Br, S, Cr, Co, and Rb were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The reliability of the analytical procedures were checked analyzing several biological reference materials, such as IAEA-H-8 Horse Kidney, NBS-SRM-1573 Tomato Leaves and NIES-5 Human Hair. The results showed a larger concentration variability for As, Cd and Hg than for Cu, Se and Zn. Some significant positive correlations were found for some elements among different tissues. (author). 15 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Neutron activation analysis of pollutants in human hair using research reactors. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahristani, H.I.

    1978-02-01

    Hair is a suitable indicator of man's exposure to trace element environmental pollutants. Bearing this in mind, two hundred and fifty human head hair samples were randomly collected from various regions of Iraq representing the general population. These elements were analyzed by thermal neutron activation analysis and the following elements were instrumentally determined: Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ag, Cd, Sb, La, Au, Hg, Th and U. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, standard deviation and range of concentration of these elements and the frequency distributions within the population are given and compared with concentrations from other regions of the world. In general the concentrations determined for this population are similar to those reported for other areas except for Br and Fe. The possible causes of these anomalies are discussed. For certain population sub-groups, high levels of Au, Ag, Cr, Se and Hg have been measured and the reasons for these deviations are discussed

  4. Sub-nm 3D observation of human hair melanin by high-voltage STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takehito; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Nakano, Takashi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    The ultrastructure of melanin granules in human hair was studied using 1,000 kV high-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy to successfully reconstruct three-dimensional images of the whole melanin granule. It was revealed that the melanin granule was composed of a membrane-like outer structure that included many spherical vesicles, and an inner matrix containing a sheet-like structure in the elongated direction of the melanin granule and a sheet-like arrays structure in the cross direction. The outer structure of the melanin granule was maintained even after exposure to hair-bleaching agents to decompose the melanin granule, suggesting that the outer structure was a highly robust structure and composition compared with the inner matrix . © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the expressions of Erk, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and P21 were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Minoxidil plus ATRA additively promoted hair growth in vitro, compared with minoxidil alone. In addition, minoxidil plus ATRA elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expressions of P53 and P21 more effectively than by minoxidil alone. Our results suggest that minoxidil plus ATRA would additively enhance hair growth by mediating dual functions: 1) the prolongation of cell survival by activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways, and 2) the prevention of apoptosis of DPCs and epithelial cells by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and downregulating the expressions of P53 and P21. PMID:17449938

  6. Alkylation of human hair keratin for tunable hydrogel erosion and drug delivery in tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangheon; Ham, Trevor R; Haque, Salma; Sparks, Jessica L; Saul, Justin M

    2015-09-01

    Polymeric biomaterials that provide a matrix for cell attachment and proliferation while achieving delivery of therapeutic agents are an important component of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. Keratins are a class of proteins that have received attention for numerous tissue engineering applications because, like other natural polymers, they promote favorable cell interactions and have non-toxic degradation products. Keratins can be extracted from various sources including human hair, and they are characterized by a high percentage of cysteine residues. Thiol groups on reductively extracted keratin (kerateine) form disulfide bonds, providing a more stable cross-linked hydrogel network than oxidatively extracted keratin (keratose) that cannot form disulfide crosslinks. We hypothesized that an iodoacetamide alkylation (or "capping") of cysteine thiol groups on the kerateine form of keratin could be used as a simple method to modulate the levels of disulfide crosslinking in keratin hydrogels, providing tunable rates of gel erosion and therapeutic agent release. After alkylation, the alkylated kerateines still formed hydrogels and the alkylation led to changes in the mechanical and visco-elastic properties of the materials consistent with loss of disulfide crosslinking. The alkylated kerateines did not lead to toxicity in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. These cells adhered to keratin at levels comparable to fibronectin and greater than collagen. Alkylated kerateine gels eroded more rapidly than non-alkylated kerateine and this control over erosion led to tunable rates of delivery of rhBMP-2, rhIGF-1, and ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that alkylation of kerateine cysteine residues provides a cell-compatible approach to tune rates of hydrogel erosion and therapeutic agent release within the context of a naturally-derived polymeric system. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Luciano O; Chesson, Lesley A; Bowen, Gabriel J; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-01-01

    Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization). Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13)C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰), and significantly higher δ(15)N (7.8 to 10.3‰) and δ(34)S (4.8 to 8.3‰) values than samples from the USA (δ(13)C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15)N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34)S: -1.2 to 9.9‰). Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13)C and δ(34)S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  8. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano O Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization. Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰, and significantly higher δ(15N (7.8 to 10.3‰ and δ(34S (4.8 to 8.3‰ values than samples from the USA (δ(13C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34S: -1.2 to 9.9‰. Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13C and δ(34S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  9. Structure and Function of Human Tyrosinase and Tyrosinase-Related Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Xuelei; Wichers, Harry J.; Soler-Lopez, Montserrat; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2018-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment responsible for the color of human skin, hair and eye. Its biosynthesis requires three melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase (TYR), and the tyrosinase-related proteins TYRP1 and TYRP2. The difficulty of isolating pure and homogeneous proteins from endogenous sources has

  10. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  11. Effect of ethnicity and treatments on in situ tensile response and morphological changes of human hair characterized by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Indira P. [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Human hair fibers experience tensile forces during grooming and styling processes. The tensile response of hair is hence of considerable interest to the cosmetics industry. In this study, in situ tensile characterization studies have been carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM) on different hair under different conditions. A custom-built AFM sample stage allows hair fibers to be loaded in tension. A technique to locate and image the same control area at different strains has been developed to study the changes in morphology that occur with deformation. Virgin Caucasian, Asian and African hair were studied to understand the differences between different ethnic hair types. Also, the tensile response and morphological changes of virgin, chemically damaged and conditioner-treated Caucasian hair after soaking were compared against the corresponding dry tensile response. Finally, virgin, damaged and treated Caucasian hair fibers were subjected to fatigue cycling to simulate combing/detangling, and their tensile response studied.

  12. Effect of ethnicity and treatments on in situ tensile response and morphological changes of human hair characterized by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, Indira P.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Human hair fibers experience tensile forces during grooming and styling processes. The tensile response of hair is hence of considerable interest to the cosmetics industry. In this study, in situ tensile characterization studies have been carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM) on different hair under different conditions. A custom-built AFM sample stage allows hair fibers to be loaded in tension. A technique to locate and image the same control area at different strains has been developed to study the changes in morphology that occur with deformation. Virgin Caucasian, Asian and African hair were studied to understand the differences between different ethnic hair types. Also, the tensile response and morphological changes of virgin, chemically damaged and conditioner-treated Caucasian hair after soaking were compared against the corresponding dry tensile response. Finally, virgin, damaged and treated Caucasian hair fibers were subjected to fatigue cycling to simulate combing/detangling, and their tensile response studied

  13. Progressive hearing loss and gradual deterioration of sensory hair bundles in the ears of mice lacking the actin-binding protein Eps8L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, David N; Johnson, Stuart L; Manor, Uri; Rüttiger, Lukas; Tocchetti, Arianna; Offenhauser, Nina; Olt, Jennifer; Goodyear, Richard J; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Dai, Yuhai; Hackney, Carole M; Franz, Christoph; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Masetto, Sergio; Jones, Sherri M; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Richardson, Guy P; Kachar, Bechara; Marcotti, Walter

    2013-08-20

    Mechanotransduction in the mammalian auditory system depends on mechanosensitive channels in the hair bundles that project from the apical surface of the sensory hair cells. Individual stereocilia within each bundle contain a core of tightly packed actin filaments, whose length is dynamically regulated during development and in the adult. We show that the actin-binding protein epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8)L2, a member of the Eps8-like protein family, is a newly identified hair bundle protein that is localized at the tips of stereocilia of both cochlear and vestibular hair cells. It has a spatiotemporal expression pattern that complements that of Eps8. In the cochlea, whereas Eps8 is essential for the initial elongation of stereocilia, Eps8L2 is required for their maintenance in adult hair cells. In the absence of both proteins, the ordered staircase structure of the hair bundle in the cochlea decays. In contrast to the early profound hearing loss associated with an absence of Eps8, Eps8L2 null-mutant mice exhibit a late-onset, progressive hearing loss that is directly linked to a gradual deterioration in hair bundle morphology. We conclude that Eps8L2 is required for the long-term maintenance of the staircase structure and mechanosensory function of auditory hair bundles. It complements the developmental role of Eps8 and is a candidate gene for progressive age-related hearing loss.

  14. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  15. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  16. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  17. Observations of a human hair shaft with an x-ray microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Hwa Shik [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 31 San, Hyoja-dong, Pohang, KyungBuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Suk-Won [Nano Mechatronics Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 455-6 Masan-ri, Jinwi-myon, Pyungtaek, Kyungki-do, 451-865 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-21

    We observed the internal structures of a human hair shaft using x-ray microscopes with a spatial resolution in the range from a few microns to less than 100 nm. The energy of the x-ray used is 6.95 keV. The Zernike phase contrast together with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm enabled us to see the cuticles of scales, the cortex of macrofibrils and the medulla. All these internal features and more can easily be observed with no sample preparation including staining.

  18. Observations of a human hair shaft with an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Hwa Shik; Jung, Suk-Won

    2005-01-01

    We observed the internal structures of a human hair shaft using x-ray microscopes with a spatial resolution in the range from a few microns to less than 100 nm. The energy of the x-ray used is 6.95 keV. The Zernike phase contrast together with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm enabled us to see the cuticles of scales, the cortex of macrofibrils and the medulla. All these internal features and more can easily be observed with no sample preparation including staining

  19. A synthetic prestin reveals protein domains and molecular operation of outer hair cell piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechinger, Thorsten J; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Halaszovich, Christian R; Moser, Tobias; Kügler, Sebastian; Fakler, Bernd; Oliver, Dominik

    2011-06-24

    Prestin, a transporter-like protein of the SLC26A family, acts as a piezoelectric transducer that mediates the fast electromotility of outer hair cells required for cochlear amplification and auditory acuity in mammals. Non-mammalian prestin orthologues are anion transporters without piezoelectric activity. Here, we generated synthetic prestin (SynPres), a chimera of mammalian and non-mammalian prestin exhibiting both, piezoelectric properties and anion transport. SynPres delineates two distinct domains in the protein's transmembrane core that are necessary and sufficient for generating electromotility and associated non-linear charge movement (NLC). Functional analysis of SynPres showed that the amplitude of NLC and hence electromotility are determined by the transport of monovalent anions. Thus, prestin-mediated electromotility is a dual-step process: transport of anions by an alternate access cycle, followed by an anion-dependent transition generating electromotility. The findings define structural and functional determinants of prestin's piezoelectric activity and indicate that the electromechanical process evolved from the ancestral transport mechanism.

  20. Can the hair follicle become a model for studying selected aspects of human ocular immune privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinori, Michael; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2011-06-23

    Immune privilege (IP) is important in maintaining ocular health. Understanding the mechanism underlying this dynamic state would assist in treating inflammatory eye diseases. Despite substantial progress in defining eye IP mechanisms, because of the scarcity of human ocular tissue for research purposes, most of what we know about ocular IP is based on rodent models (of unclear relevance to human eye immunology) and on cultured human eye-derived cells that cannot faithfully mirror the complex cell-tissue interactions that underlie normal human ocular IP in situ. Therefore, accessible, instructive, and clinically relevant human in vitro models are needed for exploring the general principles of why and how IP collapses under clinically relevant experimental conditions and how it can be protected or even restored therapeutically. Among the few human IP sites, the easily accessible and abundantly available hair follicle (HF) may offer one such surrogate model. There are excellent human HF organ culture systems for the study of HF IP in situ that instructively complement in vivo autoimmunity research in the human system. In this article, we delineate that the human eye and HF, despite their obvious differences, share key molecular and cellular mechanisms for maintaining IP. We argue that, therefore, human scalp HFs can provide an unconventional, but highly instructive, accessible, easily manipulated, and clinically relevant preclinical model for selected aspects of ocular IP. This essay is an attempt to encourage professional eye researchers to turn their attention, with appropriate caveats, to this candidate surrogate model for ocular IP in the human system.

  1. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold mining areas in Wassa West District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Samlafo, B.V.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 n cm -2 s -1 using the Ghana Research Reactor. Concentration of Hg in the hairs ranged from 1.65 to 20.46 μg/g, which were below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended level of 50.00 μg/g for human hair. Mercury concentration in human nail samples ranged from 0.97 to 31.94 μg/g. Arsenic concentrations in human hairs ranged from 0.07 to 0.95 μg/g, while the levels in nail samples ranged from 0.08 to 3.90 μg/g. Generally, levels of As in the hair were less than WHO recommended value of 1.00 μg/g, however, the levels of As in 5 nail samples (FN 11 , FN 20 , FN 28 , TN 9 and TN 16 ) were above the maximum WHO value of 1.80μg/g. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ± 3 %. The accuracy of determination evaluated by analysing certified standard human reference material GBW 09101 was within ± 4 % of the certified value. The levels of As in hair and nail samples of the experimental group were generally higher as compared to the control subject. Similarly, Hg levels in the hair and nail samples in experimental group were also higher compared to the control subject. However, the levels of the toxic elements determined were all below WHO recommended values. (au)

  2. The roles of USH1 proteins and PDZ domain-containing USH proteins in USH2 complex integrity in cochlear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhuang; Chen, Qian; Almishaal, Ali; Mathur, Pranav Dinesh; Zheng, Tihua; Tian, Cong; Zheng, Qing Y; Yang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of inherited deaf-blindness, manifested as USH1, USH2 and USH3 clinical types. The protein products of USH2 causative and modifier genes, USH2A, ADGRV1, WHRN and PDZD7, interact to assemble a multiprotein complex at the ankle link region of the mechanosensitive stereociliary bundle in hair cells. Defects in this complex cause stereociliary bundle disorganization and hearing loss. The four USH2 proteins also interact in vitro with USH1 proteins including myosin VIIa, USH1G (SANS), CIB2 and harmonin. However, it is unclear whether the interactions between USH1 and USH2 proteins occur in vivo and whether USH1 proteins play a role in USH2 complex assembly in hair cells. In this study, we identified a novel interaction between myosin VIIa and PDZD7 by FLAG pull-down assay. We further investigated the role of the above-mentioned four USH1 proteins in the cochlear USH2 complex assembly using USH1 mutant mice. We showed that only myosin VIIa is indispensable for USH2 complex assembly at ankle links, indicating the potential transport and/or anchoring role of myosin VIIa for USH2 proteins in hair cells. However, myosin VIIa is not required for USH2 complex assembly in photoreceptors. We further showed that, while PDZ protein harmonin is not involved, its paralogous USH2 proteins, PDZD7 and whirlin, function synergistically in USH2 complex assembly in cochlear hair cells. In summary, our studies provide novel insight into the functional relationship between USH1 and USH2 proteins in the cochlea and the retina as well as the disease mechanisms underlying USH1 and USH2. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamato, Naohisa (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1988-05-01

    Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been revealed that inorganic arsenic is methylated in the human body to form MAA (methylarsonic acid) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid). It appears therefore that the arsenic present in the human urine is a mixture of the arsenic originating from marine products and the arsenic metabolized in vivo. Recent studies have shown that inorganic arsenic and methylarsenic compounds are quite different in toxicity and effect on the living body due to their difference in chemical species. Finding the chemical species of arsenic in the urine and hair of normal subjects will therefore provide valuable basal data for the biological monitoring of arsenic exposure and for toxicological studies of arsenic.

  4. Application of ko-NAA technique on Dalat research reactor for human hair analysis in environmental pollution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Mai Van Nhon

    2006-01-01

    The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) has recently been developed on Dalat research reactor. However, in order to apply the k o -NAA technique for practical research objects, it is necessary to establish different experimental procedures for each object. This work is aiming at establishing such a k o -NAA procedure on Dalat research reactor for human hair samples to solve the environmental pollution study prob;em. Therefore, the sample collection and preparation, irradiation, gamma-ray spectrum measurement and data processing, as well as quality assurance and quality control of the k o -NAA procedure for human hair samples have been assessed by comparing with elemental concentrations in terms of the experimental to certified values ratio and U-score. The experimental results showed that the k o -NAA for multi-element in human hair sample analysis is able to apply on Dalat research reactor with a rather good analytical quality. (author)

  5. Determination of total and methylmercury compounds in the IAEA human hair intercomparison samples - Experience of the IAEA-MEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, M.; Liang, L.; Mandic, V.

    1995-01-01

    The programme of this CRP is focused on the analyses of human hair samples. There are only two human hair samples certified for total mercury, and no RMs for methylmercury compounds is available. One of the main objectives of this CRP is to produce, through the IAEA AQCS Programme, a human hair intercomparison material for quality assurance requirements in population monitoring programmes for total and methylmercury exposure. Through the reporting period, MESL has introduced a new method for simultaneous determination of total and methylmercury in biological samples. As the laboratory has close collaboration with the CRP's Reference Laboratory in Ljubljana, Slovenia, it has also been actively involved in the quality assurance component of this CRP. This report represents a summary on the results for total and methylmercury in two intercomparison samples, IAEA-085 and IAEA-086 using newly developed method

  6. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo.Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice.Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  7. [Pollution characteristics of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair at Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Deng, Qiu-Jing; Mo, Chang-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zeng, Li; Fu, Zhi-You; Li, Wen

    2009-03-15

    The concentration levels of antimony, arsenic and mercury in human hair collected from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after having been digested by nitric acid and perchloric acid. The contents of Sb, As and Hg are 15.9, 4.21, 1.79 microg/g in the samples from Xikuangshan antimony mining area and 0.532, 0.280, 0.338 microg/g in the samples from Guiyang City respectively. The contents of Sb, As and Hg in human hair of Xikuangshan antimony area are much higher than those of Guiyang City. The independent-samples t-test shows that there are no marked differences in the contents of Sb and As between male and female hair samples from both Xikuangshan antimony mining area and Guiyang City (p > 0.05), while Hg contents in male hair are apparently higher than those in female hair from Guiyang City (p mining area may significantly affect human health than in the un-mining areas.

  8. Organophosphate esters and phthalate esters in human hair from rural and urban areas, Chongqing, China: Concentrations, composition profiles and sources in comparison to street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Lu, Jun-Feng; Ma, Jing-Ye; Wang, Huan; Du, Xiao-Fan

    2018-06-01

    Human hair and street dust from rural and urban areas in Chongqing were collected to analyze Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Concentrations of OPEs in urban hair were significantly higher than those in rural hair, whereas PAEs concentrations in rural hair were significantly higher than those in urban hair. Different composition patterns of OPEs were observed in rural and urban hair, where tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris (butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the dominating analogues in rural hair, accounting for 62.1% of the OPEs burden, and tris (methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) exhibited a high contribution in urban hair, responsible for 51.3% of total OPEs, which differed from the composition profiles in corresponding street dust. Analogous composition patterns of PAEs were found in hair of both areas. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the most abundant analogues in hair samples, while DEHP was the predominant analogue in dust samples. No clear tendency was obtained between the increasing ages and the concentrations of both compounds. Most OPEs and PAEs congeners showed significantly positive correlation with one another in rural hair. On the contrary, different correlation patterns were observed in urban hair for OPEs and PAEs, indicating multiple or additional sources existed in urban areas. Significant correlations of OPEs and PAEs were found between hair and corresponding street dust samples, but poor correlations of OPEs and PAEs were observed between rural hair and rural indoor dust, suggesting that street dust may be a predominant exogenous source for human exposure to OPEs and PAEs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  10. The University of Surrey database of elemental composition of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.; Akanle, O.A.; Admans, L.L.; Beasley, D.; Butler, C.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The elemental composition of human hair obtained from different studies at Surrey University over a period of 25 years has been recorded and forms part of a database, for biological and environmental samples, which is being developed. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA), using reactor neutrons, was the principal method employed and from which reported data are presented. Elemental concentrations of Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, F, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, V and Zn were obtained and recorded in the database. Chronological variations in two sets of subjects separated by a period of time of 16 years are also given. Variations in the concentration values of some elements related to the state of health and disease were reported for hair samples collected from subjects suffering from manic depression, senile dementia and breast cancer. Concentration values of some elements with relation to the nationality of subjects from Bulgaria, England, Kenya, Nigeria and Wales are presented and compared. This study is part of on-going research in the analysis of biomedical and bioenvironmental materials. The database is still in its infancy. (author)

  11. Measurement of cortisol and testosterone in hair of obese and non-obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J; Sauvé, B; Tokmakejian, S; Koren, G; Van Uum, S

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis has been demonstrated to accurately reflect exposure to drug abuse, environmental toxins and exogenous hormones. We tested the feasibility of measuring cortisol and testosterone in hair of healthy and obese subjects. A modified immunoassay (ELISA) originally developed for saliva was used. Hair, urine and blood samples were collected from young non-obese and obese patients. Perceived stress (PSS) was measured using a validated questionnaire. There was no difference in PSS between non-obese and obese subjects. Hair cortisol levels were significantly correlated with weight (r = 0.27, p cortisol levels did not correlate with age or urinary cortisol. There was a negative correlation between hair testosterone and age (r = -0.47, p cortisol over hair testosterone (C/T) was higher in the obese group than in the young non-obese group. The C/T ratio correlated positively with age (r = 0.56, p cortisol levels increase, while hair testosterone levels decrease with obesity. The hair C/T ratio was significantly correlated with age, BMI and waist circumference better than hair cortisol or testosterone alone. As hair collection is non-invasive and is not influenced by moment-to-moment variations, the measurement of hormones in hair is a useful tool in research and possibly clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  13. Structure of Human Tyrosinase Related Protein 1 Reveals a Binuclear Zinc Active Site Important for Melanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Xuelei; Wichers, Harry J.; Soler-Lopez, Montserrat; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) is one of three tyrosinase-like glycoenzymes in human melanocytes that are key to the production of melanin, the compound responsible for the pigmentation of skin, eye, and hair. Difficulties with producing these enzymes in pure form have hampered the

  14. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  15. The tip-link antigen, a protein associated with the transduction complex of sensory hair cells, is protocadherin-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair M; Goodyear, Richard; Riazuddin, Saima; Lagziel, Ayala; Legan, P Kevin; Behra, Martine; Burgess, Shawn M; Lilley, Kathryn S; Wilcox, Edward R; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Griffith, Andrew J; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Belyantseva, Inna A; Richardson, Guy P; Friedman, Thomas B

    2006-06-28

    Sound and acceleration are detected by hair bundles, mechanosensory structures located at the apical pole of hair cells in the inner ear. The different elements of the hair bundle, the stereocilia and a kinocilium, are interconnected by a variety of link types. One of these links, the tip link, connects the top of a shorter stereocilium with the lateral membrane of an adjacent taller stereocilium and may gate the mechanotransducer channel of the hair cell. Mass spectrometric and Western blot analyses identify the tip-link antigen, a hitherto unidentified antigen specifically associated with the tip and kinocilial links of sensory hair bundles in the inner ear and the ciliary calyx of photoreceptors in the eye, as an avian ortholog of human protocadherin-15, a product of the gene for the deaf/blindness Usher syndrome type 1F/DFNB23 locus. Multiple protocadherin-15 transcripts are shown to be expressed in the mouse inner ear, and these define four major isoform classes, two with entirely novel, previously unidentified cytoplasmic domains. Antibodies to the three cytoplasmic domain-containing isoform classes reveal that each has a different spatiotemporal expression pattern in the developing and mature inner ear. Two isoforms are distributed in a manner compatible for association with the tip-link complex. An isoform located at the tips of stereocilia is sensitive to calcium chelation and proteolysis with subtilisin and reappears at the tips of stereocilia as transduction recovers after the removal of calcium chelators. Protocadherin-15 is therefore associated with the tip-link complex and may be an integral component of this structure and/or required for its formation.

  16. XRF and TXRF techniques for multi-element determination of trace elements in whole blood and human hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.; Karjou, J.; Sawan, M.Kh.; Bakir, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    XRF and TXRF were established as useful techniques for multi-element analysis of whole blood and human head hair samples. Direct-XRF with different collimation units and different X-ray excitation modes was successfully used for the determination of S, P, K, Ca, Fe, and Br elements in blood samples and K, Ca, Mn, Fe elements in human hair samples. Direct analysis by TXRF was used for the determination of Rb and Sr in digested blood and human hair samples, respectively, while, the co-precipitation method using APDC for TXRF analysis was used for the determination of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb elements in both matrices. As a result, the improved XRF and TXRF methods were applied for multi-element determination of elements in whole blood and human hair samples in non-occupational exposed population living in Damascus city. The mean concentrations of analyzed elements in both matrices were on the reported range values for non-occupational population in other countries. (author)

  17. XRF and TXRF techniques for multi-element determination of trace elements in whole blood and human hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.; Karjou, J.; Sawan, M.Kh.; Bakir, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    XRF and TXRF were established as useful techniques for multi-element analysis of whole blood and human head hair samples. Direct-XRF with different collimation units and different X-ray excitation modes was successfully used for the determination of S, P, K, Ca, Fe, and Br elements in blood samples and K, Ca, Mn, Fe elements in human hair samples. Direct analysis by TXRF was used for the determination of Rb and Sr in digested blood and human hair samples, respectively, while, the co-precipitation method using APDC for TXRF analysis was used for the determination of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb elements in both matrices. As a result, the improved XRF and TXRF methods were applied for multi-element determination of elements in whole blood and human hair samples in non-occupational exposed population living in Damascus city. The mean concentrations of analyzed elements in both matrices were on the reported range values for non-occupational population in other countries. (author)

  18. Relationship between the level of essential metal elements in human hair and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Ying-Chen Chang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on epidemics have demonstrated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and mineral substances, such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, and vanadium, in human bodies. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were applied to evaluate the levels of selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in healthy individuals and CHD patients. Hair samples were collected from 42 healthy participants and 28 diagnosed CHD patients. Calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc levels in healthy individuals are significantly higher than the levels found in the patients (p < 0.01). Calcium/selenium ratio is also significantly higher in healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Based on the possible synergies and/or antagonisms of elements and their absorption and metabolism, magnesium/calcium, zinc/copper, and sodium/potassium ratios showed positive relevance (p < 0.01). (author)

  19. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra Clara; Overall, Rupert; Spatz, Katharina; Liezman, Christiane; Handjiski, Bori; Klapp, Burghard F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Peters, Eva Milena Johanne

    2006-07-01

    Oxidative stress is generated by a multitude of environmental and endogenous challenges such as radiation, inflammation, or psychoemotional stress. It also speeds the aging process. Graying is a prominent but little understood feature of aging. Intriguingly, the continuous melanin synthesis in the growing (anagen) hair follicle generates high oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesize that hair bulb melanocytes are especially susceptible to free radical-induced aging. To test this hypothesis, we subjected human scalp skin anagen hair follicles from graying individuals to macroscopic and immunohistomorphometric analysis and organ culture. We found evidence of melanocyte apoptosis and increased oxidative stress in the pigmentary unit of graying hair follicles. The "common" deletion, a marker mitochondrial DNA-deletion for accumulating oxidative stress damage, occurred most prominently in graying hair follicles. Cultured unpigmented hair follicles grew better than pigmented follicles of the same donors. Finally, cultured pigmented hair follicles exposed to exogenous oxidative stress (hydroquinone) showed increased melanocyte apoptosis in the hair bulb. We conclude that oxidative stress is high in hair follicle melanocytes and leads to their selective premature aging and apoptosis. The graying hair follicle, therefore, offers a unique model system to study oxidative stress and aging and to test antiaging therapeutics in their ability to slow down or even stop this process.

  20. The determination of methylmercury, total mercury and total selenium in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Reference Method describes the determination of methylmercury in human hair by gas liquid chromatography. It is designed for biological monitoring of selected individuals and population groups with a possible intake of methylmercury exceeding the recommended Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) through contaminated seafood, as part of a project on the evaluation of methylmercury in Mediterranean populations and related health hazards. The method, however, is also applicable to other regions. The method involves direct determination of methylmercury by gas liquid chromatography. The sample is disintegrated in a solution of sodium hydroxide, methylmercury is extracted from an aliquot of the solution into toluene and, after purification, a small volume is injected into a chromatographic column, filled with polyethyleneglycol succinate on Diatomite AW. Methylmercury in the gaseous mixture is detected with an electron capture detector and its amount determined by comparing the peak height with those of appropriate standards. The next Reference Method describes the determination of selenium in human hair (and other indicative tissues) by gas liquid chromatography and is designed for biological monitoring of selected individuals and population groups in the Mediterranean region with a possible intake of methylmercury exceeding the recommended Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) through contaminated seafood. The data are intended to establish a possible correlation between methylmercury intake and levels of selenium in the subjects monitored. Selenium in the solvent phase is determined by gas liquid chromatography using an electron capture detector. The above method has been selected because selenium is determined in conjunction with methylmercury, both of which require competence in gas chromatographic techniques. Reliable result for total selenium, however, will also be obtained by the following techniques: a) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b

  1. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair - significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1984 - September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinova, L [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    1988-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to establish a possibility to use hair as a monitor for internal body burden with toxic metals. For this purpose samples of human organs (heart, spleen, liver, kidney) and hair were analysed by neutron activation analysis and radiochemical techniques for the determination of As, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Se, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na, S. 6 refs, 4 tabs.

  2. [Identification and analysis of the proteins interacted with Prestin in cochlear outer hair cells of guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Wang, J Y; Zhang, F L; Xia, Y

    2018-01-07

    Objective: To explore the regulation and mechanism of Prestin protein by identifying the proteins interacted with Prestin in cochlear outer hair cell(OHC) and analyzing their biological function. Methods: Co-immunoprecipitation combined mass spectrometry technology was used to isolate and identify the proteins interacted with Prestin protein of OHC, bioinformatics was used to construct Prestin protein interaction network. The proteins interacted with Prestin in OHC of guinea pig were determined by matching primary interaction mass spectrometry with protein interaction network, and annotated their functions. Results: The results of co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry showed that 116 kinds of credible proteins could interact with Prestin. By constructing Prestin protein interaction network, matching the results of mass spectrometry and analyzing of sub-cellular localization, eight kinds of proteins were confirmed that they interacted with Prestin directly, namely EEF2, HSP90AB1, FN1, FLNA, EEF1A1, HSP90B1, ATP5A1, and ERH, respectively, which were mainly involved in the synthesis and transportation, transmembrane folding and localization, structural stability and signal transduction of Prestin protein. Conclusion: EEF2, HSP90AB1, FN1, FLNA, EEF1A1, HSP90B1, ATP5A1 and ERH provide molecular basis for sensory amplification function of OHCs by participating in biotransformation, transmembrane folding and localization, signal transduction and other biological processes of Prestin protein.

  3. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 μg/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 μg/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 μg/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure

  5. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br

    2008-11-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  6. Human conglutinin-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensenius, J C; Thiel, S; Baatrup, G

    1985-01-01

    The presence in human plasma of a molecule homologous to bovine conglutinin is indicated by the results of biological and immunochemical analysis. The human conglutinin-like protein shows calcium-dependent binding to complement-treated solid phase IgG and immunological cross-reaction with chicken...... anti-bovine conglutinin. The binding of the human protein to complement-treated IgG was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine but not by other sugars. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed reaction of anti-conglutinin with molecules of similar mobility to the monomer and hexamer of bovine...

  7. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  8. Monitoring environmental pollution of arsenic and mercury through neutron activation analysis of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.; Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Krishnan, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Hair samples from Chilean people have been analyzed using neutron activation analysis as a monitor of environmental pollution of arsenic and mercury. Water is considered to be an important means of transport of heavy metal pollution in this country. The absorption characteristics of hair for arsenic and mercury from aqueous solutions have been studied. Hair concentrates arsenic (about twofold) and mercury (about 100 fold) from water and therefore, is able to detect even low environmental levels of these elements. Arsenic and mercury are found to behave differently in their absorption behaviour along the length of the hair. (author)

  9. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  11. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  12. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Zampini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  13. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  14. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.

    2015-01-01

    The radionuclide 210 Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ( 209 Po as a bio-tracer for 210 Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5–10 Bq 209 Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq 209 Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001–0.01% d −1 of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10–20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. - Highlights: • After single intakes polonium is excreted in hair with biological half-times (range 15–30 days). • Polonium concentration vs position in hair strand reflects the intake history of subject. • For acute intakes peak hair concentration or daily excretion can be related to the amount of intake. • Protracted intakes of polonium result in an increase in Po concentration in hair, reaching equilibrium after 180 days. • Bi-exponential decay of

  15. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  16. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Thanh; Fu Jianjie; Wang Yawei; Liao Chunyang; Tao Yongqing; Jiang Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 μg/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu >> Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 μg/g) was also found to be significantly higher compared to that in hair samples from control areas. Differences with age, gender, residence status and villages could be distinguished for most of the elements. The high levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were likely found to be originated from e-waste related activities, and specific sources were discussed. This study shows that human scalp hair could be a useful biomarker to assess the extent of heavy metal exposure to workers and residents in areas with intensive e-waste recycling activities. - Human scalp hair samples can be used to indicate environmental and occupational exposure of heavy metals due to intensive electronic waste recycling activities.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  1. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Study of relationships between micro element contents of human hair and other tissues in connection with environmental contamination and some diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacso, J.; Balazs, D.; Uzonyi, I.; Lusztig, G.; Szigety, I.

    1993-01-01

    It is desirable to have a non-invasive method for continuous control of intake of environmental pollutants into human body. The physiological properties of human hair ensures a continuous record of biological occurrences in hair. The measurement of toxic heavy metal concentrations in human hair made it possible to control the full intake, if the toxic metal concentration in hair reflects the full body burden of toxic metals. Autopsy samples (hair, bone, brain, kidney, liver and lung) were collected from 56 deceased. A uniform sample preparation procedure was followed. The determination of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo was carried out in all samples by XRF. The data obtained was evaluated by different statistical methods and correlations and tendencies were established between trace elements in hair and organs. From the results obtained it can be concluded that hair analysis can reflect the body burden of toxic element only for the period of formation of hair involved into analysis. (author). 7 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2018-04-01

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human scalp hair as an epidemiologic monitor of environmental exposure to elemental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Sajjad, M.; DeSilva, K.N.; Secord, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of using scalp hair as an epidemiological monitor of environmental exposure is being evaluated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods using short-lived nuclides have been developed for simultaneous multielement determinations in scalp hair. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method has been used for measuring Pb and Cd. Precision and accuracy of the methods have been evaluated by analyzing standard reference materials and IAEA Intercomparison Hair Sample HH-1. A detailed study on different hair washing methods has been done and reported here. The effect of exogenous contaminants from shampoo on levels of certain elements has been studied. Variation of trace element levels along the longitudinal segments of hair strands has been investigated. The methodologies have been applied to screen population groups exposed to environmental arsenic and to study trichothiodystrophy. (author)

  5. Analysis of Angolan human hair samples by the k0-NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, P.C.D; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    There is personal difference in concentrations of trace elements in the human hair according to human life or history such as occupation, sex, age, food, habit, social condition and so on. It is also found that the individual's deviation of elemental concentrations reflecting the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to the human body, intakes of food and metabolism. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on research reactor has been recommended by WHO and IAEA as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multi-element and routine. This report presents the results of determination of about 20 elements in 23 human hair samples, which have been collected from different places in Angola by using k 0 -NAA technique on Dalat nuclear research reactor. Accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of two human hair certified reference materials (CRMs), i.e. NIES-5 and GBW-09101 and assessed by the deviation of experiment to certified values generally within 10% and U-score values mostly lower 2. (author)

  6. Protein Crystal Recombinant Human Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Recombiant Human Insulin; space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). On STS-60, Spacehab II indicated that space-grown crystals are larger and of greater optical clarity than their earth-grown counterparts. Recombiant Human Insulin facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  7. ILDR1 deficiency causes degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells and disrupts the structure of the organ of Corti: a mouse model for human DFNB42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1 is a poorly characterized gene that was first identified in lymphoma cells. Mutations in ILDR1 are responsible for DFNB42, but the pathogenesis of hearing loss caused by ILDR1 mutations remains to be elucidated. To explore the role of ILDR1 in hearing, we created Ildr1 knockout mice. In heterozygous mice, ILDR1 expression was found in outer hair cells (OHCs and inner hair cells (IHCs of the organ of Corti. ILDR1-deficient mice are profoundly deaf by postnatal day 21 (P21. No significant difference was observed in the supporting cells and IHCs of ILDR1-deficient mice, but progressive degeneration of OHCs occurred at P15 and disruption of the tunnel running through the organ of Corti was noticeable at P21. By P28, there were no OHCs visible in any of the turns of the organ of Corti, and the tunnel of the organ of Corti was entirely destroyed. ILDR1 deficiency affects expression of tricellulin in vivo, and this provides a possible explanation to hearing loss. To further elucidate the mechanism of deafness related to ILDR1 deficiency, we pursued a differential proteomic approach to comprehensively assess differential protein expression in the cochleae of Ildr1+/− and Ildr1−/− mice at P21. Altogether, 708 proteins were up-regulated (fold change >1.5 and 114 proteins were down-regulated (fold change <0.5 in the Ildr1−/− mice compared with Ildr1+/− mice. Gene ontology classification indicated that a number of differentially expressed proteins are involved in cell adhesion, protein and vesicle-mediated transport, cell death, membrane organization, and cellular homeostasis. A few of these proteins are closely related to hearing development. Taken together, our data suggest that ILDR1 is important for the survival of OHCs and provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of human deafness DFNB42 deafness.

  8. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  9. Assessment of Typical Heavy Metals in Human Hair of Different Age Groups and Foodstuffs in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gang; Pan, Ligang; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-08-14

    Human hair of different age groups and foodstuff samples were collected in Beijing, China. The concerned metals-Cd, Cr, Pb, As, and Hg-were analyzed, and the metal levels in relation to age, gender, and dietary intake were further assessed. Results showed the highest level of the metals was shown by Pb, with an average concentration of 1.557 ± 0.779 mg/kg, followed by Cr (0.782 ± 0.394), Hg (0.284 ± 0.094), As (0.127 ± 0.078), and Cd (0.071 ± 0.032), following a decreasing order of Pb > Cr > Hg > As > Cd, which were all below the upper limit of normal values in China. The heavy metal concentrations varied greatly among different age groups, and higher concentrations for Cd, Cr, Pb, and As appeared in female hair, whereas higher Hg concentration were found in male hair, suggesting that age and gender were not crucial factors for assessing metal concentrations in human hair. The ingestion of cereals and vegetables were the main route by which heavy metals in the environment create hazardous health effects for local inhabitants, but the estimated metal intakes through food consumption were all lower than the proposed limit of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), indicating that heavy metals posed no health risks for the inhabitants. Furthermore, little relationship was found between metal intakes and the corresponding metal levels in hair. Nevertheless, the results of this study can be used to analyze the internal heavy metal burden in the resident population of Beijing area and can also serve as reference for further studies.

  10. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ULTRASONIC DEGR EASING OF WOOL AND HUMAN HAIR WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and reuse of wool and hair waste is a challenge with the ultimate goal environment protection. One of the early stages of the recovery process is the operation of scouring-degreasing wool and human hair waste. In recent decades the use of ultrasound technology has established an important place in different industrial processes and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The power of ultrasound can enhance a wide variety of chemical and physical processes, mainly due to the phenomenon known as cavitation in a liquid medium. The objective of the present work is to develop eco-friendly effective degreasing system for keratin fiber waste with the aid of ultrasound, using distilled water and also trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet classical method and via ultrasonication. This work investigate the effect that ultrasonic irradiation has on the structure of wool and hair fibers. Thus were highlighted both morphological and structural changes of treated materials using optical microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. By using the unconventional method of cleaning and degreasing with an ultrasonic resonator tube are possible reductions in utility and solvents consumption together with changes in the cuticular layer of wool and hair fibers.

  11. Voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead in human hair as healthy indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kherbik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and Lead level were examined in hair of patients and healthy donors. Hair sample were collected and analyzed for their contents of the trace metals (Cd, Pb) by Voltammetry. It was found that the existence of Cadmium and Lead in the hair was significantly higher in the patients (19.7 μg/g - 38.2 μg/g) for lead, (0.4 μg/g - 2.1 μg/g) for cadmium. On the other hand, the healthy had lower concentration (7.8 μg/g - 8.8 μg/g) for Lead, (0.2 μg/g - 0.3 μg/g) for cadmium. In this study, hairs were analyzed to find the effect these elements on health. Correlation coefficients between the levels of the elements in hair found in this study showed that hair is a good indicator of Cadmium and Lead in the hair. The method is applicable as a tool for monitoring pollution level of groups.(author)

  12. Mercury stable isotope fractionation in a tropical ecosystem including human hair: New insights for an isotope balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Laure; Sonke, Jeroen; Maurice, Laurence; Behra, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Mercury contamination is an environmental problem in the Amazon basin still relevant today as impacts on human health are poorly studied. In Bolivia, indigenous people have elevated methylmercury concentrations (between 2719 and 23701 ng.g-1) in their hair. This highly toxic molecule is formed after methylation of inorganic Hg released by chemical and physical weathering and from human activities. The aim of our study is to propose a first isotope balance in a Bolivian Amazon ecosystem, through variations in Hg isotopic compositions. The discovery of mass-independent fracionation (MIF) of odd-isotopes in our organic samples (fish and human hair) opened a new way of research in tracing the sources and the processes involved in the cycle of Hg. Four types of samples are studied: liquid Hg0 from gold mining, sediment samples, fish coming from the Beni River basin (from the main channel and an associated floodplain lake) and hair from gold miners and fish-eating native populations. Hg isotopic compositions were analyzed on a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune MC-ICP-MS at the LMTG after sample digestion by HCl/HNO3 or by H2O2/HNO3 for fish samples, at 120°C. The δ202Hg values (relative to NIST 3133) are signicantly different with respect to the external precision on UM-Almaden#2 of 0.18 ‰ (2σ, n = 42): -0.34 ± 0.02 ‰ for liquid mercury, between -1.33 and -0.81 ‰ for bottom and floodplain sediments (n=18), between -0.87 and 2.22 ‰ for miners hair (n=26), +1.29 ± 0.41 ‰ for native hair (n=13) and between -0.91 and -0.21 ‰ for fish samples (n=53). A large mass-independent isotope fractionation (MIF) was observed for odd isotope ratios in all hair samples and fish samples whereas weak anomalies were measured for sediment samples: - ∆199Hg anomaly: -0.12 to -0.04 ‰ for sediment, -0.22 to +0.63 ‰ for fish samples and +0.13 to +1.63 ‰ for hair - ∆201Hg anomaly: -0.12 to -0.02 ‰ for sediment, -0.21 to +0.43 ‰ for fish samples and +0.06 to +1.25 ‰ for hair

  13. Proton backscatter as a means of mass normalization in PIXE scanning of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.B.; Gibson, R.S.; Faiq, S.; Campbell, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variations in linear density along a given hair can cause changes in X-ray intensity which do not reflect elemental concentration changes. Hairs from different subjects vary by a factor approx. 5 in linear density, so that very different X-ray intensities need not necessarily reflect different concentrations. We investigate the usefulness of the backscattered proton intensity as a means of determining the mass undergoing PIXE analysis. Specimen damage can be avoided in the BS measurement via low currents without loss of statistics. A correlation is found between BS intensity and mass, but a laser diffraction measurement of the hair diameter provides an equally satisfactory mass determination. (orig.)

  14. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  15. Mercury in soil, vegetable and human hair in a typical mining area in China: Implication for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qin; Zhu, Xuemei; Hao, Yaqiong; Yang, Ziliang; Wang, Qi; Fu, Haihui; Yu, Hongjin

    2018-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, vegetables, and human hair were measured in a mercury mining area in central China. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in soil ranged from 1.53 to 1054.97mg/kg and 0.88 to 46.52μg/kg, respectively. T-Hg concentrations was correlated with total organic carbon (TOC) content (R 2 =0.50, p<0.01) and pH values (R 2 =0.21, p<0.05). A significant linear relationship was observed between MeHg concentrations and the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05) in soil. Soil incubation experiments amended with specific microbial stimulants and inhibitors showed that Hg methylation was derived from SRB activity. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in vegetables were 24.79-781.02μg/kg and 0.01-0.18μg/kg, respectively; levels in the edible parts were significantly higher than in the roots (T-Hg: p<0.05; MeHg: p<0.01). Hg species concentrations in rhizosphere soil were positively correlated to those in vegetables (p<0.01), indicating that soil was an important source of Hg in vegetables. Risk assessment indicated that the consumption of vegetables could result in higher probable daily intake (PDI) of T-Hg than the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for both adults and children. In contrast, the PDI of MeHg was lower than the reference dose. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 1.57 to 12.61mg/kg and 0.04 to 0.94mg/kg, respectively, and MeHg concentration in hair positively related to PDI of MeHg via vegetable consumption (R 2 =0.39, p<0.05), suggesting that vegetable may pose health risk to local residents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: Preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.

    2015-01-01

    radioactive polonium (209Po as a bio-tracer for 210Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10Bq 209Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7mBq 209Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance...

  17. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF 32 NEW SYNTHETIC CANNABINOIDS IN HUMAN URINE AND HAIR BY LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Chung-Feng

    2018-01-01

    The extraction procedure and detectionmethods of new Synthetic Cannabinoids (ex: BB-22, SDB-005, THJ-018,JZL-195……etc.) for human urine and hair samples are in great need due to thesenew drugs are abused severely in recent years all over the world. Highlysensitive analytical techniques are therefore required for trace-levelidentification and quantification of these kinds of drugs. We report a fullyvalidated method here developed by our team which could simultaneouslydetermine 32 new Synthetic...

  18. Differentiation of hepatocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xu; Lv, Shuang; He, Xia; Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Meiyu; Li, Meiying; Chi, Guangfan; Li, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the limitations of organ donors and immune rejection in severe liver diseases, stem cell-based therapy presents a promising application for tissue repair and regeneration. As a novel cell source, mesenchymal stem cells separated from human hair follicles (HF-MSCs) are convenient to obtain and have no age limit. To date, the differentiation of HF-MSCs into hepatocytes has not been reported. In this study, we explored whether HF-MSCs and HF-MSC-derived-induced pluripotent stem cells (HF-iPS) could differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. Flow cytometry, Oil Red O stain and Alizarin Red stain were used to identify the characteristics of HF-MSCs. The expression of liver-specific gene was detected by immunofluorescence and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain, Indocyanine Green stain and Low-Density Lipoprotein stain were performed to evaluate the functions of induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HF-MSCs were unable to differentiate into HLCs using previously reported procedures for MSCs from other tissues. However, HF-iPS efficiently induced the generation of HLCs that expressed hepatocyte markers and drug metabolism-related genes. HF-iPS can be used as novel and alternative cellular tools for inducing hepatocytes in vitro, simultaneously benefiting from utilizing HF-MSCs as a noninvasive and convenient cell source for reprogramming.

  19. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg −1 , and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg −1 for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg −1 , giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened

  20. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  1. Effects of human head hair on performance and thermoregulatory responses during 10-km outdoor running in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Ruediger Pisani Martini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p155   The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of human head hair on performance and thermoregulatory responses during 10-km outdoor running in healthy men. Twelve healthy males (29.5 ± 3.7 years, 174.9 ± 4.3 cm, 72.7 ± 3.2 kg and VO2max 44.6 ± 3.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 participated in two self-paced outdoor 10-km running trials separated by 7 days: 1 HAIR, subjects ran with their natural head hair; 2 NOHAIR, subjects ran after their hair had been totally shaved. Average running velocity was calculated from each 2-km running time. Rectal temperature, heart rate and physiological strain index were measured before and after the 10-km runs and at the end of each 2 km. The rate of heat storage was measured every 2 km. The environmental stress (WBGT was measured every 10 min. The running velocity (10.9 ± 1 and 10.9 ± 1.1 km.h-1, heart rate (183 ± 10 and 180 ± 12 bpm, rectal temperature (38.82 ± 0.29 and 38.81 ± 0.49oC, physiological strain index (9 ± 1 and 9 ± 1, or heat storage rate (71.9 ± 64.1 and 80.7 ± 56.7 W.m-1 did not differ between the HAIR and NOHAIR conditions, respectively (p>0.05. There was no difference in WBGT between the HAIR and NOHAIR conditions (24.0 ± 1.4 and 23.2 ± 1.5ºC, respectively; p=0.10. The results suggest that shaved head hair does not alter running velocity or thermoregulatory responses during 10-km running under the sun.

  2. Determination of trace elements in the human hair reference material, HH-I, by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, P.; Pieterse, H.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical procedures are presented and problem areas identified with regard to the determination of trace elements in IAEA powdered human hair reference material, HH-I, of limited sample size (100-200 mg), by NAA and graphite furnace AAS. Results obtained for the twelve elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, and Zn studied in human hair and other biological reference material like orchard leaves, seaplant material, and copepod compare satisfactorily with the certified values

  3. Improvements on enzymatic hydrolysis of human hair for illicit drug determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; López, Patricia; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2007-11-15

    The use of ultrasound energy for accelerating the pronase E enzymatic hydrolysis of human hair for extracting illicit drugs has been novelty tested. The enzymatic extracts obtained after 30 min of sonication in an ultrasonic water bath were subjected to an optimized solid-phase extraction process, which involved a solution of 2.0% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol as eluting solution and concentration by N2 stream evaporation. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to separate and determine cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, morphine, and 6-monoacethylmorphine in 20 min. Variables affecting ultrasound-assisted pronase E hydrolysis such as hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, enzyme concentration, catalyzer (1,4-dithiothreitol) concentration, ionic strength, pH, and ultrasound frequency were simultaneously evaluated by a Plackett-Burman design 2(8) PBD of resolution III. The most statistically significant variables were ionic strength and pH, which means that analyte extraction is mainly attributed to pronase E activity. The optimization or evaluation of all the factors has led to an accelerated pronase E hydrolysis of human hair, which can be completed in 30 min. Results have been found to be statistically similar to those obtained with conventional pronase E hydrolysis. The accelerated method was finally applied to several human hair samples from multidrug abusers.

  4. Monitoring and abatement of environmental mercury pollution using human hair as absorbant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.S.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.; Munoz, L.; Gras, N.

    1985-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the industrial environment of Chile was studied using hair as monitor. Data from samples representing people living in non-polluted and also from polluted areas show that hair is an effective and convenient indicator of environmental mercury pollution. A major source of mercury pollution and its transport is contaminated water. The method discussed is an inexpensive and convenient alternative to conventional ion-exchange processes which are generally very expensive, particulary for developing countries. (author)

  5. Study of exogenous factors on the state and properties of hair on the human head by using various methods of microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neofitova E.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available in the article the effect of exogenous factors on the state and properties of hair on the human head using various techniques of microscopy as well as other morphometric methods are studied; on the basis of experimental samples the physical properties of healthy hair and the hair damaged by external factors by using microscopy techniques were compared; the article presents the values of pH and the content of surfactants (sulfates in different brands of shampoos and soaps, and their impact on the condition of the hair was determined; on the basis of microscopy techniques the condition of the cuticle after using different detergents for hair care was characterized; a relationship between the color of the hair and the influence of external factors on the structure and condition of the hair was analyzed; the signs of the impact of external factors (chemical, thermal, mechanical on the state and structure of the hair, using an optical (light and an usb-microscopes were identified.

  6. Assessment of human hair as an indicator of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. Case study on a Norwegian mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine; Becher, Georg; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    A major challenge of non-invasive human biomonitoring using hair is to assess whether it can be used as an indicator of exposure to Flame Retardants, such as Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs), since the contribution of atmospheric deposition (air and/or dust) cannot be neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using human hair more thoroughly by comparison of (i) levels of PFRs in human hair (from 48 mothers and 54 children), with levels measured in dust and air in their respective households; and (ii) levels of selected PFRs in hair with the levels of corresponding PFR metabolites in matching urine samples collected simultaneously. Most PFRs (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethyl-hexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) were detected in all human hair samples, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in 93%, tri-cresyl-phosphate (TCP) in 69% and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in 21% of the samples. Levels of individual PFRs ranged between human hair and PFR levels in house dust and/or air were found, e.g. Spearman correlation (rS = 0.561, p exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with such design and our findings might help to understand human exposure to and body burdens of PFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  8. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...

  9. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  10. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  11. Assessment of human exposure to pesticides by hair analysis: The case of vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Oltramare, Christelle; Nfon Dibié, Jean-Jacques; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2018-02-01

    The present work assesses human exposure to pesticides in vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso, using hair as an indicator. The study design includes a comparison between operators who are occupationally exposed while working in the fields and a reference population (i.e. not occupationally exposed) to evaluate both occupational and indirect exposures. Hair samples from volunteers (n=101) were positive for 17 pesticides (38 analyzed). Acetamiprid, desethylatrazine, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were detected for the first time in field samples. With a maximum of 9 residues per sample, pesticide exposure was ubiquitous in both populations. Contamination by acetamiprid, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (used in vegetable production) prevailed in operator samples. For other pesticides, such as imidacloprid and deltamethrin, no significant difference was found. This indicates a potentially large environmental exposure (dietary intake or atmospheric contamination) or the prevalence of other contamination sources. The present findings are concerning, as detected levels are globally higher than those previously reported, and indicate exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and probable carcinogens. Hair was found to be a suitable matrix for biomonitoring human exposure to pesticides and assessing dominant factors (i.e. sex, age, and protective equipment) in subgroups, as well as identifying geographical contamination patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An analysis of lead (Pb) from human hair samples (20-40 years of age) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelsano, Flordeliza K; Timing, Laurie D

    2003-02-17

    This analysis of lead from human hair samples in five different groups namely scavengers from Payatas Quezon City, tricycle drivers, car shop workers, paint factory workers, and students from Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The people from Nagcarlan, Laguna represented as a ''base-line value'' or as a control group. The method applied was acid digestion using HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4} then the samples were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In terms of lead found from hair, the scavengers from Payatas Q.C. obtained high exposure of lead among the samples that were tested. The result of the analysis of concentration of lead was expressed in mg/L. (Authors)

  13. An analysis of lead (Pb) from human hair samples (20-40 years of age) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelsano, Flordeliza K.; Timing, Laurie D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis of lead from human hair samples in five different groups namely scavengers from Payatas Quezon City, tricycle drivers, car shop workers, paint factory workers, and students from Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The people from Nagcarlan, Laguna represented as a ''base-line value'' or as a control group. The method applied was acid digestion using HNO 3 and HClO 4 then the samples were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In terms of lead found from hair, the scavengers from Payatas Q.C. obtained high exposure of lead among the samples that were tested. The result of the analysis of concentration of lead was expressed in mg/L. (Authors)

  14. Effects of human hair on trans-cranial focused ultrasound efficacy in an ex-vivo cadaver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananel, Arik; Snell, John W.; Kassell, Neal F.; Eames, Matthew D. C.

    2012-11-01

    Current practice before a trans-cranial MR guided Focused ultrasound procedure is shaving the patient head on treatment day. Here we present an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility of trans-cranial FUS, in an unshaved, ex-vivo cadaver skull. We have sonicated using 220kHz and 710kHz head transducers, a cadaver skull filled with tissue mimicking phantom and covered with a wig made of human hair to evaluate feasibility of acoustic energy transfer in a full size model. Heating at focal point was measured using MR proton resonance shift thermometry. Results showed negligible effect of hair in 220kHz, and an 18% drop in temperature elevation when using 710kHz.

  15. Trace element content of human hair determined using neutron activation analysis as monitor of exposure effects to environmental metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutkiewicz, T.; Paprotny, W.; Sokolowska, D.; Kulka, E.; Woyciechowska, E.; Dybczynski, R.; Sterlinski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of 17 trace elements, mainly metals, in small hair samples by neutron activation analysis was elaborated. The number of elements determined in one sample made it possible to assess quickly the exposure of human population in a given region. The hair samples after careful washing according to procedure elaborated previously were irradiated in high reactor neutron flux (approximately 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The activities of samples were measured three times (for different decay times) by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer. A new version of the comparator technique, called a triple-single comparator method, was applied for quantitative analysis. The statistical methods used for planning of sampling and preliminary results on evaluation of analytical data are also described. (author)

  16. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  17. Cellular development of the human cochlea and the regenerative potential of hair follicle bulge stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locher, heiko

    2015-01-01

    The embryonic development of the human cochlea (the organ of hearing) has been investigated for over one hundred years. However, little is still known about the development on a cellular and protein level, which is important to better understand etiologies and pathologies of various types of

  18. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  19. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  20. Investigation of scale effects and directionality dependence on friction and adhesion of human hair using AFM and macroscale friction test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaTorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-01-01

    Macroscale testing of human hair tribological properties has been widely used to aid in the development of better shampoos and conditioners. Recently, literature has focused on using the atomic force microscope (AFM) to study surface roughness, coefficient of friction, adhesive force, and wear (tribological properties) on the nanoscale in order to increase understanding about how shampoos and conditioners interact with the hair cuticle. Since there are both similarities and differences when comparing the tribological trends at both scales, it is thus recognized that scale effects are an important aspect of studying the tribology of hair. However, no microscale tribological data for hair exists in literature. This is unfortunate because many interactions between hair-skin, hair-comb, and hair-hair contact takes place at microasperities ranging from a few μm to hundreds of μm. Thus, to bridge the gap between the macro- and nanoscale data, as well as to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms behind the trends, it is now worthwhile to look at hair tribology on the microscale. Presented in this paper are coefficient of friction and adhesive force data on various scales for virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without conditioner treatment. Macroscale coefficient of friction was determined using a traditional friction test apparatus. Microscale and nanoscale tribological characterization was performed with AFM tips of various radii. The nano-, micro-, and macroscale trends are compared and the mechanisms behind the scale effects are discussed. Since the coefficient of friction changes drastically (on any scale) depending on whether the direction of motion is along or against the cuticle scales, the directionality dependence and responsible mechanisms are discussed

  1. VEGF induces proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Man, Xiao-Yong; Li, Chun-Ming; Chen, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Jiong; Cai, Sui-Qing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the strongest regulators of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), the primary receptor for VEGF, is thought to mediate major functional effects of VEGF. Previously, we have localized both VEGF and VEGFR-2 in human hair follicles. In this study, we further defined the expression and roles of VEGFR-2 on human hair follicle dermal papilla (DP) cells. The expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis separately, and localization of VEGFR-2 was defined by immunofluorescence. The effect of VEGF on DP cells was analyzed by MTT assays and specific inhibitors. Finally, the role of VEGF involved in the signaling pathways was investigated by Western blot. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of VEGFR-2 on DP cells. Immunostaining for VEGFR-2 showed strong signal on cultured human DP cells in vitro. Exogenous VEGF 165 stimulated proliferation of DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this stimulation was blocked by a VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody (MAB3571) and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). VEGF 165 -induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was abolished by MAB3571 and PD98059, while the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and AKT were not changed by VEGF 165 . Taken together, VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling. -- Highlights: ► We examine the expression of VEGFR-2 on cultured human dermal papilla (DP) cells. ► VEGF 165 stimulated proliferation of human DP cells in a dose-dependent manner. ► This stimulation was through VEGFR-2-mediated activation of ERK.

  2. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  3. Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, the living elephants are unusual among mammals in being sparsely covered with hair. Relative to extant elephants, the extinct woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, had a dense hair cover and extremely long hair, which likely were adaptations to its subarctic habitat. The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 gene affects hair length in a diverse set of mammalian species. Mutations in FGF5 lead to recessive long hair phenotypes in mice, dogs, and cats; and the gene has been implicated in hair length variation in rabbits. Thus, FGF5 represents a leading candidate gene for the phenotypic differences in hair length notable between extant elephants and the woolly mammoth. We therefore sequenced the three exons (except for the 3' UTR and a portion of the promoter of FGF5 from the living elephantid species (Asian, African savanna and African forest elephants and, using protocols for ancient DNA, from a woolly mammoth. Results Between the extant elephants and the mammoth, two single base substitutions were observed in FGF5, neither of which alters the amino acid sequence. Modeling of the protein structure suggests that the elephantid proteins fold similarly to the human FGF5 protein. Bioinformatics analyses and DNA sequencing of another locus that has been implicated in hair cover in humans, type I hair keratin pseudogene (KRTHAP1, also yielded negative results. Interestingly, KRTHAP1 is a pseudogene in elephantids as in humans (although fully functional in non-human primates. Conclusion The data suggest that the coding sequence of the FGF5 gene is not the critical determinant of hair length differences among elephantids. The results are discussed in the context of hairlessness among mammals and in terms of the potential impact of large body size, subarctic conditions, and an aquatic ancestor on hair cover in the Proboscidea.

  4. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Promotes Proliferation of Human Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice by Modulating WNT/β-Catenin and STAT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Choi, Hyung Chul; Lee, In-Chul; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Lee, Hyosung; Choi, Bu Young

    2016-01-01

    3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC) has been reported to possess anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-DSC on the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HDPCs) and mouse hair growth in vivo. A real-time cell analyzer system, luciferase assay, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to measure the biochemical changes occurring in HDPCs in response to 3-DSC treatment. The effect of 3-DSC on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice was also examined. 3-DSC promoted the proliferation of HDPCs, similar to Tofacitinib, an inhibitor of janus-activated kinase (JAK). 3-DSC promoted phosphorylation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of the T-cell factor. In addition, 3-DSC potentiated interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation and subsequent transactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), thereby increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the contrary, 3-DSC attenuated STAT6 mRNA expression and IL4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in HDPCs. Finally, we observed that topical application of 3-DSC promoted the anagen phase of hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. 3-DSC stimulates hair growth possibly by inducing proliferation of follicular dermal papilla cells via modulation of WNT/β-catenin and STAT signaling. PMID:27795451

  5. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in human head hair by radiochemical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.; Paletti, G.; Baruzzi, R.G.; Rodrigues, D.A.; Cuten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Total mercury has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the hair of several Indian tribes living in the Xingu Park, located in the Amazonic region of Brazil. Methylmercury and total mercury have been determined in selected samples using cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy, at the Nuclear Chemistry Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubliana, Slovenia. Mercury levels were found to be much higher in the Indian hair samples as compared to the samples from the control population. The arithmetic and geometric means for total mercury in the Indian hair samples ranged from 10 to 20 ppm, compared to values of about 1 ppm for the means of the control group. The results obtained for methylmercury have shown that the majority of the mercury is present in the hair of the Indians as the organic form. The Indian study populations living in the Xingu Park can thus be considered as being at risk with regards to contamination by mercury. With the aim of applying neutron activation analysis for the determination of methylmercury in hair, experiments were done at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor irradiating cysteine- and also thioacetamide- impregnated filter papers, on which a methylmercury solution was pipetted. The results obtained have shown that all the mercury was lost from the cysteine-impregnated paper and about 90 % of the mercury remained on the paper impregnated with thioacetamide. (author)

  6. Association of five SNPs with human hair colour in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewierska-Górska, A; Sitek, A; Żądzińska, E; Bartosz, G; Strapagiel, D

    2017-03-01

    Twenty-two variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) of the genes involved in hair pigmentation (OCA2, HERC2, MC1R, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, TYRP1) were genotyped in a group of 186 Polish participants, representing a range of hair colours (45 red, 64 blond, 77 dark). A genotype-phenotype association analysis was performed. Using z-statistics we identified three variants highly associated with different hair colour categories (rs12913832:A>G in HERC2, rs1805007:T>C and rs1805008:C>T in MC1R). Two variants: rs1800401:C>T in OCA2 and rs16891982:C>G in SLC45A2 showed a high probability of a relation with hair colour, although that probability did not exceed the threshold of statistical significance after applying the Bonferroni correction. We created and validated mathematical logistic regression models in order to test the usefulness of the sets of polymorphisms for hair colour prediction in the Polish population. We subjected four models to stratified cross-validation. The first model consisted of three polymorphisms that proved to be important in the associative analysis. The second model included, apart from the mentioned polymorphisms, additionally rs16891982:C>G in SLC45A. The third model included, apart from the variants relevant in the associating analysis, rs1800401:C>T in OCA. The fourth model consisted of the set of polymorphisms from the first model supplemented with rs16891982:C>G in SLC45A and rs1800401:C>T in OCA. The validation of our models has shown that the inclusion of rs16891982:C>G in SLC45A and rs1800401:C>T in OCA increases the prediction of red hair in comparison with the algorithm including only rs12913832:A>G in HERC2, rs1805007:T>C and rs1805008:C>T in MC1R. The model consisting of all the five above-mentioned genetic variants has shown good prediction accuracies, expressed by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics: 0.84 for the red-haired, 0.82 for the dark-haired and 0.71 for the blond-haired

  7. Work in the coordinated programme on neutron activation analysis of pollutants in human hair, using research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzel, E.

    1978-11-01

    Scalp hair samples from the population of four different regions in Austria (Vienna, Burgenland, East Tyrol and Vorarlberg) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for As, Sb, Cd, Hg, Br and Zn. For each representative group, the range of concentrations, the geometric mean with the antilog of the logarithmic standard deviation and the median were determined. The distribution histogrammes were also given for the frequency as a function of the concentration. The means of concentrations were in the normal range. Thus, no contamination for the population in total could be suspected. A different picture was observed for the Burgenland group. There was a tail of high concentrations of As and Sb superposed upon the usual log-normal distribution. This tail was due to contamination from mines for a part of the Burgenland group. Increased levels of Cd and Zn were also found for this subgroup. This study demonstrated the validity of analysis of scalp hair for the primary monitoring of trace element contamination of man. For this purpose hair has definite advantages over other human specimen available in vivo such as blood or urine

  8. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-02

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Model-based analysis of the torsional loss modulus in human hair and of the effects of cosmetic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Franz J; Wortmann, Gabriele; Haake, Hans-Martin; Eisfeld, Wolf

    Torsional analysis of single human hairs is especially suited to determine the properties of the cuticle and its changes through cosmetic processing. The two primary parameters, which are obtained by free torsional oscillation using the torsional pendulum method, are storage ( G ') and loss modulus ( G ″). Based on previous work on G ', the current investigation focuses on G ″. The results show an increase of G ″ with a drop of G ' and vice versa , as is expected for a viscoelastic material well below its glass transition. The overall power of G ″ to discriminate between samples is quite low. This is attributed to the systematic decrease of the parameter values with increasing fiber diameter, with a pronounced correlation between G ″ and G '. Analyzing this effect on the basis of a core/shell model for the cortex/cuticle structure of hair by nonlinear regression leads to estimates for the loss moduli of cortex ( G ″ co ) and cuticle ( G ″ cu ). Although the values for G ″ co turn out to be physically not plausible, due to limitations of the applied model, those for G ″ cu are considered as generally realistic against relevant literature values. Significant differences between the loss moduli of the cuticle for the different samples provide insight into changes of the torsional energy loss due to the cosmetic processes and products, contributing toward a consistent view of torsional energy storage and loss, namely, in the cuticle of hair.

  10. Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Zhou, Zhen; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-09-15

    Non-invasive samples present ethical and practical benefits for investigating human exposure to hazardous contaminants, but analytical challenges and difficulties to interpret the results limit their application in biomonitoring. Here we investigated the potential for using hair, nail and urine samples as a measure of internal exposure to an array of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in two populations with different exposure conditions. Paired urine-serum measurements of PFASs from a group of highly exposed fishery employees displayed strong correlations for PFASs with three to eight perfluorinated carbons (ρ > 0.653; p < 0.01). Consistent statistical correlations and transfer ratios in nails and hair from both populations demonstrated that these non-invasive samples can be used as a measure of internal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and C8 chlorinated polyfluoralkyl ether sulfonic acid (C8 Cl-PFESA). Contrastingly, the infrequent detections and/or lack of consistent transfer ratios for perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and short-chain PFASs in hair and nail samples indicate passive uptake from the external environment rather than uptake and internal distribution. Collectively, the study supports the use of urine samples as a valid measure of internal exposure for a range of short- and medium-chain PFASs, while the validity of nail and hair samples as a measure of internal exposure may vary for different PFASs and populations. The ubiquitous detection of C8 Cl-PFESA in all sample matrices from both populations indicates widespread exposure to this contaminant of emerging concern in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1: a component of the ankle link complex required for the normal development of auditory hair bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Joann; Goodyear, Richard J; McMillan, D Randy; Stauffer, Eric A; Holt, Jeffrey R; Locke, Kirsten G; Birch, David G; Legan, P Kevin; White, Perrin C; Walsh, Edward J; Richardson, Guy P

    2006-06-14

    Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles.

  12. Human hair follicle benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene 7, 8-diol metabolism: effect of exposure to a coal tar-containing shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, H.F.; Mukhtar, H.; Kaufmann, I.; Das, M.; Bickers, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hair follicles are a readily available source of human epithelial tissue and offer an excellent system with which to study carcinogen metabolism in human populations. In this study hair follicles were employed to measure the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP), benzo(a)pyrene - 7,8-diol (BP 7,8-diol) and the enzyme mediated binding of /sup 3/H-BP to DNA. The effect of human exposure to a crude coal tar (CCT) - containing shampoo, a preparation rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on these parameters was also evaluated. It was found that aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity increased after use of the shampoo and enhancement of enzyme-mediated binding of BP to DNA was detected in most subjects. Hair follicles were shown to convert BP to several metabolic species and BP, 7,8-diol was also metabolised. Clotrimazole, a known inhibitor of the metabolism of BP was found to inhibit AHH and the metabolism of BP and BP 7,8-diol in human hair follicles, as were other imidazole compounds. The studies show that hair follicles represent an accessible tissue suitable for assessing the extent of PAH carcinogen metabolism in human subjects. Furthermore enzyme activity critical to cancer induction by PAHs was shown to be inducible following the use of a CCT-containing shampoo. Imidazole compounds were shown to be possible effective anti-carcinogens in human populations. 29 refs.

  13. A study of relationship of element contents in human hair with some respiratory system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiaolin; Wu Lanlan; Yuan Ling; Huang Liyun; Jia Zhanxiang; Chen Yang

    1994-01-01

    19 elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Se, Cu, Zn, etc., in hair of 65 patients with chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and cor-pulmonale diseases and 65 healthy people have been investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that the contents of Ca and Mg are lower and Fe, As and Co are higher in the hair of patients than in healthy persons. The contents of Ca and Mg are lower and Fe is higher in the hair of patients during attack periods of chronic bronchitis than in relaxed periods. The differences are significant (P<0.05-0.01). The content of Ca is closely related to that of Mg in hair (P<0.01). The contents of inorganic elements in the Chinese medicine cough and asthma capsule used to treat chronic bronchitis have been determined. The results show that the contents of elements Ca, Mg, Sr, etc., are higher in this medicine than the average amounts of these elements in 120 other Chinese medicines. (author) 15 refs.; 8 tabs

  14. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa West District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10P11 Pn cmP-2P sP-1P using the Ghana Research ...

  15. Cadmium content in human kidney and hair in the Gdansk region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hac, E.; Krechniak, J. [Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. Hallera 107, Gdansk (Poland); Krzyzanowski, M. [Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Al. Gen. Hallera 107, Gdansk (Poland)

    1998-12-11

    Concentrations of cadmium were determined in the renal cortex and hair of 67 persons who died between 1996 and 1997 in the Gdansk region of Poland. The mean concentrations in the renal cortex and the hair were: 39.8{+-}21.45 {mu}g/g and 0.35{+-}0.33 {mu}g/g, respectively. The mean age of the population studied was 47.6{+-}15.8 years. The concentration of cadmium in the renal cortex was age-dependent. In the age groups: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-90 it amounted to: 19.1{+-}11.0 {mu}g/g, 43.3{+-}21.6 {mu}g/g, 47.9{+-}20.8 {mu}g/g, 41.5{+-}20.4 {mu}g/g and 33.6{+-}18.0 {mu}g/g, respectively. No correlation between the cadmium contents in the renal cortex and hair has been established. Hair is not a good indicator of exposure to cadmium. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Distribution of metal and metalloid elements in human scalp hair in Taiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuen; Wang, Yuzhe; Meng, Fanjian; Li, Lifen; Wu, Shan; Mei, Xiaohui; Li, Hua; Zhang, Guixiang; Wu, Daishe

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the levels of metal and metalloid elements (As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in scalp hair samples collected from 161 people of different age and gender groups living in the six districts of Taiyuan, an industrial city with rich coal reserve in Shanxi province in China. Levels of most elements in the hair were high in the 26-40 age groups and increased with the length of residence. Calcium, Cr, Mg, Ni and Zn levels in the females' hair were significantly higher than those in the males' (p industrial and non-industrial districts because most of industry factories are in the upper wind position in Taiyuan, and contamination is prone to spread to non-industrial districts. The principal component analysis indicates that the main sources of these elements are mining activities, the neighboring stainless steel industry, and coal combustion. These results indicate that the industrial activities primarily contribute to the metal and metalloid pollution in Taiyuan, whereas numerous factors caused the metals accumulation in hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium content in human kidney and hair in the Gdansk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hac, E.; Krechniak, J.; Krzyzanowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium were determined in the renal cortex and hair of 67 persons who died between 1996 and 1997 in the Gdansk region of Poland. The mean concentrations in the renal cortex and the hair were: 39.8±21.45 μg/g and 0.35±0.33 μg/g, respectively. The mean age of the population studied was 47.6±15.8 years. The concentration of cadmium in the renal cortex was age-dependent. In the age groups: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-90 it amounted to: 19.1±11.0 μg/g, 43.3±21.6 μg/g, 47.9±20.8 μg/g, 41.5±20.4 μg/g and 33.6±18.0 μg/g, respectively. No correlation between the cadmium contents in the renal cortex and hair has been established. Hair is not a good indicator of exposure to cadmium. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Human hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells promote regeneration of peripheral-nerve injury: an advantageous alternative to ES and iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh, Yasuyuki; Kanoh, Maho; Niiyama, Shiro; Hamada, Yuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Sato, Yuichi; Hoffman, Robert M; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2009-08-01

    The optimal source of stem cells for regenerative medicine is a major question. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have shown promise for pluripotency but have ethical issues and potential to form teratomas. Pluripotent stem cells have been produced from skin cells by either viral-, plasmid- or transposon-mediated gene transfer. These stem cells have been termed induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells. iPS cells may also have malignant potential and are inefficiently produced. Embryonic stem cells may not be suited for individualized therapy, since they can undergo immunologic rejection. To address these fundamental problems, our group is developing hair follicle pluripotent stem (hfPS) cells. Our previous studies have shown that mouse hfPS cells can differentiate to neurons, glial cells in vitro, and other cell types, and can promote nerve and spinal cord regeneration in vivo. hfPS cells are located above the hair follicle bulge in what we have termed the hfPS cell area (hfPSA) and are nestin positive and keratin 15 (K-15) negative. Human hfPS cells can also differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. In the present study, human hfPS cells were transplanted in the severed sciatic nerve of the mouse where they differentiated into glial fibrillary-acidic-protein (GFAP)-positive Schwann cells and promoted the recovery of pre-existing axons, leading to nerve generation. The regenerated nerve recovered function and, upon electrical stimulation, contracted the gastrocnemius muscle. The hfPS cells can be readily isolated from the human scalp, thereby providing an accessible, autologous and safe source of stem cells for regenerative medicine that have important advantages over ES or iPS cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Positive and negative social support and HPA-axis hyperactivity: Evidence from glucocorticoids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iob, Eleonora; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2018-06-12

    While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health. Hair glucocorticoids such as cortisol and cortisone are emerging as promising biomarkers of long-term retrospective HPA activation. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of positive and negative experiences of social support within key relationships (i.e. spouse/partner, children, other family members, and friends) on cortisol and cortisone. These associations were tested in a sample of 2520 older adults (mean age 68.1) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair samples were collected in wave 6 (2012/13). To understand the impact of cumulative exposure to poor social support, the analysis used self-reported data from waves 4 (2008/09) and 6. Covariates included demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and hair characteristics. In cross sectional analyses, lower positive support from all sources and specifically from children were associated with higher cortisol. Additionally, lower positive support from children was positively associated with cortisone. Similarly, higher overall negative support was related to higher cortisol, and greater negative support from children was also positively associated with cortisone. In longitudinal analyses, there was evidence for positive associations between hair glucocorticoids and cumulative exposure to poorer social support. Experiences of low positive and high negative social support, particularly from children, were both related to higher hair glucocorticoids. Hence, social relationships of

  20. A systematic review of light-based home-use devices for hair removal and considerations on human safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Bjerring, P; Dierickx, C

    2012-01-01

    To systematically review and evaluate the efficacy and human safety of currently available home-based optical hair removal devices. Methods A comprehensive Pub Med literature search was conducted which systematically identified publications of relevance. Prospective clinical trials were included whether controlled......, uncontrolled or randomized and with a sample size of at least 10 individuals. Results We identified a total of seven studies: one controlled (CT) and six uncontrolled trials (UCTs). No randomized controlled trials (RCT) were recognized. The best evidence was found for IPL (intense pulsed light) (three devices...

  1. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32 can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized

  2. TPC2 polymorphisms associated with a hair pigmentation phenotype in humans result in gain of channel function by independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Kai; Schludi, Verena; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth; Nguyen, O N Phuong; Müller, Martin; Krüger, Jens; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Ben-Johny, Manu; Vollmar, Angelika M; Berking, Carola; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A; Grimm, Christian

    2017-10-10

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal cation channels. Two members exist in humans, TPC1 and TPC2. Functional roles associated with the ubiquitously expressed TPCs include VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis, LDL-cholesterol trafficking and degradation, physical endurance under fasting conditions, autophagy regulation, the acrosome reaction in sperm, cancer cell migration, and intracellular trafficking of pathogens such as Ebola virus or bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera toxin). In a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics two coding variants of TPC2, rs35264875 (encoding M484L) and rs3829241 (encoding G734E), have been found to be associated with a shift from brown to blond hair color. In two recent follow-up studies a role for TPC2 in pigmentation has been further confirmed. However, these human polymorphic variants have not been functionally characterized until now. The development of endolysosomal patch-clamp techniques has made it possible to investigate directly ion channel activities and characteristics in isolated endolysosomal organelles. We applied this technique here to scrutinize channel characteristics of the polymorphic TPC2 variants in direct comparison with WT. We found that both polymorphisms lead to a gain of channel function by independent mechanisms. We next conducted a clinical study with more than 100 blond- and brown/black-haired individuals. We performed a genotype/phenotype analysis and subsequently isolated fibroblasts from WT and polymorphic variant carriers for endolysosomal patch-clamp experimentation to confirm key in vitro findings.

  3. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P alopecia at a rate similar to that observed in males using the same parameters. © 2014 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  6. Ice recrystallization inhibition proteins (IRIPs) and freeze tolerance in the cryophilic Antarctic hair grass Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrik P; Polotnianka, Renatam M; Sivakumaran, Kailayapillai A; Chew, Orinda; Mackin, Leanne; Kuiper, Micheal J; Talbot, Jonathan P; Nugent, Gregory D; Mautord, Julie; Schrauf, Gustavo E; Spangenberg, German C

    2009-04-01

    Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica E. Desv.), the only grass indigenous to Antarctica, has well-developed freezing tolerance, strongly induced by cold acclimation. Here, we show that in response to low temperatures, D. antarctica expresses potent recrystallization inhibition (RI) activity that, inhibits the growth of small ice crystals into potentially damaging large ones, is proteinaceous and localized to the apoplasm. A gene family from D. antarctica encoding putative homologs of an ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP) has been isolated and characterized. IRIPs are apoplastically targeted proteins with two potential ice-binding motifs: 1-9 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and c. 16 'IRIP' repeats. IRIP genes appear to be confined to the grass subfamily Pooideae and their products, exhibit sequence similarity to phytosulphokine receptors and are predicted to adopt conformations with two ice-binding surfaces. D. antarctica IRIP (DaIRIP) transcript levels are greatly enhanced in leaf tissue following cold acclimation. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a DaIRIP has novel RI activity, and purified DaIRIP, when added back to extracts of leaves from non-acclimated D. antarctica, can reconstitute the activity found in acclimated plants. We propose that IRIP-mediated RI activity may contribute to the cryotolerance of D. antarctica, and thus to its unique ability to have colonized Antarctica.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling of the Intact Dermal Sheath Cup of Human Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Shiro; Ishimatsu-Tsuji, Yumiko; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuzo; Soma, Tsutomu; Ideta, Ritsuro; Mukai, Hideki; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2018-04-24

    Cells that constitute the dermal papillae of hair follicles might be derived from the dermal sheath, the peribulbar component of which is the dermal sheath cup. The dermal sheath cup is thought to include the progenitor cells of the dermal papillae and possesses hair inductive potential; however, it has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the gene expression profile of the intact dermal sheath cup, and identified dermal sheath cup signature genes, including extracellular matrix components and BMP-binding molecules, as well as TGF-b1 as an upstream regulator. Among these, GREM2, a member of the BMP antagonists, was found by in situ hybridization to be highly specific to the dermal sheath cup, implying that GREM2 is a key molecule contributing to maintenance of the properties of the dermal sheath cup.

  8. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, W.; Spelt, C.E.; Bliek, M.; de Vries, M.; Wit, N.; Faraco, M.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.

    2016-01-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) fromArabidopsis thalianaand associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein

  9. Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity): a unique model to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, R; Ben-Amitai, D; Laron, Z

    2004-01-01

    Classical Laron syndrome is a recessive disease of primary insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency and primary growth hormone insensitivity. Affected children have, among other defects, sparse hair growth and frontal recessions. The hair is thin and easy to pluck. Young adults have various degrees of alopecia, more pronounced in males. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of primary IGF-1 deficiency on hair structure. The study sample included 11 patients with Laron syndrome--5 children (2 untreated) and 6 adults (5 untreated). Hairs were examined by light and electron microscopy. The most significant structured defect, pili torti et canaliculi, was found in 2 young, untreated patients. Grooving, tapered hair and trichorrhexis nodosa were found in the remainder. IGF-1-treated patients had either none or significantly fewer pathological changes compared to the untreated patients. This is the first documentation of the role of primary IGF-1 deficiency on hair structure in human beings. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Samat, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k 0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E 1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  11. Deletion of PDZD7 disrupts the Usher syndrome type 2 protein complex in cochlear hair cells and causes hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhuang; Zheng, Tihua; Ren, Chongyu; Askew, Charles; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bifeng; Holt, Jeffrey R; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) is the predominant form of USH, a leading genetic cause of combined deafness and blindness. PDZD7, a paralog of two USH causative genes, USH1C and USH2D (WHRN), was recently reported to be implicated in USH2 and non-syndromic deafness. It encodes a protein with multiple PDZ domains. To understand the biological function of PDZD7 and the pathogenic mechanism caused by PDZD7 mutations, we generated and thoroughly characterized a Pdzd7 knockout mouse model. The Pdzd7 knockout mice exhibit congenital profound deafness, as assessed by auditory brainstem response, distortion product otoacoustic emission and cochlear microphonics tests, and normal vestibular function, as assessed by their behaviors. Lack of PDZD7 leads to the disorganization of stereocilia bundles and a reduction in mechanotransduction currents and sensitivity in cochlear outer hair cells. At the molecular level, PDZD7 determines the localization of the USH2 protein complex, composed of USH2A, GPR98 and WHRN, to ankle links in developing cochlear hair cells, likely through its direct interactions with these three proteins. The localization of PDZD7 to the ankle links of cochlear hair bundles also relies on USH2 proteins. In photoreceptors of Pdzd7 knockout mice, the three USH2 proteins largely remain unchanged at the periciliary membrane complex. The electroretinogram responses of both rod and cone photoreceptors are normal in knockout mice at 1 month of age. Therefore, although the organization of the USH2 complex appears different in photoreceptors, it is clear that PDZD7 plays an essential role in organizing the USH2 complex at ankle links in developing cochlear hair cells. GenBank accession numbers: KF041446, KF041447, KF041448, KF041449, KF041450, KF041451.

  12. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in human hair follicles after in vitro exposure to 11 chemicals: comparison with unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Y H; Koopmans, M J; Heirbaut, P R; van der Hoeven, J C; Weterings, P J

    1992-06-01

    A new method is described to investigate unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in human tissue after exposure in vitro: the human hair follicle. A histological technique was applied to assess cytotoxicity and UDS in the same hair follicle cells. UDS induction was examined for 11 chemicals and the results were compared with literature findings for UDS in rat hepatocytes. Most chemicals inducing UDS in rat hepatocytes raised DNA repair at comparable concentrations in the hair follicle. However, 1 of 9 chemicals that gave a positive response in the rat hepatocyte UDS test, 2-acetylaminofluorene, failed to induce DNA repair in the hair follicle. Metabolizing potential of hair follicle cells was shown in experiments with indirectly acting compounds, i.e., benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and dimethylnitrosamine. The results support the conclusion that the test in its present state is valuable as a screening assay for the detection of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, the use of human tissues may result in a better extrapolation to man.

  13. Minocycline attenuates streptomycin-induced cochlear hair cell death by inhibiting protein nitration and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Haonan; Yu, Shuyuan; Jin, Peng; Hassan, Abdurahman; Du, Bo

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of minocycline against streptomycin-induced damage of cochlear hair cells and its mechanism. Cochlear membranes were isolated from newborn Wistar rats and randomly divided into control, 500μmol/L streptomycin, 100μmol/L minocycline, and streptomycin and minocycline treatment groups. Hair cell survival was analyzed by detecting the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in cochlear hair cells by immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of 3-NT and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activation were evaluated by western blotting. The results demonstrated hair cell loss at 24h after streptomycin treatment. No change was found in supporting cells of the cochleae. Minocycline pretreatment improved hair cell survival and significantly reduced the expression of iNOS and 3-NT in cochlear tissues compared with the streptomycin treatment group. PARP and caspase-3 activation was increased in the streptomycin treatment group compared with the control group, and pretreatment with minocycline decreased cleaved PARP and activated caspase-3 expression. Minocycline protected cochlear hair cells from injury caused by streptomycin in vitro. The mechanism underlying the protective effect may be associated with the inhibition of excessive formation of nitric oxide, reduction of the nitration stress reaction, and inhibition of PARP and caspase-3 activation in cochlear hair cells. Combined minocycline therapy can be applied to patients requiring streptomycin treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evaluation of human exposure to metals from some commonly used hair care products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu M.A. Iwegbue

    Full Text Available The concentrations of nine metals, namely, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe, were determined in 26 brands of hair care products including hair relaxers, conditioners and shampoos. The study was aimed at providing information on the possible risks arising from heavy metals associated with the use of these products. The concentrations of the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of the samples with a mixture of acids. The concentrations of the respective metals in hair relaxers, shampoos and conditioners were found to be 0.8–2.5, 0.6–3.0, Hair care products, Nigeria

  15. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E.; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin’s pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin’s redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism. PMID:26669666

  16. Human exposure to brominated flame retardants through dust in different indoor environments: Identifying the sources of concentration differences in hair from men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Dong, Zheng; Wang, Ying; Bao, Junsong; Yan, Yijun; Liu, Anming; Jin, Jun

    2018-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can accumulate in humans and are associated with adverse health effects. The study was conducted to determine the differences in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardant (Alt-BFR) concentrations between men and women. We analyzed hair samples from 14 male and 20 female university students, paired dust samples from their dormitories (10 for males and 8 for females), and six dust samples from university teaching buildings. The total PBDE concentrations in hair from females were significantly (three times) higher (p = 0.012) than that from males (means 372 and 109 ng/g, respectively). The mean total PBDE concentrations in classroom and dormitory dust were 36100 and 2012 ng/g, respectively. The PBDE patterns were different in the male and female hair samples, as were the patterns in the classroom and dormitory dust. There are no reports concerning human exposure to BFRs through dust that was assessed considering academic and residential environments simultaneously. The differences between BFR exposure for males and females and the differences between BFR concentrations in hair samples from males and females were consistent for 71.4% of the compounds. However, using only dormitory dust in the calculations gave consistent differences only for 28.6% of the compounds, suggesting that the BFR concentration differences in hair were mainly because females spent much more time than males in classrooms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bipedality and hair loss in human evolution revisited: The impact of altitude and activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid-Barrett, Tamás; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    Bipedality evolved early in hominin evolution, and at some point was associated with hair loss over most of the body. One classic explanation (Wheeler 1984: J. Hum. Evol. 13, 91-98) was that these traits evolved to reduce heat overload when australopiths were foraging in more open tropical habitats where they were exposed to the direct effects of sunlight at midday. A recent critique of this model (Ruxton & Wilkinson 2011a: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20965-20969) argued that it ignored the endogenous costs of heat generated by locomotion, and concluded that only hair loss provided a significant reduction in heat load. We add two crucial corrections to this model (the altitude at which australopiths actually lived and activity scheduling) and show that when these are included there are substantial reductions in heat load for bipedal locomotion even for furred animals. In addition, we add one further consideration to the model: we extend the analysis across the full 24 h day, and show that fur loss could not have evolved until much later because of the thermoregulatory costs this would have incurred at the altitudes where australopiths actually lived. Fur loss is most likely associated with the exploitation of open habitats at much lower altitudes at a much later date by the genus Homo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells/CultiSpher(®)-G constructs in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengdong; Liu, Feilin; Wu, Chunling; Jiang, Wenyue; Zhao, Guifang; Liu, Li; Bai, Tingting; Wang, Li; Jiang, Yixu; Guo, Lili; Qi, Xiaojuan; Kou, Junna; Fan, Ruirui; Hao, Deshun; Lan, Shaowei; Li, Yulin; Liu, Jin Yu

    2015-10-01

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell therapies has increased the demand for strategies that allow efficient cell scale-up. Preliminary data on the three-dimensional (3D) spinner culture describing the potential use of microcarriers for hMSCs culture scale-up have been reported. We exploited a rich source of autologous stem cells (human hair follicle) and demonstrated the robust in vitro long-term expansion of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) by using CultiSpher(®)-G microcarriers. We analyzed the feasibility of 3D culture by using hHF-MSCs/CultiSpher(®)-G microcarrier constructs for its potential applicability in regenerative medicine by comparatively analyzing the performance of hHF-MSCs adhered to the CultiSpher(®)-G microspheres in 3D spinner culture and those grown on the gelatin-coated plastic dishes (2D culture), using various assays. We showed that the hHF-MSCs seeded at various densities quickly adhered to and proliferated well on the microspheres, thus generating at least hundreds of millions of hHF-MSCs on 1 g of CultiSpher(®)-G within 12 days. This resulted in a cumulative cell expansion of greater than 26-fold. Notably, the maximum and average proliferation rates in 3D culture were significantly greater than that of the 2D culture. However, the hHF-MSCs from both the cultures retained surface marker and nestin expression, proliferation capacity and differentiation potentials toward adipocytes, osteoblasts and smooth muscle cells and showed no significant differences as evidenced by Edu incorporation, cell cycle, colony formation, apoptosis, biochemical quantification and qPCR assays.

  19. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P.

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders

  20. Topical application of a protein kinase C inhibitor reduces skin and hair pigmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin; González, Salvador; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Kapasi, Sameer; Peterson, Shaun; Gilchrest, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether inhibition of PKC-beta activity decreases pigmentation, paired cultures of primary human melanocytes were first pretreated with bisindolylmaleimide (Bis), a selective PKC inhibitor, or vehicle alone for 30 min, and then treated with TPA for an additional 90 min to activate PKC

  1. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Su, Y.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal

  2. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  3. Search for heavy metals in specified groups of Bangladesh population. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozammel Husain, M.

    1979-12-01

    Hair analysis is increasingly used as a method for assaying and monitoring human exposure to potentially toxic trace elements. More than 100 scalp hair samples were collected from an adult population in Bangladesh; a normalised protocol of sample collection and sample washing recommended by IAEA was used. Samples were charred, homogenised into powder and analysed by the PIXE technique using a 3 MeV Van de Graaf accelerator X-ray spectroscopy. Twelve elements (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb) were surveyed. Medians, arithmetic and geometric means and their respective uncertainties are reported. A comparison of these data with those reported in literature is given

  4. Definitive Endoderm Formation from Plucked Human Hair-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and SK Channel Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Illing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells present an extraordinary powerful tool to investigate embryonic development in humans. Essentially, they provide a unique platform for dissecting the distinct mechanisms underlying pluripotency and subsequent lineage commitment. Modest information currently exists about the expression and the role of ion channels during human embryogenesis, organ development, and cell fate determination. Of note, small and intermediate conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels have been reported to modify stem cell behaviour and differentiation. These channels are broadly expressed throughout human tissues and are involved in various cellular processes, such as the after-hyperpolarization in excitable cells, and also in differentiation processes. To this end, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs generated from plucked human hair keratinocytes have been exploited in vitro to recapitulate endoderm formation and, concomitantly, used to map the expression of the SK channel (SKCa subtypes over time. Thus, we report the successful generation of definitive endoderm from hiPSCs of ectodermal origin using a highly reproducible and robust differentiation system. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that SKCas subtypes are dynamically regulated in the transition from a pluripotent stem cell to a more lineage restricted, endodermal progeny.

  5. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, P.; Pla, A.; Hernandez, A.F.; Lopez-Guarnido, O.; Rodrigo, L.; Gil, F.

    2010-01-01

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  6. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedo, P.; Pla, A.; Hernandez, A.F.; Lopez-Guarnido, O.; Rodrigo, L. [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain); Gil, F., E-mail: fgil@ugr.es [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain)

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  7. A study with microbeam PIXE technique needed for the interpretation of data on pollutants in hair obtained with NAA and other bulk concentration analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Hair metals the analysis of which has been proposed as a practical method for assaying human contamination with metal pollutants, reflect both internal and external contamination. This study is an attempt to distinguish these two components of hair metals, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. Individual hair strands were embedded in a resin combined with a hardener. Each embedded hair strand was cut perpendicular to its axis, into the root, 1-cm and 2-cm segments from the root. The 3 segments were analysed for few elements including As and Pb, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. For each segment, a proton microbeam of 15μ diameter and 500Hz frequency was used to scan the segment cross-section along the long axis. X-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the elements studied. The results, although preliminary, showed that the scanning microbeam PIXE technique may provide important information about elemental concentrations and distribution patterns along hair length and hair cross-section. This may lead to a better understanding of mechanisms responsible for the deposition of elements into hair and thereby to a more rational use of hair analysis as a method for assaying human exposure to element pollutants

  8. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  9. Characterizing human vestibular sensory epithelia for experimental studies: new hair bundles on old tissue and implications for therapeutic interventions in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth R; Jagger, Daniel J; Saeed, Shakeel R; Axon, Patrick; Donnelly, Neil; Tysome, James; Moffatt, David; Irving, Richard; Monksfield, Peter; Coulson, Chris; Freeman, Simon R; Lloyd, Simon K; Forge, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Balance disequilibrium is a significant contributor to falls in the elderly. The most common cause of balance dysfunction is loss of sensory cells from the vestibular sensory epithelia of the inner ear. However, inaccessibility of inner ear tissue in humans severely restricts possibilities for experimental manipulation to develop therapies to ameliorate this loss. We provide a structural and functional analysis of human vestibular sensory epithelia harvested at trans-labyrinthine surgery. We demonstrate the viability of the tissue and labeling with specific markers of hair cell function and of ion homeostasis in the epithelium. Samples obtained from the oldest patients revealed a significant loss of hair cells across the tissue surface, but we found immature hair bundles present in epithelia harvested from patients >60 years of age. These results suggest that the environment of the human vestibular sensory epithelium could be responsive to stimulation of developmental pathways to enhance hair cell regeneration, as has been demonstrated successfully in the vestibular organs of adult mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. UV-vis spectra as an alternative to the Lowry method for quantify hair damage induced by surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Oliveira, Rafael; Joekes, Inés

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that long term use of shampoo causes damage to human hair. Although the Lowry method has been widely used to quantify hair damage, it is unsuitable to determine this in the presence of some surfactants and there is no other method proposed in literature. In this work, a different method is used to investigate and compare the hair damage induced by four types of surfactants (including three commercial-grade surfactants) and water. Hair samples were immersed in aqueous solution of surfactants under conditions that resemble a shower (38 °C, constant shaking). These solutions become colored with time of contact with hair and its UV-vis spectra were recorded. For comparison, the amount of extracted proteins from hair by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and by water were estimated by the Lowry method. Additionally, non-pigmented vs. pigmented hair and also sepia melanin were used to understand the washing solution color and their spectra. The results presented herein show that hair degradation is mostly caused by the extraction of proteins, cuticle fragments and melanin granules from hair fiber. It was found that the intensity of solution color varies with the charge density of the surfactants. Furthermore, the intensity of solution color can be correlated to the amount of proteins quantified by the Lowry method as well as to the degree of hair damage. UV-vis spectrum of hair washing solutions is a simple and straightforward method to quantify and compare hair damages induced by different commercial surfactants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  12. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  13. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  14. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  15. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  16. Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust and hair samples from Northern Poland; an assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among most ubiquitous compounds to be found in indoor environment and ingestion of household dust is considered an important route of exposure to PBDEs, especially in toddlers and young children. The present work reported concentration levels of PBDE congeners (PBDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) in hair and dust samples from selected households from Northern Poland. The concentrations of PBDEs in dust ranged from human hair. PBDE-209 was reported the dominating congener. Two separated exposure scenarios (mean and 95th percentile) were used to provide a comprehensive overview of possible risks arising from ingestion of household dust. The estimated exposure to ∑PBDEs via ingestion of household dust varied from 21 to 92ngd(-1) in toddlers and from 3.7 to 20ngd(-1) in adults. By comparison of correlation between the concentrations of PBDEs in paired hair and dust samples the present work also investigated the possibility of use of hair for reflecting the actual exposure to PBDEs in humans. Finally the possible uncertainties associated with exposure assessment were investigated in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in human head hair by radiochemical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.; Paletti, G.; Pinheiro, R.M.M.; Baruzzi, R.G.; Spindel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts were carried out in order to detect population groups in Brazil that could be at risk with respect to mercury contamination, mainly by ingestion of contaminated fish. Two regions were identified. The first was near Billings Dam which is located in one of the most heavily industrialized parts of the country. It is suspected that the water is polluted by chlor-alkali and other industrial pollutants. People living near this dam frequently consume fish caught around or near the dam. The second region is Xingu Park, located in the Amazonic region where several Indian tribes live and where the gold exploration activities have caused much concern due to the use of mercury in the ore processing. Tons of mercury are thrown in the rivers of the region annually. Both of these groups and a control group were used in this study. It was concluded that the population near Billings Dam had normal levels of mercury. However, the Indians from Xingu Park had very high levels of mercury in their Hair. It was determined that this group deserved further study. 7 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Haslam, Iain S; Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez, Francisco; Gandarillas, Alberto; Izeta, Ander; Paus, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) are required to generate, maintain and renew the continuously cycling hair follicle (HF), supply cells that produce the keratinized hair shaft and aid in the reepithelialization of injured skin. Therefore, their study is biologically and clinically important, from alopecia to carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine. However, human eHFSCs remain ill defined compared to their murine counterparts, and it is unclear which murine eHFSC markers really apply to the human HF. We address this by reviewing current concepts on human eHFSC biology, their immediate progeny and their molecular markers, focusing on Keratin 15 and 19, CD200, CD34, PHLDA1, and EpCAM/Ber-EP4. After delineating how human eHFSCs may be selectively targeted experimentally, we close by defining as yet unmet key challenges in human eHFSC research. The ultimate goal is to transfer emerging concepts from murine epithelial stem cell biology to human HF physiology and pathology. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human myosin VIIa is a very slow processive motor protein on various cellular actin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Osamu; Komatsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeomi; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2017-06-30

    Human myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is an actin-linked motor protein associated with human Usher syndrome (USH) type 1B, which causes human congenital hearing and visual loss. Although it has been thought that the role of human myosin VIIa is critical for USH1 protein tethering with actin and transportation along actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells, myosin VIIa's motor function remains unclear. Here, we studied the motor function of the tail-truncated human myosin VIIa dimer (HM7AΔTail/LZ) at the single-molecule level. We found that the HM7AΔTail/LZ moves processively on single actin filaments with a step size of 35 nm. Dwell-time distribution analysis indicated an average waiting time of 3.4 s, yielding ∼0.3 s -1 for the mechanical turnover rate; hence, the velocity of HM7AΔTail/LZ was extremely slow, at 11 nm·s -1 We also examined HM7AΔTail/LZ movement on various actin structures in demembranated cells. HM7AΔTail/LZ showed unidirectional movement on actin structures at cell edges, such as lamellipodia and filopodia. However, HM7AΔTail/LZ frequently missed steps on actin tracks and exhibited bidirectional movement at stress fibers, which was not observed with tail-truncated myosin Va. These results suggest that the movement of the human myosin VIIa motor protein is more efficient on lamellipodial and filopodial actin tracks than on stress fibers, which are composed of actin filaments with different polarity, and that the actin structures influence the characteristics of cargo transportation by human myosin VIIa. In conclusion, myosin VIIa movement appears to be suitable for translocating USH1 proteins on stereocilia actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter Gerd; Vang, Søren

    2006-01-01

    phenylketonuria, Parkinson's disease, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Despite the differences, an emerging paradigm suggests that the cellular effects of protein misfolding provide a common framework that may contribute...

  1. The potentials and limitations of using neutron activation analysis data on human hair as a forensic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Kuis, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of hair samples from a group of 300 vounteers, involving nearly 12 000 elemental analyses, indicates that while neutron-activation-analysis data have distinct potentials to develop useful forensic evidence, there are several limitations to its routine applications. The multi-elemental analyses of hair-wash samples were done using multiple neutron irradiation and high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. All neutron irradiations were performed in the Penn State TRIGA Reactor at a thermal neutron flux of approximately 10 13 nxcm -2 xs -1 . The gamma-ray spectrometric measurements utilized a 40 cm 3 high resolution Ge(Li) detector. This detector, in association with a software oriented programmable multichannel analyzer with a 12 K core size, was used for gamma ray spectrometric measurements. The data were recorded on computer-compatible magnetic tape. The quantitative measurements of only 22 elements were reported from both the hair samples and the ''hair-wash''. These elements are Ti, I, Br, Mn, Cu, V, Cl, Al, Na, Ca, Se, Hg, Cr, Au, Sb, Ag, Sc, Zn, Co, Fe, and La. In expressing the analytical results of ''hair-wash'' samples, the weight of hair from which the hair-wash originated was used to calculate the results in terms of the weight of hair. (T.G.)

  2. The biological response of plucked human hair to low-dose radiation: a measure of individual radiosensitivity and a technique for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, D.

    1997-01-01

    It is often assumed that the effects of radiation are linear with dose and that high dose effects can be extrapolated to low dose levels. However, there are a variety of mechanisms which can alter the response at low doses. The most important of these relate to induced sensitivity or induced repair mechanisms. It is therefore important that this area is studied in more depth by looking at the molecular effects and damage to cells at low doses. It is well known that there are certain rare genetic syndromes which predispose individuals to cancer, e.g. ataxia telangiectasia. It is also probable that there is a large range of sensitivity in the natural variation of individuals to the risk of radiation-induced cancer. It is proposed that radiosensitivity is studied using stimulated lymphocytes from whole blood and the technique extended to look at the effects in cell cultures established from human hair. Radiation treatment of cell cultures established from plucked human hair has been previously advocated as a non-invasive technique for non-uniform biological dosimetry and it is proposed that these techniques are adapted to the use of hair to estimate individual radiosensitivity. The aim is to establish and optimize these techniques for culturing keratinocytes from plucked human hair follicles with a view to study biological markers for the subsequent assessment of radiosensitivity. Preliminary results are promising and suggest that the technique for culturing keratinocytes from hair presents a feasible approach. Results from this primary cell culture technique and results from the comparison of the micronuclei data obtained from the cell cultures and stimulated lymphocytes will be presented. (author)

  3. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  4. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  5. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    intelligent computer-aided medical image processing for cosmetic treatment applications. The goal of this study was to develop an automated hair counting system for clinical application using the microscope image from the hairs. The proposed method reduces the frequent errors and variances encountered when hairs are manually counted by human assessors. This clinical intelligent system can diagnose the health condition of a person's hair and can be applied in therapy recommendations by doctors for their patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Si

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the k o -NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The K o -NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  7. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  8. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xueping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83% of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134% than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109% or occurrence ranking (~46%. Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high

  9. Structural analysis of recombinant human protein QM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualberto, D.C.H.; Fernandes, J.L.; Silva, F.S.; Saraiva, K.W.; Affonso, R.; Pereira, L.M.; Silva, I.D.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The ribosomal protein QM belongs to a family of ribosomal proteins, which is highly conserved from yeast to humans. The presence of the QM protein is necessary for joining the 60S and 40S subunits in a late step of the initiation of mRNA translation. Although the exact extra-ribosomal functions of QM are not yet fully understood, it has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor. This protein was reported to interact with the transcription factor c-Jun and thereby prevent c-Jun actives genes of the cellular growth. In this study, the human QM protein was expressed in bacterial system, in the soluble form and this structure was analyzed by Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence. The results of Circular Dichroism showed that this protein has less alpha helix than beta sheet, as described in the literature. QM protein does not contain a leucine zipper region; however the ion zinc is necessary for binding of QM to c-Jun. Then we analyzed the relationship between the removal of zinc ions and folding of protein. Preliminary results obtained by the technique Fluorescence showed a gradual increase in fluorescence with the addition of increasing concentration of EDTA. This suggests that the zinc is important in the tertiary structure of the protein. More studies are being made for better understand these results. (author)

  10. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  11. Comparative study of human-induced pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow cells, hair keratinocytes, and skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Wolf, Frieder; Azizian, Azadeh; Stauske, Michael; Tiburcy, Malte; Wagner, Stefan; Hübscher, Daniela; Dressel, Ralf; Chen, Simin; Jende, Jörg; Wulf, Gerald; Lorenz, Verena; Schön, Michael P; Maier, Lars S; Zimmermann, Wolfram H; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Guan, Kaomei

    2013-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a unique opportunity for the generation of patient-specific cells for use in disease modelling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to compare human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from different somatic cell sources regarding their generation efficiency and cardiac differentiation potential, and functionalities of cardiomyocytes. We generated hiPSCs from hair keratinocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and skin fibroblasts by using two different virus systems. We show that MSCs and fibroblasts are more easily reprogrammed than keratinocytes. This corresponds to higher methylation levels of minimal promoter regions of the OCT4 and NANOG genes in keratinocytes than in MSCs and fibroblasts. The success rate and reprogramming efficiency was significantly higher by using the STEMCCA system than the OSNL system. All analysed hiPSCs are pluripotent and show phenotypical characteristics similar to human embryonic stem cells. We studied the cardiac differentiation efficiency of generated hiPSC lines (n = 24) and found that MSC-derived hiPSCs exhibited a significantly higher efficiency to spontaneously differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes when compared with keratinocyte-, and fibroblast-derived hiPSCs. There was no significant difference in the functionalities of the cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs with different origins, showing the presence of pacemaker-, atrial-, ventricular- and Purkinje-like cardiomyocytes, and exhibiting rhythmic Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ sparks in hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, spontaneously and synchronously beating and force-developing engineered heart tissues were generated. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells can be reprogrammed from all three somatic cell types, but with different efficiency. All analysed iPSCs can differentiate into cardiomyocytes, and the functionalities of cardiomyocytes derived from different cell

  12. Case-control study of genus-beta human papillomaviruses in plucked eyebrow hairs and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michelle R; Gheit, Tarik; Pfister, Herbert; Giuliano, Anna R; Messina, Jane L; Fenske, Neil A; Cherpelis, Basil S; Sondak, Vernon K; Roetzheim, Richard G; Silling, Steffi; Pawlita, Michael; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been reported in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We conducted a clinic-based case-control study to investigate the association between genus-beta HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EBH) and SCC. EBH from 168 SCC cases and 290 controls were genotyped for genus-beta HPV DNA. SCC tumors from a subset of cases (n = 142) were also genotyped. Viral load was determined in a subset of specimens positive for a single HPV type. Associations with SCC were estimated by odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age and sex using logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. EBH DNA prevalence was greater in cases (87%) than controls (73%) (p genus-beta types tested, when accounting for DNA for the same HPV type in the tumor (ORs = 3.44-76.50). Compared to controls, the mean viral DNA load in EBH among the selected cases was greater for HPV5, HPV8 and HPV24, but lower for HPV38. SCC cases were more likely than controls to have HPV DNA+ EBH for single and multiple HPV types, providing additional support for the potential role of genus-beta HPV infections in SCC development. © 2013 UICC.

  13. The amelioration of cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction by the injection of keratin biomaterials derived from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deliang; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Jingyi; Cheng, Ke; Zhang, Jinying

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of advanced cardiomyopathy. Conventional pharmacological therapies rely on prompt reperfusion and prevention of repetitive maladaptive pathways. Keratin biomaterials can be manufactured in an autologous fashion and are effective in various models of tissue regeneration. However, its potential application in cardiac regeneration has not been tested. Keratin biomaterials were derived from human hair and its structure morphology, carryover of beneficial factors, biocompatibility with cardiomyocytes, and in vivo degradation profile were characterized. After delivery into infarcted rat hearts, the keratin scaffolds were efficiently infiltrated by cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Injection of keratin biomaterials promotes angiogenesis but does not exacerbate inflammation in the post-MI hearts. Compared to control-injected animals, keratin biomaterials-injected animals exhibited preservation of cardiac function and attenuation of adverse ventricular remodeling over the 8 week following time course. Tissue western blot analysis revealed up-regulation of beneficial factors (BMP4, NGF, TGF-beta) in the keratin-injected hearts. The salient functional benefits, the simplicity of manufacturing and the potentially autologous nature of this biomaterial provide impetus for further translation to the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human hair-derived high surface area porous carbon material for the adsorption isotherm and kinetics of tetracycline antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M J; Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a human hair-derived high surface area porous carbon material (HHC) was prepared using potassium hydroxide activation. The morphology and textural properties of the HHC structure, along with its adsorption performance for tetracycline (TC) antibiotics, were evaluated. HHC showed a high surface area of 1505.11m 2 /g and 68.34% microporosity. The effects of most important variables, such as initial concentration (25-355mg/L), solution pH (3-13), and temperatures (30-50°C), on the HHC adsorption performance were investigated. Isotherm data analysis revealed the favorable application of the Langmuir model, with maximum TC uptakes of 128.52, 162.62, and 210.18mg/g at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively. The experimental data of TC uptakes versus time were analyzed efficiently using a pseudo-first order model. Porous HHC could be an efficient adsorbent for eliminating antibiotic pollutants in wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  16. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  17. Association between sex inequality in animal protein intake and economic development in the Papua New Guinea highlands: The carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of scalp hair and fingernail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Masahiro; Naito, Yuichi I; Tsutaya, Takumi; Baba, Jun; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Morita, Ayako; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Siba, Peter M; Yoneda, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    People in the Papua New Guinea Highlands consume sweet potatoes as their dietary staple; consumption of animal protein is limited. In such societies with marginal protein intake, the intra-household allocation of animal protein in terms of sex or age is of importance. The objective of this study was to investigate how the allocation pattern of protein-rich foods by sex and age is associated with economic development in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fingernails, collected in 1995 in two areas (Tari and Port Moresby [the national capital where Tari migrants resided]), and of scalp hair, collected in 2007, 2012, and 2013 in three areas of different degree of economic development (Levani, Tari, and Goroka) were analyzed. Analysis of fingernail samples showed that δ(15)N was lower in rural communities than in the urban migrant community, while a sex difference in δ(15)N (higher in males than in females) was found in the former but not in the latter community. Age was not associated with either δ(15)N or δ(13)C values. The analysis of scalp hair samples showed that δ(15)N values were lowest in Levani, the least developed area. Furthermore, there were statistically significant sex differences in δ(15)N values in Levani but not in Tari and Goroka. Age was not associated with either δ(15)N or δ(13)C values. The sex inequality in animal protein consumption seems to have decreased as the communities in the Papua New Guinea Highlands have experienced economic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Arsenic species determination in human scalp hair by pressurized hot water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morado Piñeiro, Andrés; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2013-02-15

    Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic and arsenic species (mainly As(III) and As(V)) in human scalp hair have been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS have been used for total arsenic and arsenic species determination, respectively. The proposed methods include a "green", fast, high efficient and automated species leaching procedure by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The operating parameters for PHWE including modifier concentration, extraction temperature, static time, extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio and flush volume were studied using design of experiments (Plackett-Burman design PBD). Optimum condition implies a modifier concentration (acetic acid) of 150 mM and powdered hair samples fully mixed with diatomaceous earth (DE) as a dispersing agent at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 5. The extraction has been carried out at 100°C and at an extraction pressure of 1500 psi for 5 min in four extraction step. Under optimised conditions, limits of quantification of 7.0, 6.3 and 50.3 ng g(-1) for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively were achieved. Repeatability of the overall procedure (4.4, 7.2 and 2.1% for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively) was achieved. The analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material was used for validation. The optimised method has been finally applied to several human scalp hair samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sabapathy

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL. Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells

  1. The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Bodian, Adam B; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Fernandez-Obregon, Adolfo; Kazmirek, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 ± 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 ± 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 ± 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 ± 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 ± 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 ± 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 ± 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  2. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey L. Langeland

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1 examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI; and (2, to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight. We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute

  3. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco ( Piaractus brachypomus ) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  4. Dataset of protein species from human liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Naryzhny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Zipf׳s law in proteomics” (Naryzhny et al., 2017 [1]. The protein composition in the human liver or hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells extracts was estimated using a filter-aided sample preparation (FASP protocol. The protein species/proteoform composition in the human liver was determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by Electrospray Ionization Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI LC-MS/MS. In the case of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, the gel was stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R350, and image analysis was performed with ImageMaster 2D Platinum software (GE Healthcare. The 96 sections in the 2D gel were selected and cut for subsequent ESI LC-MS/MS and protein identification. If the same protein was detected in different sections, it was considered to exist as different protein species/proteoforms. A list of human liver proteoforms detected in this way is presented.

  5. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-associated decrease in GDNF and its cognate receptor GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its cognate receptor (GFRα-1) are expressed in normal human skin. They are involved in murine hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling control. We hypothesize that 'GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in human skin undergoes age-associated alterations. To test our hypothesis, the expression of these proteins was examined in human skin specimens obtained from 30 healthy individuals representing three age groups: children (5-18 years), adults (19-60 years) and the elderly (61-81 years). Immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistologic analyses were performed using tyramide signal amplification and avidin-biotin complex staining methods respectively. GDNF mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR analysis. GDNF mRNA and protein as well as GFRα-1 protein expressions were detected in normal human skin. We found significantly reduced epidermal expression of these proteins with ageing. In the epidermis, the expression was strong in the skin of children and declined gradually with ageing, being moderate in adults and weak in the elderly. In children and adults, the expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins was strongest in the stratum basale and decreased gradually towards the surface layers where it was completely absent in the stratum corneum. In the elderly, GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression was confined to the stratum basale. In the dermis, both GDNF and GFRα-1 proteins had strong expressions in the fibroblasts, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles and blood vessels regardless of the age. Thus there is a decrease in epidermal GDNF and GFRα-1 protein expression in normal human skin with ageing. Our findings suggest that the consequences of this is that GFRα-1-mediated signalling is altered during the ageing process. The clinical and therapeutic ramifications of these observations mandate further investigations. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016

  7. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  8. Purification of human alpha uterine protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, R G; Bolton, A E; Sharp, F; Nicholson, L V; MacKinnon, R

    1980-03-01

    Human alpha uterine protein (AUP) has been prepared from extracts of decudua by antibody affinity chromatography, DEAE Sepharose chromatography and by filtration through Sephadex G-150. This procedure yielded a protein fraction containing AUP, which was labelled with 125I by chloramine T. When analysed by SDS gel electrophoresis this radioiodinated protein fraction was found to contain predominantly a single species of protein which was precipitated by antibodies against AUP in antibody-antigen crossed electrophoresis. Rabbit anti-AUP precipitated 55-65% of the tracer in a double-antibody system. Sephadex G150 gel filtration of AUP obtained before and after affinity chromatography provided a molecular weight estimate of 50000. Since SDS gel electrophoresis revealed a polypeptide molecular weight of 23000-25000, it is suggested that AUP is a dimer.

  9. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  10. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  11. Enantioselective determination of (R)-zopiclone and (S)-zopiclone (eszopiclone) in human hair by micropulverized extraction and chiral liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kuwayama, Kenji

    2017-10-13

    Zopiclone and its (S)-enantiomer (eszopiclone) are commonly prescribed for insomnia. Despite the high demand for enantioselective differentiation, the chiral analysis of zopiclone in hair has not been reported. In this study, a method for the enantioselective quantification of zopiclone in human hair was developed. The extraction medium and duration were optimized using real eszopiclone-positive hair samples. Specifically, micropulverized extraction with 3.0M ammonium phosphate buffer (pH 8.4) involving salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was utilized to minimize the degradation of zopiclone and for rapid and facile operation. On the other hand, recovery of the conventional solid-liquid extraction involved overnight soaking in 3.0M ammonium phosphate buffer (pH 8.4) was only 0.58±0.12% of the maximum recovery achieved by the present method due to the decomposition in the phosphate buffer. An excellent chiral separation (Rs=5.0) was achieved using a chiral stationary phase comprising cellulose tris(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate) and a volatile mobile phase of 10mM ammonium carbonate (pH 8.0)-acetonitrile (25:75, v/v). Detection was carried out using liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) with electrospray ionization. A Q Exactive mass spectrometer equipped with a quadrupole-Orbitrap analyzer was used for detection. The concentration of 0.50pg/mg was defined as the lowest limit of quantification using 5mg of hair sample. Using the developed approach, the concentration of eszopiclone in hair after a single 2-mg dose was found to be 441pg/mg, which was higher than all the reported values regarding a single administration of zopiclone. After daily administration of racemic zopiclone (3.75mg/day), the concentrations of (R)-enantiomer and (S)-enantiomer in the black hair were 5.30-8.31ng/mg and 7.96-12.8ng/mg, respectively, and the concentration of the (S)-enantiomer was always higher than that of the (R

  12. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  13. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  14. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  15. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 8 novel loci involved in shape variation of human head hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Gu; Hysi, Pirro G; Wu, Sijie; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Breslin, Krystal; Pospiech, Ewelina; Hamer, Merel A; Peng, Fuduan; Muralidharan, Charanya; Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bortolini, Maria Catira; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Zeng, Changqing; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Uitterlinden, André G; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Nijsten, Tamar; Walsh, Susan; Branicki, Wojciech; Wang, Sijia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Kayser, Manfred

    2018-02-01

    Shape variation of human head hair shows striking variation within and between human populations, while its genetic basis is far from being understood. We performed a series of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replication studies in a total of 28 964 subjects from 9 cohorts from multiple geographic origins. A meta-analysis of three European GWASs identified 8 novel loci (1p36.23 ERRFI1/SLC45A1, 1p36.22 PEX14, 1p36.13 PADI3, 2p13.3 TGFA, 11p14.1 LGR4, 12q13.13 HOXC13, 17q21.2 KRTAP, and 20q13.33 PTK6), and confirmed 4 previously known ones (1q21.3 TCHH/TCHHL1/LCE3E, 2q35 WNT10A, 4q21.21 FRAS1, and 10p14 LINC00708/GATA3), all showing genome-wide significant association with hair shape (P 5e-8). All except one (1p36.22 PEX14) were replicated with nominal significance in at least one of the 6 additional cohorts of European, Native American and East Asian origins. Three additional previously known genes (EDAR, OFCC1, and PRSS53) were confirmed at the nominal significance level. A multivariable regression model revealed that 14 SNPs from different genes significantly and independently contribute to hair shape variation, reaching a cross-validated AUC value of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62-0.70) and an AUC value of 0.64 in an independent validation cohort, providing an improved accuracy compared with a previous model. Prediction outcomes of 2504 individuals from a multiethnic sample were largely consistent with general knowledge on the global distribution of hair shape variation. Our study thus delivers target genes and DNA variants for future functional studies to further evaluate the molecular basis of hair shape in humans. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 8 novel loci involved in shape variation of human head hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Gu; Hysi, Pirro G; Wu, Sijie; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Breslin, Krystal; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Hamer, Merel A; Peng, Fuduan; Muralidharan, Charanya; Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bortolini, Maria Catira; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Zeng, Changqing; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Uitterlinden, André G; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Nijsten, Tamar; Walsh, Susan; Branicki, Wojciech; Wang, Sijia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Kayser, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Shape variation of human head hair shows striking variation within and between human populations, while its genetic basis is far from being understood. We performed a series of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replication studies in a total of 28 964 subjects from 9 cohorts from multiple geographic origins. A meta-analysis of three European GWASs identified 8 novel loci (1p36.23 ERRFI1/SLC45A1, 1p36.22 PEX14, 1p36.13 PADI3, 2p13.3 TGFA, 11p14.1 LGR4, 12q13.13 HOXC13, 17q21.2 KRTAP, and 20q13.33 PTK6), and confirmed 4 previously known ones (1q21.3 TCHH/TCHHL1/LCE3E, 2q35 WNT10A, 4q21.21 FRAS1, and 10p14 LINC00708/GATA3), all showing genome-wide significant association with hair shape (P < 5e-8). All except one (1p36.22 PEX14) were replicated with nominal significance in at least one of the 6 additional cohorts of European, Native American and East Asian origins. Three additional previously known genes (EDAR, OFCC1, and PRSS53) were confirmed at the nominal significance level. A multivariable regression model revealed that 14 SNPs from different genes significantly and independently contribute to hair shape variation, reaching a cross-validated AUC value of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.62–0.70) and an AUC value of 0.64 in an independent validation cohort, providing an improved accuracy compared with a previous model. Prediction outcomes of 2504 individuals from a multiethnic sample were largely consistent with general knowledge on the global distribution of hair shape variation. Our study thus delivers target genes and DNA variants for future functional studies to further evaluate the molecular basis of hair shape in humans. PMID:29220522

  17. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  18. Transgenic mice display hair loss and regrowth overexpressing mutant Hr gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kuicheng; Xu, Cunshuan; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Mengduan

    2017-10-30

    Mutations in the hairless (Hr) gene in both mice and humans have been implicated in the development of congenital atrichia, but the role of Hr in skin and hair follicle (HF) biology remains unknown. Here, we established transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing mutant Hr to investigate its specific role in the development of HF. Three transgenic lines were successfully constructed, and two of them (TG3 and TG8) displayed a pattern of hair loss and regrowth with alternation in the expression of HR protein. The mutant Hr gene inhibited the expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic individuals, which led to the development of alopecia. Interestingly, the hair regrew with the increase in the endogenous expression levels resulting from decreased mutant Hr expression. The findings of our study indicate that the changes in the expression of Hr result in hair loss or regrowth.

  19. A study of trace element concentrations in human hair of some local populations in Japan. I. Inhabitants of the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, A.; Fukushima, I.; Shiobara, S.; Terai, M.

    1979-01-01

    By applying instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques, a survey was carried out to determine the levels of a variety of trace element concentrations in human hair of the inhabitants of the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants of the residential district in the western part of the Tokyo metropolitan area. The donors were divided into five age groups, ranging from pre-school age to sixty years and above. Each group consisted of twenty males and twenty or more females. The sampling method and washing procedure recommended by the IAEA Advisory Group on the applications of nuclear methods in environmental research were strictly followed. Irradiation of the samples was made in the Rikkyo University 100-kW TRIGA MARK II reactor. By using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, the following 37 elements were quantitatively analysed: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Te, Ti, U, V, W and Zn. NBS standard reference orchard leaves and bovine liver were also analysed in the course of the hair analysis to assess the precision of the analytical techniques. (author)

  20. Characterisation of human hair surfaces by means of static ToF-SIMS: A comparison between Ga+ and C60+ primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poleunis, Claude; Everaert, Emmanuel P.; Delcorte, Arnaud; Bertrand, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the secondary ion yield improvement induced by using C 60 + primary ions instead of Ga + ones to characterize human hair surfaces by ToF-SIMS. For that purpose, a bunch of hair fibres has been analysed with both ion sources. A high improvement is observed for the detection of amino acids with C 60 + primary ions as compared to Ga + ions. As an example, a yield enhancement factor greater than 3000 is found for the CNO - peak. A similar gain is observed for the positive secondary ions characteristic of the amino acids. Most of the atomic ions, such as Ca + , O - and S - , constitute minor peaks with C 60 + ions while they often dominate the spectrum in the case of Ga + ions. However, with the C 60 + source, a series of inorganic combination peaks with the elements Ca, S and O are observed in the positive spectra (i.e. HCaSO 4 + ), while they are marginal with the Ga + source. For the mass range beyond 100 m/z and in both polarities, the hair fingerprints are similar with both sources. In average, for a comparable number of primary ions per spectrum, the C 60 + ion source gives intensities between two and three orders of magnitude higher than the Ga + one

  1. Characterisation of human hair surfaces by means of static ToF-SIMS: A comparison between Ga{sup +} and C{sub 60} {sup +} primary ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleunis, Claude [Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux (PCPM), Croix du Sud 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: poleunis@pcpm.ucl.ac.be; Everaert, Emmanuel P. [Unilever R and D Port Sunlight, Quarry Road East, Bebington Wirral CH63 3JW (United Kingdom); Delcorte, Arnaud [Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux (PCPM), Croix du Sud 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, Patrick [Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux (PCPM), Croix du Sud 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2006-07-30

    This study deals with the secondary ion yield improvement induced by using C{sub 60} {sup +} primary ions instead of Ga{sup +} ones to characterize human hair surfaces by ToF-SIMS. For that purpose, a bunch of hair fibres has been analysed with both ion sources. A high improvement is observed for the detection of amino acids with C{sub 60} {sup +} primary ions as compared to Ga{sup +} ions. As an example, a yield enhancement factor greater than 3000 is found for the CNO{sup -} peak. A similar gain is observed for the positive secondary ions characteristic of the amino acids. Most of the atomic ions, such as Ca{sup +}, O{sup -} and S{sup -}, constitute minor peaks with C{sub 60} {sup +} ions while they often dominate the spectrum in the case of Ga{sup +} ions. However, with the C{sub 60} {sup +} source, a series of inorganic combination peaks with the elements Ca, S and O are observed in the positive spectra (i.e. HCaSO{sub 4} {sup +}), while they are marginal with the Ga{sup +} source. For the mass range beyond 100 m/z and in both polarities, the hair fingerprints are similar with both sources. In average, for a comparable number of primary ions per spectrum, the C{sub 60} {sup +} ion source gives intensities between two and three orders of magnitude higher than the Ga{sup +} one.

  2. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  3. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  4. Simultaneous determination of antiretroviral drugs in human hair with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Yang, Jin; Duan, Cailing; Chu, Liuxi; Chen, Shenghuo; Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Deng, Huihua

    2018-04-15

    The determination of the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in hair is believed to be an important means for the assessment of the long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. At present, the combination of tenofovir, lamivudine and nevirapine is widely used in China. However, there was no research reporting simultaneous determination of the three drugs in hair. The present study aimed to develop a sensitive method for simultaneous determination of the three drugs in 2-mg and 10-mg natural hair (Method 1 and Method 2). Hair samples were incubated in methanol at 37 °C for 16 h after being rinsed with methanol twice. The analysis was performed on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with electronic spray ionization in positive mode and multiple reactions monitoring. Method 1 and Method 2 showed the limits of detection at 160 and 30 pg/mg for tenofovir, at 5 and 6 pg/mg for lamivudine and at 15 and 3 pg/mg for nevirapine. The two methods showed good linearity with the square of correlation coefficient >0.99 at the ranges of 416-5000 and 77-5000 pg/mg for tenofovir, 12-5000 and 15-5000 pg/mg for lamivudine and 39-50,000 and 6-50,000 pg/mg for nevirapine. They gave intra-day and inter-day coefficient of variation <15% and the recoveries ranging from 80.6 to 122.3% and from 83.1 to 114.4%. Method 2 showed LOD and LOQ better than Method 1 for tenofovir and nevirapine and matched Method 1 for lamivudine, but there was high consistency between them in the determination of the three drugs in hair. The population analysis with Method 2 revealed that the concentrations in hair were decreased with the distance of hair segment away from the scalp for the three antiretroviral drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geochemical and Pb isotopic characterization of soil, groundwater, human hair, and corn samples from the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert A.; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2018-01-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out to investigate metal contamination in the Domizio Littoral and Agro Aversano area (Southern Italy) by means of soil, groundwater, human hair and corn samples. Pb isotope ratios were also determined to identify the sources of metals. Specifically, the investigation focused on topsoils (n = 1064), groundwater (n = 26), 25 human hair (n = 24) and corn samples (n = 13). Topsoils have been sampled and analysed in a previous study for 53 elements (including potentially harmful ones), and determined by ICP-MS after dissolving with aqua regia. Groundwater was analysed for 72 elements by ICP-MS and by ICP-ES. Samples of human hair were prepared and analysed for 16 elements by ICP-MS. Dried corn collected at several farms were also analysed for 53 elements by ICP-MS. The isotopic ratios of 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb in selected topsoil (n = 24), groundwater (n = 9), human hair (n = 9) and corn (n = 4) samples were analysed from both eluates and residues to investigate possible anthropogenic contamination and geogenic contributions. All data were processed and mapped by ArcGis software to produce interpolated maps and contamination factor maps of potentially harmful elements, in accordance with Italian Environmental Law (Legislative Decree 152/06). Results show that soil sampling sites are characterized by As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn contents exceeding the action limits established for residential land use (RAL) and, in some cases, also the action limits for industrial land use (IAL) as established by Legislative Decree 152/06. A map of contamination factors and a map showing the degrees of contamination indicate that the areas in the municipalities of Acerra, Casoria and Giugliano have been affected by considerable anthropogenic-related pollution. To interpret the isotopic data and roughly estimate proportion of Pb from an anthropogenic source we broadly defined possible natural and anthropogenic Pb end

  6. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  7. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  8. A revision in hydrogen isotopic composition of USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair stable isotopic reference materials for forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δ2HVSMOW-SLAP) of USGS42 and USGS43 human hair stable isotopic reference materials, normalized to the VSMOW (Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water)–SLAP (Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, was originally determined with a high temperature conversion technique using an elemental analyzer (TC/EA) with a glassy carbon tube and glassy carbon filling and analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method can produce inaccurate δ2HVSMOW-SLAPresults when analyzing nitrogen-bearing organic substances owing to the formation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), leading to non-quantitative conversion of a sample into molecular hydrogen (H2) for IRMS analysis. A single-oven, chromium-filled, elemental analyzer (Cr-EA) coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability of hydrogen isotopic analysis of hydrogen- and nitrogen-bearing organic material because hot chromium scavenges all reactive elements except hydrogen. USGS42 and USGS43 human hair isotopic reference materials have been analyzed with the Cr-EA IRMS method, and the δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values of their non-exchangeable hydrogen fractions have been revised:where mUr = 0.001 = ‰. On average, these revised δ2HVSMOW-SLAP values are 5.7 mUr more positive than those previously measured. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ2HVSMOW-SLAP of isotopic reference materials in publications as they may need to adjust the δ2HVSMOW–SLAP measurement results of human hair in previous publications to ensure all results are on the same isotope-delta scale.

  9. A scored human protein-protein interaction network to catalyze genomic interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Taibo; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansen, Rasmus B

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (InWeb_InBioMap,......Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (In...

  10. Diffusion of protein through the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalel, Resmi A; Engberg, Kristin; Noolandi, Jaan; Cochran, Jennifer R; Frank, Curtis; Ta, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    To determine the rate of diffusion of myoglobin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the human cornea. These small proteins have hydrodynamic diameters of approximately 4.4 and 7.2 nm, and molecular weights of 16.7 and 66 kDa, for myoglobin and BSA, respectively. Diffusion coefficients were measured using a diffusion chamber where the protein of interest and balanced salt solution were in different chambers separated by an ex vivo human cornea. Protein concentrations in the balanced salt solution chamber were measured over time. Diffusion coefficients were calculated using equations derived from Fick's law and conservation of mass in a closed system. Our experiments demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient of myoglobin is 5.5 ± 0.9 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (n = 8; SD = 1.3 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s; 95% CI: 4.6 × 10(-8) to 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) and the diffusion coefficient of BSA is 3.1 ± 1.0 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s (n = 8; SD = 1.4 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s; 95% CI: 2.1 × 10(-8) to 4.1 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s). Our study suggests that molecules as large as 7.2 nm may be able to passively diffuse through the human cornea. With applications in pharmacotherapy and the development of an artificial cornea, further experiments are warranted to fully understand the limits of human corneal diffusion and its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Inferring modules from human protein interactome classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaurasia Gautam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of protein-protein interaction networks derived from high-throughput screening approaches and complementary sources is a key topic in systems biology. Although integration of protein interaction data is conventionally performed, the effects of this procedure on the result of network analyses has not been examined yet. In particular, in order to optimize the fusion of heterogeneous interaction datasets, it is crucial to consider not only their degree of coverage and accuracy, but also their mutual dependencies and additional salient features. Results We examined this issue based on the analysis of modules detected by network clustering methods applied to both integrated and individual (disaggregated data sources, which we call interactome classes. Due to class diversity, we deal with variable dependencies of data features arising from structural specificities and biases, but also from possible overlaps. Since highly connected regions of the human interactome may point to potential protein complexes, we have focused on the concept of modularity, and elucidated the detection power of module extraction algorithms by independent validations based on GO, MIPS and KEGG. From the combination of protein interactions with gene expressions, a confidence scoring scheme has been proposed before proceeding via GO with further classification in permanent and transient modules. Conclusions Disaggregated interactomes are shown to be informative for inferring modularity, thus contributing to perform an effective integrative analysis. Validation of the extracted modules by multiple annotation allows for the assessment of confidence measures assigned to the modules in a protein pathway context. Notably, the proposed multilayer confidence scheme can be used for network calibration by enabling a transition from unweighted to weighted interactomes based on biological evidence.

  12. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  13. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  14. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-09

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration.

  15. The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children. NK Mohammed. Abstract. Reference values for elements in human hair of people from different countries have been published in literature. However, the data did not include the hair elemental concentrations of the Tanzanian population. Therefore, this ...

  16. Elemental data on human hair sampled from Indian student population and their interpretation for studies in environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; Gangadharan, S.; Yegnasubramanian, S.

    1979-01-01

    The head hair samples from 260 students distributed over the country have been analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry through a combination of short and long irradiations. The elemental abundances for 21 elements (Na, Cl, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, La, Ce and Au) computed using a secondary standard, developed in this laboratory, as a comparator are presented and compared with some of the published data. The elemental concentration data have been analysed to look for statistically significant differences between groups based on sex, diet, geographical location, section of hair, etc., and the trace element features have been processed through pattern recognition approach using principal components analysis and minimal spanning tree. The vegetarians and non-vegetarians form clearly distinct groups, while the clusters for general population seem to be based on geographical location. (author)

  17. Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Human Term Newborns and Their Mothers at Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Huel, Guy; Sahuquillo, Josiane; Debotte, Ginette; Oury, Jean-François; Takser, Larissa

    2007-01-01

    Background Calcium homeostasis is a known target of several environmental toxicants including lead and mercury. Objective Our goal was to determine the relationship between Hg exposure and erythrocyte Ca pump activity in women at delivery and in their newborns. Methods We determined total Hg as well as Pb concentrations in 81 hair and blood samples obtained at delivery. Basal and calmodulin-stimulated Ca pump activity was measured in red blood cells from cord blood and maternal erythrocyte pl...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of human plasma protein C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bocheng; Li Jinquan; Jing Jian; Zhang Manda

    1995-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay method for the measurement of human plasma protein C (PC) is established. PC was isolated and purified from human plasma. The antisera against PC was obtained by immunizing rabbits. Iodination of PC was carried out with chroramine-T. The sensitivity was 3.94% μg/L, and the assay covered 6.25∼1024 μg/L for PC. The intra-assay and inter-assay CV were 4.4% and 9.68% respectively, with a recovery rate of 104.28%. There was no cross reaction with factor II. The normal value was 3.84 +- 0.34 mg/L in 36 normal persons. Value of 1.03 +-0.41 mg/L was found in 16 patients with fulminating hepatitis complicated with coagulation disturbance. It is an effective approach for the diagnosis of hereditary or acquired PC deficiency and also for the study of thrombotic diseases

  19. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  20. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  2. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  3. Matrix solid-phase dispersion on column clean-up/pre-concentration as a novel approach for fast isolation of abuse drugs from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Alvarez-Freire, Iván; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2010-10-08

    A simple and fast sample pre-treatment method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair has been developed. The MSPD approach consisted of using alumina (1.80 g) as a dispersing agent and 0.6M hydrochloric acid (4 mL) as an extracting solvent. For a fixed hair sample mass of 0.050 g, the alumina mass to sample mass ratio obtained was 36. A previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge (2 mL methanol, plus 2 mL ultrapure water, plus 1 mL of 0.2M/0.2M sodium hydroxide/boric acid buffer solution at pH 9.2) was attached to the end of the MSPD syringe for on column clean-up of the hydrochloric acid extract and for transferring the target compounds to a suitable solvent for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Therefore, the adsorbed analytes were directly eluted from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% acetic acid in methanol before concentration by N(2) stream evaporation and dry extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The optimization/evaluation of all the factors affecting the MSPD and on column clean-up procedures has led to a fast sample treatment, and analytes extraction and pre-concentration can be finished in approximately 30 min. The developed method has been applied to eight hair samples from poli-drug abusers and measured analyte concentrations have been found to be statistically similar (95% confidence interval) to those obtained after a conventional enzymatic hydrolysis method (Pronase E). Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Influence of Protein and Energy Level in Finishing Diets for Feedlot Hair Lambs: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Ríos-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5% on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i High protein-high energy (HP-HE; ii High protein-low energy (HP-LE; iii Low protein-high energy (LP-HE, and iv Low protein-low energy (LP-LE. With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG, but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p2.80 Mcal/kg ME. Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.

  5. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  6. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  7. A biomedical application of PIXE. Studies of track elements in human hair, in control and hyperactive children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, N.S.

    1987-07-01

    Hair samples from hyperactive and control children have been analyzed for their trace elemental contents by PIXE. The main elements examined are S, K, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Hg and Pb. The significant difference between the elements in control population and in patients suffering from pathological conditions are examined. Investigations of the possible linear and multiple correlations between elements in each population are made. The work indicates that some elements do exhibit variation with pathological state. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Estimate of the melanin content in human hairs by the inverse Monte-Carlo method using a system for digital image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkatov, A N; Genina, Elina A; Kochubei, V I; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2006-01-01

    Based on the digital image analysis and inverse Monte-Carlo method, the proximate analysis method is deve-loped and the optical properties of hairs of different types are estimated in three spectral ranges corresponding to three colour components. The scattering and absorption properties of hairs are separated for the first time by using the inverse Monte-Carlo method. The content of different types of melanin in hairs is estimated from the absorption coefficient. It is shown that the dominating type of melanin in dark hairs is eumelanin, whereas in light hairs pheomelanin dominates. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  9. Nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair, evaluation of the significance of elemental deposition in hair to uptake and distribution in the body. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study attempts to correlate the level in hair of Cd, a major trace pollutant, vis-a-vis the element concentration in internal tissues and organs of experimental rats using the radioisotope tracer technique. In acute experiments rats were administered single i.v. injections of 109 Cd or sup(115m)Cd at different doses. In the chronic exposure experiments rats were fed inactive Cd as CdCl 2 and were later administered 109 Cd via i.v. injection at various intervals following the CdCl 2 supply. Synchronised hair cycles in rats were induced by plucking in both groups of experiments. Sections of hair were found to reflect the amount of Cd present in blood at the time of their growth, and this Cd level was proportional to the administered Cd dose. The study does not, however, show a direct relationship between the Cd level in hair and the respective element concentration in such critical organs as liver and kidneys. Under the conditions of chronic exposure the Cd content in hair was also observed to be proportional to the level of intake, and the significance of this proportionality appears to vary with the duration of exposure

  10. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  11. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  13. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  14. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  15. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  16. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  17. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  18. In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Miranda da Gama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.

  19. Development of human protein reference database as an initial platform for approaching systems biology in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peri, Suraj; Navarro, J Daniel; Amanchy, Ramars

    2003-01-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships...

  20. Red hair is the null phenotype of MC1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Kimberley A; Shekar, Sri N; Cook, Anthony L; Duffy, David L; Sturm, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) is a G-protein coupled receptor, which is responsible for production of the darker eumelanin pigment and the tanning response. The MC1R gene has many polymorphisms, some of which have been linked to variation in pigmentation phenotypes within human populations. In particular, the p.D84E, p.R151C, p.R160W and p.D294 H alleles have been strongly associated with red hair, fair skin and increased skin cancer risk. These red hair colour (RHC) variants are relatively well described and are thought to result in altered receptor function, while still retaining varying levels of signaling ability in vitro. The mouse Mc1r null phenotype is yellow fur colour, the p.R151C, p.R160W and p.D294 H alleles were able to partially rescue this phenotype, leading to the question of what the true null phenotype of MC1R would be in humans. Due to the rarity of MC1R null alleles in human populations, they have only been found in the heterozygous state until now. We report here the first case of a homozygous MC1R null individual, phenotypic analysis indicates that red hair and fair skin is found in the absence of MC1R function.

  1. A Physical Interaction Network of Dengue Virus and Human Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sudip; Vangeloff, Abbey D.; Zhang, Chaoying; Siddavatam, Prasad; Heaton, Nicholas S.; Wang, Ling; Sengupta, Ranjan; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Gribskov, Michael; Kuhn, Richard J.; Perera, Rushika; LaCount, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection. PMID:21911577

  2. A physical interaction network of dengue virus and human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sudip; Vangeloff, Abbey D; Zhang, Chaoying; Siddavatam, Prasad; Heaton, Nicholas S; Wang, Ling; Sengupta, Ranjan; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Randall, Glenn; Gribskov, Michael; Kuhn, Richard J; Perera, Rushika; LaCount, Douglas J

    2011-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), an emerging mosquito-transmitted pathogen capable of causing severe disease in humans, interacts with host cell factors to create a more favorable environment for replication. However, few interactions between DENV and human proteins have been reported to date. To identify DENV-human protein interactions, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays to screen the 10 DENV proteins against a human liver activation domain library. From 45 DNA-binding domain clones containing either full-length viral genes or partially overlapping gene fragments, we identified 139 interactions between DENV and human proteins, the vast majority of which are novel. These interactions involved 105 human proteins, including six previously implicated in DENV infection and 45 linked to the replication of other viruses. Human proteins with functions related to the complement and coagulation cascade, the centrosome, and the cytoskeleton were enriched among the DENV interaction partners. To determine if the cellular proteins were required for DENV infection, we used small interfering RNAs to inhibit their expression. Six of 12 proteins targeted (CALR, DDX3X, ERC1, GOLGA2, TRIP11, and UBE2I) caused a significant decrease in the replication of a DENV replicon. We further showed that calreticulin colocalized with viral dsRNA and with the viral NS3 and NS5 proteins in DENV-infected cells, consistent with a direct role for calreticulin in DENV replication. Human proteins that interacted with DENV had significantly higher average degree and betweenness than expected by chance, which provides additional support for the hypothesis that viruses preferentially target cellular proteins that occupy central position in the human protein interaction network. This study provides a valuable starting point for additional investigations into the roles of human proteins in DENV infection.

  3. A new supramolecular based liquid solid microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of trace bismuth in human blood serum and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahe, Hadi; Chamsaz, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    A simple and reliable supramolecule-aggregated liquid solid microextraction method is described for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of bismuth in water as well as human blood serum and hair samples. Catanionic microstructures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants, dissolved in deionized water/propanol, are used as a green solvent to extract bismuth (III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by dispersive microextraction methodology. The extracted solid phase is easily removed and dissolved in 50 μL propanol for subsequent measurement by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS). The procedure benefits the merits of supramolecule aggregates' properties and dispersive microextraction technique using water as the main component of disperser solvent, leading to direct interaction with analyte. Phase separation behavior of extraction solvent and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of bismuth ion such as salt concentration, pH, centrifugation time, amount of chelating agent, SDS:CTAB mole ratio, and solvent amounts were thoroughly optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.3-6 μg L -1 Bi (III) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.16 μg L -1 (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of determination were obtained to be 5.1 and 6.2 % for 1 and 3 μg L -1 of Bi (III), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied as a sensitive and accurate technique for determination of bismuth ion in human blood serum, hair samples, and a certified reference material.

  4. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  6. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  8. Human Serum Protein-Bound iodine and Protein Fractions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine profile of Nigerians at different ages in both sexes and in pregnant women, and under narcotic influence, such as alcoholism, cigarette smoking and marijuana addiction were studied. Their serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were also determined. Results of the study showed that serum protein ...

  9. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland De Novo Regeneration With Cultured Epidermal Stem Cells and Skin-Derived Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xusheng; Liu, Jianjun; Cai, Ting; Guo, Ling; Wang, Shujuan; Wang, Jinmei; Cao, Yanpei; Ge, Jianfeng; Jiang, Yuyang; Tredget, Edward E; Cao, Mengjun; Wu, Yaojiong

    2016-12-01

    : Stem cell-based organ regeneration is purported to enable the replacement of impaired organs in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrated that a combination of cultured epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs) derived from the epidermis and skin-derived precursors (SKPs) was capable of reconstituting functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands (SG). When Epi-SCs and SKPs were mixed in a hydrogel and implanted into an excisional wound in nude mice, the Epi-SCs formed de novo epidermis along with hair follicles, and SKPs contributed to dermal papilla in the neogenic hair follicles. Notably, a combination of culture-expanded Epi-SCs and SKPs derived from the adult human scalp were sufficient to generate hair follicles and hair. Bone morphogenetic protein 4, but not Wnts, sustained the expression of alkaline phosphatase in SKPs in vitro and the hair follicle-inductive property in vivo when SKPs were engrafted with neonatal epidermal cells into excisional wounds. In addition, Epi-SCs were capable of differentiating into sebocytes and formed de novo SGs, which excreted lipids as do normal SGs. Thus our results indicate that cultured Epi-SCs and SKPs are sufficient to generate de novo hair follicles and SGs, implying great potential to develop novel bioengineered skin substitutes with appendage genesis capacity. In postpartum humans, skin appendages lost in injury are not regenerated, despite the considerable achievement made in skin bioengineering. In this study, transplantation of a combination of culture-expanded epidermal stem cells and skin-derived progenitors from mice and adult humans led to de novo regeneration of functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The data provide transferable knowledge for the development of novel bioengineered skin substitutes with epidermal appendage regeneration capacity. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Min Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6 Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms-monocots and eudicots-despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development.

  12. Investigating the origins of nanostructural variations in differential ethnic hair types using X-ray scattering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, M; Tucker, I; Cunningham, P; Skinner, R; Bell, F; Lyons, T; Patten, K; Gonzalez, L; Wess, T

    2013-10-01

    Human hair is a major determinant of visual ethnic differentiation. Although hair types are celebrated as part of our ethnic diversity, the approach to hair care has made the assumption that hair types are structurally and chemically similar. Although this is clearly not the case at the macroscopic level, the intervention of many hair treatments is at the nanoscopic and molecular levels. The purpose of the work presented here is to identify the main nanoscopic and molecular hierarchical differences across five different ethnic hair types from hair fibres taken exclusively from the scalp. These are Afro (subdivided into elastic 'rubber' and softer non-elastic 'soft'), Chinese, European and Mullato (mixed race). Small angle X-Ray scattering (SAXS) is a technique capable of resolving nanostructural variations in complex materials. Individual hair fibres from different ethnic hair types were used to investigate structural features found in common and also specific to each type. Simultaneous wide angle X-Ray scattering (WAXS) was used to analyse the submolecular level structure of the fibrous keratin present. The data sets from both techniques were analysed with principal component analysis (PCA) to identify underlying variables. Principal component analysis of both SAXS and WAXS data was shown to discriminate the scattering signal between different hair types. The X-ray scattering results show a common underlying keratin intermediate filament (KIF) structure. However, distinct differences were observed in the preferential orientation and intensity signal from the lipid component of the hair. In addition, differences were observed in the intensity distribution of the very low-angle sample-dependent diffuse scatter surrounding the 'beamstop.' The results indicate that the fibrous keratin scaffold remains consistent between ethnic hair types. The hierarchies made by these may be modulated by variation in the content of keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) and lipids that

  13. Non-invasive biomonitoring for PFRs and PSDEs: New insights in analysis of human hair externally exposed to selected flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Covaci, Adrian; Vanermen, Guido; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, we investigated the hypothesis whether externally adsorbed and internally deposited flame retardants (FRs) in hair could be distinguished. To this extent, hair samples collected from one volunteer were exposed under controlled conditions to phosphate FR (PFR) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) standards to mimic external contamination. Afterwards, suitable washing procedures to selectively remove contaminants from the hair surface were investigated. The samples ...

  14. Three dimensional hair model by means particles using Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cedillo, Jesús Antonio; Almanza-Nieto, Roberto; Herrera-Lozada, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    The simulation and modeling of human hair is a process whose computational complexity is very large, this due to the large number of factors that must be calculated to give a realistic appearance. Generally, the method used in the film industry to simulate hair is based on particle handling graphics. In this paper we present a simple approximation of how to model human hair using particles in Blender. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  16. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of hair for determining opiate-abuse histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, A.M.; Jones, P.F.; Baumgartner, W.A.; Black, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    Heroin and morphine metabolites can be detected in hair with the use of commerically available radioimmunoassay reagents and with minor sample preparation. Hair samples obtained from morphine-treated mice and heroin users contained nanogram levels of the drug per milligram of hair (single human hair). The results of the hair analyses for all subjects admitting the use of heroin were positive, whereas the results of only 30% of thin-layer chromatographic urinanalyses of these same subjects were positive. In addition, differences in drug concentration for sections of hair near the scalp and near the distal end correlated with the length of time the drug had been used. These results exemplify the potential advantages of the use of hair analysis over urine and serum analyses in terms of accessibility, sample stability, and long-term retention of information

  18. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  19. A human protein interaction network shows conservation of aging processes between human and invertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Bell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.

  20. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  3. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure...

  4. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Thinning hair and hair loss: Could it be female pattern hair loss? Female pattern hair loss: Without treatment, female ... can I tell if I have female pattern hair loss? It’s best to make an appointment to ...

  5. Deoxyribonucleic-binding homeobox proteins are augmented in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Mercurio, A M; Chung, S Y

    1990-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression during embryonic development. In this study, we examined the expression of homeobox proteins in human cancer. Antiserum was obtained against a synthetic peptide derived from...... was then isolated and used to elicit a rabbit antiserum. In immunostaining, both antisera reacted with the nuclei of cultured tumor cells. In tissue sections of human carcinoma, nuclear immunoreactivity was observed in the tumor cells in 40 of 42 cases examined. Adjacent normal epithelial tissue obtained from......, the presence of the homeobox transcript in human carcinoma was documented by in situ hybridization and RNase protection mapping. These results demonstrate that human cancer is associated with the expression of homeobox proteins. Such homeobox proteins, as well as other regulatory proteins, could be involved...

  6. Analytical method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, parabens, perfluoroalkyl compounds and a brominated flame retardant) in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene, E-mail: iaparicio@us.es; Alonso, Esteban

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, a method for the determination of four groups of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair is proposed. Target compounds were a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), three parabens commonly used as preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkyl compounds commonly used as water, oil and dirt repellents (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, with alkyl chains from four to eight carbon atoms) and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane). All of them are of especial concern to human health because they are utilized in many everyday products. The method is based on hair incubation with methanol/acetic acid solution (85:15, v/v), extraction with acetone for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Limits of quantification in hair samples ranged from 0.6 ng g{sup −1} to 6.1 ng g{sup −1}, except for hexabromocyclododecane (36 ng g{sup −1}). Recoveries were higher than 69%. Intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15% and 10%, respectively. The applicability of the method was proven by analyzing the target compounds in hair samples from six volunteers. High frequencies of detection and concentrations were obtained for bisphenol A (83% of samples; concentrations up to 158 ng g{sup −1}) and parabens (100% of samples; concentrations up to 624 ng g{sup −1}). Lower concentrations were detected for the perfluoroalkyl compounds (up to 13 ng g{sup −1}). Hexabromocyclododecane was not detected. - Highlights: • Method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair. • Target compounds are commonly present in everyday products. • Method based on hair digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. • Good sensitivity, recoveries and precision and low matrix effect were obtained.

  7. Analytical method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (bisphenol A, parabens, perfluoroalkyl compounds and a brominated flame retardant) in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a method for the determination of four groups of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair is proposed. Target compounds were a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), three parabens commonly used as preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben and propylparaben), six perfluoroalkyl compounds commonly used as water, oil and dirt repellents (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, with alkyl chains from four to eight carbon atoms) and a brominated flame retardant (hexabromocyclododecane). All of them are of especial concern to human health because they are utilized in many everyday products. The method is based on hair incubation with methanol/acetic acid solution (85:15, v/v), extraction with acetone for 15 min in an ultrasonic bath and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Limits of quantification in hair samples ranged from 0.6 ng g"−"1 to 6.1 ng g"−"1, except for hexabromocyclododecane (36 ng g"−"1). Recoveries were higher than 69%. Intra-day and inter-day precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15% and 10%, respectively. The applicability of the method was proven by analyzing the target compounds in hair samples from six volunteers. High frequencies of detection and concentrations were obtained for bisphenol A (83% of samples; concentrations up to 158 ng g"−"1) and parabens (100% of samples; concentrations up to 624 ng g"−"1). Lower concentrations were detected for the perfluoroalkyl compounds (up to 13 ng g"−"1). Hexabromocyclododecane was not detected. - Highlights: • Method for biomonitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds in human hair. • Target compounds are commonly present in everyday products. • Method based on hair digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. • Good sensitivity, recoveries and precision and low matrix effect were obtained. • Method was successfully

  8. [Production of human proteins in the blood of transgenic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been microinjected into rabbit embryos. A line of transgenic rabbits has thus been established. Human alpha 1-antitrypsin was found in the blood of transgenic animals at the concentration of 1 mg/ml plasma. The human protein was active and separable from its

  9. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  10. Trace element content of human head hair as a function of sex, age, sphere of life, colour of the hair and localisation. Der Spurenelementgehalt des menschlichen Kopfhaares in Abhaengigkeit von Geschlecht, Alter, Lebensraum, Haarfarbe und Lokalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simaitis, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hair specimens from 247 probands were examined by absorption spectroscopy following wet ashing with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The specimens were not pre-treated. The investigations related to the elements Zn, Mg, Ca, Fe, Pb, Cu, Al, Cd, Sb, Tl, As and Hg. For each element the optimal working conditions were established and laid down in tables. The influences of sex, age and origin were investigated. Differences regarding sex and age were found for the elements Mg, Ca, Cd and Al. The results can be useful in the detection of environmental impacts and intoxications with heavy metals and metalloids and to mark such collectives off from normally exposed ones, as well as in the diagnosis of some diseases. On the basis of the trace element distribution in the hair it may even be possible to trace sources of heavy metal emissions. The deviations from the trace element content are also useful for the purposes of forensic medicine and crime detection.

  11. Protein Translation and Signaling in Human Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Esnault

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that, unlike IL-5 and GM-CSF, IL-3 induces increased translation of a subset of mRNAs. In addition, we have demonstrated that Pin1 controls the activity of mRNA binding proteins, leading to enhanced mRNA stability, GM-CSF protein production and prolonged eosinophil (EOS survival. In this review, discussion will include an overview of cap-dependent protein translation and its regulation by intracellular signaling pathways. We will address the more general process of mRNA post-transcriptional regulation, especially regarding mRNA binding proteins, which are critical effectors of protein translation. Furthermore, we will focus on (1 the roles of IL-3-driven sustained signaling on enhanced protein translation in EOS, (2 the mechanisms regulating mRNA binding proteins activity in EOS, and (3 the potential targeting of IL-3 signaling and the signaling leading to mRNA binding activity changes to identify therapeutic targets to treat EOS-associated diseases.

  12. Human Cells as Platform to Produce Gamma-Carboxylated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; de Freitas, Marcela Cristina Corrêa; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; de Sousa Russo, Elisa Maria

    2018-01-01

    The gamma-carboxylated proteins belong to a family of proteins that depend on vitamin K for normal biosynthesis. The major representative gamma-carboxylated proteins are the coagulation system proteins, for example, factor VII, factor IX, factor X, prothrombin, and proteins C, S, and Z. These molecules have harbored posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and gamma-carboxylation, and for this reason they need to be produced in mammalian cell lines. Human cells lines have emerged as the most promising alternative to the production of gamma-carboxylated proteins. In this chapter, the methods to generate human cells as a platform to produce gamma-carboxylated proteins, for example the coagulation factors VII and IX, are presented. From the cell line modification up to the vitamin K adaptation of the produced cells is described in the protocols presented in this chapter.

  13. Squarticles as a lipid nanocarrier for delivering diphencyprone and minoxidil to hair follicles and human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Sung, Calvin T; Shen, Feng-Ming; Huang, Chi-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of diphencyprone (DPCP) and minoxidil to hair follicles and related cells is important in the treatment of alopecia. Here we report the development of "squarticles," nanoparticles formed from sebum-derived lipids such as squalene and fatty esters, for use in achieving targeted drug delivery to the follicles. Two different nanosystems, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE), were prepared. The physicochemical properties of squarticles, including size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release, were examined. Squarticles were compared to a free control solution with respect to skin absorption, follicular accumulation, and dermal papilla cell targeting. The particle size of the NLC type was 177 nm; that of the NE type was 194 nm. Approximately 80% of DPCP and 60% of minoxidil were entrapped into squarticles. An improved drug deposition in the skin was observed in the in vitro absorption test. Compared to the free control, the squarticles reduced minoxidil penetration through the skin. This may indicate a minimized absorption into systemic circulation. Follicular uptake by squarticles was 2- and 7-fold higher for DPCP and minoxidil respectively compared to the free control. Fluorescence and confocal images of the skin confirmed a great accumulation of squarticles in the follicles and the deeper skin strata. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in dermal papilla cells was significantly upregulated after the loading of minoxidil into the squarticles. In vitro papilla cell viability and in vivo skin irritancy tests in nude mice suggested a good tolerability of squarticles to skin. Squarticles provide a promising nanocarrier for topical delivery of DPCP and minoxidil.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of human eosinophil cationic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venge, P.; Roxin, L.E.; Olsson, I.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunosorbent assay has been developed which allows the detection in serum of a cationic protein derived from eosinophil granulocytes. In 34 healthy individuals the mean level was 31 μg/l. with a range of 5 to 55 μg/l. The serum concentration of 'eosinophil' cationic protein was correlated (P<0.001) to the number of eosinophil granulocytes in peripheral blood. Quantitiation of 'eosinophil' cationic protein in serum might be useful in the study of eosinophil granulocyte turnover and function in vivo. (author)

  15. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of methylmercury in human hair and sludge samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; Chen Beibei; Zu Wanqing [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Two methods, based on hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid (three phase) microextraction (HF-LLLME) and hollow fiber liquid phase (two phase) microextraction (HF-LPME), have been developed and critically compared for the determination of methylmercury content in human hair and sludge by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In HF-LPME, methylmercury was extracted into the organic phase (toluene) prior to its determination by GFAAS, while inorganic mercury remained as a free species in the sample solution. In HF-LLLME, methylmercury was first extracted into the organic phase (toluene) and then into the acceptor phase (4% thiourea in 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl) prior to its determination by GFAAS, while inorganic mercury remained in the sample solution. The total mercury was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the levels of inorganic mercury in both HF-LLLME and HF-LPME were obtained by subtracting methylmercury from total mercury. The factors affecting the microextraction of methylmercury, including organic solvent, extraction time, stirring rate and ionic strength, were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established for both HF-LLLPME and HF-LPME. With a consumption of 3.0 mL of the sample solution, the enrichment factors were 204 and 55 for HF-LLLPME and HF-LPME, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for methylmercury were 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} (as Hg) with precisions (RSDs (%), c = 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} (as Hg), n = 5) of 13% and 11% for HF-LLLPME-GFAAS and HF-LPME-GFAAS, respectively. For ICP-MS determination of total mercury, a limit of detection of 39 ng L{sup -} {sup 1} was obtained. Finally, HF-LLLME-GFAAS was applied to the determination of methylmercury content in human hair and sludge, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 99-113%. In order to validate the method, HF-LLLME-GFAAS was also applied to the analysis of a certified reference

  16. A catalogue of human secreted proteins and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar Keerthikumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under both normal and pathological conditions, cells secrete variety of proteins through classical and non-classical secretory pathways into the extracellular space. Majority of these proteins represent pathophysiology of the cell from which it is secreted. Recently, though more than 92% of the protein coding genes has been mapped by human proteome map project, but number of those proteins that constitutes secretome of the cell still remains elusive. Secreted proteins or the secretome can be accessible in bodily fluids and hence are considered as potential biomarkers to discriminate between healthy and diseased individuals. In order to facilitate the biomarker discovery and to further aid clinicians and scientists working in these arenas, we have compiled and catalogued secreted proteins from the human proteome using integrated bioinformatics approach. In this study, nearly 14% of the human proteome is likely to be secreted through classical and non-classical secretory pathways. Out of which, ~38% of these secreted proteins were found in extracellular vesicles including exosomes and shedding microvesicles. Among these secreted proteins, 94% were detected in human bodily fluids including blood, plasma, serum, saliva, semen, tear and urine. We anticipate that this high confidence list of secreted proteins could serve as a compendium of candidate biomarkers. In addition, the catalogue may provide functional insights in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of the cell.

  17. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  18. Hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of mercury: experimental study of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Murata, Katsuyuki; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    The hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of methylmercury in a one-compartment model seem to differ between past and recent studies. To reevaluate them, 27 healthy volunteers were exposed to methylmercury at the provisional tolerable weekly intake (3.4 µg/kg body weight/week) for adults through fish consumption for 14 weeks, followed by a 15-week washout period after the cessation of exposure. Blood was collected every 1 or 2 weeks, and hair was cut every 4 weeks. Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analyzed in blood and hair. The T-Hg levels of blood and hair changed with time (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations increased from 6.7 ng/g at week 0 to 26.9 ng/g at week 14 in blood, and from 2.3 to 8.8 µg/g in hair. The mean hair-to-blood ratio after the adjustment for the time lag from blood to hair was 344 ± 54 (S.D.) for the entire period. The half-lives of T-Hg were calculated from raw data to be 94 ± 23 days for blood and 102 ± 31 days for hair, but the half-lives recalculated after subtracting the background levels from the raw data were 57 ± 18 and 64 ± 22 days, respectively. In conclusion, the hair-to-blood ratio of methylmercury, based on past studies, appears to be underestimated in light of recent studies. The crude half-life may be preferred rather than the recalculated one because of the practicability and uncertainties of the background level, though the latter half-life may approximate the conventional one.

  19. Mechanically Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2. However, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the molecules that form the channel pore. In addition to the sensory MET channel, hair cells express the mechanically gated ion channel PIEZO2, which is localized near the base of stereocilia and not essential for sensory transduction. The function of PIEZO2 in hair cells is not entirely clear but it might have a role in damage sensing and repair processes. Additional stretch-activated channels of unknown molecular identity and function have been found to localize at the basolateral membrane of hair cells. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the different mechanically gated ion channels in hair cells and discuss open questions concerning their molecular composition and function.

  20. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  1. The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    The hair follicle bulge area is an abundant, easily accessible source of actively growing, pluripotent adult stem cells. Nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells, is also expressed in follicle stem cells as well as their immediate differentiated progeny. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells differentiated into neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes and smooth muscle cells in vitro. Hair-follicle stem cells were implanted into the gap region of a severed sciatic nerve. The hair follicle stem cells greatly enhanced the rate of nerve regeneration and the restoration of nerve function. The follicle stem cells transdifferentiated largely into Schwann cells which are known to support neuron regrowth. Function of the rejoined sciatic nerve was measured by contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle upon electrical stimulation. After severing the tibial nerve and subsequent transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells, the transplanted mice recovered the ability to walk normally. These results suggest that hair-follicle stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  2. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...

  3. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  4. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Draus-Barini (Jolanta); S. Walsh (Susan); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); T. Kupiec (Tomasz); H. Głab (Henryk); W. Branicki (Wojciech); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing

  5. Variation of elemental concentration in hair of the Japanese in terms of age, sex and hair treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Takada, J.; Hayashi, Y.; Koyama, M.; Shinogi, M.; Aoki, A.; Tomiyama, T.; Katayama, K.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human hair of the normal Japanese individuals to define the baseline levels of trace elements. A statistical analysis which is not influenced by detection limits, has been carried out to elucidate the variations of elemental concentrations in terms of age, sex and hair treatment. Correlation coefficients have been calculated between the logarithmic concentrations of the elements determined in the groups classified according to sex, age and hair treatment. Their significant levels have been evaluated. (author)

  6. Protein buffering in model systems and in whole human saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamanda

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and alpha-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16% between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

  7. Complete cDNA sequence coding for human docking protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortsch, M; Labeit, S; Meyer, D I

    1988-01-11

    Docking protein (DP, or SRP receptor) is a rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein essential for the targeting and translocation of nascent polypeptides across this membrane. It specifically interacts with a cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complex, the signal recognition particle (SRP). The nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding the entire human DP and its deduced amino acid sequence are given.

  8. Small GTP-binding proteins in human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, H. P.; Koster, P. M.; Calafat, J.; Janssen, H.; van Zonneveld, A. J.; van Mourik, J. A.; Voorberg, J.

    1998-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily control an extensive number of intracellular events by alternating between GDP- and GTP-bound conformation. The presence of members of this protein family was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells employing RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of

  9. In vivo extracellular matrix protein expression by human periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that the orthodontic force applied to teeth generates a series of events that remodel the periodontal ligament (PDL). Extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are described as molecular regulators of these events. However, the exact contribution of these proteins in human PDL modeling by orthodontic force ...

  10. A method for the isolation of root hairs from the model legume Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for the isolation of root hairs from the model legume, Medicago truncatula, was developed. The procedure involves the propagation of detached roots on agar plates and the collection of root hairs by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Yields of up to 40 µg of root hair protein were obtained

  11. Protein dynamics in individual human cells: experiment and theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Aharon Cohen

    Full Text Available A current challenge in biology is to understand the dynamics of protein circuits in living human cells. Can one define and test equations for the dynamics and variability of a protein over time? Here, we address this experimentally and theoretically, by means of accurate time-resolved measurements of endogenously tagged proteins in individual human cells. As a model system, we choose three stable proteins displaying cell-cycle-dependant dynamics. We find that protein accumulation with time per cell is quadratic for proteins with long mRNA life times and approximately linear for a protein with short mRNA lifetime. Both behaviors correspond to a classical model of transcription and translation. A stochastic model, in which genes slowly switch between ON and OFF states, captures measured cell-cell variability. The data suggests, in accordance with the model, that switching to the gene ON state is exponentially distributed and that the cell-cell distribution of protein levels can be approximated by a Gamma distribution throughout the cell cycle. These results suggest that relatively simple models may describe protein dynamics in individual human cells.

  12. Hair-on-hair static friction coefficient can be determined by tying a knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R

    2017-11-01

    Characterizing the tribological properties of the hair-hair interface is important to quantify the manageability of hair and to assess the performance of hair care products. Audoly et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 164301, 2007) derived an equation relating the self-friction coefficient of an elastic fiber to the dimensions of a simple, relaxed overhand knot made from this fiber. I experimentally tested and validated their equation using nylon thread and an independent measurement of its self-friction coefficient. I show that this methodology can be applied to provide high-throughput data on the static self-friction coefficient of single hair fibers in various conditions and to quantitatively assess how hair care treatments (conditioner, relaxant) alter frictional properties. I find that treatment of hair with 1M sodium hydroxide leads to a quick, irreversible self-friction coefficient increase; the resulting fine frictional fibers can be used to form very small knots for microsurgical vessel and organ ligature in medicine or embryology. The relaxed overhand knot method can more generally be used to measure the self-friction coefficients of a wide range of elastic fibers from the nano- (e.g. proteins, nanotubes) to the macro-scale (e.g. textile fiber, fiberglass). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  14. Nrf2 pathway modulates Substance P-induced human mast cell activation and degranulation in the hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadkauskaite, Laura; Bahri, Rajia; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Jenkins, Gail; Bhogal, Ranjit; Haslam, Iain; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia; Paus, Ralf

    2018-05-30

    Activation of Nrf2 in primary human mast cells exposed to oxidative stress induced by substance P suppresses pro-inflammatory gene transcription, activation and degranulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Human-specific protein isoforms produced by novel splice sites in the human genome after the human-chimpanzee divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of splice sites is a well-known phenomenon that results in transcript diversity during human evolution. Many novel splice sites are derived from repetitive elements and may not contribute to protein products. Here, we analyzed annotated human protein-coding exons and identified human-specific splice sites that arose after the human-chimpanzee divergence. Results We analyzed multiple alignments of the annotated human protein-coding exons and their respective orthologous mammalian genome sequences to identify 85 novel splice sites (50 splice acceptors and 35 donors in the human genome. The novel protein-coding exons, which are expressed either constitutively or alternatively, produce novel protein isoforms by insertion, deletion, or frameshift. We found three cases in which the human-specific isoform conferred novel molecular function in the human cells: the human-specific IMUP protein isoform induces apoptosis of the trophoblast and is implicated in pre-eclampsia; the intronization of a part of SMOX gene exon produces inactive spermine oxidase; the human-specific NUB1 isoform shows reduced interaction with ubiquitin-like proteins, possibly affecting ubiquitin pathways. Conclusions Although the generation of novel protein isoforms does not equate to adaptive evolution, we propose that these cases are useful candidates for a molecular functional study to identify proteomic changes that might bring about novel phenotypes during human evolution.

  16. Trace element analysis of human hair by neutron activation technique. Part of a coordinated programme on health-related environmental research, using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    Hair mineral analysis was performed to measure population exposure to a number of environmental elemental pollutants. A total of 44 scalp hair samples from young Korean army recruits living in Seoul were analysed by INAA for 26 elements, including such elements of environmental health interest as As, Cd, and Hg. The levels reported were comparable with those reported in open literature. These results indicated that there was no evidence of any harmful exposure of the individuals studied to the metal pollutants monitored

  17. Hair analysis by proton-induced-X-ray emission and atomic absorption. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelson, N.F.

    1979-07-01

    Specimens of small wild rodents comprised of 5 species were collected in an area near Lake Powell, Utah, (U.S.A.). Liver, lung, kidney and hair were sampled and analysed for several elements using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Various statistical tests were performed on the data gathered. Although many elements highly correlate among all tissues and animal species studies, it was not possible to determine from the present study which animal species or tissue type is the best indicator for the polluting elements surveyed

  18. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  19. Prediction of protein-protein interactions between viruses and human by an SVM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guangyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several computational methods have been developed to predict protein-protein interactions from amino acid sequences, but most of those methods are intended for the interactions within a species rather than for interactions across different species. Methods for predicting interactions between homogeneous proteins are not appropriate for finding those between heterogeneous proteins since they do not distinguish the interactions between proteins of the same species from those of different species. Results We developed a new method for representing a protein sequence of variable length in a frequency vector of fixed length, which encodes the relative frequency of three consecutive amino acids of a sequence. We built a support vector machine (SVM model to predict human proteins that interact with virus proteins. In two types of viruses, human papillomaviruses (HPV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, our SVM model achieved an average accuracy above 80%, which is higher than that of another SVM model with a different representation scheme. Using the SVM model and Gene Ontology (GO annotations of proteins, we predicted new interactions between virus proteins and human proteins. Conclusions Encoding the relative frequency of amino acid triplets of a protein sequence is a simple yet powerful representation method for predicting protein-protein interactions across different species. The representation method has several advantages: (1 it enables a prediction model to achieve a better performance than other representations, (2 it generates feature vectors of fixed length regardless of the sequence length, and (3 the same representation is applicable to different types of proteins.

  20. Human neuroglobin protein in cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whalen Gail

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroglobin is a hexacoordinated member of the globin family of proteins. It is predominantly localized to various brain regions and retina where it may play a role in protection against ischemia and nitric oxide-induced neural injury. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 12 chronic regional or systemic pain and 5 control subjects. Proteins were precipitated by addition of 50% 0.2 N acetic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.02% sodium bisulfite. The pellet was extensively digested with trypsin. Peptides were separated by capillary liquid chromatography using a gradient from 95% water to 95% acetonitrile in 0.2% formic acid, and eluted through a nanoelectrospray ionization interface into a quadrapole – time-of-flight dual mass spectrometer (QToF2, Waters, Milford, MA. Peptides were sequenced (PepSeq, MassLynx v3.5 and proteins identified using MASCOT ®. Results Six different neuroglobin peptides were identified in various combinations in 3 of 9 female pain subjects, but none in male pain, or female or male control subjects. Conclusion This is the first description of neuroglobin in cerebrospinal fluid. The mechanism(s leading to its release in chronic pain states remain to be defined.

  1. Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Peled

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs, the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway.

  2. Determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Hulston, Carl J; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, different MS methods for the determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) using [ring-(13)C6 ]phenylalanine as a tracer were evaluated. Because the turnover rate of human skeletal muscle is slow, only minute quantities of the stable isotopically...

  3. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40),

  4. Stem Cell-Associated Marker Expression in Canine Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhards, Nora M; Sayar, Beyza S; Origgi, Francesco C; Galichet, Arnaud; Müller, Eliane J; Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-03-01

    Functional hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) are crucial to maintain the constant recurring growth of hair. In mice and humans, SC subpopulations with different biomarker expression profiles have been identified in discrete anatomic compartments of the HF. The rare studies investigating canine HF SCs have shown similarities in biomarker expression profiles to that of mouse and human SCs. The aim of our study was to broaden the current repertoire of SC-associated markers and their expression patterns in the dog. We combined analyses on the expression levels of CD34, K15, Sox9, CD200, Nestin, LGR5 and LGR6 in canine skin using RT-qPCR, the corresponding proteins in dog skin lysates, and their expression patterns in canine HFs using immunohistochemistry. Using validated antibodies, we were able to define the location of CD34, Sox9, Keratin15, LGR5 and Nestin in canine HFs and confirm that all tested biomarkers are expressed in canine skin. Our results show similarities between the expression profile of canine, human and mouse HF SC markers. This repertoire of biomarkers will allow us to conduct functional studies and investigate alterations in the canine SC compartment of different diseases, like alopecia or skin cancer with the possibility to extend relevant findings to human patients. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  5. Nuclear pore complex protein mediated nuclear localization of dicer protein in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Ando

    Full Text Available Human DICER1 protein cleaves double-stranded RNA into small sizes, a crucial step in production of single-stranded RNAs which are mediating factors of cytoplasmic RNA interference. Here, we clearly demonstrate that human DICER1 protein localizes not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleoplasm. We also find that human DICER1 protein associates with the NUP153 protein, one component of the nuclear pore complex. This association is detected predominantly in the cytoplasm but is also clearly distinguishable at the nuclear periphery. Additional characterization of the NUP153-DICER1 association suggests NUP153 plays a crucial role in the nuclear localization of the DICER1 protein.

  6. Human neuronal cell protein responses to Nipah virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sharifah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV, a recently discovered zoonotic virus infects and replicates in several human cell types. Its replication in human neuronal cells, however, is less efficient in comparison to other fully susceptible cells. In the present study, the SK-N-MC human neuronal cell protein response to NiV infection is examined using proteomic approaches. Results Method for separation of the NiV-infected human neuronal cell proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE was established. At least 800 protein spots were resolved of which seven were unique, six were significantly up-regulated and eight were significantly down-regulated. Six of these altered proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS and confirmed using MS/MS. The heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP F, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein, voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2 and cytochrome bc1 were present in abundance in the NiV-infected SK-N-MC cells in contrast to hnRNPs H and H2 that were significantly down-regulated. Conclusion Several human neuronal cell proteins that are differentially expressed following NiV infection are identified. The proteins are associated with various cellular functions and their abundance reflects their significance in the cytopathologic responses to the infection and the regulation of NiV replication. The potential importance of the ratio of hnRNP F, and hnRNPs H and H2 in regulation of NiV replication, the association of the mitochondrial protein with the cytopathologic responses to the infection and induction of apoptosis are highlighted.

  7. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Prolactin-inducible proteins in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, R.P.; Iwasiow, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism of action of prolactin in target cells and the role of prolactin in human breast cancer are poorly understood phenomena. The present study examines the effect of human prolactin (hPRL) on the synthesis of unique proteins by a human breast cancer cell line, T-47D, in serum-free medium containing bovine serum albumin. [ 35 S]Methionine-labeled proteins were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Treatment of cells with hPRL (1-1000 ng/ml) and hydrocortisone (1 microgram/ml) for 36 h or longer resulted in the synthesis and secretion of three proteins having molecular weights of 11,000, 14,000, and 16,000. Neither hPRL nor hydrocortisone alone induced these proteins. Of several other peptide hormones tested, only human growth hormone, a hormone structurally and functionally similar to hPRL, could replace hPRL in causing protein induction. These three proteins were, therefore, referred to as prolactin-inducible proteins (PIP). Each of the three PIPs was purified to homogeneity by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and specific antibodies were generated to them in rabbits. By immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting (Western blot) of proteins secreted by T-47D cells, it was demonstrated that the three PIPs were immunologically identical to one another. In addition, the 16-kDa and 14-kDa proteins (PIP-16 and PIP-14), and not the 11-kDa protein (PIP-11), incorporated [ 3 H]glycosamine. Furthermore, 2-deoxyglucose (2 mM) and tunicamycin (0.5 micrograms/ml), two compounds known to inhibit glycosylation, blocked the production of PIP-16 and PIP-14, with a concomitant increase in the accumulation of PIP-11

  9. Fabrication of human hair keratin/jellyfish collagen/eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: From waste to regenerative medicine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yavuz Emre; Sezgin Arslan, Tugba; Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Emel; Emregul, Kaan C

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we aimed at fabricating an osteoinductive biocomposite scaffold using keratin obtained from human hair, jellyfish collagen and eggshell-derived nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite (nHA) for bone tissue engineering applications. Keratin, collagen and nHA were characterized with the modified Lowry method, free-sulfhydryl groups and hydroxyproline content analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which confirmed the success of the extraction and/or isolation processes. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were isolated and the cell surface markers were characterized via flow cytometry analysis in addition to multilineage differentiation capacity. The undifferentiated hAMSCs were highly positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, but were not seen to express hematopoietic cell surface markers such as CD14, CD34 and CD45. The cells were successfully directed towards osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The microarchitecture of the scaffolds and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed by the MTT assay which revealed no evidence of cytotoxicity. The osteogenic differentiation of hAMSCs on the scaffolds was determined histologically using alizarin red S, osteopontin and osteonectin stainings. Early osteogenic differentiation markers of hAMSCs were significantly expressed on the collagen-keratin-nHA scaffolds. In conclusion, it is believed that collagen-keratin-nHA osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds have the potential of being used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  11. Identification of proteins that may directly interact with human RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Ryou; Takaya, Junichiro; Onuki, Takeshi; Moritani, Mariko; Nozaki, Naohito; Ishimi, Yukio

    2010-11-01

    RPA, which consisted of three subunits (RPA1, 2 and 3), plays essential roles in DNA transactions. At the DNA replication forks, RPA binds to single-stranded DNA region to stabilize the structure and to assemble other replication proteins. Interactions between RPA and several replication proteins have been reported but the analysis is not comprehensive. We systematically performed the qualitative analysis to identify RPA interaction partners to understand the protein-protein interaction at the replication forks. We expressed in insect cells the three subunits of human RPA, together with one replication protein, which is present at the forks under normal conditions and/or under the replication stress conditions, to examine the interaction. Among 30 proteins examined in total, it was found that at least 14 proteins interacted with RPA. RPA interacted with MCM3-7, MCM-BP and CDC45 proteins among the proteins that play roles in the initiation and the elongation of the DNA replication. RPA bound with TIPIN, CLASPIN and RAD17, which are involved in the DNA replication checkpoint functions. RPA also bound with cyclin-dependent kinases and an amino-terminal fragment of Rb protein that negatively regulates DNA replication. These results suggest that RPA interacts with the specific proteins among those that play roles in the regulation of the replication fork progression.

  12. Human serum protein and C-reactive protein levels among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human serum protein and C-reactive protein levels were determined among HIV patients visiting St Camillus Hospital, Uromi, Edo State, Nigeria, between January to March, 2013. Fifty (50) HIV patients (20 males; 30 females) and 50 control subjects (24 males; 26 females) were enrolled for this study. The clinical status of ...

  13. ILK modulates epithelial polarity and matrix formation in hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Welch, Ian; Dagnino, Lina

    2014-03-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple signals and communication between its epithelial and mesenchymal constituents. Cell adhesion protein platforms, which include integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), are critical for hair follicle formation. However, their precise contribution to this process is poorly understood. We show that in the absence of ILK, the hair follicle matrix lineage fails to develop, likely due to abnormalities in development of apical-basal cell polarity, as well as in laminin-511 and basement membrane assembly at the tip of the hair bud. These defects also result in impaired specification of hair matrix and absence of precortex and inner sheath root cell lineages. The molecular pathways affected in ILK-deficient follicles are similar to those in the absence of epidermal integrin β1 and include Wnt, but not sonic hedgehog, signaling. ILK-deficient hair buds also show abnormalities in the dermal papilla. Addition of exogenous laminin-511 restores morphological and molecular markers associated with hair matrix formation, indicating that ILK regulates hair bud cell polarity and functions upstream from laminin-511 assembly to regulate the developmental progression of hair follicles beyond the germ stage.

  14. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  15. Human Proteinpedia enables sharing of human protein data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathivanan, Suresh; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ahn, Natalie G.; Alexandre, Hainard; Amanchy, Ramars; Andrews, Philip C.; Bader, Joel S.; Balgley, Brian M.; Bantscheff, Marcus; Bennett, Keiryn; Bjorling, Erik; Blagoev, Blagoy; Bose , Ron; Brahmachari, Samir K.; Burlingame, Alma S.; Bustelo, Xos R.; Cagney, Gerard; Cantin, Greg T; Cardasis, Helene L; Celis, Julio E; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chu, Feixia; Cole, Phillip A.; Costello, Catherine E; Cotter , Robert J.; Crockett, David; DeLany , James P.; De Marzo, Angelo M; DeSouza, Leroi V; Deutsch, Eric W.; Dransfield , Eric; Drewes , Gerard; Droit , Arnaud; Dunn, Michael; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo; Ewing, Rob M.; Van Eyk , Jennifer; Faca , Vitor; Falkner , Jayson; Fang, Xiangming; Fenselau , Catherine; Figeys , Daniel; Gagne , Pierre; Gelfi , Cecilia; Gevaert , Kris; Gimble , Jeffrey; Gnad , Florian; Goel, Renu; Gromov , Pavel; Hanash, Samir M.; Hancock, William S.; Harsha , HC; Hart , Gerald; Faith , Hays; He , Fuchu; Hebbar , Prashantha; Helsens , Kenny; Hermeking , Heiko; Hide , Winston; Hjerno, Karin; Hochstrasser, Denis F.; Hofmann, Oliver; Horn , David M.; Hruban , Ralph H.; Ibarrola , Nieves; James , Peter; Jensen , Ole N.; Jensen, Pia H.; Jung , Peter; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Kheterpal , Indu; Kikuno , Reiko; Korf, Ulrike; Korner, Roman; Kuster, Bernhard; Kwon , Min-Seok; Lee , Hyoung-Joo; Lee , Young - Jin; Lefevre , Michael; Lehvaslaiho, Minna; Lescuyer, Pierre; Levander, Fredrik; Lim, Megan S.; Lobke, Christian; Loo, Joseph; Mann, Matthias; Martens , Lennart; Martinez-Heredia, Juan; McComb, Mark E.; McRedmond , James; Mehrle, Alexander; Menon, Rajasree; Miller, Christine A.; Mischak, Harald; Mohan, S Sujatha; Mohmood , Riaz; Molina , Henrik; Moran , Michael F.; Morgan, James D.; Moritz , Robert; Morzel, Martine; Muddiman, David C.; Nalli , Anuradha; Navarro, J. D.; Neubert , Thomas A.; Ohara , Osamu; Oliva, Rafael; Omenn, Gilbert; Oyama , Masaaki; Paik, Young-Ki; Pennington , Kyla; Pepperkok, Rainer; Periaswamy, Balamurugan; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Poirier, Guy G.; Prasad, T S Keshava; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rahiman , B Abdul; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Ramachandra , Y L; Rice, Robert H.; Rick , Jens; Ronnholm , Ragna H.; Salonen , Johanna; Sanchez , Jean - Charles; Sayd , Thierry; Seshi, Beerelli; Shankari, Kripa; Sheng , Shi Jun; Shetty , Vivekananda; Shivakumar, K.; Simpson, Richard J.; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi; Siu , K W Michael; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Richard D.; States, David J.; Sugano, Sumio; Sullivan , Matthew; Superti - Furga, Giulio; Takatalo , Maarit; Thongboonkerd , Visith; Trinidad , Jonathan C.; Uhlen , Mathias; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Vasilescu , Julian; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Vidal - Taboada, Jose - Manuel; Vihinen, Mauno; Wait , Robin; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wiemann, Stefan; Wu , Billy; Xu, Tao; Yates, John R.; Zhong, Jun; Zhou, Ming; Zhu, Yunping; Zurbig, Petra; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2008-02-01

    Proteomic technologies, such as yeast twohybrid, mass spectrometry (MS), protein/ peptide arrays and fluorescence microscopy, yield multi-dimensional data sets, which are often quite large and either not published or published as supplementary information that is not easily searchable. Without a system in place for standardizing and sharing data, it is not fruitful for the biomedical community to contribute these types of data to centralized repositories. Even more difficult is the annotation and display of pertinent information in the context of the corresponding proteins. Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia that anyone can edit, has already proven quite successful1 and can be used as a model for sharing biological data. However, the need for experimental evidence, data standardization and ownership of data creates scientific obstacles.

  16. A study of trace element concentrations in human hair of some local populations in Japan. II. Inhabitants of a Japanese rural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, S.; Tsunoda, H.; Terai, M.; Yukawa, M.; Tomura, K.; Suzuki-Yasumoto, M.

    1979-01-01

    Hair, as a route by which many metals are excreted, has advantages over other tissues as an indicator of body burden. However, as few data exist on trace element concentrations in hair, a study was made on a rural population in Japan. Hair was collected from 107 residents engaged mainly in dairy farming in a rural area in the northern part of the country. Samples were taken from subjects who had been born and bred in the area which is believed to be free from environmental pollution. A large number of the families had lived there for generations. Nineteen trace elements were detected. The mean values for Hg in hair were 6.8+-2.9 ppm for males and 4.5+-2.7 ppm for females. There was a low statistical correlation between Hg and Se. The mean value for Cu in hair was 17+-7.2 ppm for males and 16+-5.7 ppm for females and that for Zn was 140+-61 ppm for males and 130+-63 ppm for females. A comparison of the mean values of the trace elements in the hair of the subjects aged 20-39 and 40-59 years showed significant differences for Mn in males and Mn and Br in females. A comparison of the findings for the two sexes showed that the concentrations of Mn, Mg, Ca and Br were much higher in females than in males. In contrast, the concentrations of Hg were higher in males than in females. It is suggested that the values obtained for the trace elements in the present study are examples of normal values for trace elements in hair of the Japanese populations. (author)

  17. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL -1 in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg -1 and 2 to 20 pg mg -1 in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL -1 range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg -1 and 1000 pg mg -1 in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14.8% for all compounds except for some esters in hairs (<19.9%) probably due to an important matrix effect for these compounds. This sensitive and specific method to detect anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  18. Proteomic characterization of the human centrosome by protein correlation profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S; Wilkinson, Christopher J; Mayor, Thibault

    2003-01-01

    chromosomes between dividing cells. Despite the importance of this organelle to cell biology and more than 100 years of study, many aspects of its function remain enigmatic and its structure and composition are still largely unknown. We performed a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human...... centrosomes in the interphase of the cell cycle by quantitatively profiling hundreds of proteins across several centrifugation fractions. True centrosomal proteins were revealed by both correlation with already known centrosomal proteins and in vivo localization. We identified and validated 23 novel...... components and identified 41 likely candidates as well as the vast majority of the known centrosomal proteins in a large background of nonspecific proteins. Protein correlation profiling permits the analysis of any multiprotein complex that can be enriched by fractionation but not purified to homogeneity....

  19. Mining the human tissue proteome for protein citrullination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Yun; Wang, Dongxue; Wilhelm, Mathias; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Schmidt, Tobias; Schnatbaum, Karsten; Reimer, Ulf; Pontén, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-04-02

    Citrullination is a post-translational modification of arginine catalyzed by five peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) in humans. The loss of a positive charge may cause structural or functional alterations and while the modification has been linked to several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, its physiological or pathophysiological roles remain largely unclear. In part this is owing to limitations in available methodology able to robustly enrich, detect and localize the modification. As a result, only few citrullination sites have been identified on human proteins with high confidence. In this study, we mined data from mass spectrometry-based deep proteomic profiling of 30 human tissues to identify citrullination sites on endogenous proteins. Database searching of ~70 million tandem mass spectra yielded ~13,000 candidate spectra which were further triaged by spectrum quality metrics and the detection of the specific neutral loss of isocyanic acid from citrullinated peptide