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Sample records for human hair mercury

  1. comparative analysis of mercury content in human hair and cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analysed in human hairs and cosmetic .... (SDE = Standard Error; d.l. = detection limit of 0.001 ppm; ** Mean was calculated ... Hotel attendants. 23. 1. 2. 350.0 ± 4.5. 18. 1. 2. 360.0 ± 8.5. Hair saloon.

  2. Structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xueqing; Du, Rong; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Gong, Yu; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. A small angle X-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7, and 4.5 nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5 nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular oriented fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random oriented one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5 nm spacing. However, overdose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5 nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5 nm reflection can be used as a bioindicator of overdose Hg contamination to the human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.

  3. Mercury concentration change in human hair after the ingestion of canned tuna fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inasmasu, T.; Ogo, A.; Yanagawa, M.; Keshino, M.; Hirakoba, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ishinish, N.

    1986-10-01

    The concentration of mercury in the hair of man has been conveniently used as an indicator of environmental exposure to mercury. In particular, studies concerning the relationship between the concentration of mercury in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury have revealed that the amount of fish consumed significantly affects the mercury concentration in the scalp hair. However, the quantitative relationship between the mercury concentration in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury has been scarcely proven. This is because mercury concentration in hair sampled reflects the degree of exposure from diet in the past, and because the dietary measurements of mercury generally depend on individuals remembering accurately or having recorded their intake of fish in the past. In an attempt to elucidate this problem. The authors assessed the mercury concentration in the hair of human subjects who ingested a certain amount of canned tuna fish.

  4. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...

  5. The tropical African mercury anomaly: lower than expected mercury concentrations in fish and human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Frank J; Bokhutlo, Thethela; Somoxa, Aaron; Maethamako, Mothusi; Modisaemang, Ontlogetse; Kemosedile, Thebe; Cobb-Adams, Cristina; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Chimbari, Moses

    2011-04-15

    Mercury is a neurotoxin and global pollutant, and wetlands and newly flooded areas are known to be sites of enhanced production of monomethylmercury, the form of mercury that is readily biomagnified in aquatic food chains to potentially toxic levels. The Okavango Delta in Botswana, Southern Africa, is the largest inland delta in the world and a wetland ecosystem that experiences dramatic annual flooding of large tracts of seasonal floodplains. The Delta was, therefore, expected to be home to high mercury levels in fish and to be an area where local subsistence fishing communities would be at substantial risk of mercury toxicity from fish consumption. Total mercury concentrations measured in 27 species of fish from the Okavango Delta averaged (mean±s.d., wet weight) 19±19ng g(-1) in non-piscivorous fish, and 59±53ng g(-1) in piscivorous fish. These mercury concentrations are similar to those reported for fish from lakes in other areas of tropical Africa, demonstrating that not all wetlands are sites of elevated mercury concentrations in biota. Even more intriguing is that concentrations of mercury in fish from across tropical Africa are systematically and substantially lower than those typically reported for fish from freshwater ecosystems elsewhere globally. The reasons for this apparent "African mercury anomaly" are unclear, but this finding poses a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of mercury's biogeochemical cycling in the environment. Mercury concentrations measured in human hair collected in subsistence fishing communities in the Okavango Delta were similarly low (0.21±0.22μg g(-1) dry weight) despite high levels of fish consumption, and reflect the low mercury concentrations in the fish here.

  6. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  7. Mercury in human hair and blood samples from people living in Wanshan mercury mine area, Guizhou, China: an XAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng; Chen, Chunying; Li, Bai; Li, Wei; Qu, Liya; Dong, Zeqin; Nomura, Masaharu; Gao, Yuxi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2008-03-01

    Human hair and blood samples from persons living in the town of Wanshan, a mercury mine area in Guizhou Province of China, were collected and the quantitative speciation and structural information of Hg and S in hair samples and of Hg in erythrocyte and serum samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Least-squares fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra found that inorganic mercury is the major mercury species in hair samples (91.74%), while inorganic and methyl mercury are both about 50% of total mercury in RBC and serum samples, which is in agreement with the data obtained by acidic extraction, fractionation of Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) and quantification by ICP-MS. Curve-fitting analysis revealed that the Hg-S bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.248+/-0.002 nm and 3.10, respectively, while the S-Hg bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.236+/-0.002 nm and 4.05. The Hg-S bond length and coordination number in RBC were 0.251+/-0.003 nm and 4.09, respectively, while they were 0.228+/-0.002 nm and 4.08 in serum, respectively. The techniques for speciation, structural and binding information described in this study will find the potential application in similar studies of other elements.

  8. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY LEVELS IN HUMAN SCALP HAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴之芳; 关铭; 等

    1994-01-01

    The contents of total and methyl mercury in scalp hair samples of 1179 fishermen living at a typical Hg-polluted region in Northeast China and 27 lying-in women and their new born babies in Beijing have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis,gas chromatography(electron coupling)and other techniques.Only 18 of all fishermen have the Hg contents above 5μg/g,which indicates that the Hg pollution there has been substantially alleviated.The longitudinal Hg patterns of the lying-in women show a gradually lowering tendency during pregnant period.Further,the Hg contents of the new-born babies are generally above or close to those of their mothers,confirming the mechanism that the methyl Hg,an organic species of Hg with high toxicity,is readily able to penetrate the placental barrier and accumulated in fetus.Thus,the mercury poison has occurred at the early stage of pregnancy.

  9. Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES) of the Cabinet of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190 {mu}g/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50 {mu}g/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10 {mu}g/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96 {mu}g/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6 g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. - A source other than fish may be responsible for high Hg in some Cambodians.

  10. Mercury contamination in human hair and some marine species from Sfax coasts of Tunisia: levels and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani-Chaari, Sawssan; Hamza, A; Hamza-Chaffai, A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the mercury (Hg) contents of three marine fish and common seafood species (Diplodus annularis, Sarpa salpa and Sepia officinalis) at two sampling sites in the gulf of Gabes, i.e. Sidi Mansour (polluted site) and Kerkennah (control site). These species are frequently consumed by the population living at the Sfax coasts of Tunisia, particularly by the families of fisherman. Additionally, the hair mercury levels of 55 volunteers (28 women, 27 men) were analysed and the daily total mercury intake through the fish and seafood diet was estimated. The key findings were: (1) the mercury contents of the examined fish and seafood species frequently exceeded the regulatory guideline value of 0.5 mg/kg, (2) no site-specific differences in hair mercury contents were found, (3) fish and seafood consumption is probably the major contributor of mercury exposure in this population, (4) the daily mercury intake through frequent consumption of D. annularis exceeds the US EPA reference dose. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the health risks associated with such high mercury exposure levels in order to allow optimal counseling and therapy of the concerned population and to avoid future impairment of human health, particularly children's health.

  11. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content.

  12. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L; Hardin, Rebecca D; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-03-14

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)'s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  13. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L.; Hardin, Rebecca D.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  14. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  15. A Comparative Analysis on Levels of Mercury in Human Scalp Hair of Students from Different Locations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Anim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the levels of accumulation of total mercury (Hg-T in human scalp hair samples from selected students. Thirty seven (37 human scalp hair samples were collected from students of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology whilst on campus and analysed for total mercury (Hg-T concentrations by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The least concentration, 0.007±0.001 μ/g was measured in a sample from a male student. The highest concentration, 5.535±0.133 μg/g was measured in a sample from a female student.5.4% of the population had Hg-T concentrations above the WHO, 1990 limit of 2 μg/g based on fish consumption. 94.6% of the population studied however measured Hg- T concentrations below the WHO limit. In general, the concentrations measured in female students were higher compared to concentrations in male students. The mean concentration of Hg-T in female students was 1.417±0.037 μg/g compared to 0.600±0.001 μg/g for male students. The higher concentrations measured in female students may be attributed to the application of Hg containing cosmetics aside environmental exposures.

  16. Hair mercury concentrations and fish consumption patterns in Florida residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Jensen, Emily L; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2014-06-26

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84-16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  17. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  18. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  19. Hair mercury concentrations in residents of Sundarban and Calcutta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman; O'Leary, Keri Grace; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Wang, Jing; Liguori, Lisa; Rainis, Holly; Smith, Katy A; Chatterjee, Mousumi

    2016-10-01

    Few studies on hair mercury have been conducted in India despite the fact that India is the world's third largest producer of coal and coal is India's primary energy source. No studies have been conducted in the Indian state of West Bengal which has a coastline with the Bay of Bengal. This study examined the concentration of mercury in hair in two diverse populations in West Bengal, India: Sundarban, a mangrove wetland where fishing is a common occupation, and Calcutta, a megacity and India's oldest functioning port. Individuals from whom scalp hair was collected (N=100) were asked a series of questions on occupation, education, age, smoking and alcohol consumption, and fish consumption. SAS was utilized to generate descriptive statistics including frequency and univariate analyses and to perform regression analyses to determine significant predictors of hair mercury in this population. The mean hair mercury increased across the first three age categories (45). Hair mercury concentration was significantly higher among residents of Sundarban compared to Calcutta (p=0.0005). In multivariable analysis, location (Sundarban vs. Calcutta) and age were significant predictors of hair mercury concentration (p=0.0120 and p=0.0161, respectively). Average hair mercury concentrations in this study were not particularly elevated. Smoking and alcohol consumption were predictors of hair mercury concentration. The hair mercury in Sundarban residents compared to Calcutta residents may be elevated due to greater consumption of fish and type of fish consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  1. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  2. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18-3.98μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12-1.63μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=-0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=-0.278, P=0.001). This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in

  3. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  4. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    OpenAIRE

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001–2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs ...

  5. Bleaching of Black Human Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching of black human hair has been studied systematically. On the basis of experimental data the technology of human hair bleaching through five processes was established. The optimum technology of improving the whiteness and reducing damage on fibers has been found. The technology can provide good luster,smooth handle and relatively high strength retention to human hair used for wigs or drama articles, meeting the needs of people better. Moreover, it also has important reference value to bleaching of other colored fibers.

  6. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  7. Detection of Mercury in Human Organs and Hair in a Case of a Homicidal Poisoning of a Woman Autopsied 6 Years After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In the described case of the death of a 53-year-old woman, no toxicological examination was performed directly after death (only an anatomopathological autopsy), although symptoms of serious gastrointestinal disturbances had been present (the woman had been hospitalized twice in the course of several months). It was assumed that the cause of death was myocardial infarction. Five years later, some new circumstances came to light which suggested that somebody could have administered some poison (metals, cyanides) to the woman. Toxicological analysis of postmortem samples from the corpse, exhumed 6 years after death by order of the public prosecutor's office, revealed high tissue mercury contents in biological material (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry): small intestine, 1516 ng/g; large intestine, 487 ng/g; liver, 1201 ng/g; heart muscle, 1023 ng/g; and scalp hair, 227 ng/g. In samples of soil from places near the coffin, negligible traces of mercury were found (0.5-1.5 ng/g); contamination by mercury from the environment was ruled out. The presented case is a rare example of recognition of mercury poisoning on the basis of the results of analysis of biological material from an exhumed cadaver.

  8. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  9. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury Human Exposure in Populations Living Around Lake Tana (Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, G; Abebe, G; Bravo, Andrea G; Ermias, D; Staffan, Ǻ; Bishop, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey carried out in Lake Tana in 2015 found that Hg levels in some fish species exceeded internationally accepted safe levels for fish consumption. The current study assesses human exposure to Hg through fish consumption around the Lake Tana. Of particular interest was that a dietary intake of fishes is currently a health risk for Bihar Dar residents and anglers. Hair samples were collected from three different groups: anglers, college students and teachers, and daily laborers. A questionary includes gender, age, weight, activity. Frequency of fish consumption and origin of the eaten fish were completed by each participant. Mercury concentrations in hair were significantly higher (P value mercury and age associated with mercury concentration in scalp hair. Mercury concentrations in the hair of men were on average twice the value of the women. Also, users of skin lightening soap on a daily basis had 2.5 times greater mercury in scalp hair than non-users. Despite the different sources of mercury exposure mentioned above, the mercury concentrations of the scalp hair of participants of this study were below levels deemed to pose a threat to health.

  11. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photodamage determination of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-01-05

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  14. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2016-09-29

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg(-1); ICP-MS, 437ngg(-1)) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses.

  15. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Crowe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG. Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson’s correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = −0.323, p = 0.029 and SLICC/ACR (r = −0.377, p = 0.038. Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = −0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI: −1.769, −0.155 p = 0.019. Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  16. Mercury in Hair Is Inversely Related to Disease Associated Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, William; Doherty, Leanne; Watson, Gene; Armstrong, David; Ball, Elisabeth; Magee, Pamela; Allsopp, Philip; Bell, Aubrey; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir

    2015-12-23

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease, and environmental factors are proposed to exacerbate existing symptoms. One such environmental factor is mercury. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to mercury (Hg) and disease activity and disease associated damage in Total Hg concentrations in hair and urine were measured in 52 SLE patients. Dental amalgams were quantified. Disease activity was assessed using three indexes including the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Index (BILAG). Disease associated damage was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology SLICC/ACR Damage Index. Pearson's correlation identified a significant negative correlation between hair Hg and BILAG (r = -0.323, p = 0.029) and SLICC/ACR (r = -0.377, p = 0.038). Multiple regression analysis identified hair Hg as a significant predictor of disease associated damage as determined by SLICC/ACR (β = -0.366, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.769, -0.155 p = 0.019). Urinary Hg was not related to disease activity or damage. Fish consumption is the primary route of MeHg exposure in humans and the inverse association of hair Hg with disease activity observed here might be explained by the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids also found in fish.

  17. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  18. Hair mercury levels and food consumption in residents from the Pearl River Delta: South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dingding; Kang, Yuan; Cheng, Zhang; Wang, Hongsheng; Huang, Minjuan; Wu, Shengchun; Chen, Kunci; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is located in the Southern part of China and is the main region for fish culture in Guangdong Province. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with dietary consumption of mercury, hair samples from 91 urban, town and fishing village residents, 37 species of fish, cereal, vegetables, and meat samples were collected. The average total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in hair were 1.08 ± 0.94 and 0.58 ± 0.59 μg/g, respectively. Daily Hg intake via fish consumption is significantly correlated with THg and MeHg accumulated in human hair (r=0.48, p<0.01; r=0.43, p<0.01). The estimated daily intake of Hg via different food types showed that both fish and cereal consumption were the two main routes of Hg exposure for residents in the sampling areas. Besides food intake, smoking was also an important source for daily THg intake in the smoke group, contributing 11-18% to EDI of THg.

  19. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  20. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice Marcano; Mary Labady; Clara Gomes; Guillermina Aguiar; Jorge Laine

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  1. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Ashe

    Full Text Available The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05 higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  2. Elevated mercury concentrations in humans of Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The enormous increase in practically unregulated mining in Madre de Dios Peru is leading to massive release of liquid elemental mercury to the environment. Rapidly increasing global prices for gold are causing a massive upsurge in artisanal mining in the Peruvian Amazon, considered to be one of the most biodiverse places on the planet. This study identifies the current levels of mercury in the human population, through identifying levels of total mercury in human hair in mining zones of Madre de Dios Department and in the nearby city of Puerto Maldonado. A regression analysis reveals that fish consumption, gender, and location of residence were significant indicators of mercury levels; while duration of residence and age had no significant relationship to mercury levels. Increased fish consumption levels were the strongest indicators of increased total mercury levels across the entire population. The levels of total mercury in hair was significantly (α = 0.05) higher in mining zones, than Puerto Maldonado. In both areas men had significantly higher levels than women, likely due to a difference in metabolism or varying levels of direct involvement in gold mining- a male predominated industry. This is the first study to show the health threat that mercury poses to this region, however further research needs to be done to gain a more refined understanding of the predominant routes of exposure in this population.

  3. Photoinduced formation of thiols in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkova, M V; Brandt, N N; Chikishev, A Yu; Smolina, N V; Balabushevich, N G; Gusev, S A; Lipatova, V A; Botchey, V M; Dobretsov, G E; Mikhalchik, E V

    2016-11-01

    Raman, scanning electron, and optical microscopy of hair and spectrophotometry of soluble hair proteins are used to study the effect of UV-vis radiation on white hair. The samples of a healthy subject are irradiated using a mercury lamp and compared with non-irradiated (control) hair. The cuticle damage with partial exfoliation is revealed with the aid of SEM and optical microscopy of semifine sections. Gel filtration chromatography shows that the molecular weight of soluble proteins ranges from 5 to 7kDa. Absorption spectroscopy proves an increase in amount of thiols in a heavier fraction of the soluble proteins of irradiated samples under study. Raman data indicate a decrease in the amount of SS and CS bonds in cystines and an increase in the amount of SH bonds due to irradiation. Such changes are more pronounced in peripheral regions of hair. Conformational changes of hair keratins presumably related to the cleavage of disulfide bonds, follow from variations in amide I and low-frequency Raman bands. An increase in the content of thiols in proteins revealed by both photometric data on soluble proteins and Raman microspectroscopy of hair cuts can be used to develop a protocol of the analysis of photoinduced hair modification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Grizzly bear hair reveals toxic exposure to mercury through salmon consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Spence, Jody; Harris, Kate A; Robbins, Charles T; Fortin, Jennifer K; Ross, Peter S; Christensen, Jennie R

    2014-07-01

    Mercury obtained from the diet accumulates in mammalian hair as it grows thus preserving a record of mercury intake over the growth period of a given hair segment. We adapted a microanalysis approach, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, to characterize temporal changes in mercury exposure and uptake in wild and captive grizzly bears. Captive grizzlies fed diets containing known and varied amounts of mercury provided data to allow prediction of Hg ingestion rates in wild bears. Here, we show, for the first time, that 70% of the coastal grizzly bears sampled had Hg levels exceeding the neurochemical effect level proposed for polar bears. In a context where the international community is taking global actions to reduce Hg emissions through the "Minamata Convention on Mercury", our study provides valuable information on the exposure to mercury of these grizzly bears already under many threats.

  5. Toxicokinetics of mercury in blood compartments and hair of fish-fed sled dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieske Camilla L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mercury (Hg distribution in blood and the importance of hair as an excretory pathway is critical for evaluating risk from long term dietary Hg exposure. The major objective of this study was to characterize changes in total Hg concentrations in specific blood compartments and hair over time due to long term piscivory. Methods Eight sled dogs (Canis lupus familiaris were fed either a fish and kibble diet (n = 4, or a fish-free control diet (n = 4 for 12 weeks. Concentrations of Hg were monitored throughout the exposure period, and for 10 weeks post exposure, until Hg concentrations in all blood compartments of one of the exposed dogs dropped below detection limit. Additionally, foreleg hair was sampled during acclimation and weeks 0 and 12. Results Hg was detected primarily in whole blood and packed cells, although it was sporadically detected at low concentrations in plasma and serum in two of the fish fed dogs. Dogs ingested an estimated average of 13.4 ± 0.58 μg Hg per kg body weight per day. Hg was detectable in whole blood and packed cells within a week of exposure. Detected concentrations continued to rise until plateauing at approximately 3-6 weeks of exposure at a mean of 9.2 ± 1.97 ng/g (ppb in whole blood. Hg concentration decreased post exposure following 1st order elimination. The mean half-life (t1/2 in whole blood for Hg was 7 weeks. Mean Hg in hair for the fish-fed dogs at week 12 was 540 ± 111 ppb and was significantly greater (about 7-fold than the Hg hair concentration for the control dogs. The hair to blood ratio for Hg in fish-fed dogs was 59.0 ± 7.6:1. Conclusions This study found the sled dog model to be an effective method for investigating and characterizing blood Hg distribution (whole blood, serum, plasma, packed cells and toxicokinetics associated with a piscivorous diet, especially for Hg-exposed fur bearing mammals (such as polar bears. Although hair excretion and hair to blood

  6. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail: zsofi@atomki.hu; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2007-07-15

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  7. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  8. Mercury concentration in hair samples from Chinese people in coastal cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojie; CHENG Jinping; Song Yuling; HONDA Shun'ichi; WANG Li; LIU Zheng; SAKAMOTO Mineshi; LIU Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was made to estimate current normal concentrations of total mercury in the hair of Chinese coastal people. Hairsamples were collected from 659 healthy inhabitants in the areas along the coast and the rivers (such as Shanghai, Ningbo, Dalian,Xiamen, and Zhoushan) of China from Feb. 2005 to June 2006. Total mercury concentrations in the samples were analyzed by the coldvapor atomic adsorption spectrometry method (CVAAS). The results showed the geometric mean concentration of total mercury in thehair of the total population (N=659) was 0.83 μg/g, and the geometric mean of the concentrations of total mercury in the hair of themale (0.94 μg/g, 338 inhabitants with an average age of 35.2, age 2-93) was higher than that of the female (0.72 μg/g, 321 inhabitantswith an average age of 39.1, age 1-90). In both the male and female, the mean concentrations of total mercury in hair increased withage, and then gradually decreased. There was a significant correlation between the total hair mercury and the place of residence (p<0.01), and total hair mercury was the highest in volunteers who lived in Zhoushan. Over half of all sample concentrations were belowthe USEPA-recommended 1 μg/g. In Zhoushan (males, 2.44 μg/g; females, 1.94 [μg/g) and Ningbo (males, 1.06 μg/g; females, 1.02μg/g), it exceeded the recommended level. Very little females (0.3%) of reproductive age showed hair mercury levels close to 10 μg/g.It was thus concluded that fish consumption was a major current route for mercury exposure in China.

  9. Putting the Human Hair Follicle Cycle on the Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    A detailed characterization of the normal (in situ) human hair follicle cycle, supplemented with expressional data on specific hair follicle markers, has been awaited by basic hair researchers and dermatologists. Combining this hair cycle guide, together with a thorough analysis of the human-on-mouse hair xenograft model, provides solid ground for examining human hair cycle biology and pathology and for hair cycle-related pharmacological testing.

  10. Human hair genealogies and stem cell latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to observe every division directly, one method for counting divisions is to count replication errors; the greater the number of divisions, the greater the numbers of errors. Stem cells with more divisions should produce progeny with more replication errors. Methods To test this approach, epigenetic errors (methylation in CpG-rich molecular clocks were measured from human hairs. Hairs exhibit growth and replacement cycles and "new" hairs physically reappear even on "old" heads. Errors may accumulate in long-lived stem cells, or in their differentiated progeny that are eventually shed. Results Average hair errors increased until two years of age, and then were constant despite decades of replacement, consistent with new hairs arising from infrequently dividing bulge stem cells. Errors were significantly more frequent in longer hairs, consistent with long-lived but eventually shed mitotic follicle cells. Conclusion Constant average hair methylation regardless of age contrasts with the age-related methylation observed in human intestine, suggesting that error accumulation and therefore stem cell latency differs among tissues. Epigenetic molecular clocks imply similar mitotic ages for hairs on young and old human heads, consistent with a restart with each new hair, and with genealogies surreptitiously written within somatic cell genomes.

  11. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations.

  12. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  14. A 2,000-year record of mercury and ancient civilizations in seal hairs from King George Island, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xuebin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Renbin; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-09-01

    The concentrations of total mercury (Hg(T)) and three bio-essential elements (phosphor, potassium, sodium) were analyzed in Antarctic seal hairs from a lake core spanning the past 2,000 years and collected from King George Island (63 degrees 23'S, 57 degrees 00'W), West Antarctica. The Hg(T) concentration shows a significant fluctuation while the levels of the three bio-essential elements remain almost constant. The rise and fall of the Hg(T) concentration in the seal hairs are found to be closely coincided with ancient activities of gold and silver mining using Hg-amalgamation process around the world, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Briefly, Hg(T) levels are high during five episodes of extensive gold and silver mining activities--Rome Empire and China Han Dynasty (approximately 18-300 A.D.), Maya period and China Tang (750-900 A.D.), Incas civilization and Christian Kingdom (1200-1500 A.D.), New world (1650-1800 A.D.), and modern industry period (1840 A.D.-present); they are low during four time periods of reduced gold and silver mining activities--the China Han and Rome fall (since 300 A.D.), Maya fall and Wartime period in China (1050-1250 A.D.), Pizarro coming (ca. 1532 A.D.) and Independence War of South America (1800-1830 A.D.). Two profiles of Hg(T) in other two lake cores, one affected by seal excrements and the other by penguin droppings, from the same region are similar to the one in seal hairs. The Hg concentration profile in the seal hairs is significantly correlated with the one in a peat bog of Southern Chile near King George Island. Since Hg is existent mainly at the form of methyl-mercury in seal hairs, this correlation supports a relationship and link between atmospheric mercury concentration and methyl-mercury production. Comparing with samples from American and European continents, the Antarctic seal hairs provide an archive of total mercury concentration in surface seawater of the South Ocean less affected by regional human activities

  15. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtai...

  16. Hair mercury concentrations of children and mothers in Korea: Implication for exposure and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.A. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: heaven1@snu.ac.kr; Jeon, C.K.; Paek, D.M. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-25

    Background: Mercury is a global pollutant that affects neurodevelopment of children. Objective: The objectives were to measure and evaluate mercury concentration of children and mothers, and its association with exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment was done using questionnaires and hair mercury were analysed by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in the National Institute for Minamata Disease in Japan. Results: A total of 112 children and 111 mothers were included; mean age was 34 months and 32 years, respectively. 17.9 % of children and 34.2 % of mothers had concentrations greater than 1 parts per million (ppm) as reference level. Body weight at birth, feeding methods, maternal age, and maternal education level were significantly different in each group (p < .05). Mean maternal hair mercury level (0.91 ppm) was higher than children (0.74 ppm), and has a positive correlation between them (p < .05). 68.1% of children, 75% of pregnant period, 63.4% of lactating period, and 78.6% of last six months have been consuming fish. With multiple regression analysis, hair mercury levels in children aged less than 6 months had a linear relationship with body weight at birth, gestational weeks, feeding methods (breast- or bottle- feeding) and maternal educational level. While children aged over 6 months significantly differed with gender, frequency of fish servings per week, and frequency of maternal fish consumption in lactation period. And hair mercury levels had inverse linear relationship with maternal monthly income in this age group. Maternal mercury levels had linear relationship with maternal age. Conclusion: Mercury levels in children may be affected by their mothers due to similar dietary patterns. Further long-term large-scale and follow-up studies are needed.

  17. The use of human hair as biodosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔHpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture.

  19. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexander; Riemann, Iris; Stark, Martin; König, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro multiphoton imaging was used to perform high resolution optical sectioning of human hair by nonlinear excitation of endogenous as well as exogenous fluorophores. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) based on time-resolved single photon counting and near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse excitation was employed to analyze the various fluorescent hair components. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of intratissue pigments has the potential (i) to identify endogenous keratin and melanin, (ii) to obtain information on intrahair dye accumulation, (iii) to study bleaching effects, and (iv) to monitor the intratissue diffusion of pharmaceutical and cosmetical components along hair shafts.

  20. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis...... with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia...... of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify...

  1. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; KANG, YONG JUNG; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells ...

  2. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Miao

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  3. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  4. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2017-05-25

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  6. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bečková, Věra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zdeněk; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  7. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boischio Ana Amélia Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  8. Association between mercury concentrations in blood and hair in methylmercury-exposed subjects at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J

    2004-01-01

    was between five-fold and nine-fold greater than the 5th percentile. The results were examined in structural equation models to estimate the total imprecision of the individual biomarker results and the possibility that the ratio may not be constant. The hair-to-blood ratio was found to increase at lower......Mercury concentrations were measured in paired hair and blood samples from a cohort of about 1000 children examined at birth and at 7 and 14 years of age. The ratio between concentrations in maternal hair (in microg/g) and in cord blood (microg/L) was approximately 200, but samples from...... the children at age 14 years showed a ratio of about 250. These findings are in accordance with previous data from smaller studies. However, an even higher ratio of about 360 was seen at 7 years of age, suggesting that hair strands at this age retain more mercury. The 95th percentile of the hair-to-blood ratio...

  9. Public health benefits of hair-mercury analysis and dietary advice in lowering methylmercury exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Line E; Jørgensen, Jan S; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether a public health intervention using focused dietary advice combined with a hair-mercury analysis can lower neurotoxic methylmercury exposure among pregnant women without decreasing their overall intake of seafood. A total of 146 pregnant women were consecutively recruited from the antenatal clinic at a Danish university hospital at their initial ultrasound scan. Dietary advice was provided on avoiding methylmercury exposure from large predatory fish and a hair sample from each participant was analysed for mercury, with the results being communicated shortly thereafter to the women. A dietary questionnaire was filled in. Follow-up three months later included a dietary questionnaire and a repeat hair-mercury analysis. In the follow-up group, 22% of the women had hair-mercury concentrations above a safe limit of 0.58 µg/g at enrolment, decreasing to 8% three months later. Average hair-mercury concentrations decreased by 21%. However, the total seafood intake remained at the same level after three months. Increased exposure to methylmercury among pregnant women is an important public health concern in Denmark. The observed lowering of hair-mercury concentrations associated with dietary advice corresponds to a substantial public health benefit that probably makes such an intervention highly profitable.

  10. Temporal Trends and Future Predictions of Mercury Concentrations in Northwest Greenland Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Born, E.W.; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples from 117 Northwest Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were taken during 1892-2008 and analyzed for total mercury (hereafterHg). The sample represented 28 independent years and the aim of the study was to analyze for temporal Hg trends. Mercury concentrations showed yearly...... significant increases of 1.6-1.7% (p bear......-2008 concentrations ofHg in Northwest Greenland polar bear hair exceeded the general guideline values of 20-30 μg/g dry weight for terrestrial wildlife, whereas the neurochemical effect level of 5.4 μg Hg/g dry weight proposed for East Greenland polar bears was exceeded in 93.5% of the cases. These results call...

  11. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Scalp hair and saliva as biomarkers in determination of mercury levels in Iranian women: Amalgam as a determinant of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakour, H., E-mail: fakour.h@gmail.com [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili-Sari, A. [Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zayeri, F. [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences and Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between mercury concentrations in saliva and hair in women with amalgam fillings and its relation with age and number of amalgam fillings. Eighty-two hair and saliva samples were collected randomly from Iranian women who have the same fish consumption pattern and free from occupational exposures. The mean {+-} SD age of these women was 29.37 {+-} 8.12 (ranged from 20 to 56). The determination of Hg level in hair samples was carried out by the LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. Mercury concentration in saliva samples was analyzed by PERKIN-ELMER 3030 Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean {+-} SD mercury level in the women was 1.28 {+-} 1.38 {mu}g/g in hair and 4.14 {+-} 4.08 {mu}g/l in saliva; and there were positive correlation among them. A significant correlation was also observed between Hg level of saliva (Spearman's {rho} = 0.93, P < 0.001) and hair (Spearman's {rho} = 0.92, P < 0.001) with number of amalgam fillings. According to the results, we can conclude that amalgam fillings may be an effective source for high Hg concentration in hair and releasing the mercury to the saliva samples.

  13. Hair Mercury Levels Detection in Fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS Method after Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio; Graci, Stefania; Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Giangrosso, Margherita; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of ninety-six hair samples from Sicilian fishermen were examined for total mercury detection by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. The mercury levels obtained were compared with mercury levels of 96 hair samples from a control group, in order to assess potential exposure to heavy metals of Sicilian fishermen due to fish consumption and closeness to industrial activities. Furthermore, the mercury levels obtained from hair samples were sorted by sampling area in order to verify the possible risks linked to the different locations. The overall mean concentration in the hair of the population of fishermen was 6.45 ± 7.03 μg g−1, with a highest value in a fisherman of Sciacca (16.48 μg g−1). Hair mercury concentration in fishermen group was significantly higher than in control group (p 0.05). The results of this study indicate a greater risk of exposure to mercury in Sicilian fishermen, in comparison to the control population, due to the high consumption of fish and the close relationship with sources of exposure (ports, dumps, etc.). PMID:27127456

  14. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132, r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284, r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children.

  15. Mercury in Hair of Muskox on the Seward Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ihl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Muskoxen (Ovibus moschatus are distant relatives of sheep (Caprinae and have roamed the Arctic for a million years, with populations reaching North America between 150,000 and 250,000 years ago. Muskox populations could be negatively influenced by climate change and increased exposure to contaminants. Since the snow depth is a critical factor in their ecology, effects could occur throughout their distribution. Muskox typically feed on plants on hilltops and upper slopes where shrubs are increasing at the expense of graminoid and lichen species. Besides changes in plant species composition, wildfires and flooding, as well as renewed mining developments, can lead to an increased incidence of total Hg (THg bioavailability. Approach: In this survey THg concentrations were measured in the hair of muskox at several sites on Seward Peninsula of Alaska, USA. Results: Muskox exhibited mean THg levels in the hair of 29.3 ng g-1 for the west base of Mineral Mountain, 28.6 ng g-1 for Nature Hill and 23.0 ng g-1 for the camp at Deering. Means for THg levels at Anvil were 35.2 ng g-1 at the top, 31.8 ng g-1 on the southwest slope and 29.9 ng g-1 at the base. Qiviut from two muskox at Anvil and Mineral Mountain possessed lower THg values than when compared to their guard hair (32.9 and 44.8 ng g-1, respectively. Conclusion: These current THg levels are relatively low and helping establish a baseline for Hg exposure in muskoxen.

  16. Shape variability and classification of human hair: a worldwide approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Mettrie, Roland; Saint-Léger, Didier; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Garcel, Annelise; Porter, Crystal; Langaney, André

    2007-06-01

    Human hair has been commonly classified according to three conventional ethnic human subgroups, that is, African, Asian, and European. Such broad classification hardly accounts for the high complexity of human biological diversity, resulting from both multiple and past or recent mixed origins. The research reported here is intended to develop a more factual and scientific approach based on physical features of human hair. The aim of the study is dual: (1) to define hair types according to specific shape criteria through objective and simple measurements taken on hairs from 1442 subjects from 18 different countries and (2) to define such hair types without referring to human ethnicity. The driving principle is simple: Because hair can be found in many different human subgroups, defining a straight or a curly hair should provide a more objective approach than a debatable ethnicity-based classification. The proposed method is simple to use and requires the measurement of only three easily accessible descriptors of hair shape: curve diameter (CD), curl index (i), and number of waves (w). This method leads to a worldwide coherent classification of hair in eight well-defined categories. The new hair categories, as described, should be more appropriate and more reliable than conventional standards in cosmetic and forensic sciences. Furthermore, the classification can be useful for testing whether hair shape diversity follows the continuous geographic and historical pattern suggested for human genetic variation or presents major discontinuities between some large human subdivisions, as claimed by earlier classical anthropology.

  17. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  18. Human accumulation of mercury in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a high intake of mercury especially from marine mammals. To determine whether the mercury is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver, kidney and spleen from adult ethnic Greenlanders who died between 1990 and 1994 from...... a wide range of causes, natural and violent. Liver, kidney and spleen samples from between 33 and 71 case subjects were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury, and liver samples also for selenium. Metal levels in men and women did not differ and were not related to age except in one case, i.......e. for total mercury in liver, where a significant declining concentration with age was observed. The highest total mercury levels were found in kidney followed by liver and spleen. Methylmercury followed the same pattern, but levels were much lower, constituting only 19% of the total mercury concentration...

  19. Biosorption of uranium by human black hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amardeep Singh; Melo, Jose Savio

    2015-04-01

    Naturally available low cost materials have gained importance as effective alternative to conventional sorbents for the removal of metal ions from water. The present study describes the use of black hair waste as a sorbent for the removal of uranium ions from an aqueous medium. Alkali treatment of the biomass resulted in a significant increase in its uptake capacity. The optimum pH and contact time for uranium removal were 4.5 and 2 h respectively. It was observed that the experimental data fits well in Ho's pseudo-second order kinetic model. Binding of uranium to the biomass was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. Thus, the present study could demonstrate the utility of human black hair to remove uranium from aqueous medium.

  20. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M Camille; Karban, Laura V; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies.

  1. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  2. Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-07-01

    Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

  3. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field.

  4. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  5. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  6. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  7. Investigation on hair mercury concentration of people in 8 typical regions of Anhui Province and its influence factors%安徽省典型地区人群头发汞含量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮志远; 王元; 刘桂建

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and its compounds are harmful to human health due to their strong toxicity and easy volatilization in environment. The exposure of human body to mercury can be estimated with hair mercury concentration. In this study, the total hair mercury level of people in Anhui Province was investigated by determining the mercury concentration of 131 hair samples from people in 8 typical regions with hydride generation flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS. It was found that the average hair mercury concentration (0.480±0.896μg·g-1) of people in Anhui Province was at lower level compared to those in some other regions, which indicated low mercury exposure risk to residents in Anhui Province. Hair mercury concentration of people (0.068± 0.054 μg·g-1 ) in Luan was significantly lower than those in other 7 regions, while there was no significant difference of hair mercury content among other 7 regions. Hair mercury concentration was influenced by the age of people rather than their gender. The mercury content in hair of people with the age of 30—50 was significantly higher than those of people of other ages. In addition, mercury concentration of the dyed hair was apparently lower than that of undyed sample. The dyed hair subsequently cannot be used as an indicator of human of exposure to mercury.%汞及其化合物毒性大,挥发性强,在环境中易于迁移,危害人体健康.人发中汞的含量是反映汞的环境暴露对人体的影响的优良指标.本研究利用氢化物发生-原子吸收分光光度法对安徽省合肥、淮南、安庆等8个典型地区人群的131个头发样品中总汞含量进行测定,并用SPSS软件对数据结果进行了统计分析.结果表明,安徽省人群发汞含量为0.480±0.896μg·g-1,与国内外部分地区相比,处于较低水平,人体受汞暴露的风险较低;六安地区人群发汞含量(0.068±0.054μg·g-1)明显低于其他7个地区;男

  8. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities.

  9. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  10. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. The uptake of water hardness metals by human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A O; Marsh, J M; Wickett, R R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the variables that influence the interaction between water hardness metals and human hair. Hair extracts various constituents from the tap water used during daily hygiene practices and chemical treatments. Calcium and magnesium metal ions are the most prevalent and give water "hardness." Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was employed to quantify the metal content of hair, which was studied as a function of the following variables: hair condition (oxidative damage), level of water hardness, and water pH. We have demonstrated that these variables impact water hardness metal uptake to varying extents, and the effects are driven primarily by the binding capacity (available anionic sites) of the hair. The condition of the hair, a key representation of the binding capacity, was most influential. Interestingly, water hardness levels had only a small effect on uptake; hair became saturated with notable amounts of water hardness metals even after repeated exposure to soft water. Water pH influenced metal uptake since side chains of hair proteins deprotonate with increasing alkalinity. These insights highlight the importance to the hair care industry of understanding the interaction between water hardness metals and hair.

  12. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  13. Human Hair Reconstruction: Close, But Yet So Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Parvaneh; Youssef, Khalil Kass; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Billions of dollars are annually invested in pharmaceutical industry and cosmetic sector with intent to develop new drugs and treatment strategies for alopecia. Because the hair looks an important characteristic of humans-an effective appendage in perception, expression of beauty, and preservation of self-esteem-the global market for hair loss treatment products is exponentially increasing. However, current methods to treat hair loss endure yet multiple challenges, such as unfavorable outcomes, nonpermanent and patient-dependent results, as well as unpredictable impacts, which limit their application. Over recent years, remarkable advances in the fields of regenerative medicine and hair tissue engineering have raised new hopes for introducing novel cell-based approaches to treat hair loss. Through cell-based approaches, it is possible to produce hair-like structures in the laboratory setting or manipulate cells in their native niche (in vivo lineage reprogramming) to reconstruct the hair follicle. However, challenging issues still exist with the functionality of cultured human hair cells, the proper selection of nonhair cell sources in cases of shortage of donor hair, and the development of defined culture conditions. Moreover, in the case of in vivo lineage reprogramming, selecting appropriate induction factors and their efficient delivery to guide resident cells into a hair fate-with the aim of reconstructing functional hair-still needs further explorations. In this study, we highlight recent advances and current challenges in hair loss treatment using cell-based approaches and provide novel insights for crucial steps, which must be taken into account to develop reproducible, safe, and efficient cell-based treatment.

  14. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  15. Isolation and Quantification of Glycosaminoglycans from Human Hair Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonovas, Stefanos; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. Objective The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. Methods Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9). GAGs in hair samples, received from the parietal and the occipital areas, were isolated with 4 M guanidine HCl and measured by the uronic acid-carbazole reaction assay. Results GAGs concentration was significantly higher in the occipital area than in the parietal area, in all study groups. GAG levels from both areas were significantly higher in children than in adults. GAG levels were not associated with gender, hair color or type. Conclusion We report the presence of GAGs in the human free hair shaft and the correlation of hair GAG levels with the scalp area and participants' age. PMID:27746630

  16. The persistence of human scalp hair on clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachs, J; McNaught, I J; Robertson, J

    2003-12-17

    This study reports the persistence behaviour of human scalp hairs under a number of different circumstances. The effects of artificial dyeing of hairs, the presence or absence of roots and different types of fabrics on the persistence of hair on a variety of garments were investigated. The garments were made from cotton, polycotton, cotton/acrylic, polyester and wool. The results indicated that neither artificial dyes nor the presence or absence of roots had statistically significant effects on the persistence of hair. In contrast, the type of fabric had a major impact and it was found that, generally, hairs persist longer on rougher fabrics. The rate of loss of hairs from non-woollen fabrics during normal wear was found to follow an exponential decay curve. In contrast, the rate of loss from the woollen garments was quite linear, indicating a constant, even loss, and thus suggests that a different process is involved in the persistence of hairs on woollen garments from that on non-woollen garments. The speed at which hair was lost from fabrics decreased in the order polyester, cotton/acrylic, polycotton, cotton, smooth wool, rough wool, so that wool gives the best chance of recovering samples of hair. Due to the uniqueness of each case, it is advised that caution be used when making any interpretations and before drawing any conclusions.

  17. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Josh; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  18. Distribution of glycolipid and unsaturated fatty acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshie; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized that human hair lipids play crucial roles in the integrity of cells and matrices, while the details of distribution and structure of the minor lipids are hardly known. Here we investigated the lipids at the hair surface, at the interface between cuticle and cortex and in the interior of hair (cortex, medulla and melanin granules). Hair lipids and fatty acids and their metabolites were detected and characterized by using infrared spectroscopy and several mass spectrometry techniques (FTIR, ToF-SIMS, GCMS, and ESI-MS). As a result, it was found that unsaturated fatty acids were present more in the cortex of hair than at the hair surface. At the interface between cuticle and cortex, it is suggested that steryl glycoside-like lipids containing N-acetylglucosamine were present, and contributing to the adhesion between the cuticle and cortex of hair. Oxidative metabolites derived from integral fatty acids such as linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids were found in the hair bulb and melanin granules. Especially the oxidative metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid were integrated into the lipids non-covalently and tightly bound to melanin granules (namely, melanin lipids) and suggested as being involved in the biosynthetic processes of melanosome.

  19. New approach for assessing human perfluoroalkyl exposure via hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Jacobs, Griet; Vanermen, Guido; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years hair has been increasingly used as alternative matrix in human biomonitoring (HBM) of environmental pollutants. Sampling advantages and time integration of exposure assessment seems the most attractive features of hair matrix. In the current study, a novel miniaturized method was developed and validated for measuring 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including perfluoro n-butanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoro n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluor n-octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoro n-nonanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoro tetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro pentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononane sulfonic acid (PFNS), perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) and perfluorododecane sulfonic acid (PFDoS) in human hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After extraction using ethyl acetate, dispersive ENVI-Carb was used for clean-up. Good intra- and inter-day precision for low (LQ 5 ng/g hair) and high spike (HQ 15n g/g) levels were achieved (in general RSD hair and 3-13 pg/g hair, respectively. The method limit of quantification (LOQm) ranged between 6 and 301 pg/g hair. The PFAS levels were measured in 30 human hair samples indicating that the levels are low (14-1534 pg/g hair). Some PFAS were not present in any hair sample (e.g. PFHpA, PFTeDA, PFNA, PFPeS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFNS), while other PFAS were frequently detected (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS and PFDoS) in human hair. Although levels in general were low, there is evidence of higher human exposure to some analytes, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, and PFDoS. The current study shows that hair is a suitable alternative non-invasive matrix for exposure assessment of PFAS.

  20. Mercury correlations among blood, muscle, and hair of northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting fasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Josh; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring and toxicological risk assessments for marine mammals commonly sample different tissues, making comparisons to toxicity benchmarks and among species and regions difficult. Few studies have examined how life history events, such as fasting, influence the relationship between total Hg (THg) concentrations in different tissues. We evaluated the relationships between THg concentrations in blood, muscle, and hair of female and male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at the start and end of the breeding and molting fasts. The relationships between tissues varied among tissue pairs and differed by sampling period and sex. Blood and muscle were generally related at all time periods; however, hair, an inert tissue, did not strongly represent the metabolically active tissues (blood and muscle) at all times of year. The strongest relationships between THg concentrations in hair and those in blood or muscle were observed during periods of active hair growth (end of the molting period) or during time periods when internal body conditions were similar to those when the hair was grown (end of the breeding fast). Our results indicate that THg concentrations in blood or muscle can be translated to the other tissue type using the equations we developed, but that THg concentrations in hair were generally a poor index of internal THg concentrations except during the end of fasting periods.

  1. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  2. An ESR study on biological dosimeters: Human hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@hacettepe.edu.t [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozbey, Turan [Hacettepe University, Physics Engineering Department, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work, characteristic features of the radicals found in untreated, gamma and UV-irradiated and mechanical damaged human hair samples were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Heights of the resonance peaks measured with respect to the spectrum base line were used to monitor microwave power, dose-response, storage time and temperature dependent kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the formation of recorded experimental ESR spectra. Peak heights and g-values (2.0037-2.0052) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent with {Delta}Hpp-0.47 mT. The act of cutting hair samples gene rates sulfur centered radicals which are found in the a-keratin structure of hair. The variations of the peak heights with temperature were related with the water content found in the hair samples. In the 6-1100 Gy dose range, a linear + quadratic dose-response curve was recorded for hair and the mean radiation yield (G{sub mean}) was calculated to be 0.4. The gamma radiation induced radicals were stable for a several hours at room temperature storage conditions. Based on these findings it was concluded that human hair samples could be used as biological/personnel dosimeters and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring its dosimetric behaviours.

  3. A prototypic mathematical model of the human hair cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Goodfellow, Marc; Paus, Ralf; Baier, Gerold

    2012-10-07

    The human hair cycle is a complex, dynamic organ-transformation process during which the hair follicle repetitively progresses from a growth phase (anagen) to a rapid apoptosis-driven involution (catagen) and finally a relative quiescent phase (telogen) before returning to anagen. At present no theory satisfactorily explains the origin of the hair cycle rhythm. Based on experimental evidence we propose a prototypic model that focuses on the dynamics of hair matrix keratinocytes. We argue that a plausible feedback-control structure between two key compartments (matrix keratinocytes and dermal papilla) leads to dynamic instabilities in the population dynamics resulting in rhythmic hair growth. The underlying oscillation consists of an autonomous switching between two quasi-steady states. Additional features of the model, namely bistability and excitability, lead to new hypotheses about the impact of interventions on hair growth. We show how in silico testing may facilitate testing of candidate hair growth modulatory agents in human HF organ culture or in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  5. Mercury contamination in humans linked to river chemistry in the Amazon basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Forsberg, M.C. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). CIPEC-Center for the study of Institutions, Populations and Environmental Change; Forsberg, B.R.; Zeidemann, V.K. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia

    1999-09-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH are key variables influencing mercury levels in freshwater biota. DOC complexes with mercury, facilitates its transport to and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems. Low pH favors the methylation and bioaccumulation of mercury in aquatic food chains. Mercury concentrations in predatory fish tend to be positively correlated with DOC and negatively correlated with pH. We encountered a similar pattern for fish-eating human populations in the upper Rio Negro, a black water tributary of the Amazon river. The highest levels of human contamination were encountered in effluents with exceptionally high DOC and low pH. When data from other Amazonian tributaries were included, a general pattern emerged. Hair mercury was positively correlated with river DOC and negatively correlated with pH. No clear effect of gold-mining activities was encountered. The results demonstrate the importance of river chemistry in determining the pattern of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin 15 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  6. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  7. Stem cells from human hair follicles: first mechanical isolation for immediate autologous clinical use in androgenetic alopecia and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Scioli, Maria G; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Stem cells in the hair bulge, a clearly demarcated structure within the lower permanent portion of hair follicles, can generate the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle structures, and sebaceous glands. The bulge epithelial stem cells can also reconstitute in an artificial in vivo system to a new hair follicle. In this study, we have developed a new method to isolate human adult stem cells by mechanical centrifugation of punch biopsy from human hair follicles without culture condition. Here, we used human follicle stem cells (HFSCs), to improve the hair density in 11 patients (38 to 61 years old) affected by AGA in stage 3-5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale. The primary outcomes were microscopic identification and counting of HFSCs. The secondary outcomes were clinical preliminary results and safety and feasibility in HFSCs-treated scalp. Each scalp tissue suspension contained about 3,728.5±664.5 cells. The percentage of hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells CD44+ [from dermal papilla (DP)] was about 5%+0.7% whereas the percentage of hair follicle epithelial stem cells CD200+ (from the bulge) was about 2.6%+0.3%. In total, 23 weeks after the last treatment with HFSCs mean hair count and hair density increases over baseline values. In particular, a 29%±5% increase in hair density for the treated area and less than a 1% increase in hair density for the placebo area. We have shown that the isolated cells are capable to improve the hair density in patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA). These cells appear to be located in the bulge area of human.

  8. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  9. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-09-18

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and mechanical behavior of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0.06-0.1, is comparable to that of other keratinous materials and common synthetic polymers. The structures of the internal cortex and surface cuticle are affected by the large tensile extension. One distinguishing feature, the unwinding of the α-helix and the possible transformation to β-sheet structure of keratin under tension, which affects the ductility of hair, is analytically evaluated and incorporated into a constitutive equation. A good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. This model elucidates the tensile response of the α-keratin fibers. The contributions of elastic and plastic strains on reloading are evaluated and correlated to structural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Jing; Lei, Wei-Xiang; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Mei-Huan; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, pPFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (pPFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs.

  12. Pterins in human hair follicle cells and in the synchronized murine hair cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallreuter, K U; Beazley, W D; Hibberts, N A; Tobin, D J; Paus, R; Wood, J M

    1998-10-01

    Human dermal papilla cells (HDPC) express mRNA for the key enzymes for de novo synthesis/recycling and regulation of the pterin (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4). HDPC had significantly higher enzyme activities and 6BH4 levels in a comparative study with dermal fibroblasts, epidermal melanocytes, and keratinocytes under in vitro conditions. In addition, a significantly more rapid uptake of 14C-L-phenylalanine was demonstrated in HDPC compared with fibroblasts, whereas the differences in turnover to L-tyrosine were insignificant, suggesting a pooling of L-phenylalanine in HDPC. These results suggested that HDPC driven 6BH4 synthesis could be of major functional importance in the hair cycle. In order to follow this hypothesis in vivo, expression of enzyme activities and levels of the produced cofactor during the synchronized hair cycle were determined employing the murine model C57BL/6. These data revealed a significantly increased de novo synthesis for 6BH4 via GTP-cyclohydrolase I concomitant with high levels of 6BH4, and the induction of phenylalanine hydroxylase activities during the telogen/early anagen stage (days 0-1). Pterin levels and enzyme activities fall on day 3 and plateau during the rest of the entire cycle. In addition, thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase activities were measured, where the latter enzyme remained constant but thioredoxin reductase activities showed a biphasic behavior. The first peak coincided with the induction of 6BH4 de novo synthesis at the beginning of the hair cycle. The second peak was observed at mid-anagen, when melanogenesis takes place. Taken together, our results show the presence of autocrine pterin synthesis/recycling in human hair follicle cells under in vitro conditions, and a possible role for 6BH4 in the synchronized murine hair cycle.

  13. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments Altos níveis de Mercúrio e Chumbo detectados pela análise de cabelo em dois ambientes venezuelanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Marcano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon state, whereas automobile activity is responsible for high levels of Lead in hair in Caracas.Concentrações de mercúrio e chumbo obtidas pela análise ICP-OAS de amostras de cabelo humano de comunidades ribeirinhas ao longo do rio Orinoco no estado de Amazonas (Venezuela foram comparadas com outras de Caracas, Venezuela. Levando em consideração as características desses dois ambientes e os valores das concentrações médias de mercúrio e chumbo, foram estabelecidas linhas basais que sugerem que as atividades de minério de ouro próximo ao rio Orinoco são responsáveis pelos altos conteúdos de mercúrio em cabelo no estado de Amazonas. Entretanto, a indústria automotriz é responsável pelo alto conteúdo de chumbo em cabelo em Caracas.

  14. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  15. Real and potential mercury accumulation in human scalp of adolescents: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, H C; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Abreu, S N

    2015-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentration in human hair is used to estimate methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and establish a reference dose for MeHg intake. In this study, Hg accumulation and MeHg intake were evaluated in relation to fish consumption habits in adolescents from two coastal areas: Angra do Heroísmo (Azores archipelago) and Murtosa (Portuguese mainland). Results showed that Hg concentration and MeHg intake increased with increasing fish consumption. In spite of that, Hg concentrations remained relatively low when compared with World Health Organization "no observed adversary effect level"; therefore, risk for mercury exposure should not be considered. Adolescents revealed a similar range of Hg concentrations (0.03-2.60 μg g(-1)) in scalp hair, apart from being exposed to natural or anthropogenic Hg source (Azores and Mainland, respectively). Nevertheless, Mainland volunteers generally exhibited higher values of Hg accumulation, being approximately 50 % of the results above 1 μg g(-1). Hg concentrations increased in both adolescent groups according to the weekly rate of fish meals, however, not linearly in the highest fish consumption rates. In fact, considering the adolescents' group having over one fish meal per week, the Hg bioaccumulation pattern found in the respective scalp hair suggests the ability of the human body to induce a self-protection response, probably mitigating Hg levels in the blood when experiencing increasing Hg exposure due to fish uptake. Actual and potential mercury levels in human scalp of adolescents probably diverge as fish consumption increases, the effective Hg uptake being lower than the expected, reducing risk to human health.

  16. Analysis of the expression pattern of involucrin in human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A

    2012-10-01

    Involucrin is a structural component of the keratinocyte cornified envelope that is expressed early in the keratinocyte differentiation process. It is a component of the initial envelope scaffolding and considered as a marker for keratinocyte terminal differentiation. The expression pattern of involucrin in human scalp skin and hair follicle cycle stages is not fully explored. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of involucrin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes". A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 51-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR analysis. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10 and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen and telogen, respectively). Involucrin was prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The protein expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e. a very strong expression during early and mature anagen, intermediate to strong expression during catagen and prominent decline in the telogen phase. The expression value of involucrin in both anagen and catagen was statistically significantly higher than that of telogen hair follicles (p < 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that involucrin is differentially expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles and reports that involucrin expression pattern undergoes hair cycle-dependent changes. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  17. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatments are needed. ELEMENTAL MERCURY Inhaled elemental mercury poisoning may be difficult to treat. The person may ... metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury poisoning, treatment often begins with supportive care. The person ...

  18. Effects of IGF-binding protein 5 in dysregulating the shape of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Hachiya, Akira; Pickens, William L; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Kitahara, Takashi; Visscher, Marty O; Kitzmiller, William J; Bello, Alexander; Takema, Yoshinori; Kobinger, Gary P

    2011-02-01

    The hair follicle has a unique dynamic property to cyclically regenerate throughout life. Despite significant progress in hair structure and hair shape determination using animal models, the mechanisms controlling the architecture and the shape of the human hair remain largely unexplored. In this study, comparison of the genetic expression of several human genes, especially those involved in growth, development, and differentiation, between Caucasian curly hair and naturally straight hair was performed. Thereafter, analyses using human recombinant and lentiviral vector technologies were conducted to further dissect and elucidate a molecular mechanism that regulates hair growth and development, particularly in controlling the shape of the hair shaft. Overexpression of IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) in the human hair xenografts obtained from straight- and curly-haired individuals was found to result in the decreased expression of several extracellular matrix proteins and disassembly of adhesional junctions, resulting in twisted hair shafts as well as an unusual deposition of hair cuticle that may be derived from the disturbance of normal proliferation and differentiation. This study provides evidence that IGFBP-5 has an effect on human hair shape, and that lentiviral transduction regimen can be used for functional analysis of genes involved in human hair morphogenesis.

  19. Assessment of mercury exposure in human populations: A status report from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Andolfi, Nunzia; Barra, Marco; Madeddu, Anselmo; Tisano, Francesco; Ingallinella, Vincenzo; Castorina, Maria; Sprovieri, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigate mercury concentrations in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human hair (HgH) of 224 individuals from a coastal area (Eastern Sicily, SE Italy) strongly affected by Hg contamination from one of the largest chlor-alkali plants in Europe. The factors affecting the distribution of Hg and the extent of the exposure of individuals have been explored with a multidisciplinary approach. Multiple regression analyses, together with evidence of high levels of HgB (exceeding the HBMI recommended levels in 50% of cases) and HgH (exceeding the EPA reference dose in 70% of cases), primarily suggest that the consumption of local fish is the main source of Hg for humans. no. significant exposure to inorganic mercury was identified. Toxicokinetic calculations produced a provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level that, in most cases, exceeds international recommendations, particularly for residents in the studied area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Joëlle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  1. Analysis of human hair by Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Castro, A. S.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Piña-Ruiz, A. L.; Hernández-Rayas, A.; Bernal, J. J.

    2017-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy is an optical compound identification technique, which is widely used nowadays for different field applications. A crucial part of this technique is the focus given to the sample in the microscope because it depends on which part of the sample it will analyze. In this work, the effects of irradiating a natural hair samples, obtained from women aged 18 to 55, with a monochromatic light of the Raman spectrometer in two different focus is presented. Two different spectra were obtained with a peak in common. Depending on the information wanted, how the sample is focused plays a crucial role, either way the spectra is information-rich and may be used for biomedical applications.

  2. Human exposure to mercury in San Jorge river basin, Colombia (South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesus; Johnson, Boris; Arguello, Eduardo

    2002-04-22

    During May-September 1999 human hair samples were collected from the village of Caimito, a fishing community of the state of Sucre (Colombia), in the San Jorge River basin area, and analyzed for total mercury (t-Hg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg was measured in both male and female people aged 15-65 years, whose diet mainly consists of fish collected in nearby marshes. Average hair t-Hg concentration in people from Caimito was 4.91 +/- 0.55 microg/g (n = 94), similar to the value previously detected in fishermen living in the gold mining area, 50 km east. Males had similar t-Hg concentrations (4.31 +/- 0.42 microg/g; n = 56) to females (5.78 +/- 1.21 microg/g; n = 38) and there was no difference in t-Hg levels between groups of different age. Mercury content in hair was weakly but significantly associated (R = 0.20, P = 0.05) with fish consumption.

  3. Determination of opiates in human fingernail--comparison to hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping

    2014-09-15

    6-Monoacetylmorphine in keratinized matrices can be used to discriminate between heroin users and individuals exposed to other sources of morphine alkaloids. Frozen pulverization is effective in preventing 6-monoacetylmorphine hydrolysis. The main aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of five opiates in human fingernails using a frozen pulverization preparation method and to investigate the correlation between the concentration of opiates in nail and hair samples from subjects whose urine specimens were positive for morphine. Borate buffer (500 μL; pH 9.2) was added to 20mg of pulverized fingernail, followed by ultrasonication and liquid-liquid extraction. Analytes were analyzed on an Allure PFP propyl column by gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reactions monitoring mode. A total of 12 of 18 fingernail samples contained detectable 6-monoacetylmorphine (mean=0.43 ng/mg, range=0.10-1.37 ng/mg), morphine (mean=1.74 ng/mg, range=0.58-3.16 ng/mg) and codeine (range from hair samples obtained from the same subjects were positive at the revised Society of Hair Testing cutoff level of 0.2 ng/mg. The concentrations of 6-monoacetylmorphine, acetylcodeine and codeine in hair were significantly higher than those in nails. However, the concentration of MOR in nails was significantly higher than that in hair, except for one sample. All of the ratios of 6-MAM/MOR were below 0.57. It is proposed that nails may be an alternative to hair for documenting heroin abuse.

  4. Environmental and human exposure assessment monitoring of communities near an abandoned mercury mine in the Philippines: a toxic legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Nelia P C; Reyes, Jose Paciano; Francisco-Rivera, Ana Trinidad; Panganiban, Lynn Crisanta R; Dioquino, Carissa; Dando, Nerissa; Timbang, Rene; Akagi, Hirokatsu; Castillo, Ma Teresa; Quitoriano, Carmela; Afuang, Maredith; Matsuyama, Akito; Eguchi, Tomomi; Fuchigami, Youko

    2006-10-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose real or potential threats to human safety and health including environmental damage/s. Very few countries had government mine regulation and reclamation policies until the latter part of the century where legal, financial and technical procedures were required for existing mining operations. Major reasons for mine closure may be mainly due to poor economies of the commodity making mining unprofitable, technical difficulties and national security. If the mine is abandoned, more often than not it is the government that shoulders the burden of clean-up, monitoring and remediation. The topic of abandoned mines is complex because of the associated financial and legal liability implications. Abandoned mercury mines have been identified as one of the major concerns because of their significant long-term environmental problems. Primary mercury production is still ongoing in Spain, Kyrgzystan, China, Algeria, Russia and Slovakia while world production declined substantially in the late 1980s. In the Philippines, the mercury mine located southeast of Manila was in operation from 1955 to 1976, before ceasing operation because of the decline in world market price for the commodity. During this time, annual production of mercury was estimated to be about 140,000 kg of mercury yearly. Approximately 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining and roughly 1,000,000 t of these calcines were dumped into nearby Honda Bay to construct a jetty to facilitate mine operations where about 2000 people reside in the nearby three barangays. In October, 1994 the Department of Health received a request from the Provincial Health Office for technical assistance relative to the investigation of increasing complaints of unusual symptoms (e.g. miscarriages, tooth loss, muscle weakness, paralysis, anemia, tremors, etc.) among residents of three barangays. Initial health reports revealed significant

  5. Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products.

  6. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  7. Mercury hair levels and factors that influence exposure for residents of Huancavelica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1564 and 1810, nearly 17,000 metric tons of mercury (Hg) vapor were released to the environment during cinnabar refining in the small town of Huancavelica, Peru. The present study characterizes individual exposure to mercury using total and speciated Hg from residential s...

  8. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to form inorganic mercury compounds or "salts," which are usually white powders or ... Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds. The most common one, methylmercury, is produced mainly ...

  9. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury pollution in the Caqueta River, Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Carranza-Lopez, Liliana; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Ripoll-Arboleda, Adriana; Muñoz-Sosa, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant posing severe risks to human health worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair and fish in the Caqueta River, at the Colombian Amazon, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured using a direct mercury analyzer. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the Caqueta River sample (n = 200) was 17.29 ± 0.61 μg/g (1.2 to 47.0 μg/g). Ninety-four percent of the individuals had hair T-Hg concentrations greater than the WHO threshold level (5 μg/g), and 79 % displayed levels higher than 10 μg/g. Average Hg concentrations in fish varied between 0.10-0.15 μg/g and 0.10-1.60 μg/g, for noncarnivorous and carnivorous species, respectively. Based on the maximum allowable fish consumption rate for adults, most carnivorous species should be avoided in the diet, as their target hazard quotient ranged from 2.96 up to 31.05, representing a risk for Hg-related health problems. In the light of existing evidence for elevated Hg levels in the indigenous population of the Colombian Amazon, carnivorous fish should be restricted as part of the diet, and breastfeeding should be reduced to protect children health. Most importantly, gold mining activities directly on rivers demand immediate attention from the national government to avoid extensive damage on the environment and human health.

  10. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total

  11. Ultrastructure of Amelanotic Melanocytes from Human Hair Follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruzhi Zhang; Wenyuan Zhu; Mingyu Xia; Daguang Wang; Huijun Ma

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultra structure of amelanotic melanocytes (AMMC). Methods: The hair follicles obtained from normal human scalp by 0.50% collagenase type V treatment were washed with 0.1mol/L phosphate buffer salt (PBS). Hair-follicle cell suspensions were prepared by trypsin treatment and cultured in melanocyte medium. Remaining keratinocytes were removed by differential trypsinization. 100μg/ml geneticin was used to eliminate the contaminating fibroblasts. At third passage, the cells were trypsinized, and then washed in phosphate-buffered saline and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Results: Under transmission electron microscope, the cultured cells showed round or oval shape, with single large nuclear and the karyotheca were double deck. There were obvious euchromosome within the nucleus, and sparse heterochromosome. There were various organelles in the cytoplasm, including plentiful melanosomes with nearly similar size, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticule (RER) and ribosome. The electron density granules in most of the melanosomes disposed along concentric circularities. Golgi apparatus in the cells was inconspicuous. Conclusion: The ultra structure of AMMC from human hair follicles is different from that of epidermal melanocytes, and these characteristics determine the functional immature of AMMC.

  12. Distributions of sulphur and other elements in human hair follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollerhead, R.W.; Legge, G.J.F.; Jones, L.N.

    1989-04-01

    Distributions of sulphur and other elements have been measured in several different specimens of human hair follicles. Whole specimens, longitudinal bisections, and 10 /mu/m thick longitudinal sections have been analyzed by PIXE using the Melbourne scanning proton microprobe. Elemental maps consistently showed that sulphur contents of the presumptive hair shaft (PHS) were uniformly low from 0 to 400 /mu/m (bulb end), increased continuously from about 400 to 800 /mu/m, and reached a plateau. Sulphur levels were uniformly low in the inner rooth sheath. These observations are consistent with previous protein analysis of PHS sections, indicating sequential synthesis of the major classes of keratin proteins. Maps of other elements indicated that Si, Ca, and Fe tended to be concentrated randomly, whereas, P, Cl, K, and Zn were more uniformly distributed. Average relative concentrations of Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were estimated from total X-ray spectra. (orig.).

  13. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  14. "Miniguts" from plucked human hair meet Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwieler, M; Renz, S; Liebau, S; Lin, Q; Lechel, A; Klaus, J; Perkhofer, L; Zenke, M; Seufferlein, T; Illing, A; Müller, M; Kleger, A

    2016-08-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent a powerful tool to study human embryonic development and disease but also open up novel strategies for cell replacement therapies. Their capacity to give rise to every cell type of the human body, meanwhile, enables researchers to generate high yields of mesodermal, ectodermal, but also endodermal-derived tissues such as hepatic, pancreatic, or intestinal cells. Another progress in the field came with the advent of 3-dimensional culture conditions, so-called organoids, which facilitate maturation of stem cells and in turn more faithfully recapitulate human tissue architecture. While several studies reported the derivation of organoid cultures from adult intestinal tissue, the derivation of intestinal organoids derived from plucked human hair of Crohn's disease patients has not been reported. The current research project reports such successful generation and characterization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from hair sheet keratinocyte cultures of a patient with Crohn's disease. Stepwise differentiation along the intestinal lineage showed no differences in intermediate stages such as definitive endoderm formation. We also directed the patterned primitive gut tube toward intestinal organoids resembling the cellular architecture of human "miniguts". As expected from current pathophysiological knowledge on Crohn's disease, there were no obvious morphological differences in the "miniguts" derived from healthy control and diseased patient-induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our platform will enable for detailed and complementary phenotyping of the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease in a novel disease-in-a-dish format.

  15. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new...... method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese...... whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual...

  16. Quantitative Morphological and Biochemical Studies on Human Downy Hairs using 3-D Quantitative Phase Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, SangYun; Lee, Yuhyun; Park, Sungjin; Shin, Heejae; Yang, Jongwon; Ko, Kwanhong; Park, HyunJoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the morphological and biochemical findings on human downy arm hairs using 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques. 3-D refractive index tomograms and high-resolution 2-D synthetic aperture images of individual downy arm hairs were measured using a Mach-Zehnder laser interferometric microscopy equipped with a two-axis galvanometer mirror. From the measured quantitative images, the biochemical and morphological parameters of downy hairs were non-invasively quantified including the mean refractive index, volume, cylinder, and effective radius of individual hairs. In addition, the effects of hydrogen peroxide on individual downy hairs were investigated.

  17. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Manabu; Veraitch, Ophelia

    2013-05-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components. Accordingly, the enhancement of this crosstalk represents a promising approach to achieve successful bioengineering of human hair follicles. The present article summarizes the techniques, both currently available and potentially feasible, to promote epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) necessary for human hair follicle regeneration. The strategies include the preparation of epithelial components with high receptivity to trichogenic dermal signals and/or mesenchymal cell populations with potent hair inductive capacity. In this regard, bulge epithelial stem cells, keratinocytes predisposed to hair follicle fate or keratinocyte precursor cells with plasticity may provide favorable epithelial cell populations. Dermal papilla cells sustaining intrinsic hair inductive capacity, putative dermal papilla precursor cells in the dermal sheath/neonatal dermis or trichogenic dermal cells derived from undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates as hair inductive dermal cells. The most established protocol for in vivo hair follicle reconstitution is co-grafting of epithelial and mesenchymal components into immunodeficient mice. In theory, combination of individually optimized cellular components of respective lineages should elicit most intensive EMIs to form hair follicles. Still, EMIs can be further ameliorated by the modulation of non-cell autonomous conditions, including cell compartmentalization to replicate the positional relationship in vivo and humanization of host environment by preparing human stromal bed. These approaches may not always synergistically intensify EMIs, however, step-by-step investigation probing optimal combinations should maximally enhance EMIs to achieve successful human hair follicle bioengineering.

  18. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on ha

  20. Hair root characteristics of the human scalp hair in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.R. Peereboom-Wynia

    1982-01-01

    textabstractMorphological data on hair follicles have been available for over a hundred years, but only in recent years has a substantial advance been made in our knowledge of types and distribution of hair, its structure, metabolism, biochemistry and clinical patterns, and hormonal influences on

  1. In vitro characterization of cocaine binding sites in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R E; Tsai, W J; Tsao, L I; Su, T P; Cone, E J

    1997-09-01

    In vitro studies were performed to characterize [3H]cocaine binding to dark and light ethnic hair types. In vitro binding to hair was selective, was reversible and increased linearly with increasing hair concentration. Scatchard analyses revealed high-affinity (6-112 nM) and low-affinity (906-4433 nM) binding in hair. Competition studies demonstrated that the potencies of 3beta-(4-bromophenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl ester, and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,5-dihydro-3H-imidazol[2,1-alpha]isoindole-5-ol and 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane were similar to or less than that of (-)-cocaine. The potency of (-)-cocaine was 10-fold greater than that of (+)-cocaine at inhibiting radioligand specific binding to hair. Multivariate analysis indicated that significantly greater nonspecific and specific radioligand binding occurred in dark hair than in light hair. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated a significant ethnicity x sex effect on specific and nonspecific binding to hair. Greater radioligand binding occurred in male Africoid hair than in female Africoid hair and in all Caucasoid hair types. Melanin was considered the most likely binding site for cocaine in hair. Typically, the concentration of melanin is much greater in dark than in light hair. Scatchard analysis indicated that dark hair had a 5- to 43-fold greater binding capacity than light hair. Differences in radioligand binding between hair types appeared to be due to differences in the density of binding sites formed by melanin in hair.

  2. AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Chen, Nianhuan

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of cellular structure and physical and mechanical properties of hair are essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Although the morphology of the cellular structure of human hair has been traditionally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, these techniques provide limited capability to in situ study of the physical and mechanical properties of human hair in various environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) overcomes these problems and can be used for characterization in ambient conditions without requiring specific sample preparations and surface treatment. In this study, film thickness, adhesive forces and effective Young's modulus of various hair surfaces were measured at different environments (humidity and temperature) using force calibration plot technique with an AFM. Torsional resonance mode phase contrast images were also taken in order to characterize the morphology and cellular structure changes of human hair at different humidity. The correlation between the nanomechanical properties and the cellular structure of hair is discussed.

  3. Peptide structure: Its effect on penetration into human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla J S M; Vasconcelos, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the peptide structure on its penetration inside hair was studied, together with the effect of hair bleaching (oxidation). For that reason, the outcome of positioning a charged sequence (KAKAK) either at the N or C terminal on hair penetration has been studied for peptides with 17 residues each. It was observed that the penetration of these peptides into hair was driven by electrostatic interactions, where the position of the charged group at the peptide structure was of major importance. The penetration was only achieved for damaged hair due to its higher negative charge at the membrane surface. It was also observed that the peptides were able to restore the original tensile strength of bleached hair. Consequently, the knowledge of hair surface properties is of extreme importance when designing peptides directed for hair treatment.

  4. Investigation of human hair fibers using lateral force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, R L; Kelty, S P

    2001-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy (LFM) were used to investigate the morphologic and surface changes associated with various surface modifications to human hair. These included extraction with a series of solvents, bleaching, and treatment with a cationic copolymer. The study assessed the ability of these techniques to distinguish the changes in surface properties, including morphology and friction coefficient, as manifested in changes brought about by the indicated surface modifications. While topographic morphology can easily be investigated with contact AFM. LFM offers an additional tool for probing the surface distribution of oils and waxes. The removal of surface lipids from the fiber surface was accomplished using soxhlet extraction with t-butanol and n-hexane, while the free internal lipids (within the fiber structure) were removed by extraction with a mixture of chloroform and methanol (70:30, v/v). In addition, the surface of hair was modified with the cationic polymer, co(vinyl pyrrolidone-methacrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride [PVP/MAPTAC]), and its distribution on the surface was monitored. Ambient AFM and LFM studies of surface modified and native fibers clearly indicate that when investigated as a function of tip loading force, the different modifications result in changes of the friction coefficient, which increase in this order: native, bleached, solvent extracted, and polymer-treated hair. Friction images show surface variations that are interpreted as areas of varying lipid film coverage. In addition, topographic images of the fibers show the presence of small pores, which become increasingly prevalent upon solvent extraction.

  5. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  6. Mercury contamination in fish from gold mining areas in Indonesia and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica C; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula C; Villas-Bôas, Roberto C; Siegel, Shefa; Veiga, Marcello M; Beinhoff, Christian

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates the effects on fish and assesses human health hazards from mercury released in two gold mining areas in Indonesia: Tatelu (North Sulawesi Province) and Galangan (Katingan District, Central Kalimatan Province). In Tatelu, 154 fish specimens of 10 freshwater species were collected, as well as five marine species from the fish market. The mean concentration of total mercury in muscles of freshwater fish from this area was 0.58+/-0.44 microg/g, with more than 45% of fish having Hg levels above the WHO guideline for human consumption of 0.5 microg/g. In Galangan, where 263 fish specimens of 25 species were collected, the total mercury in muscles averaged 0.25+/-0.69 microg/g. Excluding data from flooded open pits in sub-area P4, mean Hg levels in fish from Galangan were 2 to 4 times lower than 0.5 microg/g, while fewer than 10% of fish from Galangan exceeded WHO guidelines. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) was applied to both areas to determine the threat of MeHg exposure for communities in both areas. The HQ is a risk assessment indicator which defines the ratio of exposure level to a single substance in relation to a reference dose. Samples from Tatelu (excluding marine species) had an HQ above one, while those from Galangan resulted in values of 2.4 for the whole area and 9.9 for sub-area P4, pointing to potentially harmful fish consumption for the local population. By using the single-compartment model to estimate mercury levels in blood and hair from daily intake dose, sub-area P4 showed the highest levels, higher than the upper limit guideline for pregnant women, but still lower than threshold levels associated with observed clinical effects.

  7. Determination of arsenic and mercury level in scalp hair from a selected population in Penang, Malaysia using XRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldroobi, Khalid Saleh Ali; Shukri, A.; Bauk, Sabar; Munem, Eid Mahmoud Abdel; Abuarra, Ali. M. A.

    2013-10-01

    As with many cities all over the world with active industrial developments, the city of Penang in Malaysia has also the potential of being exposed to industrial pollution. Such exposure would certainly have a detrimental impact on the environment and the people. The determination of trace elemental levels in hair which is well known as a method for environmental exposure monitoring, evaluation of heavy metal poisoning, assessment of nutrient levels and disease diagnoses. In this study, it is selected as the method to determine the possible exposure to pollutants in the form of unwanted trace elements. The natural levels of trace elements in hair are hence monitored first as reference values for the assessment of the possible human contamination levels. In this work the concentrations of As and Hg in the human scalp hair of 100 residents of Penang were determined using XRF. The results of this study are compared with the results obtained in other cities where such measurements have also been carried out.

  8. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs.

  9. AFM friction and adhesion mapping of the substructures of human hair cuticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James R., E-mail: james.smith@port.ac.uk [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Tsibouklis, John; Nevell, Thomas G. [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Breakspear, Steven [School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, St Michael' s Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT (United Kingdom); Global R and D–Hair Beauty Laboratory, Kao Corporation, 2-1-3, Bunka Sumida-ku, Tokyo, 131-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Using atomic force microscopy, values of the microscale friction coefficient, the tip (silicon nitride) - surface adhesion force and the corresponding adhesion energy, for the substructures that constitute the surface of human hair (European brown hair) have been determined from Amonton plots. The values, mapped for comparison with surface topography, corresponded qualitatively with the substructures’ plane surface characteristics. Localised maps and values of the frictional coefficient, extracted avoiding scale edge effects, are likely to inform the formulation of hair-care products and treatments.

  10. Nanotribological and nanomechanical characterization of human hair using a nanoscratch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Human hair ({approx}50-100 {mu}m in diameter) is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures, and is of great interest for both cosmetic science and materials science. Characterization of nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair including the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance is essential to develop better shampoo and conditioner products and advance biological and cosmetic science. In this paper, the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance of Caucasian and Asian hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and conditioner-treated conditions are measured using a nanoscratch technique with a Nano Indenter II system. The scratch tests were performed on both the single cuticle cell and multiple cuticle cells of each hair sample, and the scratch wear tracks were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after the scratch tests. The effect of soaking on the coefficient of friction, scratch resistance, hardness and Young's modulus of hair surface were also studied by performing experiments on hair samples which had been soaked in de-ionized water for 5 min. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair as a function of hair structure (hair of different ethnicity), damage, treatment and soaking are discussed.

  11. Ageing effects on the diameter, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Zhang, S G; Zhang, J K; Chen, S; Zhu, H; Ge, S R

    2016-04-01

    The typical changes to hair associated with ageing are greying, thinning, dryness and brittleness. Research on the influence of ageing on hair properties will enable a detailed understanding of the natural ageing process. The studies were carried out using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), a TriboIndenter and an artificial finger. Three characteristic features of tactile perception that could reflect the perceptual dimensions of the fineness, roughness and slipperiness of hair were extracted. The influences of ageing on the diameter, surface topography, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of hair were determined. In the three age group hair samples, the children's group hair samples have the smallest diameter. The hair cuticles in the children and young adult groups were relatively complete and less damaged than in the elderly group. The hardness and elastic modulus of the young adult group's hair samples were higher than those in the elderly and children's groups. For all groups, loss modulus E" was smaller than storage modulus E'. Vertical deviations (R) and coefficient of friction (μ) increased, and spectral centroid (SC) decreased, with the increase in age. Ageing decreased the tactile perception of hair. Ageing influences the diameter, surface topography, hardness, loss modulus, storage modulus and tactile perception of human hair. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers.

  13. Hair and Bone as Predictors of Tissular Mercury Concentration in the Western Alaska Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainowski, BH; Duffy, LK; McIntyre, J; Jones, P

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated if total mercury (THg) concentrations of keratin-based and bone-based tissues can predict THg concentrations in skeletal muscle, renal medulla, renal cortex, and liver. The THg concentration in matched tissues of 65 red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, from western Alaska was determined. Hair THg concentration had a significant positive correlation with liver, renal medulla, renal cortex, and muscle. The THg concentration for males and females is moderately predictive of THg concentration in the renal cortex and liver for these foxes based on R2 values (R2 = 0.61 and 0.63, respectively). Bone is weakly predictive of THg concentration in muscle (R2 = 0.36), but not a reliable tissue to predict THg concentration in liver (R2 = 0.28), renal cortex (R2 = 0.33), or renal medulla (R2 = 0.29). These results confirm the potential use of trapped animals, specifically foxes, as useful Arctic sentinel species to inform researchers about patterns in THg levels over time as industrialization of the Arctic continues. PMID:25777958

  14. Noninvasive method for assessing the human circadian clock using hair follicle cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makoto Akashi; Haruhiko Soma; Takuro Yamamoto; Asuka Tsugitomi; Shiko Yamashita; Takuya Yamamoto; Eisuke Nishida; Akio Yasuda; James K. Liao; Koichi Node; Joseph S. Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    .... This limitation has greatly hampered our understanding of human circadian rhythm. Here we report a convenient, reliable, and less invasive method for detecting human clock gene expression using biopsy samples of hair follicle cells from the head or chin...

  15. Determination of mercury in hair by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a rotating gold disk electrode after microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Gaston A; Marinho, Epitácio P

    2005-03-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of mercury in hair on a rotating gold disk electrode using subtractive anodic stripping voltammetry without removal of oxygen is reported. Voltammetric and microwave parameters were optimized to obtain the best analytical results. Parameters such as supporting electrolyte concentration, influence of chloride in the Hg peak, deposition potential, scan rate, accumulation time, rotation rate, square-wave amplitude, and electrode conditioning were studied. Pressurized microwave-assisted digestion of hair, suitable for the accurate voltammetric determination of Hg, was evaluated using six acid mixtures and several time-power programs. Under the optimized conditions, no interference by copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, manganese, iron, or zinc was found at concentrations corresponding to their occurrence in normal hair. A calibration plot between 6,67 and 46,69 microg/L was linear, with r(2) better than 0.999. The detection limit for a deposition time of 60 s at 254 g was calculated as 1.92 nM (3omega). Validation of the method was demonstrated with the use of a certified reference sample of hair. Eight real samples of hair (four unexposed children and four exposed persons) were also analyzed.

  16. The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P E; Thompson, J R

    1997-02-01

    Change in size of the hair shaft with distance form the scalp has been investigated, using a rotatory profile method of diameter measurement, in terminal human scalp hair of long-haired young Caucasian women. As the whole length of hairs having completed anagen are rarely found intact, two types of hair were investigated: those including segments produced at the onset of anagen ('anagen hairs'), and those including segments produced at the end of anagen ('telogen hairs'). In addition, a method of determining the cause of any size variation has been described and employed. Changes were found in the major axis of the hair cross-section, cross-sectional area and ellipticity with distance from the scalp, while the minor cross-sectional axis remained constant. It was established that these changes were the result of intrafollicular rather than extrafollicular mechanisms. Finally, a composite picture of the cross-sectional size and shape of the 'average' whole anagen hair of the study has been constructed. From the distal tip towards the scalp for approximately 6-8 cm, there was an abrupt increase in size, representing a starting-up phase of early anagen. Following this, the hair was at its greatest cross-sectional size and ellipticity which then progressively decreased through anagen (20% decrease for cross-sectional area and 13% for ellipticity). In contrast, the minor axis of the hair cross-section, remained constant throughout anagen. The hair was not therefore a uniformly sized cylinder. It was approximately spear-shaped, being broadened out in one plane distally where it was more elliptical. Subsequently as anagen progressed the hair shaft became smaller and more circular.

  17. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  18. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size=30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r(2)=0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method.

  19. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analysis of structural changes in bleached keratin fibers (black and white human hair) using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the influence of bleaching treatments on keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of bleached human hair (black and white human hair) was directly analyzed without isolating the cuticle and cortex, using Raman spectroscopy. The S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of virgin white human hair decreased, while the S-O band intensity at 1040 cm(-1), assigned to cysteic acid, increased by performing the bleaching treatment. Especially, the S-O band intensity of the cuticle region increased remarkably compared with that of the cortex region. Also, the amide III (unordered) band intensity in the cortex region increased, indicating that some of the proteins existing throughout the cortex region changed to the random coil form. Moreover, it has been found that the S-S band intensity existing from the cuticle region to the center of the cortex region of the virgin black human hair decreased remarkably, while the S-O band intensity increased significantly compared with that of the virgin white human hair by performing the bleaching treatment. From these experiments, we concluded that the melanin granules including metal ions act as a decomposition accelerator for the oxidizing agent, thereby leading to a higher level of disulfide (-SS-) group cleavage in the black human hair compared with that of the white human hair. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reduction-induced surface modification of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Yash K; Ruetsch, Sigrid B

    2010-01-01

    A microfluorometric method has been developed to characterize lipid removal or "delipidation" of the human hair cuticula during light exposure and chemical grooming processes such as oxidation (bleaching) and reduction. In the case of photochemical and chemical oxidation, lipid removal ("delipidation" of the F-layer or lipid-layer) from the outer beta-layer of the exposed scale faces and generation of cysteic acid groups occurs. This "delipidation," which ultimately results in "acidification" of the scale faces, leading to a change in surface chemistry from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, can be detected and quantified by microfluorometry by tagging, e.g., with the cationic fluorochrome Rhodamine B. In the case of reduction, similar tagging of the acid sites on the scale faces is possible, but this time, Rhodamine B reacts with the mixed disulfide containing a carboxyl group that will be ionized above a pH of about 4. In addition to this, we have shown by microfluorometric scanning that the negative charges generated in the cuticle surface can be used to bind low-molecular-weight quaternary conditioners. This process can be considered as "relipidation" or "refatting" of the scale faces. We have shown in earlier studies (1) that this entire process of oxidation-induced "delipidation" and subsequent "relipidation" of the acidic scale faces with a cationic conditioning molecule can also be reliably quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, single-fiber wettability scanning using the Wilhelmy technique, which is highly sensitive to any changes in surface chemistry, is well-suited to detect and characterize treatment-induced changes in the chemical nature of the hair surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

  2. New aspects of the structure of human hair on the basis of optical microscopic observations of disassembled hair parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Asao; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Infant' and adult' scalp hair fibers were disassembled to various cellular components and blocks by chemical and enzymatic treatments, followed by random scission with rapidly rotating cutters. The hair fibers were also fractured by the use of a vise. The optical microscopic inspection of these specimens led to the discovery of many previously unknown structures in the hair shaft. In particular, a cuticular cell (Cu) was found to take a trowel-like shape consisting of a part with a blade-like shape (CuB) and a part with a handle-like shape (CuH), where CuB overlapped one another and fused partially to build the honeycomb-like structure on a large cuticular thin plate (CuP). Whereas CuH was closely similar to the cortical cell in dimensions and richness of macrofibrils (Mf). It was considered that human hair is stabilized structurally and physicochemically by the presence of the honeycomb-like structure, the CuP and the Mf.

  3. Human Hair “Waste” and Its Utilization: Gaps and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human hair is considered a waste material in most parts of the world and its accumulation in waste streams causes many environmental problems; however, it has many known uses. Preventing waste of such a material requires both addressing the problems in the current usage and developing its utilization systems at locations where they are missing. With focus on developing systematic utilization of human hair waste, this paper first reviews the possible uses of human hair gathered from large scale trades, local/traditional knowledge, upcoming innovations, and scientific research; along with the socioeconomic systems that have evolved around the known uses. Concerns and gaps in these systems are identified and possible directions to address these gaps are discussed. For expanding hair utilization to new contexts, important considerations such as knowledge, skill, and technology requirements and potential markets are discussed. Finally, a policy framework for socially and environmentally healthy utilization of human hair is outlined. This study shows that human hair is a highly versatile material with significant potential in several critical areas such as agriculture, medical applications, construction materials, and pollution control. Moreover, these uses are diverse enough for entrepreneurs ranging from unskilled to highly technical individuals and for the wide variety of human hair waste available in different locations.

  4. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  5. Topographical and Tribological Characteristics of Asian Human Hair Cuticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ling Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topography and frictional force of Asian black male and female hair cuticles at different locations are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM and friction force microscopy (FFM. The frictional values, mapped for comparison with surface morphology, corresponded qualitatively with the structures’ plane surface characteristics. The results indicate that the hair surface was damaged and modified at different temperatures and heating times. The height of the female hair at a blowing temperature of 60°C after a duration of 2 min between the cuticle edge and cuticle surface was approximately 440–556 nm. The adhesion phenomenon occurs on the hair surface and interface. The cuticles do not vary after the heating; however, the hair damage sustained increases with serious deterioration.

  6. Fish consumption (hair mercury) and nutritional status of Amazonian Amer-Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C; Ferrari, Iris; De Souza, Jurandir R

    2005-01-01

    Fish are abundant and important dietary items for the Amer-Indians, and total hair-Hg (HHg) concentration is a reliable marker of fish consumption. We studied the impact of fish consumption (HHg) on the nutritional status of Indian children of Eastern Amazonia. Weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) was measured, and HHg was determined in 203 children younger than 10 years of age in three villages. There was significantly higher fish consumption in Kayabi children (16.55 microg Hg/g; SD, 11.44) than in children of the Munduruku villages of Missão-Cururu (4.76 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.09) and Kaburua (2.87 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.13). Anthropometric indices showed WHZ means of -0.27, -0.22, and 0.40, respectively, for Kayabi, Missão-Cururu and Kaburua villages. Despite a different pattern of fish-protein consumption between tribes, there was no significant correlation between WHZ and HHg concentrations (r2 = 0.0079; P < 0.2021). Dietary differences among Amazonian tribes can be traced and used in measuring health outcomes. Higher fish consumption, although important for Kayabis, was compensated by other protein sources by the Kaburua villagers.

  7. Chemical and photochemical degradation of human hair: a free-volume microprobe study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, M N; Ranganathaiah, C

    2010-12-02

    The microstructural changes in human hair due to chemical and photochemical oxidative processes have been monitored in terms of free volume employing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The results show that upon UV exposure the photosensitive amino acid residues present in the amorphous domains of virgin/bleached hair cross-link under ambient conditions. Further, the bleached hair readily undergoes photodamage in comparison with the virgin hair implying the diminished photoprotective action of the melanin granules within it. Swelling of hair fiber was evident in the early stages of UV exposure (bleaching, and humidification subsequent to irradiation. Swelling and cross-linking were the two main processes observed following UV exposure, which oppositely affect the free volume holes size. Supplementary techniques such as DSC and XRD were used to support/extend the interpretation of the PALS results. The UV irradiation resulted in reduction of the average crystallite size in hair, which is attributed to the possible fragmentation of protein domains. The present work is the first positron lifetime measurement on human hair that demonstrates the ability of PALS to provide information on hair damage at molecular level, a vital input for cosmetic industry and applicable to biopolymers research as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of photodamage on the outermost cuticle layer of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Rezende, C A

    2015-12-01

    The surface of the hair is the region most exposed to solar radiation and to the environment in general. Many of the well-known damaging effects of sun exposure on hair must start or even be restricted to the most external cuticle layers. As such, this work investigates morphological, ultrastructural and chemical changes in the outermost cuticle layer of dark brown hair, using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that after 230 h of irradiation with a mercury lamp, small bumps with globular shape (heights lying in the 1-5 nm range) appeared on the cuticle surface and their size increased with increasing irradiation times. In addition, the enlargement of pre-existing holes was also observed (holes increase around 350% in depth) and the height of the steps formed between the edges of two cuticle scales increased around 65%, as a result of 500 h of irradiation. The damages in hair strands were accurately identified by analyzing exactly the same surface region before and after irradiation by AFM images. Finally, the results were discussed in terms of the chemical differences between the non-irradiated and the irradiated hair, for instance, the increased level of cystine oxidation as a consequence of photodegradation.

  9. Avaliação da contaminação mercurial mediante análise do teor de Hg total em amostras de cabelo em comunidades ribeirinhas do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil Total mercury in hair samples of inhabitants of Tapajós river, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a contaminação mercurial em comunidades de pescadores em quatro localidades nas margens do rio Tapajós: Rainha, Barreiras, São Luís do Tapajós e Paraná-Mirim. Análises toxocológicas das amostras de cabelo foram realizadas por espectofotometria de absorção atômica. Os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de cabelo variaram entre 2,9µg/g e 71,5µg/g. Os valores mais baixos foram encontrados na comunidade de Paraná-Mirim. Os mais elevados, em São Luís do Tapajós e Barreiras, cerca de seis a sete vezes superiores ao valor estabelecido. As diferenças entre as concentrações médias de mercúrio total nas amostras, coletadas em populações ribeirinhas, a montante e a jusante do rio Tapajós em Itaituba, não apresentaram significância estatística (p > 0,05. Conclui-se que a exposição humana ao mercúrio por ingestão de peixes contaminados constitui risco potencial para o aparecimento de sintomas e sinais da doença de Minamata, o que recomenda a manutenção de um programa de vigilância epidemiológica.This study evaluates human exposure to methylmercury in fishermen and their families in four villages on the Tapajós river: Rainha, Barreiras, São Luís do Tapajós and Paraná-Mirim. Hair analyses were performed with atomic absorption spectophotometry. Total hair mercury levels varied between 2.9mg/g and 71.5mg/g. Paraná-Mirim showed the lowest level. The highest level was found in São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras. The hair mercury was six to seven times higher than the established safe limit of 10mg/g. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean level of total mercury taken from the inhabitants living downstream and upstream in Itaituba village (p > 0.05. These results confirm that human exposure to methylmercury is occurring on the Tapajós river and suggest that continued fish ingestion in that region is a potential risk factor for the appearance of symptoms and signs of

  10. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-02-16

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples.

  11. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers with aging using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio; Fujiwara, Nobuki; Hori, Teruo

    To investigate the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers due to aging, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of virgin black human hair (sections of new growth hair: 2 mm from the scalp) from a group of eight Japanese females in their twenties and another group of eight Japanese females in their fifties were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. For the first time, we have succeeded in recording the Raman spectra of virgin black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin granule content. The key points of this method are to cross-section hair samples to a thickness of 1.50-microm, to select points at various depths of the cortex with the fewest possible melanin granules, and to optimize laser power, cross slit width as well as total acquisition time. The reproducibility of the Raman bands, namely the alpha-helix (alpha) content, the beta-sheet and/or random coil (beta/R) content, the disulfide (--SS--) content, and random coil content of two adjoining cross-sections of a single hair keratin fiber was clearly good. The --SS-- content of virgin black human hair from the Japanese females in their fifties for the cortex region decreased compared with that of the Japanese females in their twenties. On the other hand, the beta/R and alpha contents of the cortex region did not change.

  12. Induction of hair follicle regeneration in rat ear by mi-croencapsulated human hair dermal papilla cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang-min; LI Yu; JI Ying-chang; HUANG Keng; CAI Xiang-na; LI Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To induce hair follicle regeneration in rat ear by microencapsulated dermal papillae (DP) cells.Methods: Intact dermal papillae were obtained from human scalp follicles which were digested with collagenase I. The human hair DP cells were encapsulated with alginate-polylysine-alginate (APA) by a high-voltage electric field droplet generator. The diameters of the DP cell microcapsules were optimized by regulating the voltage, the distance be-tween the needle head and the solution surface and the injection speed. Then DP cell microencapsulations were xenotransplanted into ears of 20 SD rats with a novel method. One rat was killed every week at the postoperative 2-12 weeks and the implantation sites were biopsied for histo-logical observation.Results: The DP cell microencapsulations were found in a group of round, smooth and transparent microcapsules under a phase-contrast microscope. The optimal combina-tion of parameters to obtain 0.4 mm DP cell microcapsules was voltage 7.0 kV, injection speed 55 mm/h, and distance 10mm. After 4-12 weeks, 18 of 20 DP cell microcapsule implan-tations had produced high-density hair. Histological obser-vation indicated that both large follicles and sebaceous gland structures were formed in the rat ear within 3-12 weeks.Conclusions: These findings show that the DP cell microencapsulation maintain the capacity for initiating the follicle regeneration and can be considered as a substitute for fresh isolated dermal papillae.

  13. Ultrastructural localization of hair keratins, high sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase in the human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Hardening of the human hair shaft during cornification results from the bonding of keratins and keratin-associated proteins. In situ hybridization and light immunocytochemical studies have shown the general distribution of different keratins and some associated proteins but not determined their ultrastructural localization. I report here the localization of hair keratins, two high-sulfur keratin-associated proteins and sulfhydryl oxidase has been studied under the transmission electron microscope in the cornification zone of the human hair. The ultrastructural study on keratin distribution in general confirms previous light microscopic studies. Sulfur-rich KAP1 is mainly cortical but the labeling disappears in fully cornified cortical cells while a diffuse labeling is also present in differentiating cuticle cells. Sulfur-rich K26 immunolocalization is only detected in the exocuticle and endocuticle. Sparse labeling for sulfhydryl oxidase occurs in differentiating cortical cells but is weak and uneven in cuticle cells and absent in medulla and inner root sheath. Labeling disappears in the upper fully cornified cortex and cuticle. The observations indicate that sulfhydryl oxidase and keratin associated proteins are initially produced in the cytoplasm among keratin bundles accumulating in cortical and cuticle cells but these proteins undergo changes during the following cornification that alter the epitopes tagged by the antibodies.

  14. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, W.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.; Nutbrown, M.

    1997-07-01

    Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ν(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm -1. Raman spectra of hair root ends have also been investigated with a diminution in cysteine content being observed. Application of the technique to the biomedical investigation of healthy and diseased hair is proposed.

  15. A detailed study of thermal decomposition, amalgamation/ atomic absorption spectrophotometry methodology for the quantitative analysis of mercury in fish and hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven J M; Scanlan, Larry P; Chaudhuri, Sanwat N

    2006-11-01

    The analytical method for determining the concentration of mercury in fish by thermal decomposition, amalgamation/ atomic absorption spectrophotometry was thoroughly studied. Specific issues addressed were accurate modeling of instrumental response, the use of quartz and nickel boats, carryover effects, software limitations, and troubleshooting. The DMA-80 Direct Mercury Analyzer instrument was calibrated using a total of 22 points, and the resultant curves statistically analyzed. At minimum, second-order polynomials were required to adequately model the data. TORT-2 standard reference material was analyzed in both quartz and nickel boats and found to give equivalent performance in both types of vessels and well within the 95% confidence interval. DOLT-3 standard reference material also yielded values well within the 95% confidence interval, but the DORM-2 standard reference material did not. Carryover effects were found to be minimal with a new catalyst tube but increased with catalyst age. Blanks should be run after the analysis of high mercury content samples; however, when the catalyst has aged, two blanks are required to reduce apparent mercury signals to nominal blank values. Comparable results between thermal decomposition, amalgamation/atomic absorption spectrophotometry and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry were demonstrated. The feasibility of using this instrument to analyze hair was also explored and found to be suitable. Software problems and limitations have been noted when attempting to implement a high-throughput methodology. Instrumental drift was found to be minimal when operated over long periods. Blank values can provide important diagnostic indicators.

  16. Developmental regulation of planar cell polarity and hair-bundle morphogenesis in auditory hair cells: lessons from human and mouse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaowei; Sipe, Conor W

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common and costly sensory defect in humans and genetic causes underlie a significant proportion of affected individuals. In mammals, sound is detected by hair cells (HCs) housed in the cochlea of the inner ear, whose function depends on a highly specialized mechanotransduction organelle, the hair bundle. Understanding the factors that regulate the development and functional maturation of the hair bundle is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of human deafness. Genetic analysis of deafness genes in animal models, together with complementary forward genetic screens and conditional knock-out mutations in essential genes, have provided great insights into the molecular machinery underpinning hair-bundle development and function. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of hair-bundle morphogenesis, with an emphasis on the molecular pathways governing hair-bundle polarity and orientation. We next discuss the proteins and structural elements important for hair-cell mechanotransduction as well as hair-bundle cohesion and maintenance. In addition, developmental signals thought to regulate tonotopic features of HCs are introduced. Finally, novel approaches that complement classic genetics for studying the molecular etiology of human deafness are presented. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:85-101. doi: 10.1002/wdev.202 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N. Laatsch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3, accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals.

  18. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies.

  19. Human systemic exposure to [14C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Wehmeyer, K.R.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Vaes, W.H.J.; Dufour, E.K.; Fautz, R.; Steiling, W.; Bramante, M.; Toutain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [14C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [14C] was measured in all

  20. Kinetics and equilibrium of solute diffusion into human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Lian, Guoping

    2012-12-01

    The uptake kinetics of five molecules by hair has been measured and the effects of pH and physical chemical properties of molecules were investigated. A theoretical model is proposed to analyze the experimental data. The results indicate that the binding affinity of solute to hair, as characterized by hair-water partition coefficient, scales to the hydrophobicity of the solute and decreases dramatically as the pH increases to the dissociation constant. The effective diffusion coefficient of solute depended not only on the molecular size as most previous studies suggested, but also on the binding affinity as well as solute dissociation. It appears that the uptake of molecules by hair is due to both hydrophobic interaction and ionic charge interaction. Based on theoretical considerations of the cellular structure, composition and physical chemical properties of hair, quantitative-structure-property-relationships (QSPR) have been proposed to predict the hair-water partition coefficient (PC) and the effective diffusion coefficient (D (e)) of solute. The proposed QSPR models fit well with the experimental data. This paper could be taken as a reference for investigating the adsorption properties for polymeric materials, fibres, and biomaterials.

  1. Large-scale projects in the amazon and human exposure to mercury: The case-study of the Tucuruí Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrifano, Gabriela P F; Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C Rodríguez; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Ramírez-Mateos, Vanesa; da Silva, Núbia F S; Souza-Monteiro, José Rogério; Augusto-Oliveira, Marcus; Paraense, Ricardo S O; Macchi, Barbarella M; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Crespo-Lopez, Maria Elena

    2017-08-28

    The Tucuruí Dam is one of the largest dams ever built in the Amazon. The area is not highly influenced by gold mining as a source of mercury contamination. Still, we recently noted that one of the most consumed fishes (Cichla sp.) is possibly contaminated with methylmercury. Therefore, this work evaluated the mercury content in the human population living near the Tucuruí Dam. Strict exclusion/inclusion criteria were applied for the selection of participants avoiding those with altered hepatic and/or renal functions. Methylmercury and total mercury contents were analyzed in hair samples. The median level of total mercury in hair was above the safe limit (10µg/g) recommended by the World Health Organization, with values up to 75µg/g (about 90% as methylmercury). A large percentage of the participants (57% and 30%) showed high concentrations of total mercury (≥ 10µg/g and ≥ 20µg/g, respectively), with a median value of 12.0µg/g. These are among the highest concentrations ever detected in populations living near Amazonian dams. Interestingly, the concentrations are relatively higher than those currently shown for human populations highly influenced by gold mining areas. Although additional studies are needed to confirm the possible biomagnification and bioaccumulation of mercury by the dams in the Amazon, our data already support the importance of adequate impact studies and continuous monitoring. More than 400 hydropower dams are operational or under construction in the Amazon, and an additional 334 dams are presently planned/proposed. Continuous monitoring of the populations will assist in the development of prevention strategies and government actions to face the problem of the impacts caused by the dams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  3. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  4. Detection of nandrolone, testosterone, and their esters in rat and human hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höld, K M; Borges, C R; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E; Joseph, R E

    1999-10-01

    Nandrolone and testosterone are anabolic androgenic steroids occasionally abused by athletes. A sensitive, specific, and reproducible gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of nandrolone, testosterone, and their esters in hair has been developed. The limits of quantitation of this method, based on 20 mg of hair, were 50 pg/mg for nandrolone and testosterone, 100 pg/mg for testosterone acetate, and 200 pg/mg for nandrolone-decanoate. Nandrolone-d3 and testosterone-d3 were used as internal standards. This method has been applied to the analysis of these compounds incorporated into rat and human hair. Male Long-Evans rats were given nandrolone decanoate 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 10 days over a time period of 14 days. Two of the three rats contained nandrolone in the pigmented hair collected at day 21 at a concentration of 63 and 76 pg/mg, respectively. No drug was found in the corresponding nonpigmented hair. The rat hair samples that tested positive for nandrolone contained also nandrolone decanoate in concentrations of 0.9 and 1.2 ng/mg, respectively. In a separate experiment rats were given testosterone acetate 10 mg/kg i.p. once daily for five days. No testosterone or testosterone acetate was detected in the rat hair samples. Hair specimens were also obtained from four self-reported steroid users. The hair of two subjects were determined to be positive for testosterone in concentrations of 54 and 81 pg/mg. These data demonstrate that it is possible to detect the steroids nandrolone, testosterone, and nandrolone decanoate in hair after systemic administration.

  5. Comparison of human hair and nail low-sulfur protein compositions on two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekio, S; Jidoi, J

    1989-08-01

    Compositions of human normal hair and nail low-sulfur proteins were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis of their S-carboxymethylated (SCM) derivatives. Six SCM low-sulfur protein components with molecular weights (MWs) of 76,000, 73,000, 72,000, 64,000, 61,000 and 55,000 were common to the hair and nail. One component with a MW of 61,000 was specific to hair, and two components, both with a MW of 50,000, were specific to nail.

  6. Retained intracorneal human hair fragment: An unusual case of occupational trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varshini Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year old male hairdresser presented with redness and irritation of the left eye for past 15 days. A fragment of hair was found embedded in deep corneal stroma with minimal scarring. No evidence was found of previous or current inflammation incited by this foreign body. The position and depth of the hair fragment was documented by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and its effect on the corneal endothelium was assessed by specular microscopy. Hairdressers should take adequate precautions to prevent ocular injury although human hair appears to be well tolerated by the cornea.

  7. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water,

  8. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine- containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueber-Becker, F.; Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Benech-Kieffer, F.; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD- containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, mat

  9. Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mira; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Panthi, Gopal; Rabbani, Mohammad Mahbub; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Choi, Jawun; Chung, Hea-Jong; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Human hair-based biocomposite nanofibers (NFs) have been fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Aqueous keratin extracted from human hair was successfully blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The focus here is on transforming into keratin/PVA nanofibrous membranes and insoluble property of electrospun NFs. The resulting hair-based NFs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Toward the potential use of these NFs after cross-linking with various weight fractions of glyoxal, its physicochemical properties, such as morphology, mechanical strength, crystallinity, and chemical structure were investigated. Keratin/PVA ratio of 2/1 NFs with 6 wt%-glyoxal showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and excellent antibacterial activity providing a potential application of hair-based NFs in biomedical field.

  10. Effect of SDS on human hair: Study on the molecular structure and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Umapathy, Siva

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a model study to understand the effect of surfactants on the physicochemical properties of human hair. FT-IR ATR spectroscopy has been employed to understand the chemical changes induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human scalp hair. In particular, the SDS induced changes in the secondary structure of protein present in the outer protective layer of hair, i.e. cuticle, have been investigated. Conformational changes in the secondary structure of protein were studied by curve fitting of the amide I band after every phase of SDS treatment. It has been found that SDS brings rearrangements in the protein backbone conformations by transforming β -sheet structure to random coil and β -turn. Additionally, AFM and SEM studies were carried out to understand the morphological changes induced on the hair surface. SEM and AFM images demonstrated the rupture and partial erosion of cuticle sublayers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine, morphine and codeine from human scalp hair after discontinuation of opiate abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Sun, Yingying; Shen, Baohua

    2013-04-10

    Opiates continue to be used at high rates in East and Southeast Asia. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse has been developed into a powerful and widely used tool in forensic and clinical toxicology. Specifically, testing the proximal segment of scalp hair to confirm morphine (MOR) positive urine samples could solve the poppy seed problem. Human scalp hair grows approximately 1cm per month and can therefore reflect a retrospective timeline of drug exposure. This study is the first to investigate the disappearance of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), MOR and codeine (COD) from human scalp hair after the discontinuation of drug use. Thirty-two healthy women (ages 21-51 years) with a known history of heroin abuse, who went to a rehabilitation centre and ceased consuming heroin (for 4-5 months), were recruited into the study. A pharmacokinetic analysis in seven individual hair segments was performed using a first-order kinetic. Assuming a rate of hair growth of 1cm/month, the mean hair elimination half-lives of 6-AM, MOR and COD were 0.88 months (95% CI, 0.74-1.03), 0.73 months (95% CI, 0.64-0.81), and 0.61 months (95% CI, 0.54-0.69), respectively. Our results suggest that to evaluate the discontinuation of opiate abuse after a 6-month period of abstinence, the results from a 3-cm proximal hair segment should be free of 6-AM at the proposed 0.2 ng/mg cutoff level. This finding should become the basis for the interpretation of results from segmental hair analyses in the evaluation of drug abstinence.

  12. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  13. Flexible Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries through Morphological Emulation of Human Hair Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Jingde; Lee, Dong Un; Ghannoum, Abdul Rahman; Lui, Gregory; Hoque, Md Ariful; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-08-01

    An electrically rechargeable, nanoarchitectured air electrode that morphologically emulates a human hair array is demonstrated in a zinc-air battery. The hair-like array of mesoporous cobalt oxide nanopetals in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes is grown directly on a stainless-steel mesh. This electrode produces both flexibility and improved battery performance, and thus fully manifests the advantages of flexible rechargeable zinc-air batteries in practical applications.

  14. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Marie, E-mail: marie.noel@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Christensen, Jennie R., E-mail: jennie.christensen@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Spence, Jody, E-mail: jodys@uvic.ca [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Bob Wright Centre A405, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3065 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6 (Canada); Robbins, Charles T., E-mail: ctrobbins@wsu.edu [School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  15. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, N.; Luengo, G. S.; Recherche, L.

    2008-03-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface4 shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  16. Redox proteomic evaluation of bleaching and alkali damage in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J M; Bell, F; Koehn, H; Vernon, J A; Cornellison, C D; Clerens, S; Harland, D P

    2013-12-01

    Protein modification and damage in human hair, resulting from environmental, cosmetic and grooming stresses, create changes to visual and tactile characteristics and correlates with consumer perception of quality. This study outlines molecular-level evaluation of modification resulting from peroxide (bleaching) and alkaline straightening (relaxing) treatments. Redox proteomic profiling of virgin, bleached and relaxed hair tresses was performed, with comprehensive qualitative characterization of modification and semi-quantitative evaluation of damage through adaptation of a new damage scoring system. Modifications were mapped to specific locations in the hair proteome and a range of potential damage marker peptides identified. Virgin hair contained a baseline level of modification, consistent with environmental oxidative insult during hair growth. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching resulted in significantly increased levels of oxidative damage observable at the molecular level. This treatment also resulted in enhanced levels of dehydroalanine and dehydration products; modifications typically associated with alkali or thermal treatment and not previously been reported as a product of hair bleaching. Relaxation treatment with sodium hydroxide increased the formation of dehydroalanine and dehydration products and moderately enhanced the levels of oxidation. Cysteine was the predominant modification site for both bleaching and alkali damage. This study validates the utility and power of redox proteomic-based approaches to characterizing hair modification. This offers potential application to a wide range of damage types, as well as evaluation of new damage mitigation and repair technologies. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Recherche, L [Avenue Eugene Schueller, Aulnay-Sous Bois, 93100 (France)], E-mail: nbaghdadli@rd.loreal.com, E-mail: gluengo@rd.loreal.com

    2008-03-15

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model{sup 1} that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage{sup 2,3}. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface{sup 4} shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  18. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  19. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs.

  20. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... hair sets and rinses, hair straighteners, hair colour- ing, and other ... sold under the presumption of being antiseptic, although the ..... lightening creams and dental amalgam fill- ings. ... (1981). Comparison of mercury levels in.

  1. Metallic mercury uptake by catalase Part 1 In Vitro metallic mercury uptake by various kind of animals' erythrocytes and purified human erythrocyte catalase

    OpenAIRE

    劒持,堅志

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of metallic mercury was studied using erythrocytes with different catalase activities taken from various kind of animals. The results were: 1) The uptake of metallic mercury by erythrocytes paralleled the activity of catalase in the erythrocytes with and without hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the erythrocyte catalase activity is related to the uptake of metallic mercury. 2) The uptake of metallic mercury occurred not only with purified human erythrocyte catalase but also with h...

  2. Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus as A Sentinel for Exposure to Mercury in Humans: Closing the Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Reif

    2015-11-01

    their subsequent description as the “dancing cats of Minamata bay”. Unfortunately, the cause of these strange manifestations in cats was not recognized in time to prevent hundreds of additional cases from occurring. More recent studies have shown that exposure to mercury as a result of seafood consumption during pregnancy may result in multiple cognitive and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The levels of mercury found in bottlenose dolphins and the health effects we identified alerted us to the possibility of an important public health hazard. The IRL occupies 40 percent of the east coast of Florida and is bordered by counties with approximately 2.5 million human inhabitants. Therefore, we hypothesized that local inhabitants in communities bordering the IRL could be at risk of exposure to Hg from the consumption of fish and shellfish. We measured hair Hg in 135 local residents and found a mean concentration of 1.53 µg/g which was higher than that from previous studies of sport fishermen and coastal residents in other states. Over 50% of participants had a hair Hg concentration which exceeded the U.S. EPA exposure guideline. Hair Hg concentration was directly related to the frequency of seafood consumption and to the proportion of fish and shellfish obtained from local recreational sources. This study clearly exemplifies the importance of an animal sentinel in identifying a public health hazard and is virtually unique in “closing the loop” between animal and human health.

  3. Human hair follicle: reservoir function and selective targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U; Vogt, A

    2011-10-01

    Penetration of topically applied compounds may occur via the stratum corneum, skin appendages and hair follicles. The follicular infundibulum increases the surface area, disrupts the epidermal barrier towards the lower parts of the follicle, and serves as a reservoir. Topical delivery of active compounds to specific targets within the skin, especially to distinct hair follicle compartments or cell populations, may help to treat local inflammatory reactions selectively, with reduced systemic side-effects. Various in vitro and in vivo methods exist for studying the hair follicle structure and follicular penetration pathways. These include cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping, confocal microscopy and cyanoacrylate scalp follicle biopsy. The complex anatomical structure as well as the cyclical activity of the hair follicle must be taken into consideration when designing delivery systems. In addition, delivery into and retention inside the infundibular reservoir are controlled by, for example, molecule or particle size, their polarity and the type of preparation. Preferred penetration depth and storage time must also be considered. Particles with release mechanisms should be preferred; however, the release of drugs from nanoparticles still requires further investigations.

  4. Mercury Amalgam Diffusion in Human Teeth Probed Using Femtosecond LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Liciane Toledo; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Zezell, Denise Maria; Vieira, Nilson Dias; Samad, Ricardo Elgul

    2017-01-01

    In this work the diffusion of mercury and other elements from amalgam tooth restorations through the surrounding dental tissue (dentin) was evaluated using femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS). To achieve this, seven deciduous and eight permanent extracted human molar teeth with occlusal amalgam restorations were half-sectioned and analyzed using pulses from a femtosecond laser. The measurements were performed from the amalgam restoration along the amalgam/dentin interface to the apical direction. It was possible to observe the presence of metallic elements (silver, mercury, copper and tin) emission lines, as well as dental constituent ones, providing fingerprints of each material and comparable data for checking the consistence of the results. It was also shown that the elements penetration depth values in each tooth are usually similar and consistent, for both deciduous and permanent teeth, indicating that all the metals diffuse into the dentin by the same mechanism. We propose that this diffusion mechanism is mainly through liquid dragging inside the dentin tubules. The mercury diffused further in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, probably due to the longer diffusion times due to the age of the restorations. It was possible to conclude that the proposed femtosecond-LIBS system can detect the presence of metals in the dental tissue, among the tooth constituent elements, and map the distribution of endogenous and exogenous chemical elements, with a spatial resolution that can be brought under 100 µm.

  5. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  6. Inorganic replication of human hair and in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuxia; HE Junhui

    2007-01-01

    The structure of hair was replicated via a sol-gel process using human hair as a template.When using silicate and tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)as the precursor,the cell structure of the hair cuticle was not well replicated.When using Ti(OnBu)4 as the precursor,however,titania microtubes were obtained,with nanopores in their walls and nanoporous platelets on meir outer surfaces,which were derived from cuticle cells on the hair surfaces.The nanopores in the microtubes acted as an effective nanoreactor for in situ synthesis of Au nanoparticles.The microchannels,nanopores and noble metal nanoparticles may provide a unique combination that would be attractive in applications such as catalysis,adsorption,and separation.

  7. Evaluating the Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Markers in Human Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Behvarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that replace dead or injured cells. There are adult stem cells in some regions of human tissues and hair follicle is one of the tissues that have adult stem cell source and these cells have an important role in hair life cycle. In this study, we investigated the isolation of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs and expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers on the isolated cells.   Methods : Human hair follicles obtained from men scalp tissue by micro punch technique. Hair follicles isolated and cultured in culture flasks in DMEM-F12 + FBS. After outgrowth of stem cells from hair bulges, they analyzed by flow cytometry for detection of stem cell markers.  Results: 23 to 27 days after isolation and culture of HFSCs in uncoated cell culture flasks, cell surface markers expression studied by flow cytometry. Flow cytometric analysis showed 25.26% Stro-1, 50.85% CD90, 45.24% CD105, 61.20% CD44, 8.20% CD45, 11.86% CD146, 2.72% CD106, 7.21% CD166 and 26.74% CD19 expression in HFSCs.   Conclusion: In this study, isolated stem cells significantly expressed some of the mesenchymal stem cell markers higher than other markers. These markers give certain characteristics to HFSCs, and introduce the cells as an alternative option for cell therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  8. Ex vivo organ culture of human hair follicles: a model epithelial-neuroectodermal-mesenchymal interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2011-01-01

    The development of hair follicle organ culture techniques is a significant milestone in cutaneous biology research. The hair follicle, or more accurately the "pilo-sebaceous unit", encapsulates all the important physiologic processes found in the human body; controlled cell growth/death, interactions between cells of different histologic type, cell differentiation and migration, and hormone responsitivity to name a few. Thus, the value of the hair follicle as a model for biological scientific research goes way beyond its scope for cutaneous biology or dermatology alone. Indeed, the recent and dramatic upturn in interest in hair follicle biology has focused principally on the pursuit of two of biology's holy grails; post-embryonic morphogenesis and control of cyclical tissue activity. The hair follicle organ culture model, pioneered by Philpott and colleagues, ushered in an exceptionally accessible way to assess how cells of epithelial (e.g., keratinocytes), mesenchymal (e.g., fibroblasts), and neuroectodermal (e.g., melanocytes) origin interact in a three-dimensional manner. Moreover, this assay system allows us to assess how various natural and pharmacologic agents affect complex tissues for growth modulation. In this article, I focus on the culture of the human hair follicle mini-organ, discussing both the practical issues involved and some possible research applications of this assay.

  9. A highly resistant structure between cuticle and cortex of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Yoshida, S

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the presence and properties of a unique structure which is located between the cuticle and cortex of human hair. Whole hair fibre and longitudinally split hair were used. Treated with a mixture of urea, reductant and alkaline, hair was split at the interface between cuticle and cortex. The residues in the solution were observed by microscope, and the distribution of lipids and protein was determined. From the treated longitudinally split hair, a membrane-like structure which was located at the interface between cuticle and cortex was obtained. This structure showed especially high resistance against chemical treatment and was thought to be the region into which the proximal roots of the cuticle cells are embedded. It was supposed that some steryl glucoside-like lipid, of which the presence in the cuticle and cortex interface was previously reported, is located in this structure. This study proposed the presence of a membrane-like structure, which is highly resistant against chemical treatment, at the region between cuticle and cortex of human hair. This may protect cortex from external stimuli more firmly than the surface part of cuticle. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Acoustic absorption measurement of human hair and skin within the audible frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B F

    2000-11-01

    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the acoustic absorption of human skin and hair is measured in the frequency range 1-6 kHz. Various locations on a number of human subjects are measured to determine if the presence of bone or an air pocket affects the acoustic absorption of human skin. The absorption coefficient of human hair is also measured. Additional techniques are utilized to minimize errors due to sample mounting methods. Techniques are employed to minimize potential errors in sensor and sample locations. The results of these measurements are compared to relevant historical papers on similar investigations. Results for skin measurements compare well with previous work. Measured hair absorption data do not agree with previous work in the area but do coincide with expected trends, which previous works do not.

  11. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. 脐血、胎发、胎盘、母发303例汞含量配对测定与分析%Paired determination and analysis of 303 mercury samples of cord blood, fetal hair, placenta and maternal scalp hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕弘道; 郭俊良; 陈梅竹; 苏海兰

    2013-01-01

    目的 配对测定脐血、胎发、胎盘、母发汞含量,分析其相关性以及各种汞暴露高危因素对样本汞含量的影响.方法 对整个孕期生活在本地、无重大疾病史的入院孕妇进行健康影响因素问卷调查,所分娩新生儿(除多胎、出生缺陷外)娩出时收集脐血、胎发,同时采集胎盘组织及产妇头发行汞含量测定.结果 303例脐血、胎发、胎盘、母发汞含量均值分别为1.65 μg/kg、234.58 μg/kg、3.85 μg/kg、497.62 μg/kg,50百分位数分别为1.72 μg/kg、252.24 μg/kg、3.98 μg/kg、508.88 μg/kg.脐血汞和胎发汞、脐血汞和胎盘汞、脐血汞和母发汞、胎发汞和胎盘汞、胎发汞和母发汞、母发汞和胎盘汞均呈正相关(P均<0.05).生活在涉汞工厂附近、较多食用淡水鱼或海鱼、孕期使用增白类化妆品、接触生活燃煤和香烟等高危因素者脐血汞、胎发汞、母发汞分别为(2.24 ±0.20) μg/kg、(315.65 ±35.31) μg/kg、(663.53 ±71.83) μg/kg,未接触者分别为(1.62±0.16) μg/kg、(245.79±28.21) μg/kg、(499.39±47.72)μg/kg,2组间差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01).结论 除地区性加强工业污染监控和治理外,孕期应增强保健意识,生活中避免接触汞暴露高危因素.脐血汞和胎发汞不仅高度相关,且均与产妇胎盘汞、母发汞显著相关.2种检测均能达到监测宫内汞暴露状况的目的.%Objective To determine mercury contents in pair in cord blood,fetal hair,placenta and maternal scalp hair,and to analyze the correlation among them and the effect of mercury exposure risk factors in the mercury contents of samples.Methods Puerperants in the hospital,who lived in the local area without history of major diseases during the whole pregnancy,were investigated by questionnaire composed to several health factors.Cord blood,fetal hair,placenta and maternal scalp hair of these puerperal and their neonates (polyembryony and birth defects excluded

  13. Analysis of the expression pattern of the carrier protein transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle-associated changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Transthyretin is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid protein synthesized early in development by the liver, choroid plexus and several other tissues. It is a carrier protein for the antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and thyroid hormones. Transthyretin helps internalize thyroxine and retinol-binding protein into cells by binding to megalin, which is a multi-ligand receptor expressed on the luminal surface of various epithelia. We investigated the expression of transthyretin and its receptor megalin in the human skin; however, their expression pattern in the hair follicle is still to be elucidated. This study addresses this issue and tests the hypothesis that "the expression of transthyretin and megalin undergoes hair follicle cycle-dependent changes." A total of 50 normal human scalp skin biopsies were examined (healthy females, 53-62 years) using immunofluorescence staining methods and real-time PCR. In each case, 50 hair follicles were analyzed (35, 10, and 5 follicles in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively). Transthyretin and megalin were prominently expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles, on both gene and protein levels. The concentrations of transthyretin and megalin were 0.12 and 0.03 Ul/ml, respectively, as indicated by PCR. The expression showed hair follicle cycle-associated changes i.e., strong expression during early and mature anagen, very weak expression during catagen and moderate expression during telogen. The expression values of these proteins in the anagen were statistically significantly higher than those of either catagen or telogen hair follicles (P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first morphologic indication that transthyretin and megalin are variably expressed in the human scalp skin and hair follicles. It also reports variations in the expression of these proteins during hair follicle cycling. The clinical ramifications of these findings are open for further investigations.

  14. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  16. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating app...

  17. DSC of human hair: a tool for claim support or incorrect data analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, C; Gummer, C

    2016-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data are increasingly used to substantiate product claims of hair repair. Decreasing peak temperatures may indicate structural changes and chemical damage. Increasing the DSC, wet peak temperature is, therefore, often considered as proof of hair repair. A detailed understanding of the technique and hair structure indicates that this may not be a sound approach. Surveying the rich literature on the use of dynamic thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the analyses of human hair and the effect of cosmetic treatments, we underline some of the problems of hair structure and data interpretation. To overcome some of the difficulties of data interpretation, we advise that DSC acquired data should be supported by other techniques when used for claim substantiation. In this way, one can provide meaningful interpretation of the hair science and robust data for product claims support. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Implication of Human Hair in Regaining Spilled Oil Further Creating A Production Rise in Oyster Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, U.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 4.9 million liters of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Oil spill may be as huge as of 8 million barrels (The Persian Gulf oil spill of 1991). Oil-water separation processes using polymeric or inorganic membranes have been proposed as effective and cost competitive technologies but in present the commercial use of membrane in treatment of spilled oil is currently limited by their low efficiency as well as high capital and operating cost. Indian hair-market is a billion-dollar industry yearly exporting thousands of tones of thick and dark hairs. Hairs contain keratin, a family of fibrous structural proteins been proved to adsorb oils. Laboratory results conclude that one gram of human hair can selectively adsorb about 15.5301 grams of crude oil over water, following Frendlich's isotherm. We seek hair mats made up of hairs of size ≤5 inches, costing 37/ton from selected parts of Indian hair market. With a known adsorbing efficiency of 95% towards crude oil, an estimated desorption efficiency of 70% oil worth 0.8M per year can be regained in crude form from U.S. waters only. To ensure solid waste management of hairs, hair mats left with 30% of adsorbed oil can be utilized in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, a 20-34/kg crop that grows best in 20-25°C ,80-90% relative humidity and oily conditions. This will reduce the growing period of crop ensuring yearly profit of $6.06M in U.S. only engaging variety of stakeholders over borders. Results thus obtained in this study present an economic, safer and sustainable technique to minimize oil loss due to oil spill in waters further ensuring a low labor-low cost technique of waste management that enhances the growth of an in-demand crop. Keywords: Oil Spill, Human Hair Mats, Adsorb, Oyster Mushrooms

  19. DMPS (DIMAVAL) as a challenge test to assess the mercury and arsenic body/kidney load in humans and as a treatment of mercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aposhian, H.V.; Maiorino, R.M.; Aposhian, M.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hurlbut, K.M. [Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Mercury is an element which, with its compounds, is hazardous and is found in hazardous wastes. In Order to develop suitable diagnostic and therapeutic agents for mercury exposure, we have sought alternative test systems. We have used the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS, DIMAVAL{reg_sign}) for estimating the body burden of mercury in normal humans and in dental personnel in a developing country, and for detoxifying humans with mercurous chloride exposure. Use of the DMPS-mercury challenge test has shown that two-thirds of the mercury excreted in the urine of volunteers with dental amalgams appears to be derived from the mercury vapor released from their amalgams. The DMPS challenge test (300 mg, by mouth, after an 11 hr fast) was useful for monitoring dental personnel for mercury vapor exposure. The DMPS challenge test was given to 11 factory workers who make a skin lotion that contains mercurous chloride, 8 users of the skin lotion, and 9 controls. The increases in urinary Hg resulting from the DMPS challenge were 45, 87, and 38-fold, respectively. The results demonstrate that in humans exposed to mercurous chloride, the DMPS-mercury challenge test is of value for a more realistic estimation of mobilizable Hg. DMPS should be considered for use to determine mercury body burdens and to treat humans exposed to mercury and its compounds via exposure to hazardous wastes. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Investigating Residential History Using Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of Human Hair and Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Madeleine; Nagel, Ashley; Prowse, Tracy

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between isotopic signals in human hair and geographic region has potential forensic applications for identifying unknown individuals' place of recent residence. This study analyzes δ(2) H and δ(18) O isotopes in residential tap water and bulk hair samples from 17 volunteers representing 12 locations in Ontario, Canada. There is a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9) between δ(2) H and δ(18) O values of the water samples. In contrast, the δ(2) H and δ(18) O values of the hair samples are weakly correlated (R(2) = 0.3), and the greater variability in the data is linked to dietary factors. This study demonstrates that the δ(2) H and δ(18) O values of hair and drinking water can be used to help identify potential place of residence in forensic cases, particularly in relation to proximity to large bodies of water such as the Great Lakes, but interpretations are complicated by the contribution of both water and diet to δ(2) H and δ(18) O values in hair.

  1. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.

    1966-02-15

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  2. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Coelho, C.; Cruz, N.; Monteiro, R.J.R.; Henriques, B.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Pereira, E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining, urb

  3. Nanotribological characterization of human head hair by friction force microscopy in dry atmosphere and aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikogeorgos, Nikos; Fletcher, Ian W; Boardman, Christopher; Doyle, Peter; Ortuoste, Nerea; Leggett, Graham J

    2010-06-01

    Friction force microscopy was employed for the tribological investigation of human head hair in two different environments: a dry atmosphere and de-ionized water. The fibers were immobilized by embedding them in indium. The effects of bleaching, conditioning, and immersion in methanolic KOH were quantified in terms of the relative coefficient of friction (μ). The virgin fibers were clearly distinguished in terms of friction coefficient from the chemically damaged ones in both environments, while all categories of hair exhibited higher friction coefficients in the aqueous environment. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used as a complementary technique to examine the presence of fatty acids on the cuticular surface of the different categories of hair as well as the conditioner distribution. Neither bleaching nor 30 min treatment in methanolic KOH was found adequate to completely remove the fatty acids from the fibers' surface. Conditioner species were detected along the whole cuticular surface.

  4. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  5. Methylmercury and elemental mercury differentially associate with blood pressure among dental professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury-associated effects on the cardiovascular system have been documented though discrepancies exist, and most studied populations experience elevated methylmercury exposures. No paper has investigated the impact of low-level elemental (inorganic) mercury exposure on cardiovascular risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the association between mercury exposure (methylmercury and elemental mercury) and blood pressure measures in a cohort of dental professionals that experience background exposures to both mercury forms. Dental professionals were recruited during the 2010 Michigan Dental Association Annual Convention. Mercury levels in hair and urine samples were analyzed as biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury exposure, respectively. Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) was measured using an automated device. Distribution of mercury in hair (mean, range: 0.45, 0.02–5.18 μg/g) and urine (0.94, 0.03–5.54 μg/L) correspond well with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Linear regression models revealed significant associations between diastolic blood pressure (adjusted for blood pressure medication use) and hair mercury (n = 262, p = 0.02). Urine mercury results opposed hair mercury in many ways. Notably, elemental mercury exposure was associated with a significant systolic blood pressure decrease (n = 262, p = 0.04) that was driven by the male population. Associations between blood pressure and two forms of mercury were found at exposure levels relevant to the general population, and associations varied according to type of mercury exposure and gender. PMID:22494934

  6. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA in human hair by GC-EI-MS after derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Jornil, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the classical amphetamines and their methylenedioxylated derivatives in human hair. The procedure involved liquid-liquid extraction of hydrolysed hair spiked with deuterated internal....../mg and of quantification from 0.24 to 0.46 ng/mg, depending on compound. The method was applied on 40 authentic hair samples (segmented or pooled hair), of which 15 cases involved amphetamine and/or ecstasy. The hair concentrations ranged from LOD to 3.2 ng/mg of AM in 7 cases, to 0.4 ng/mg of MDA in 3 cases and to 5.9 ng....../mg of MDMA in 13 cases. MA was only detected once at trace level. The method, including the derivatization procedure, is simple and robust with a sensitivity that is satisfactory for measurement of amphetamines and ecstasy in hair from abusers....

  7. Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) Promotes Murine Hair Growth and Human Dermal Papilla Cell Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakame, Koji; Okawa, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ich; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Ingawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Nishizawa, Takashi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action. We also investigated its potential on gene expression after stimulating human dermal papilla cells with IP-PA1. The hair on the back of a C3H/HeN mouse was shaved and IP-PA1 was orally administered or applied to the skin. The status of hair growth was observed and recorded for 14 days. Skin was collected and histological tissue examination was performed with respect to hair growth status using hematoxylin and eosin staining. After IP-PA1 administration (2 and 10 μg/ml) to human dermal papilla cell culture system for 24 h, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. IP-PA1, when given orally, showed a tendency to promote hair growth in mice. In addition, skin application also significantly promoted hair growth, while histopathological examinations further demonstrated hair elongation from dermal papilla cells. In the human dermal papilla cell culture system, significant FGF-7 and VEGF mRNA expressions were observed (p<0.05). An underlying mechanism of gene expression by which IP-PA1 promotes hair growth was suggested to be different from that of medicine and traditional hair tonics, such as minoxidil and adenosine. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Uptake of inorganic mercury by human locus ceruleus and corticomotor neurons: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental toxins are suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In an attempt to determine which pathways these toxins can use to enter motor neurons we compared the distribution of mercury in the CNS of a human and of mice that had been exposed to inorganic mercury. Results In the human who had been exposed to metallic mercury, mercury was seen predominantly in the locus ceruleus and corticomotor neurons, as well as in scattered glial cells. In mice that had been exposed to mercury vapor or mercuric chloride, mercury was present in lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain stem. Conclusions In humans, inorganic mercury can be taken up predominantly by corticomotor neurons, possibly when the locus ceruleus is upregulated by stress. This toxin uptake into corticomotor neurons is in accord with the hypothesis that ALS originates in these upper motor neurons. In mice, inorganic mercury is taken up predominantly by lower motor neurons. The routes toxins use to enter motor neurons depends on the nature of the toxin, the duration of exposure, and possibly the amount of stress (for upper motor neuron uptake) and exercise (for lower motor neuron uptake) at the time of toxin exposure. PMID:24252585

  9. Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S A; Engel, M H; Andrusevich, V; Lubec, G; O'Connell, T C; Hedges, R E

    1999-01-29

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an

  10. Health effects in the Flemish population in relation to low levels of mercury exposure: from organ to transcriptome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Kim; De Coster, Sam; De Galan, Sandra; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Colles, Ann; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Baeyens, Willy; Gao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Due to possible health risks, quantification of mercury accumulation in humans was included in the Flemish biomonitoring programmes FLEHS I (2002-2006) and FLEHS II (2007-2011). The general objective of FLEHS I was to assess regional exposure levels in order to link possible differences in these internal exposure levels to different types of local environmental pressure. Therefore, Hg and MMHg (methylmercury) were only measured in pooled blood samples per region and per age class. In FLEHS II, mercury concentrations were measured in hair of each participant. About 200 adolescents and 250 mothers (reference group) and two times 200 adolescents (2 hotspots) were screened. The main objectives of the FLEHS II study were: (1) to determine reference levels of mercury in hair for Flanders; (2) to assess relations between mercury exposure and possible sources like fish consumption; (3) to assess dose-effect relations between mercury exposure and health effect markers. The results showed that mercury concentrations in the Flemish population were rather low compared to other studies. Mercury levels in the Flemish populations were strongly related to the age of the participants and consumption of fish. Significant negative associations were observed between mercury in hair and asthma, having received breast feeding as a newborn, age at menarche in girls, allergy for animals and free testosterone levels. Significant correlations were also observed between mercury in hair and genes JAK2, ARID4A, Hist1HA4L (boys) and HLAdrb5, PIAS2, MANN1B1, GIT and ABCA1 (girls).

  11. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  12. Human hair as a potential biomonitor for assessing persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Sun, Huibin

    2007-07-01

    To explore human biomonitor of persistent organic pollutants (POP) for public health risk assessment, extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and some selected organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in children hair from urban and rural regions of Beijing, China, were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that about 96% of the total halogens existed as water-soluble polar compounds; about 25 to 50% of EOX were sulfuric acid-resistant EPOX; organochlorines were the major fraction of the organohalogens; and 88 to 99.6% of extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) cannot be attributed to the selected OCP and PCB. HCH, DDT and 2-5CB were the major contributors to hair OCP and PCB. Further, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and PCB-52 were the predominant individuals of HCH, DDT and 2-5CB, respectively. The concentration distributions of EPOCl, HCH, DDT and PCB in children hair were generally in the order of urban>rural and girls>boys, except for PCB congeners with random distributions between genders. Pearson positive correlations between hair lipid and the detected parameters of hair gamma-HCH (phair alpha/gamma and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT suggested that fresh input of HCH and DDT might exist in Beijing area. Hair can reflect body's integral exposure to POP from endogenous and exogenous sources, which, thus, can be used as a potential biomonitor in assessing POP exposure for public health purposes.

  13. Investigations of cosmetically treated human hair by differential scanning calorimetry in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, F-J; Springob, C; Sendelbach, G

    2002-01-01

    By applying differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on human hair in water, the thermal stability of hair' major morphological components is determined. Against the background of the two-phase model for alpha-keratins, these components are identified as the partially helical, fibrous intermediate filaments (IF) and the intermediate filament associated-proteins (IFAP) as a cross-linked, amorphous matrix. DSC yields the denaturation enthalpy deltaH(D), which depends on the amount and structural integrity of the alpha-helical material, and the temperature T(D), which is kinetically controlled by the cross-link density of the matrix. To assess the effects of cosmetic treatments, hairs were investigated that had undergone either multiple bleaching or perm-waving treatments. The respective dependencies between denaturation temperature and enthalpy show that both morphological components are similarly affected by bleaching, while reductive damage, in comparison, is more pronounced in the IFs. For both types of treatments, changes in enthalpy follow apparent first-order kinetics with respect to the number of treatments as well as treatment time (perm-waving), yielding characteristic reaction rate constants. It appears that DSC in water is an especially suitable method to determine the kinetics of damage formation in human hair resulting from cosmetic treatments.

  14. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  15. Characterization of human ovarian teratoma hair by using AFM, FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jinwoo; Jung, Min-Hyung; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-12-01

    The structural, physical, and chemical properties of hair taken from an ovarian teratoma (teratoma hair) was first examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The similarities and differences between the teratoma hair and scalp hair were also investigated. Teratoma hair showed a similar morphology and chemical composition to scalp hair. Teratoma hair was covered with a cuticle in the same manner as scalp hair and showed the same amide bonding modes as scalp hair according to FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. On the other hand, teratoma hair showed different physical properties and cysteic acid bands from scalp hair: the surface was rougher and the adhesive force was lower than the scalp hair. The cystine oxides modes did not change with the position unlike scalp hair. These differences can be understood by environmental effects not by the intrinsic properties of the teratoma hair.

  16. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Erika

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation. Many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have "allergic" symptoms; moreover, the prevalence of ASD in patients with mastocytosis, characterized by numerous hyperactive mast cells in most tissues, is 10-fold higher than the general population suggesting mast cell involvement. We, therefore, investigated the effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 on human mast cell activation. Methods Human leukemic cultured LAD2 mast cells and normal human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs were stimulated by HgCl2 (0.1-10 μM for either 10 min for beta-hexosaminidase release or 24 hr for measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and IL-6 release by ELISA. Results HgCl2 induced a 2-fold increase in β-hexosaminidase release, and also significant VEGF release at 0.1 and 1 μM (311 ± 32 pg/106 cells and 443 ± 143 pg/106 cells, respectively from LAD2 mast cells compared to control cells (227 ± 17 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p 2 (0.1 μM to the proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP, 0.1 μM had synergestic action in inducing VEGF from LAD2 mast cells. HgCl2 also stimulated significant VEGF release (360 ± 100 pg/106 cells at 1 μM, n = 5, p 6 cells, and IL-6 release (466 ± 57 pg/106 cells at 0.1 μM compared to untreated cells (13 ± 25 pg/106 cells, n = 5, p 2 (0.1 μM to SP (5 μM further increased IL-6 release. Conclusions HgCl2 stimulates VEGF and IL-6 release from human mast cells. This phenomenon could disrupt the blood-brain-barrier and permit brain inflammation. As a result, the findings of the present study provide a biological mechanism for how low levels of mercury may contribute to ASD pathogenesis.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Human Hair and Serum from E-Waste Recycling Workers in Southern China: Concentrations, Chiral Signatures, Correlations, and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Yan, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Sukun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-02-01

    Hair is increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the internal and external sources of hair POPs remain a controversial issue. This study analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair and serum from electronic waste recycling workers. The median concentrations were 894 ng/g and 2868 ng/g lipid in hair and serum, respectively. The PCB concentrations in male and female serum were similar, while concentrations in male hair were significantly lower than in female hair. Significant correlations between the hair and serum PCB levels and congener profiles suggest that air is the predominant PCB source in hair and that hair and blood PCB levels are largely dependent on recent accumulation. The PCB95, 132, and 183 chiral signatures in serum were significantly nonracemic, with mean enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 0.440-0.693. Nevertheless, the hair EFs were essentially racemic (mean EFs = 0.495-0.503). Source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance model also indicated primary external PCB sources in human hair from the study area. Air, blood, and indoor dust are responsible for, on average, 64.2%, 27.2%, and 8.79% of the hair PCBs, respectively. This study evidenced that hair is a reliable matrix for monitoring human POP exposure.

  18. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

  19. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  20. A Review of Mercury Bioavailability in Humans and Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Mark A; Barst, Benjamin D; Basu, Niladri

    2017-02-10

    To estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), risk assessors often assume 95%-100% bioavailability in their models. However, recent research suggests that assuming all, or most, of the ingested mercury (Hg) is absorbed into systemic circulation may be erroneous. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the available state of knowledge concerning the assimilation or bioavailability of Hg in fish and humans. In fish, this meant reviewing studies on assimilation efficiency, that is the difference between ingested and excreted Hg over a given period of time. In humans, this meant reviewing studies that mostly investigated bioaccessibility (digestive processes) rather than bioavailability (cumulative digestive + absorptive processes), although studies incorporating absorption for a fuller picture of bioavailability were also included where possible. The outcome of this review shows that in a variety of organisms and experimental models that Hg bioavailability and assimilation is less than 100%. Specifically, 25 studies on fish were reviewed, and assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10% to 100% for MeHg and from 2% to 51% for Hg(II). For humans, 20 studies were reviewed with bioaccessibility estimates ranging from 2% to 100% for MeHg and 0.2% to 94% for Hg(II). The overall absorption estimates ranged from 12% to 79% for MeHg and 49% to 69% for Hg(II), and were consistently less than 100%. For both fish and humans, a number of cases are discussed in which factors (e.g., Hg source, cooking methods, nutrients) are shown to affect Hg bioavailability. The summaries presented here challenge a widely-held assumption in the Hg risk assessment field, and the paper discusses possible ways forward for the field.

  1. A Review of Mercury Bioavailability in Humans and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Mark A.; Barst, Benjamin D.; Basu, Niladri

    2017-01-01

    To estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), risk assessors often assume 95%–100% bioavailability in their models. However, recent research suggests that assuming all, or most, of the ingested mercury (Hg) is absorbed into systemic circulation may be erroneous. The objective of this paper is to review and discuss the available state of knowledge concerning the assimilation or bioavailability of Hg in fish and humans. In fish, this meant reviewing studies on assimilation efficiency, that is the difference between ingested and excreted Hg over a given period of time. In humans, this meant reviewing studies that mostly investigated bioaccessibility (digestive processes) rather than bioavailability (cumulative digestive + absorptive processes), although studies incorporating absorption for a fuller picture of bioavailability were also included where possible. The outcome of this review shows that in a variety of organisms and experimental models that Hg bioavailability and assimilation is less than 100%. Specifically, 25 studies on fish were reviewed, and assimilation efficiencies ranged from 10% to 100% for MeHg and from 2% to 51% for Hg(II). For humans, 20 studies were reviewed with bioaccessibility estimates ranging from 2% to 100% for MeHg and 0.2% to 94% for Hg(II). The overall absorption estimates ranged from 12% to 79% for MeHg and 49% to 69% for Hg(II), and were consistently less than 100%. For both fish and humans, a number of cases are discussed in which factors (e.g., Hg source, cooking methods, nutrients) are shown to affect Hg bioavailability. The summaries presented here challenge a widely-held assumption in the Hg risk assessment field, and the paper discusses possible ways forward for the field. PMID:28208586

  2. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-07

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out.

  3. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Local structure of human hair spatially resolved by sub-micron X-ray beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Vesna; Bettini, Jefferson; Montoro, Fabiano Emmanuel; Stein, Aaron; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth

    2015-11-30

    Human hair has three main regions, the medulla, the cortex, and the cuticle. An existing model for the cortex suggests that the α-keratin- based intermediate filaments (IFs) align with the hair's axis, but are orientationally disordered in-plane. We found that there is a new region in the cortex near the cuticle's boundary in which the IFs are aligned with the hair's axis, but additionally, they are orientationally ordered in-plane due to the presence of the cuticle/hair boundary. Further into the cortex, the IF arrangement becomes disordered, eventually losing all in-plane orientation. We also find that in the cuticle, a key diffraction feature is absent, indicating the presence of the β-keratin rather than that of the α-keratin phase. This is direct structural evidence that the cuticle contains β-keratin sheets. This work highlights the importance of using a sub-micron x-ray beam to unravel the structures of poorly ordered, multi-phase systems.

  5. Dechlorane Plus in human hair from an e-waste recycling area in South China: comparison with dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Mi; He, Luo-Yiyi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2010-12-15

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) and a dechlorination product, 1,6,7,8,9,14,15,16,17,17,18-octadeca-7,15-diene (anti-Cl(11)-DP), were measured in human hair and indoor dust collected from an e-waste recycling area and two control areas (rural and urban) in South China. DP was detected in hair and dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.02-58.32 ng/g and 2.78-4197 ng/g, respectively. anti-Cl(11)-DP, mainly detected in human hair and dust samples from the e-waste recycling area, ranged from nd (nondetected) to 0.23 ng/g in hair and from nd to 20.22 ng/g in dust. Average values of anti-DP fractional abundance (f(anti) ratio) in hair of e-waste dismantling workers (0.55 ± 0.11) and dust from e-waste recycling workshops (0.54 ± 0.15) were significantly lower than those in other groups (0.62-0.76 means for hair and 0.66-0.76 means for dust). Significantly positive correlation between DP concentrations in dust and hair and similarity in f(anti) ratios between hair and dust suggest that ingestion of dust comprise one of the major routes for DP exposure. Significantly positive relationships were also observed between anti-Cl(11)-DP and anti-DP for both hair and dust samples with similar regression line slopes. The ratios of anti-Cl(11)-DP to anti-DP between hair and dust show no significant difference. These results suggest that anti-Cl(11)-DP in the human body is likely accumulated from the environmental matrix and not formed from biotransformation of the parent DP.

  6. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Pirrone, Nicola; Thorne, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects. PMID:28117743

  7. Global Sources and Pathways of Mercury in the Context of Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrre Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects.

  8. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair samples: A multivariate analysis of the impact of extraction conditions on quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Alexander; Jungen, Hilke; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Raduenz, Lars; Lezius, Susanne; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke

    2017-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix. The influence of extraction solvent, ultrasonication, incubation temperature, incubation time, solvent amount and hair particle size on quantitative results was investigated by a multifactorial experimental design using a validated analytical method and twelve different batches of authentic human hair material. Eight series of extraction experiments in a Plackett-Burman setup were carried out on each hair material with the studied factors at high or low levels. The effect of pulverization was further studied by two additional experimental series. Five independent samplings were performed for each run, resulting in a total number of 600 determinations. Considerable differences in quantitative EtG results were observed, concentrations above and below interpretative cut-offs were obtained from the same hair materials using different extraction conditions. Statistical analysis revealed extraction solvent and temperature as the most important experimental factors with significant influence on quantitative results. The impact of pulverization depended on other experimental factors and the different hair matrices themselves proved to be important predictors of extraction efficiency. A standardization of extraction procedures should be discussed, since it will probably reduce interlaboratory variabilities and improve the quality and acceptance of hair EtG analysis. Copyright © 2016

  9. Differentiating the stem cell pool of human hair follicle outer root sheath into functional melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marie; Dieckmann, Christina; Rabe, Katrin; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Savkovic, Vuk

    2014-01-01

    Bench-to-Bedside concepts for regenerative therapy place significant weight on noninvasive approaches, with harvesting of the starting material as a header. This is particularly important in autologous treatments, which use one's bodily constituents for therapy. Precisely the stretch between obtaining therapeutic elements invasively and noninvasively places non-intrusive "sampling" rather than "biopsy" in the center of the road map of developing an autologous regenerative therapy. We focus on such a noninvasively available source of adult stem cells that we carry with us throughout our life, available at our fingertips-or shall we say hair roots, by a simple plucking of hair: the human hair follicle. This chapter describes an explant procedure for cultivating melanocytes differentiated from the stem cell pool of the hair follicle Outer Root Sheath (ORS). In vivo, the most abundant derivatives of the heterogeneous ORS stem cell pool are epidermal cells-melanocytes and keratinocytes which complete their differentiation-either spontaneously or upon picking up regenerative cues from damaged skin-and migrate from the ORS towards the adjacent regenerating area of the epidermis. We have taken advantage of the ORS developmental potential by optimizing explant primary culture, expansion and melanogenic differentiation of resident ORS stem cells towards end-stage melanocytes in order to obtain functional melanocytes noninvasively for the purposes of transplantation and use them for the treatment of depigmentation disorders. Our protocol specifies sampling of hair with their ORS, follicle medium-air interface primary culture, stimulation of cell outgrowth, adherent culture and differentiation of ORS stem cells and precursors towards fully functional melanocytes. Along with cultivation, we describe selection techniques for establishing and maintaining a pure melanocyte population and methods suitable for determining melanocyte identity.

  10. Demonstration of Protein-Based Human Identification Using the Hair Shaft Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S.; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Matsunami, Nori; Baird, Lisa; Stevens, Jeffery; Parsawar, Krishna; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Nelson, Chad; Fairbanks, Daniel J.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Rice, Robert H.; Woodward, Scott R.; Bothner, Brian; Hart, Bradley R.; Leppert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 single nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects’ DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European–American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). This study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts. PMID:27603779

  11. Method development for assessing the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants in hair and nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Andreia; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a new extraction method based on acid digestion and SPE clean-up (Oasis Wax) was developed for measuring four PFR metabolites (i.e. dibutyl phosphate (DBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (BDCPP) and bis(2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate (BBEP)) in hair and nails. The method optimization was done according to a combinatorial design (Taguchi) where several parameters were efficiently optimized. Precision was lower for hair than for nails (RSD % 18 and 28%). Recoveries were >74%. High DBP levels in procedural blanks were traced back to the use of SPE cartridges. Therefore a new SPE pre-treatment was tested, reducing significantly DBP levels (hair, finger, and toe nails collected over two months in two volunteers (female and male). DPhP levels were extremely high (in μg/g range) in both finger and toe nails in the female. BDCPP and BBEP were the minor metabolites detected in nails (average levels of 28-64 ng/g and hair (0.23-0.25 ng/g). Results showed that there is a possible contribution from both an external (via deposition) and an internal exposure, however it was not possible to fully understand their extent. Since there were no records of lifestyle and due to the small sample size, the major exposure source could not be addressed here. Nevertheless, there is evidence that hair and nails (finger and toe) might be good indicators of human exposure to PFRs, especially to TPhP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  13. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  14. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin grande content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the sbnd SSsbnd groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans and trans-gauche-trans contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation shows that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, the author concluded that the sbnd SSsbnd groups, which have a GGG conformation were decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin was changed to the random coil structure, or eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the reduction in the protein density of the virgin human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.

  15. Adsorption and lubricating properties of poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) on human-hair surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Zürcher, Stefan; Dorcier, Antoine; Luengo, Gustavo S; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2009-09-01

    We have characterized the adsorption and lubricating properties of the polycation-PEG graft copolymer poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) on human-hair surfaces by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS measurements indicated that PLL-g-PEG copolymers spontaneously adsorbed onto the surface of bleached-hair samples (a good model of a weathered, damaged hair surface for cosmetic care applications) from an aqueous solution. Further treatment with cationic surfactants present in common shampoo formulations removed the adsorbed PLL-g-PEG from the hair samples. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the adsorption of PLL-g-PEG onto the hair samples from an aqueous polymer solution occurred inhomogeneously. Nanotribological studies with AFM (friction vs load plots) revealed that the relationship between load and friction was approximately linear for all hair samples, while the slopes of the plots varied considerably along the hair sample surface. Under ambient, "dry" conditions, the frictional properties of the bleached, bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated, and bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated and subsequently surfactant-treated hair samples did not reveal a clear difference. In distilled water, however, the bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated hair samples showed statistically lower frictional properties than simply bleached or bleached + PLL-g-PEG-treated and subsequently surfactant-treated hair samples. Overall, the three instrumental techniques have consistently shown that the adsorption of PLL-g-PEG onto the hair sample surface occurs unevenly, which can be ascribed to the intrinsically heterogeneous properties of the human-hair surface. A control experiment, involving an injection of concentrated PLL-g-PEG solution into a liquid cell where an AFM tip was already scanning over a specific area (line scan mode), revealed an immediate and apparent reduction in the frictional force. Despite the

  16. Laboratory Investigation Of Partial Replacement Of Coarse Aggregate By Plastic Chips And Cement By Human Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic is increasing day by day, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. The suitability of recycled plastics as coarse aggregate in concrete and its advantage are discussed here. Experimental investigation was done using M20 mix and tests were carried out as per recommended procedures by relevant codes. As 100% replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA with plastic coarse aggregate (PCA is not feasible, partial replacement were examined. And also Hair is used as a fibred reinforcing material in concrete as partial replacement of cement. It has a high tensile strength which is equal to that of a copper wire with similar diameter. It is also available in abundance and at a very low cost. Tests were conducted to determine the properties of plastic aggregate and human hair such as density, specific gravity and crushing value. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes with various percentages of human hair i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement and with constant percentage of plastic aggregate as 20%.

  17. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework.

  18. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the expressions of Erk, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and P21 were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Minoxidil plus ATRA additively promoted hair growth in vitro, compared with minoxidil alone. In addition, minoxidil plus ATRA elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expressions of P53 and P21 more effectively than by minoxidil alone. Our results suggest that minoxidil plus ATRA would additively enhance hair growth by mediating dual functions: 1) the prolongation of cell survival by activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways, and 2) the prevention of apoptosis of DPCs and epithelial cells by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and downregulating the expressions of P53 and P21. PMID:17449938

  19. Sub-nm 3D observation of human hair melanin by high-voltage STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takehito; Higuchi, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Yuta; Arai, Shigeo; Nakano, Takashi; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-04-01

    The ultrastructure of melanin granules in human hair was studied using 1,000 kV high-voltage scanning transmission electron microscopy to successfully reconstruct three-dimensional images of the whole melanin granule. It was revealed that the melanin granule was composed of a membrane-like outer structure that included many spherical vesicles, and an inner matrix containing a sheet-like structure in the elongated direction of the melanin granule and a sheet-like arrays structure in the cross direction. The outer structure of the melanin granule was maintained even after exposure to hair-bleaching agents to decompose the melanin granule, suggesting that the outer structure was a highly robust structure and composition compared with the inner matrix . © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Dietary heterogeneity among Western industrialized countries reflected in the stable isotope ratios of human hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano O Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Although the globalization of food production is often assumed to result in a homogenization of consumption patterns with a convergence towards a Western style diet, the resources used to make global food products may still be locally produced (glocalization. Stable isotope ratios of human hair can quantify the extent to which residents of industrialized nations have converged on a standardized diet or whether there is persistent heterogeneity and glocalization among countries as a result of different dietary patterns and the use of local food products. Here we report isotopic differences among carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios of human hair collected in thirteen Western European countries and in the USA. European hair samples had significantly lower δ(13C values (-22.7 to -18.3‰, and significantly higher δ(15N (7.8 to 10.3‰ and δ(34S (4.8 to 8.3‰ values than samples from the USA (δ(13C: -21.9 to -15.0‰, δ(15N: 6.7 to 9.9‰, δ(34S: -1.2 to 9.9‰. Within Europe, we detected differences in hair δ(13C and δ(34S values among countries and covariation of isotope ratios with latitude and longitude. This geographic structuring of isotopic data suggests heterogeneity in the food resources used by citizens of industrialized nations and supports the presence of different dietary patterns within Western Europe despite globalization trends. Here we showed the potential of stable isotope analysis as a population-wide tool for dietary screening, particularly as a complement of dietary surveys, that can provide additional information on assimilated macronutrients and independent verification of data obtained by those self-reporting instruments.

  1. Quaternary and secondary structural imaging of a human hair by a VSFG-detected IR super-resolution microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Makoto, E-mail: makotos@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kikuchi, Katsuya [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Masaaki, E-mail: mfujii@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► IR super-resolution image of cross section of a human black hair were measured. ► For the amide III band, human hair gave strong VSFG signals at the cortex area. ► Distribution of α-helix based quaternary structure of keratin proteins was observed. ► The VSFG signal disappeared completely when the amide I band was monitored. ► The α-helix of keratin proteins is well aligned along the axial direction in hair. - Abstract: IR super-resolution images of cross sections of a human black hair were measured by using a home-made vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) detected IR microscope in the 6–9 μm region with a sub-micrometer spatial resolution. For the amide III band, the sample gave clear strong signals at the cortex area. This enabled us to measure the distribution of intermediate filaments, which have an α-helix based quaternary structure of keratin proteins in the hair. On the other hand, the VSFG signal disappeared completely when the amide I band was monitored by the same polarization of incident light. From the polarization dependence of VSFG, it is concluded that the α-helix of keratin proteins are well aligned along the axial direction in human hair.

  2. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cañas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies.

  3. Effect of ethnicity and treatments on in situ tensile response and morphological changes of human hair characterized by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Indira P. [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Human hair fibers experience tensile forces during grooming and styling processes. The tensile response of hair is hence of considerable interest to the cosmetics industry. In this study, in situ tensile characterization studies have been carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM) on different hair under different conditions. A custom-built AFM sample stage allows hair fibers to be loaded in tension. A technique to locate and image the same control area at different strains has been developed to study the changes in morphology that occur with deformation. Virgin Caucasian, Asian and African hair were studied to understand the differences between different ethnic hair types. Also, the tensile response and morphological changes of virgin, chemically damaged and conditioner-treated Caucasian hair after soaking were compared against the corresponding dry tensile response. Finally, virgin, damaged and treated Caucasian hair fibers were subjected to fatigue cycling to simulate combing/detangling, and their tensile response studied.

  4. Permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition influence accumulation of dyes in hair follicles of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Alaruikka, Soile; Lashley, Lisa; Caussin, Julia; Whitehead, Lynne; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2003-04-01

    In skin and hair research drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest. Therefore the influence of permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition on local accumulation has been examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Formulations saturated with either Oregon Green 488, Bodipy FL C(5) or Bodipy 564/570 C(5) were prepared. The dyes were applied in citric acid buffer, 8% (w/v) surfactants in citric acid buffer or 8% (w/v) surfactants/20% (w/v) propylene glycol in citric acid buffer. Flow-through diffusion experiments were performed with fresh human scalp skin, after which the skin was imaged using CLSM. Diffusion studies showed for Oregon Green 488 (low lipophilicity) a higher flux when applied in citric acid buffer compared to surfactants. In contrast the fluxes of the more lipophilic dyes (Bodipy FL C(5) and Bodipy 564/570 C(5)) are highest when applied in surfactants/propylene glycol. CLSM studies revealed that follicular accumulation increased with (i) a lipophilic dye and (ii) application of lipophilic dyes in surfactants-propylene glycol. Therefore we conclude that targeting to the hair follicle can be increased by the use of lipophilic drugs in combination with surfactant solutions and propylene glycol.

  5. Quantitative analysis of mephedrone using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy: application to human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syeda A B; Deshmukh, Nawed I K; Barker, James; Petróczi, Andrea; Cross, Paul; Archer, Roland; Naughton, Declan P

    2012-03-01

    Recent abuse of designer drugs such as mephedrone has presented a requirement for sensitive, reliable and reproducible methods for the detection of these controlled drugs in different matrices. This study focuses on a fully developed validated method for the quantitative analysis of mephedrone and its two metabolites 4-methylephedrine and 4-methylnorephedrine in human hair. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range 5-100 pg/mg for mephedrone and 10-150 pg/mg for 4-methylephedrine and 4-methylnorephedrine. The method was successfully validated for the intraday precision, interday precision, limit of detection, accuracy and extraction recovery. Five out of 154 hair samples were confirmed to be positive for mephedrone. Due to the structural similarities to other methcathinones and amphetamines, one can propose the metabolism for mephedrone based on a similar pathway that has been previously used for these psychoactive drugs. The outlined method can be valuable for the future detection of mephedrone and its two metabolites in hair.

  6. Generation of Integration-free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Hair-derived Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sandy S C; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C B

    2015-08-20

    Recent advances in reprogramming allow us to turn somatic cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Disease modeling using patient-specific hiPSCs allows the study of the underlying mechanism for pathogenesis, also providing a platform for the development of in vitro drug screening and gene therapy to improve treatment options. The promising potential of hiPSCs for regenerative medicine is also evident from the increasing number of publications (>7000) on iPSCs in recent years. Various cell types from distinct lineages have been successfully used for hiPSC generation, including skin fibroblasts, hematopoietic cells and epidermal keratinocytes. While skin biopsies and blood collection are routinely performed in many labs as a source of somatic cells for the generation of hiPSCs, the collection and subsequent derivation of hair keratinocytes are less commonly used. Hair-derived keratinocytes represent a non-invasive approach to obtain cell samples from patients. Here we outline a simple non-invasive method for the derivation of keratinocytes from plucked hair. We also provide instructions for maintenance of keratinocytes and subsequent reprogramming to generate integration-free hiPSC using episomal vectors.

  7. Human and crab exposure to mercury in the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia: impact from an abandoned chlor-alkali plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; Güette-Fernández, Jorge; Magallanes-Carreazo, Elizabeth; Vanegas-Ramírez, Lenis; Kunihiko, Nakamura

    2008-05-01

    Human hair samples from male and female people aged 6-85 years, as well as muscle of crabs (Callinectes sapidus and Callinectes bocourti) were collected from different fishing places along the Caribbean coastal shoreline of Colombia and analyzed for total mercury (T-Hg) in order to establish the impact of mercury-polluted sediments in Cartagena bay on the ecosystem. Hair T-Hg in inhabitants varied between 0.1 and 21.8 microg/g, with average and median of 1.52 microg/g and 1.1 microg/g, respectively. Differences between sampling locations were significant (P<0.01) and median values decreased in the order: Caño del Oro (1.5 microg/g)mercury through the food chain, allowing its accumulation in fishermen whose diet includes marine products as sources of protein.

  8. Detoxification of mercury species - an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truempler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Bjoern; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany); Wiesmueller, Gerhard A. [University Hospital Muenster, Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissues, Muenster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis, Muenster (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}, CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC. (orig.)

  9. Detoxification of mercury species--an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Björn; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Buscher, Wolfgang; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (MeHg+, CH3Hg+) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC.

  10. A meeting of two chronobiological systems: circadian proteins Period1 and BMAL1 modulate the human hair cycle clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Hardman, Jonathan A; Bíró, Tamás; Haslam, Iain S; Philpott, Michael P; Tóth, Balázs I; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Baier, Gerold; Watson, Rachel E B; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The hair follicle (HF) is a continuously remodeled mini organ that cycles between growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). As the anagen-to-catagen transformation of microdissected human scalp HFs can be observed in organ culture, it permits the study of the unknown controls of autonomous, rhythmic tissue remodeling of the HF, which intersects developmental, chronobiological, and growth-regulatory mechanisms. The hypothesis that the peripheral clock system is involved in hair cycle control, i.e., the anagen-to-catagen transformation, was tested. Here we show that in the absence of central clock influences, isolated, organ-cultured human HFs show circadian changes in the gene and protein expression of core clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, and Period1) and clock-controlled genes (c-Myc, NR1D1, and CDKN1A), with Period1 expression being hair cycle dependent. Knockdown of either BMAL1 or Period1 in human anagen HFs significantly prolonged anagen. This provides evidence that peripheral core clock genes modulate human HF cycling and are an integral component of the human hair cycle clock. Specifically, our study identifies BMAL1 and Period1 as potential therapeutic targets for modulating human hair growth.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in human hair at an e-waste site in China: composition profiles and chiral signatures in comparison to dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in southern China and compared their composition profiles and chiral signatures to those of workplace and domestic dust. The PCB concentrations showed significant age dependence in dismantling workers' hair but not in residents' hair. Among residents, PCB concentrations decreased in the following order: elderly people>students>pre-school children>adults. The PCB homologue and congener profiles of the workers' hair were similar to those of the workplace dust. However, the PCB homologue profile of the residents' hair was clearly different from that of the domestic dust. The chiral congener CB95 generally exhibited a racemic or near-racemic composition in both hair and dust, with enantiomer fractions (EFs) ranging from 0.485 to 0.525 in hair and from 0.479 to 0.504 in dust. The EFs of CB132 in dust (0.477-0.513) were closer to a racemic chiral signature than those in hair (0.378-0.521), but this difference was not significant. Our results suggest that the chiral signature of PCBs may be a better tool than the PCB composition profile for identifying the external and internal sources of organic contaminants in human hair. Further measurements of chiral PCB signatures in hair and blood from the same individuals are needed to identify the external and internal sources of PCBs in human hair.

  12. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal Print A ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  13. Oily hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  14. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantitation of ten major drugs of abuse in human hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanidis, A; Mastrogianni, O; Koukou, A; Psarros, G; Gika, H; Theodoridis, G; Raikos, N

    2017-03-15

    A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis. Optimization of derivatization parameters was based on experiments for the selection of derivatization time, temperature and volume of derivatising agent. Validation of the method included evaluation of linearity which ranged from 2 to 350ng/mg of hair mean concentration for all DOA, evaluation of sensitivity, accuracy, precision and repeatability. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.46ng/mg of hair. The developed method was applied for the analysis of hair samples obtained from three human subjects and were found positive in cocaine, and opiates. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Analysis of disulphide bonds found in human hair by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Ruiz, A. L.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Plascencia-Castro, A. S.; Hernandez-Rayas, A.; Ruvalcaba, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers information-rich spectra, making it a technique easy to use in areas such as biology, chemistry, and in the field. Human hair spectra has been recorded obtaining interesting information about its composition. Correlating information obtained from these spectra to bone health and determining if Raman spectroscopy could be used as a diagnostic tool of bone health is proposed. Spectra from healthy women were compared to the spectra of women who have suffered a bone fracture, all which were aged 39-60. This technique has potential to become a regular diagnostic tool and further investigation to improve and validate this method are needed.

  16. Changes in structure and geometric properties of human hair by aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Shinobu; Kajiura, Yoshio; Mamada, Akira; Abe, Hiroko; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Satoh, Naoki; Itou, Takashi; Shinohara, Yuya; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    To clarify hair changes by aging, the effect of age on hair properties was investigated from macro- to microscopic view points. Sensory hair luster tests were performed on 230 Japanese females from 10 to 70 years of age, revealing that hair luster decreases with age. The age dependence of the hair diameter and the ellipticity of the hair cross section could not explain luster reduction by aging. It has been determined that an irregular increase in fiber curvature occurs with age and is a cause of luster reduction with aging. A detailed structural analysis by synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray diffraction revealed that the inhomogeneity in the lateral distribution of the hair microstructure increased with age and relates to the irregular increase in curvature. Such an increase in curvature is one of the important factors that leads to a poor alignment of hairs and luster reduction, and is related to the appearance of aging hair.

  17. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Mercury a highly toxic metal, results in a variety of adverse health effects ... the tissues of both animals and men (Lund et al.,1993;. Mahboob et al. ... mined the effects of VC and VE on pesticide and heavy metals toxicity in ...

  18. Climate Change Impacts on Environmental and Human Exposure to Mercury in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Banel, Anna; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Rautio, Arja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews information from the literature and the EU ArcRisk project to assess whether climate change results in an increase or decrease in exposure to mercury (Hg) in the Arctic, and if this in turn will impact the risks related to its harmful effects. It presents the state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport to the Arctic, and it discusses the likely environmental fate and exposure effects on population groups in the Arctic under climate change conditions. The paper also includes information about the likely synergy effects (co-benefits) current and new climate change polices and mitigation options might have on mercury emissions reductions in the future. The review concludes that reductions of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible in order to assure lowering the adverse impact of climate change on human health. Scientific information currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether climate change will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to mercury in the Arctic. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between climate change and mercury exposure. PMID:25837201

  19. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  20. Mercurio en cabello de diferentes grupos ocupacionales en una zona de minería aurifera en el Norte de Colombia Hair mercury levels in different occupational groups in Southern Bolivar (Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivero

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Análisis de mercurio en cabello fue realizado a 219 personas que habitan en la principal zona de minería del oro en Colombia, tomando 27 personas de la ciudad de Cartagena, como muestra Control. Para el análisis de los datos, la muestra estudiada se dividió de acuerdo con la ocupación de las personas, encontrándose concentraciones medias (±DE de 5,23±5,78, 2,83±3,27, 2,40±2,02 y 1,33±0,74 µg/g de mercurio en cabello, para pescadores, mineros, personas dedicadas a otras actividades y grupo control respectivamente. De acuerdo con el análisis de varianza y el test de Newman Keuls, existe diferencia significativa (pHair mercury analysis was carried out on a sample of 219 people living in the main gold mining zone of Colombia, 27 inhabitante of Cartagena City being taken as control sample. For data analysis the sample was divided by occupation and the corresponding the hair mercury concentrations (mean ± SD were found to be 5.23 ± 5.78, 2.83 ± 3.27, 2.4 ± 2.02 and 1.33 ±0.74 µg/g for fishermen, miners, people of various other activities and the control sample, respectively. According to variance analysis and the Newman Keuls test, there were significant differences (p<0.01 between the mercury concentrations for fishermen and those for the other groups. No significant differences were found for hair mercury and sex, non was any correlation with age detected; however, a low positive correlation (R=0.15, p<0.01 with the frequency of the consumption of fish was noted. The main symptons of mercury poinsoning observed in the persons exposed were headache, oral lesions, metalic taste, loss of memory, and irritability.

  1. Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription

  2. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  3. Preliminary analysis of the distribution of water in human hair by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Yash; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ramaprasad, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion and distribution of water in hair can reveal the internal structure of hair that determines the penetration of various products used to treat hair. The distribution of water into different morphological components in unmodified hair, cuticle-free hair, and hair saturated with oil at various levels of humidity was examined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) by substituting water with deuterium oxide (D(2)O). Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Water present in hair gives basically two types of responses in SANS: (i) interference patterns, and (ii) central diffuse scattering (CDS) around the beam stop. The amount of water in the matrix between the intermediate filaments that gives rise to interference patterns remained essentially constant over the 50-98% humidity range without swelling this region of the fiber extensively. This observation suggests that a significant fraction of water in the hair, which contributes to the CDS, is likely located in a different morphological region of hair that is more like pores in a fibrous structure, which leads to significant additional swelling of the fiber. Comparison of the scattering of hair treated with oil shows that soybean oil, which diffuses less into hair, allows more water into hair than coconut oil. These preliminary results illustrate the utility of SANS for evaluating and understanding the diffusion of deuterated liquids into different morphological structures in hair.

  4. Application of XANES profiles to X-ray spectromicroscopy for biomedical specimens: part II. Mapping oxidation state of cysteine in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takafumi; Takehara, Kouji; Shimizu, Norio; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Human hair fibers are primarily composed of keratin protein, characterized by a very high content of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, which ordinarily forms cystine via a disulfide bond. It is known that some cystine residues are converted to cysteic acid during permanent waving or hair coloring, although details of their distribution and extent are still unclear. In this study, by using difference in XANES profiles of cystine and cysteic acid at the S-K absorption edge, the formation of cysteic acid was confirmed for homogenized samples of permed or bleached hair. Furthermore chemical mapping of cysteic acid was performed on hair-section samples with X-ray contact microscopy. The peripheral region, cuticle, in bleached hair showed the highest content of cysteic acid compared with the other parts, while permed hair showed relatively uniform distribution. This finding suggests that perming and bleaching damage hair by different mechanisms.

  5. Levels and sources of brominated flame retardants in human hair from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tao; Chen, Shen-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2011-12-01

    Human hair and indoor dust from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in south China were collected and analyzed for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFRs concentrations in hair from occupational e-waste recycling workers were higher than those from non-occupational exposed residents in other sampling areas. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two major BFRs in hair samples. The PBDE congener profiles in hair from the e-waste area are different from those from urban and rural areas with relatively higher contribution of lower brominated congeners. DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. Significant correlations were found between hair level and dust level for DBDPE and BTBPE but not for PBDEs. The different PBDE congener profiles between dust and hair may suggest that exogenous exposure to the PBDE adsorbed on dust is not a major source of hair PBDEs.

  6. Valproic Acid Induces Hair Regeneration in Murine Model and Activates Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Yoon, Juyong; Shin, Seung Ho; Zahoor, Muhamad; Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Phil June; Park, Won-Seok; Min, Do Sik; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2012-01-01

    Background Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA), a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/ Principal Findings Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX), a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. Conclusions/ Significance Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth. PMID:22506014

  7. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  8. Degradation of human hair keratin scaffold material used to repair injured skeletal muscles of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Dong-fang; LU Yan-meng; FU Wen-yu; PIAO Ying-jie

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mechanism of the degradation of human hair keratin (HHK) scaffold material implanted in damaged skeletal muscle tissues. Methods: Six New Zealand rabbits with HHK scaffold material implants (composed of 3 different types of HHK material with varied degradation speed) after musclectomy were divided into 3 groups (2 in each group) to observe the degradation of the material at 1, 3, 6weeks after operation. Another rabbit without operation was used as the control group. The degradation of HHK was observed with light microscopy, histochemistry of ubiquitin and electron microscopy. Results:Light microscopy showed that human hair cuticles fell off from the HHK material and emerged, and the macrophagocytes and multinucleate giant cells were attached onto the surface of the material, which became homogeneous at the first postoperative week. The HHK scaffold material was degraded into particles that was phagocytosed by macrophagocytes and multinucleate giant cells at the third week. Ubiquitin enzymatic histochemistry showed that the macrophagocytes and the multinucleate giant cells were positive at the first week. Under electron microscope, HHK scaffold material was degraded into particles, and at the sixth week,part of HHK scaffold material was further degraded. Conclusion: Large mass of the HHK scaffold material is degraded via ubiquitin system, and the resultant particles are phagocytosed and degraded with the cooperation of lysosome and ubiquitin.

  9. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols.

  10. Keratin film made of human hair as a nail plate model for studying drug permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2011-08-01

    The limited source of human nail plate for studying drug permeation inspired us to develop a nail plate model made of human hair keratin. The manufacturing process consisted of keratin extraction, dialysis, molding, solvent evaporation, and curing, producing a water-resistant film. The permeability of the film was examined using three markers: sodium fluorescein, rhodamine B, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran as water-soluble, lipid-soluble, and large molecule models, respectively. Bovine hoof was used for comparison. First investigation showed that keratin films (thickness 120 μm) resembled hooves (thickness 100 μm) except that these films were more permeable to rhodamine B compared with hooves (1.8-fold, pnail plate substitute. However, inclusion of the penetration enhancer must be carefully interpreted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Media for Hair Regeneration Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Sushilkumar; Tiwari, Shashi Kant

    Hair loss can have major psychological impact on affected population belonging to varied ethnic background. Hair is a mini organ in itself and serves many distinguishing functions ranging from maintaining body temperature to promoting social interactions. Major cause of hair loss is androgenic alopecia. Hair follicles possess receptor for androgen. However, DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) in excess results into shrinkage of hair follicle affecting hair growth adversely. The present review is focused on etiology of hair loss, traditional treatment approach and their limitations with side effects with special emphasis on unique properties of stem cells, favourable growth factors secreted by stem cells and strategies to enhance favourable growth factor/cytokine production for hair loss therapeutics. We discussed in details the present available treatment options for hair loss like drugs (Finasteride and Minoxidil), follicular hair transplant, laser therapy and serum therapy. These treatment options have their own disadvantages and side effects with appropriate alerts from regulatory authorities. The side effects of these modalities cannot be ignored and demands alternate therapy approach with less or no side effects. We feel that the stem cell therapy is advancing and is a promising modality in near future owing to its advantages and promising outcomes. This review article discusses possible stem cell therapy for hair regrowth and its advantages. We focused on use of conditioned media derived from stem cells instead of using stem cells directly for the therapy.

  12. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Ingrown hair By Mayo Clinic Staff An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause ... and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  13. Mercury and zinc differentially inhibit shark and human CFTR orthologues: involvement of shark cysteine 102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard J; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Sirota, Jeffrey C; Aller, Stephen G; Decker, Sarah E; Dawson, David C; Forrest, John N

    2006-03-01

    The apical membrane is an important site of mercury toxicity in shark rectal gland tubular cells. We compared the effects of mercury and other thiol-reacting agents on shark CFTR (sCFTR) and human CFTR (hCFTR) chloride channels using two-electrode voltage clamping of cRNA microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes. Chloride conductance was stimulated by perfusing with 10 microM forskolin (FOR) and 1 mM IBMX, and then thio-reactive species were added. In oocytes expressing sCFTR, FOR + IBMX mean stimulated Cl(-) conductance was inhibited 69% by 1 microM mercuric chloride and 78% by 5 microM mercuric chloride (IC(50) of 0.8 microM). Despite comparable stimulation of conductance, hCFTR was insensitive to 1 microM HgCl(2) and maximum inhibition was 15% at the highest concentration used (5 microM). Subsequent exposure to glutathione (GSH) did not reverse the inhibition of sCFTR by mercury, but dithiothreitol (DTT) completely reversed this inhibition. Zinc (50-200 microM) also reversibly inhibited sCFTR (40-75%) but did not significantly inhibit hCFTR. Similar inhibition of sCFTR but not hCFTR was observed with an organic mercurial, p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid (pCMBS). The first membrane spanning domain (MSD1) of sCFTR contains two unique cysteines, C102 and C303. A chimeric construct replacing MSD1 of hCFTR with the corresponding sequence of sCFTR was highly sensitive to mercury. Site-specific mutations introducing the first but not the second shark unique cysteine in hCFTR MSD1 resulted in full sensitivity to mercury. These experiments demonstrate a profound difference in the sensitivity of shark vs. human CFTR to inhibition by three thiol-reactive substances, an effect that involves C102 in the shark orthologue.

  14. Thyroxine differentially modulates the peripheral clock: lessons from the human hair follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hardman

    Full Text Available The human hair follicle (HF exhibits peripheral clock activity, with knock-down of clock genes (BMAL1 and PER1 prolonging active hair growth (anagen and increasing pigmentation. Similarly, thyroid hormones prolong anagen and stimulate pigmentation in cultured human HFs. In addition they are recognized as key regulators of the central clock that controls circadian rhythmicity. Therefore, we asked whether thyroxine (T4 also influences peripheral clock activity in the human HF. Over 24 hours we found a significant reduction in protein levels of BMAL1 and PER1, with their transcript levels also decreasing significantly. Furthermore, while all clock genes maintained their rhythmicity in both the control and T4 treated HFs, there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of BMAL1 and PER1 in T4 (100 nM treated HFs. Accompanying this, cell-cycle progression marker Cyclin D1 was also assessed appearing to show an induced circadian rhythmicity by T4 however, this was not significant. Contrary to short term cultures, after 6 days, transcript and/or protein levels of all core clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, clock, CRY1, CRY2 were up-regulated in T4 treated HFs. BMAL1 and PER1 mRNA was also up-regulated in the HF bulge, the location of HF epithelial stem cells. Together this provides the first direct evidence that T4 modulates the expression of the peripheral molecular clock. Thus, patients with thyroid dysfunction may also show a disordered peripheral clock, which raises the possibility that short term, pulsatile treatment with T4 might permit one to modulate circadian activity in peripheral tissues as a target to treat clock-related disease.

  15. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%).

  16. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draus-Barini, Jolanta; Walsh, Susan; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Kupiec, Tomasz; Głąb, Henryk; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-01-14

    DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person's externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general Władysław Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including ancient DNA studies, for the prediction of

  17. Potential of human γD-crystallin for hair damage repair: insights into the mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Matamá, T; Cruz, C F; Gomes, A C; Cavaco-Paulo, A M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new strategy to physically 'repair' chemically damaged hair. Hence the human eye γD-crystallin, a protein from the superfamily characterized structurally by the Greek key motif, was studied. The human γD-crystallin was chosen based on the ability of proteins belonging to this superfamily to be involved in the coating of specific structures. Two crystallins were used on the study, the wild type (Protein Data Bank ID: 1HK0) and the mutant protein. The mutant form was intended to induce a strong and quick protein polymerization as well to have new possible points of anchorage to hair. The ability of both crystallins to bind to damaged hair and even penetrate into its cortex was checked by fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore the reinforcement of hair mechanical resistance, the potential cytotoxic/inflammatory effect of crystallins were studied in order to have a fully comprehension about the protein based formulation. Although the chemical over-bleaching treatment induced a decrease of 20% on the resistance of the hair, the crystallins which bind and penetrate the hair fibre were able to recover and even to improve its mechanical properties when compared to the virgin hair. Moreover none of the crystallins displayed a toxic effect in fibroblasts for all the range of tested concentrations upon 72 h of exposure. The active aggregation process of mutant crystallin induced an inflammatory response in fibroblasts in the first 24 h of contact, measured by the amount of released pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 to the medium. In contrast contact with wild type crystallin did not lead to significant inflammation. Outcome from protein formulation characterization supports the hypothesis that the γD-crystallin it is able to recover and improve the mechanical properties of chemical damaged hair. Therefore it can be considered as a very promising strengthening agent for the

  18. Human brain mercury levels related to exposure to amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, E; Aksoy, A; Turla, A; Karaarslan, E S; Karaarslan, B; Aydın, A; Eken, A

    2014-08-01

    The safety of dental amalgam as the primary material in dental restoration treatments has been debated since its introduction. It is widely accepted that amalgam restorations continuously release elemental mercury (Hg) vapor, which is inhaled and absorbed by the body and distributed to tissues, including the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of amalgam fillings is correlated with brain Hg level. The Hg levels in the parietal lobes of the brains of 32 cadavers were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer with the mercury hydride system. A total of 32 brain samples were tested; of these, 10 were from cadavers with amalgam fillings, while 22 of them were amalgam free. Hg was detected in 60.0% (6 of 10) of the samples in the amalgam group and in 36.3% (8 of 22) in the amalgam-free group. The average Hg level of the amalgam group was 0.97 ± 0.83 µg/g (minimum: 0.3 µg/g and maximum: 2.34 µg/g), and in the amalgam-free group, it was 1.06 ± 0.57 µg/g (minimum: 0.17 µg/g and maximum: 1.76 µg/g). The results of the present study showed no correlation between the presence of amalgam fillings and brain Hg level.

  19. Dry hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally style your hair? Do you use a hair dryer? What type? How often? What other symptoms are also present? Diagnostic tests that may be performed include: Examination of the hair under a microscope Blood tests

  20. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal A A A ... recommend an electrologist with the proper credentials. Laser Hair Removal How It Works: A laser is directed through ...

  1. Mercury and health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustagi Neeti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP have issued guidelines for the countries′ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now.

  2. Mercury and health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  3. Mercury and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-08-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries' health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now.

  4. Difference in the distributions between Ca content and the degree of oxidative damage in human hair determined by x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.; Inoue, T.; Kawai, T.; Taki, Y.; Inoue, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shinohara, K.

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the cause of Ca distribution in human hair, the distributions of Ca and oxidation of cystine, a major sulfur-containing amino acid in hair, were compared in submicron resolution with X-ray spectromicroscopy at the Ca-K and S-K absorption edges. Ca distribution was also detected with high sensitivity by X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF) in a few micron resolution. Hair samples were treated with bleach followed by Ca soaking. The increase of Ca content was in parallel with the progression of the oxidation by bleach treatment, beginning from the cuticle, the outer region of the hair. This increase was dependent on the concentration of bleach solution and treatment time. On the other hand Ca content in medulla, the central region of the hair, was apparent even in hair with no bleach treatment, and seemed to be little influenced by the Ca soaking following bleach treatment.

  5. Hair growth-promoting effect of Geranium sibiricum extract in human dermal papilla cells and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, William A; Yu, Miri; Choi, Youngbin; Jeong, Gi Hee; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Cho, Sunghun; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2017-02-13

    Geranium sibiricum L. has been used as a medicinal plant to treat diarrhea, bacterial infection, and cancer in Bulgaria, Peru, and Korea. However, its hair growth-promoting effect was not investigated so far. This study examined the effects of Geranium sibiricum L. extract (GSE) on hair growth, using in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant, proliferation and migration assay of GSE was performed with human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Hair-growth promoting effect was measured in animal model. Relative expression of interleukin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta 1 was determined by real time RT-PCR. Expression of Ki-67 and stem cell factor were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. GSE treatment proliferated and migrated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) more than treatment of 10 μM minoxidil. GSE significantly stimulated the expression of Ki-67 protein and the mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in hDPCs. Topical application of 1,000 ppm GSE for 3 weeks promoted more significant hair growth on shaved C57BL/6 mice than did 5% minoxidil. The histological morphology of hair follicles demonstrated an active anagen phase with the induction of stem cell factor. GSE treatment significantly reduced the number of mast cells and the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in mouse skin tissues. These results demonstrated that GSE promotes hair growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating growth factors and the cellular response.

  6. Evaluation of the use of human hair for biomonitoring the deficiency of essential and exposure to toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jairo L.; Batista, Bruno L.; Nunes, Juliana A.; Passos, Carlos J.S. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br

    2008-11-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements and assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements is of great importance for human health. Thus, the appropriate selection and measurement of biomarkers of internal dose is of critical importance. Due to their many advantages, hair samples have been widely used to assess human exposure to different contaminants. However, the validity of this biomarker in evaluating the level of trace elements in the human body is debatable. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between levels of trace elements in hair and whole blood or plasma in a Brazilian population. Hair, blood and plasma were collected from 280 adult volunteers for metal determination. An ICP-MS was used for sample analysis. Manganese, copper, lead and strontium levels in blood varied from 5.1 to 14.7, from 494.8 to 2383.8, from 5.9 to 330.1 and from 11.6 to 87.3 {mu}g/L, respectively. Corresponding levels in hair varied from 0.05 to 6.71, from 0.02 to 37.59, from 0.02 to 30.63 and from 0.9 to 12.6 {mu}g/g. Trace element levels in plasma varied from 0.07 to 8.62, from 118.2 to 1577.7 and from 2.31 to 34.2 {mu}g/L for Mn, Cu and Sr, respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) between lead levels in hair and blood. Moreover, copper and strontium levels in blood correlate with those levels in plasma (r = 0.64 , p < 0.001 for Cu) and (r = 0.22, p < 0.05 for Sr). However, for Cu, Mn and Sr there was no correlation between levels in hair and blood. Our findings suggest that while the idea of measuring trace elements in hair is attractive, hair is not an appropriate biomarker for evaluating Cu, Mn and Sr deficiency or Pb exposure.

  7. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science

    OpenAIRE

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C.; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of compute...

  8. Levels and sources of brominated flame retardants in human hair from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Luo Xiaojun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Yutao [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Shenjun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi, E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Human hair and indoor dust from urban, e-waste, and rural areas in south China were collected and analyzed for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). BFRs concentrations in hair from occupational e-waste recycling workers were higher than those from non-occupational exposed residents in other sampling areas. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two major BFRs in hair samples. The PBDE congener profiles in hair from the e-waste area are different from those from urban and rural areas with relatively higher contribution of lower brominated congeners. DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. Significant correlations were found between hair level and dust level for DBDPE and BTBPE but not for PBDEs. The different PBDE congener profiles between dust and hair may suggest that exogenous exposure to the PBDE adsorbed on dust is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - Highlights: > In this study we examine BFRs in human hair and indoor dust from the South China. > We find that the composition of BFR in the e-waste area is different from other areas. > DBDPE, instead of BDE209, has become the major BFR in non-e-waste recycling areas. > The PBDE congener pattern in hair is different from those in indoor dust. > In this study we conclude that exogenous exposure to the PBDE is not a major source of hair PBDEs. - BFR levels in hair from different areas in South China were determined and endogenous pathway was found to be the major source of hair BFRs.

  9. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  10. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  11. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  12. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results.

  13. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair.

  14. From Hair in India to Hair India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  15. Quantitative analysis of steroid hormones in human hair using a column-switching LC-APCI-MS/MS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Stalder, Tobias; Foley, Paul; Rauh, Manfred; Deng, Huihua; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of steroid hormones in hair is increasingly used in the field of stress-related research to obtain a retrospective index of integrated long-term hormone secretion. Here, most laboratories have so far relied on immunochemical assays originally developed for salivary analyses. Although these assays are fast and easy to perform, they have a reduced reliability and specificity due to cross-reactivity with other substances and are limited to the detection of one hormone at a time. Here, we report the development of a LC-MS/MS-based method for simultaneous identification of endogenous concentrations of seven steroid hormones (cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, progesterone, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione) in human hair. Hair samples were washed with isopropanol and steroid hormones were extracted from 10mg whole, nonpulverized hair by methanol incubation. A column switching strategy for on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) was applied, followed by analyte detection on an AB Sciex API 5000 QTrap mass spectrometer. Results indicated linearity of the method for all steroids over ranges of 0.09-90pg/mg (0.9-900pg/mg for DHEA) with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 3.7 and 9.1%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were below (or equal to) 0.1pg/mg for all steroids, except of DHEA for which the LOQ was 0.9pg/mg. An analysis of 30 natural hair samples (15 men/15 women) using this method confirmed that all steroid hormones could be quantified at endogenous levels in each individual. In addition, the use of whole hair samples and on-line SPE resulted in a significant reduction in sample throughput times, increasing the applicability of this method for research questions where a larger number of samples needs to be processed.

  16. Determination of organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair: estimation of external and internal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Lin, Yuanjie; Wang, Dongli; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinlei; Wang, Guoquan; She, Jianwen

    2014-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human hair samples. External contaminants of hair were extracted with acetone under sonication, while washed hair was further hydrolyzed in formic acid and acetone (1:4, v/v) with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for internal contaminant measurements. Both internal and external extracts were cleaned up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and then solid phase extraction (SPE), before analyzed by a large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) using triple quadruple mass analyzer. Good linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.996) was established within a concentration range between 0.1 and 100 ng mL(-)(1) among all target analytes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is intended to be cost effective and robust for the routine human hair analysis of PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs including acid-labile OCPs. The described method has been applied in pilot biomonitoring study and the preliminary data suggested that the contaminant profiles with the use of partial least-squares analysis discriminant analysis (PLA-DA) could be useful in differentiating external and internal exposure.

  17. Mercury pollution in the upper Beni River, Amazonian Basin: Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice-Bourgoin, L. [ORSTOM, French Scientific Research Inst. for Development by Cooperation, La Paz (Bolivia); Quiroga, Irma [Univ. Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia). Chemical Research Inst.; Guyot, J.L. [ORSTOM, French Scientific Research Inst. for Development by Cooperation, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Malm, O. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica

    1999-06-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, and human hair. High concentrations in fish and human hair from consumers of carnivorous fish species are reported. The potential health risk from fish consumption was evident in people living downstream of gold-mining activities, but not in the mining population itself 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Matrix solid phase dispersion assisted enzymatic hydrolysis as a novel approach for cocaine and opiates isolation from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Framil, Martha; Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-11-05

    The possibility of assisting enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) procedures by sample disruption mechanisms inherent to matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) has been explored in the current study. EH of hair specimens from poly-drug abusers was assisted by dispersing/blending the sample (0.05 g) with alumina (2.25 g) before loading the dissolved enzyme (6 mL of 1 mg mL(-1) Pronase E in 1.4 M/1.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 7.3) through the hair-alumina solid phase packaged inside a disposable MSPD syringe. The MSPD-EH method was developed, and it proved to offer quantitative results when isolating cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), codeine, morphine and 6-monoacethylmorphine (6-MAM) from human hair samples. The procedure allows an on column clean-up/pre-concentration procedure of the isolated targets by attaching a previously conditioned Oasis HLB cartridge to the end of the MSPD syringe. The EH procedure of human hair with Pronase E can therefore be shortened to approximately 30 min. Within this time, sample blending/dispersion, MSPD syringe package, elution (EH when dissolved Pronase E is passing through the sample-dispersant bed), and extract clean-up and target pre-concentration stages are achieved. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for determining each target after elution from the Oasis HLB cartridges with 2 mL of 2% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol, concentration by N2 stream evaporation, and dried extract derivatization with N-methyl-tert-butylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). The method was validated according to the guidance for bioanalytical method validation of the US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. The simplicity of the proposed approach makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse in hair specimens from poly-drug abusers.

  20. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  1. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  2. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if they don't get enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because they may be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some ...

  3. Giant axonal neuropathy alters the structure of keratin intermediate filaments in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Asfia; Alsop, Richard J; Negishi, Atsuko; Kreplak, Laurent; Fudge, Douglas; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Goldman, Robert D; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2017-04-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) follows an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance and impedes the peripheral and central nervous system due to axonal swellings that are packed with neurofilaments. The patients display a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ataxia, seizures, intellectual disability, pale skin and often curled hair. We used X-ray diffraction and tensile testing to determine potential changes to the structure of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) in the hair of patients with GAN. A statistically significant decrease in the 47 and the 27 Å diffraction signals were observed. Tensile tests determined that the hair was slightly stiffer, stronger and more extensible in GAN patients. These results suggest that the structure of keratin IFs in hair is altered in GAN, and the findings are compatible with an increased positional disorder of the keratin tetramers within the hair fibres. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones stimulate mitochondrial function and biogenesis in human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Silvia; Knuever, Jana; Lerchner, Johannes; Giesen, Melanie; Bíró, Tamás; Klinger, Matthias; Kofler, Barbara; Funk, Wolfgang; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Paus, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate mitochondrial function. As other hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis hormones, i.e., thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), are expressed in human hair follicles (HFs) and regulate mitochondrial function in human epidermis, we investigated in organ-cultured human scalp HFs whether TRH (30 nM), TSH (10 mU ml(-1)), thyroxine (T4) (100 nM), and triiodothyronine (T3) (100 pM) alter intrafollicular mitochondrial energy metabolism. All HPT-axis members increased gene and protein expression of mitochondrial-encoded subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (MTCO1), a subunit of respiratory chain complex IV, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and Porin. All hormones also stimulated intrafollicular complex I/IV activity and mitochondrial biogenesis. The TSH effects on MTCO1, TFAM, and porin could be abolished by K1-70, a TSH-receptor antagonist, suggesting a TSH receptor-mediated action. Notably, as measured by calorimetry, T3 and TSH increased follicular heat production, whereas T3/T4 and TRH stimulated ATP production in cultured HF keratinocytes. HPT-axis hormones did not increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rather, T3 and T4 reduced ROS formation, and all tested HPT-axis hormones increased the transcription of ROS scavengers (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2) in HF keratinocytes. Thus, mitochondrial biology, energy metabolism, and redox state of human HFs are subject to profound (neuro-)endocrine regulation by HPT-axis hormones. The neuroendocrine control of mitochondrial biology in a complex human mini-organ revealed here may be therapeutically exploitable.

  5. Current progress on understanding the impact of mercury on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eunhee; Basu, Niladri; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Dórea, José G; McSorley, Emeir; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-01-01

    Mercury pollution and its impacts on human health is of global concern. The authors of this paper were members of the Plenary Panel on Human Health in the 12th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant held in Korea in June 2015. The Panel was asked by the conference organizers to address two questions: what is the current understanding of the impacts of mercury exposure on human health and what information is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention in lowering exposure and preventing adverse effects. The authors conducted a critical review of the literature published since January 2012 and discussed the current state-of-knowledge in the following areas: environmental exposure and/or risk assessment; kinetics and biomonitoring; effects on children development; effects on adult general populations; effects on artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM); effects on dental workers; risk of ethylmercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines; interactions with nutrients; genetic determinants and; risk communication and management. Knowledge gaps in each area were identified and recommendations for future research were made. The Panel concluded that more knowledge synthesis efforts are needed to translate the research results into management tools for health professionals and policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation and Determination of Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium in Human Breast Milk

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    Abdollahi Atousa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, Lead and Cadmium were determined in 100 samples of human breast milk samples from urban and rural mothers in Isfahan (IRAN. A questionnaire about area of residence, nutrition, smoking habits, and dental fillings was filled out by the lactating mothers. The combination of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and perchloric acid was found to be one of the most suitable acids in wet digestion of milk. Cold vapor atomic absorption was used to determine the mercury content in milk after wet digestion. The effect of concentration of nitric acid, influence of flow rate and tin(П chloride were investigated. The mean concentration of mercury in human breast milk samples was 0.96 ppb. Extraction of Pb and Cd were performed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK and were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The factors influencing, the complex formation, pH, time and buffer were optimized. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in human breast milk was 0.0147 and 0.0121 ppm, respectively. The maximum concentrations were found in breast milk of rural mothers.

  7. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

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    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  8. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. For this fact sheet, hair ... permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners (relaxers) use ...

  9. Distribution and localization of hydrophobic and ionic chemical groups at the surface of bleached human hair fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Michael; Akari, Sabri; Kühn, Harald; Baghdadli, Nawel; Möhwald, Helmuth; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2014-10-21

    A chemical mapping with high lateral resolution using an atomic force microscope in the pulsed force mode with chemically modified tips, introduced as "dynamic chemical force microscopy" (dCFM), was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of the cuticle of human hair and its changes following an oxidative treatment. Chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips, CH3- and NH2-terminated, were applied to achieve a defined chemical contrast (hydrophobic and ionic) in aqueous medium. A comparative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection identified the dominant chemical groups of the surface vicinity of the hair fiber resulting from the bleaching process. The combined experimental results lead to the conclusion that the hydrophobic top layer is partially removed after bleaching, resulting mostly in hydrophilic SO3(-) end groups at the top of the surface of the hair, with a mean surface density "δ(mean)" of negatively charged groups of approximately 2.2 molecules/nm(2), corresponding to ∼600 μg/m(2) cysteic acid. This indicates that thioester bonds are disrupted and fatty acids are removed as a result of cysteine oxidation. At the molecular level, our results indicate a clustered "self-assembled monolayer" alignment of cysteic acid with a crystal-like structuring, reminiscent of the "fluid mosaic model of cell membranes", with a surface energy of approximately 0.04 N/m. Despite previous extensive works of AFM on human hair, this is, to our knowledge, the first time that the hydrophobic and ionic sites at the top surface of hair have been imaged at the nanoscale with dCFM.

  10. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Gandhi, Monica; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Gee, Winnie; Lin, Emil T; Messenkoff, Nicholas

    2008-11-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of three antiretroviral agents, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair. Hair samples from adherent HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapies were cut into about 1 mm length segments and drugs were extracted by first shaking the samples with methanol in a 37 degrees C water bath overnight (>14 h), followed by methyl tert-butyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1) extraction under weak alkaline conditions. The extracted lopinavir and ritonavir were separated by reversed-phase chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry in electrospray positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), while efavirenz was monitored in negative ionization MRM mode. This method was validated from 0.01 to 4.0 ng/mg hair for ritonavir and 0.05-20 ng/mg hair for lopinavir and efavirenz by using 2 mg of a human hair sample. The interday and intraday assay precision (coefficients of variation, CV) for spiked quality control (QC) samples at low, medium and high concentrations were within 15% and accuracy ranged from 89% to 110%. Assay reproducibility was also demonstrated by analysis of incurred hair QC samples (CV hair samples of HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy in an observational study using small amounts of hair.

  11. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES INDUCED BY ULTRASONIC DEGR EASING OF WOOL AND HUMAN HAIR WASTES

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    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and reuse of wool and hair waste is a challenge with the ultimate goal environment protection. One of the early stages of the recovery process is the operation of scouring-degreasing wool and human hair waste. In recent decades the use of ultrasound technology has established an important place in different industrial processes and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The power of ultrasound can enhance a wide variety of chemical and physical processes, mainly due to the phenomenon known as cavitation in a liquid medium. The objective of the present work is to develop eco-friendly effective degreasing system for keratin fiber waste with the aid of ultrasound, using distilled water and also trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet classical method and via ultrasonication. This work investigate the effect that ultrasonic irradiation has on the structure of wool and hair fibers. Thus were highlighted both morphological and structural changes of treated materials using optical microscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. By using the unconventional method of cleaning and degreasing with an ultrasonic resonator tube are possible reductions in utility and solvents consumption together with changes in the cuticular layer of wool and hair fibers.

  12. Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics

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    Célia F. Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns.

  13. Isoelectric focusing of human hair keratins: correlation with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and effect of cosmetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvo, M S; Carracedo, A; Muñoz, I; Concheiro, L

    1992-03-01

    A new isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique in polyacrylamide gels with 6M urea and 1.5% Nonidet P40 has been developed to characterize human hair samples. The phenotypes demonstrated with this procedure has been correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns described by other authors. The method described can be applied in the forensic science analysis of a single human hair. Using the same IEF technique we have studied the changes in electrophoretic patterns of cosmetically treated hair. The characteristics of the modifications observed and its utility in forensic science work are also discussed in this paper.

  14. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  15. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cabaña-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems.To determine whether heavy metals (in hair, antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings.55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years. Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27 with those with more than four (n = 15. As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  16. Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury

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    Hoshino, Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE. Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury.

  17. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In references 1 through 9, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. Figures 1 depicts program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system which included lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon. Figures 2 and 3 present the results for human Mercury missions, including LEO departure masses and round trip Mercury lander masses. Using in-situ resources, the missions become less burdensome to the LEO launch infrastructure. In one example using Mercury derived hydrogen, the LEO mass of the human Mercury missions can be reduced from 2,800 MT to 1,140 MT (Ref. 15). Additional analyses of staging options for human Mercury missions will be presented. Figures 4 shows an option for thermal control for long term in-space cryogenic storage and Figure 5 depicts the potentially deleterious elements emanating from Mercury that must be addressed, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented will be presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Human bases at Mercury may have to be resupplied from resources from regolith and water resources in permanently shadowed craters at its northern pole.

  18. Simultaneous determination of five naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites and their deposition in human and rat hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Park, Yuran; Park, Meejung; Kim, Eunmi; Yang, Wonkyung; Baeck, Seungkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Sangbeom

    2015-01-01

    The continuing appearance of new synthetic cannabinoids has been a major issue in the field of forensic and clinical toxicology. In response to that, analytical methods for synthetic cannabinoids have been increasingly established in a variety of biological matrices. Since most of synthetic cannabinoids with structure similarity share some enzymatic metabolites, making the interpretation of analytical results and the discovery of the parent drug actually ingested very complicated, the investigation on metabolites of the first generation of synthetic cannabinoids with their relatively short side chains in chemical structure could be more important. Therefore, in the present study, we developed the analytical method for AM-2201, JWH-122 and MAM-2201 with JWH-018 as a precursor and their monohydroxylated metabolites in hair matrix. Also, using a rat model, AM-2201 and its monohydroxylated metabolites were identified and then the ratios of metabolite-to-parent drug were estimated to be used as criteria on external contamination. All analytes were extracted with methanol from washed and cut hair samples and the extracts were injected into LC-MS/MS with electrospray ion source in the positive ionization mode. Matrix effect and recovery were evaluated in hair matrices and no significant variations were observed. The validation results for precision and accuracy were satisfactory in both human and rat hair. The LOD and LOQ were 0.5 pg/10mg and 1.0 pg/10mg in human hair and 0.5 pg/20mg and 1.0 pg/20mg in pigmented and non-pigmented rat hair, respectively. Additionally, as a result of the animal study, there were not significant differences in the effect of pigmentation on the distribution of AM-2201 and its monohydroxylated metabolites in hair. Wide variations were observed for the concentrations of the naphthoylindole-based synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites in authentic hair samples from nine cases; those were 0.4-59.2 pg/mg for JWH-018, 0.1-0.8 pg/mg for JWH-073, 1

  19. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  20. Quantification of nanoparticle uptake into hair follicles in pig ear and human forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, A S; Mittal, A; Schäfer, J; Bakowsky, U; Reichrath, J; Vogt, T; Schaefer, U F; Hansen, S; Lehr, C-M

    2014-04-10

    Drug delivery via the hair follicle (HF) especially with nanoparticles (NP) recently gained attention due to a depot effect and facilitated absorption conditions within the lower HF. With the prospect of transdermal drug delivery, it is of interest to optimize the follicular uptake of NP. In this study, a method was developed to quantify NP uptake into HF and applied in vitro in a pig ear model and in vivo in human volunteers. The influence of NP material on HF uptake was investigated using fluorescence-labeled NP based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). All NP had similar hydrodynamic sizes (163-170 nm) but different surface modifications: (i) plain PLGA, (ii) chitosan-coated PLGA (Chit.-PLGA), and (iii) Chit.-PLGA coated with different phospholipids (PL) (DPPC (100), DPPC:Chol (85:15), and DPPC:DOTAP (92:8). Differential stripping was performed, including complete mass balance. The samples were extracted for fluorescence quantification. An effect of the PL coating on follicular uptake was observed as DPPC (100) and DPPC:DOTAP (92:8) penetrated into HF to a higher extent than the other tested NP. The effect was observed both in the pig ear model as well as in human volunteers, although it was statistically significant only in the in vitro model. An excellent in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC, r(2)=0.987) between both models was demonstrated, further supporting the suitability of the pig ear model as a surrogate for the in vivo situation in humans for quantifying NP uptake into HF. These findings may help to optimize NP for targeting the HF and to improve transdermal delivery.

  1. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  2. Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, a spontaneous mouse Lmna mutation modeling human laminopathies.

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    Paul R Odgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10. FINDINGS: Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the Lmna gene, causing a single amino acid change, L52R, in the coiled coil rod domain of lamin A and C proteins. Cranial sutures in Dhe/+ mice failed to close. Gene expression for collagen types I and III in sutures was deficient. Skulls were small and disproportionate. Skeletons of Dhe/+ mice were hypomineralized and total body fat was deficient in males. In homozygotes, skin and oral mucosae were dysplastic and ulcerated. Nuclear morphometry of cultured cells revealed gene dose-dependent blebbing and wrinkling. CONCLUSION: Dhe mice should provide a useful new model for investigations of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.

  3. Somatostatin expression in human hair follicles and its potential role in immune privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Trisia; Lo, Blanche K K; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Yu, Mei; Carr, Nicholas; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2013-07-01

    Immune privilege (IP) is believed to exist in the anagen hair follicle (HF). Studies have shown that downregulation of major histocompatibility complex Class I occurs and immunosuppressive factors are expressed in the HF bulb and bulge. However, demonstration and quantification of functional IP in HF cells are required. We examined the middle (sheath) and lower (bulb) portions of the human HF using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), immunohistology, ELISA, in vitro coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and flow cytometry. We found that HF cells, relative to non-follicular epidermal cells, failed to promote allogeneic PBMC proliferation and CD4(+) and CD8(+) IFNγ production. By qPCR, we found significant downregulation of Class I and Class II HLA alleles in both the bulb and sheath, and upregulation of multiple immunoregulatory genes. It is noteworthy that somatostatin (SST) was significantly upregulated relative to epidermis. By immunohistochemistry, SST was most strongly expressed in the HF outer root sheath, and, by ELISA, cultured sheath cells secreted SST. PBMCs, cultured with stimulatory allogeneic epidermal cells and SST, secreted significantly less IFNγ than controls. Addition of SST antagonists to PBMCs cocultured with allogeneic HF cells increased IFNγ secretion. The data identify SST as a secretory factor potentially contributing to the HF IP repertoire.

  4. Nonisothermal denaturation kinetics of human hair and the effects of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, F-J; Popescu, C; Sendelbach, G

    2006-12-15

    Human hair as alpha-keratin fiber exhibits a complex morphology, which for the context of this investigation is considered as a filament/matrix-composite, comprising the intermediate filaments (IF) and a variety of amorphous protein components as matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under aqueous conditions was used to analyze the denaturation of the alpha-helical material in the IFs and to assess the changes imparted by repeated, oxidative bleaching processes. The DSC curves were submitted to kinetic analysis by applying the Friedman method and assuming first order kinetics. It was found that the course of the denaturation process remains largely unchanged through oxidation, despite the fact that pronounced decreases of denaturation temperature as well as of enthalpy occur. In parallel, the reaction rate constant at the denaturation temperature, k(TD), increases with repeated treatments, that is with cumulative chemical modification. However, this effect is in fact small compared to the overall change of k(T) through the denaturation process. This leads to conclude that once the temperature rise in combination with the chemical change has induced a suitable drop of the viscosity of the matrix around the IFs, denaturation of the remaining helical material occurs along a pathway that is largely independent of temperature and of the pretreatment history. This emphasizes the kinetic control of the matrix over the denaturation process of the helical segments in the filament/matrix composite. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Determination of amphetamines in human hair using dynamic liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry after microwave derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Meng, Pinjia; He, Hongyuan

    2007-01-01

    Human hair is an important specimen for drug abuse analysis owing to its easy collection, long surveillance time window and good correlation between the "degree of addiction" and actual drug concentration. A simple method for determination of 4 amphetamines in human hair was developed. The hair was digested under basic condition, and the drugs in it were extracted using microvolume of chloroform. The organic layer was then transferred into another tube to be derivatized with N-methyl-bis (trifluoroacetamide) (MBTFA) by microwave heating. Finally the reacted solution was detected by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC/SIM-MS) directly. 2-Methyl-phenyl ethylamine was used as an internal standard. Good linearities were obtained for 4 amphetamines with correlation coefficients better than 0.996. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1, were all about 50 pg/mg for amphetamine (AM) , methamphetamine (MAM), methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) in hair. The reproducibility of the method was satisfactory, with the relative standard deviations of 6.0% for AM, 13.9% for MAM, 10.2% for MDA and 9.2% for MDMA. Some real hair from the drug abusers was analyzed with this method. The minimal hair is less than 5 mg (about 20 cm). The method is highly sensitive, easy to operate, time-saving and economic, which can be used for trace analysis of amphetamines in human hair.

  6. Quantitative analysis of toxic and essential elements in human hair. Clinical validity of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanovic, Melita; Jokanovic, Milan

    2011-03-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been an increasing awareness of environmental and occupational exposures to toxic or potentially toxic trace elements. The evolution of biological monitoring includes knowledge of kinetics of toxic and/or essential elements and adverse health effects related to their exposure. The debate whether a hair is a valid sample for biomonitoring or not is still attracting the attention of analysts, health care professionals, and environmentalists. Although researchers have found many correlations of essential elements to diseases, metabolic disorders, environmental exposures, and nutritional status, opponents of the concept of hair analysis object that hair samples are unreliable due to the influence of external factors. This review discusses validity of hair as a sample for biomonitoring of essential and toxic elements, with emphasis on pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical factors influencing results.

  7. Value of the concept of minimal detectable dosage in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2012-05-10

    The influence on drug incorporation of melanin affinity, lipophilicity, and membrane permeability is of paramount importance. Despite their high lipophilicity, some drugs have quite low incorporation rate into hair, suggesting that the higher incorporation rates of basic drugs (cocaine, amphetamines.) than neutral (steroids, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids…) or acidic ones are strongly related to the penetrating ability of the drug to break through the membrane based on the pH gradient between blood and the acidic hair matrix. When using hair analysis as a matrix during investigative analysis, e.g. workplace drug testing, doping, driving under the influence, drug-facilitated crime, the question of importance is to know whether the analytical procedure was sensitive enough to identify traces of drugs; this is particularly important when the urine sample(s) of the subject was positive and the hair sample(s) was negative. It has been accepted in the forensic community that a negative hair result cannot exclude the administration of a particular drug, or one of its precursors and the negative findings should not overrule a positive urine result. Nevertheless, the negative hair findings can, on occasion, cast doubt on the positive urine analysis, resulting in substantial legal debate and various consequences for the subject. The concept of minimal detectable dosage in hair is of interest to document the negative findings, but limited data is currently available in the scientific literature. Such data includes cocaine, codeine, ketamine, some benzodiazepines and some unusual compounds. Until laboratories will have sensitive enough methodologies to detect a single use of drug, care should be taken to compare urine and hair findings.

  8. Speciation of mercury in human whole blood by capillary gas chromatography with a microwave-induced plasma emission detector system following complexometric extraction and butylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, E; Emteborg, H; Baxter, D C; Frech, W; Ellingsen, D; Thomassen, Y

    1992-03-01

    Methyl- and inorganic mercury were extracted from human whole blood samples, as their diethyldithiocarbamate complexes, into toluene and butylated by using a Grignard reagent. The mercury species were then separated by gas chromatography (on a 12 m non-polar DB-1 capillary column) and detected by a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometric (GC-MPD) system. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were established by the analysis of Seronorm lyophilized human whole blood standards for methyl- and inorganic mercury. No statistical difference (t-test) between the sum of these two species determined by the GC-MPD based method and the recommended total mercury concentrations in the Seronorm samples was observed. Results for the determination of methyl- and inorganic mercury in 60 controls and 90 previously occupationally exposed (to inorganic mercury) workers are presented to illustrate the practical utility of the proposed method. No significantly elevated inorganic mercury concentrations between the two groups were evident.

  9. Mercury in the National Parks: Current Status and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, C.; Blett, T. F.; Morris, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed contaminant that can harm human and wildlife health, and threaten resources the National Park Service (NPS) is charged with protecting. Due in part to emissions and long-range transport from coal burning power plants, even remote national park environments receive mercury deposition from the atmosphere. Given the concern regarding mercury, there are and have been many mercury monitoring initiatives in national parks to determine the risk from mercury contamination. This includes the study of litter fall at Acadia National Park (Maine), snow at Mount Rainier National Park (Washington), heron eggs at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana), bat hair at Mammoth Cave National Park (Kentucky), and panthers at Everglades National Park (Florida). Wet deposition is also measured at 16 national parks as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Network / Mercury Deposition Network. Results from these studies indicate that mercury deposition is increasing or is elevated in many national parks, and fish and other biota have been found to contain levels of mercury above toxicity thresholds for impacts to both humans and wildlife. Current research coordinated by the NPS Air Resources Division (ARD) in Denver, Colorado, on the effects of mercury includes broad-scale assessments of mercury in fish, dragonfly larvae, and songbirds across 30+ national parks. Fish provide the trophic link to human and wildlife health, dragonfly larvae can describe fine-scale differences in mercury levels, and songbirds shed light on the risk to terrestrial ecosystems. External project partners include the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Maine, and the Biodiversity Research Institute. In addition, the dragonfly project engages citizen scientists in the collection of dragonfly larvae, supporting the NPS Centennial Initiative by connecting people to parks and advancing the educational mission, and increasing public awareness about mercury impacts. Much of

  10. USGS42 and USGS43: human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

    2012-01-10

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  11. USGS42 and USGS43: Human-hair stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials and analytical methods for forensic science and implications for published measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Because there are no internationally distributed stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic reference materials of human hair, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared two such materials, USGS42 and USGS43. These reference materials span values commonly encountered in human hair stable isotope analysis and are isotopically homogeneous at sample sizes larger than 0.2 mg. USGS42 and USGS43 human-hair isotopic reference materials are intended for calibration of δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements of unknown human hair by quantifying (1) drift with time, (2) mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, and (3) isotope-ratio-scale contraction. While they are intended for measurements of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, they also are suitable for measurements of the stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in human and mammalian hair. Preliminary isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fractions of these materials are USGS42(Tibetan hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -78.5 ± 2.3‰ (n = 62) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +8.56 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18) USGS42(Indian hair)δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = -50.3 ± 2.8‰ (n = 64) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) = +14.11 ± 0.10‰ (n = 18). Using recommended analytical protocols presented herein for δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurements, the least squares fit regression of 11 human hair reference materials is δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) = 6.085δ(2)O(VSMOW-SLAP) - 136.0‰ with an R-square value of 0.95. The δ(2)H difference between the calibrated results of human hair in this investigation and a commonly accepted human-hair relationship is a remarkable 34‰. It is critical that readers pay attention to the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) of isotopic reference materials in publications, and they need to adjust the δ(2)H(VSMOW-SLAP) and δ(18)O(VSMOW-SLAP) measurement results of human hair in previous publications, as needed, to ensure all results on are on the same scales.

  12. Hair analysis: another approach for the assessment of human exposure to selected persistent organochlorine pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaci, Adrian; Tutudaki, Maria; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Schepens, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Hair analysis was used for the assessment of exposure to organochlorine pollutants in specimens from Greece, Romania and Belgium. A simple method (using 3 N HCI as incubation reagent, liquid-liquid extraction with hexane/ dichloromethane (DCM), alumina/acid silica clean-up and GC-ECD/GC-MS analysis) was used for screening of specimens. The highest organochlorine load (up to 148 ng/g hair for the sum of PCB, DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers) was found in samples from a group of Greek women with past occupational exposure to pesticides. DDTs were the main organochlorine pollutants in Greek samples (up to 70%), while in Belgian hair samples their contribution was reduced to 40%. PCB mean concentration was higher in Belgian specimens (up to 14 ng/g hair). Lindane (y-HCH) was the main HCH isomer found in the samples (up to 82% in the Greek samples). Contribution of p,p'-DDT to the sum of DDTs was higher in Greek samples and indicates recent exposure to technical DDT. Similar PCB 153/sum PCBs ratios were found for each of the three countries suggesting similar sources of pollution with PCBs (mainly dietary). Artificially coloured hair samples were found to have lower, but not statistically significant concentrations of organochlorine pollutants than the non-coloured hair.

  13. ToF-SIMS analysis of elemental distributions in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempson, Ivan M; Skinner, William M

    2005-02-15

    Elemental distributions on whole and longitudinal sections of hairs plucked from the scalp were studied with the surface sensitive technique time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Endogenous and environmental influences on the distributions of elemental species were identified. The cuticle scales appear to play the major role in the accumulation of exogenous products. The functionality of the outer surfaces and scale edges each preferentially bind different elemental species. The majority of elements considered accumulated longitudinally on the outer surface of the hair above the scalp level. Internally, most elemental signals (especially Al) decreased longitudinally once exposed to the environment with the exception of Si, which showed an increase. Images of elemental distributions within the medulla suggest that regions of different reactivity exist and show a variable ability to accumulate elemental species. The greatest signal intensities were observed in the cuticle and medulla regions rather than the cortex. The cuticle is continually exposed to environmental contamination and the medulla may, or may not, exist in a hair. Therefore, the components of a hair that potentially contribute the most to the elemental concentrations (i.e. the cuticle and medulla) are also the most variable, and as such greatly complicate the interpretation of elemental concentrations in hair. Results also suggest that bleaching hair can enhance the accumulation of contaminants.

  14. Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morild Inge

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 μg/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is

  15. A new mass screening method for methylmercury poisoning using mercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Naruse, I; Takizawa, Y

    1999-09-01

    A simplified mass screening method for methylmercury exposure was developed using methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria from Minamata Bay. Some bacteria can transform methylmercury into mercury vapor. Most mercury in the hair is methylmercury, which is readily extracted with HCl solution. Black spots are formed on X-ray film due to the reduction of Ag(+) emulsion with mercury vapor produced by methylmercury-volatilizing bacteria. By exploiting these characteristics, a screening method was developed, whereby the fur of rats injected with methylmercury chloride formed clear black spots on X-ray film, whereas the fur of rats injected with saline did not. Subsequently, 50 human hair samples were examined using this mass screening method. The method identified people who had high mercury concentration, over 20 microg/g. A few thousand hair samples may be screened in a day using this method because it is rapid, simple, and economical. This method, therefore, enables screening of persons with methylmercury poisoning in mercury-polluted areas.

  16. Detection and validated quantification of 21 benzodiazepines and 3 "z-drugs" in human hair by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Kristina Y; Baumgartner, Markus R; Meggiolaro, Natascha; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-02-10

    A method for detection and quantification of 21 benzodiazepines and the pharmacologically related "z-drugs" in human hair samples was developed and fully validated using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After methanolic and methanolic/aqueous extraction, the analytes were separated using two different LC-MS systems (AB Sciex 3200 QTRAP and AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP). Separation columns, mobile phases and MS modes for both systems were: Phenomenex Kinetex, 2.6 μm, 50/2.1; 5mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.5/methanol, total flow 0.75 mL/min; electrospray ionization (ESI), multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), information dependent acquisition (IDA), enhanced product ion scan (EPI). The assays were found to be selective for the tested compounds (alprazolam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, N-desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, nordazepam, oxazepam, phenazepam, prazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone), all validation criteria were in the required ranges according to international guidelines, except for bromazepam. Matrix effects, and process efficiencies were in the acceptable ranges evaluated using the post-extraction addition approach. Lower limits of quantification were between 0.6 and 16 pg/mg of hair. The LC-MS/MS assay has proven to be applicable for determination of the studied analytes in human hair in numerous authentic cases (n=175). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair- ... increase your risk of hair loss, including: Family history Age Poor nutrition Certain medical conditions, such as ...

  18. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007205.htm Hair transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A hair transplant is a surgical procedure to improve baldness. Description ...

  19. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh-nun), the substance that gives ... its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black ...

  20. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To avoid spreading infections, don’t share razors. Hair removal creams, gels, and liquids (depilatories) These use chemicals ... electrologist with a current license or certification. Laser hair removal Light is beamed through the skin to stop ...

  1. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  2. Effects of human hair on trans-cranial focused ultrasound efficacy in an ex-vivo cadaver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananel, Arik; Snell, John W.; Kassell, Neal F.; Eames, Matthew D. C.

    2012-11-01

    Current practice before a trans-cranial MR guided Focused ultrasound procedure is shaving the patient head on treatment day. Here we present an initial attempt to evaluate the feasibility of trans-cranial FUS, in an unshaved, ex-vivo cadaver skull. We have sonicated using 220kHz and 710kHz head transducers, a cadaver skull filled with tissue mimicking phantom and covered with a wig made of human hair to evaluate feasibility of acoustic energy transfer in a full size model. Heating at focal point was measured using MR proton resonance shift thermometry. Results showed negligible effect of hair in 220kHz, and an 18% drop in temperature elevation when using 710kHz.

  3. Investigation of scale effects and directionality dependence on friction and adhesion of human hair using AFM and macroscale friction test apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-01-01

    Macroscale testing of human hair tribological properties has been widely used to aid in the development of better shampoos and conditioners. Recently, literature has focused on using the atomic force microscope (AFM) to study surface roughness, coefficient of friction, adhesive force, and wear (tribological properties) on the nanoscale in order to increase understanding about how shampoos and conditioners interact with the hair cuticle. Since there are both similarities and differences when comparing the tribological trends at both scales, it is thus recognized that scale effects are an important aspect of studying the tribology of hair. However, no microscale tribological data for hair exists in literature. This is unfortunate because many interactions between hair-skin, hair-comb, and hair-hair contact takes place at microasperities ranging from a few mum to hundreds of mum. Thus, to bridge the gap between the macro- and nanoscale data, as well as to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms behind the trends, it is now worthwhile to look at hair tribology on the microscale. Presented in this paper are coefficient of friction and adhesive force data on various scales for virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without conditioner treatment. Macroscale coefficient of friction was determined using a traditional friction test apparatus. Microscale and nanoscale tribological characterization was performed with AFM tips of various radii. The nano-, micro-, and macroscale trends are compared and the mechanisms behind the scale effects are discussed. Since the coefficient of friction changes drastically (on any scale) depending on whether the direction of motion is along or against the cuticle scales, the directionality dependence and responsible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Investigation of scale effects and directionality dependence on friction and adhesion of human hair using AFM and macroscale friction test apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaTorre, Carmen [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Suite 255, 650 Ackerman Road, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Suite 255, 650 Ackerman Road, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Macroscale testing of human hair tribological properties has been widely used to aid in the development of better shampoos and conditioners. Recently, literature has focused on using the atomic force microscope (AFM) to study surface roughness, coefficient of friction, adhesive force, and wear (tribological properties) on the nanoscale in order to increase understanding about how shampoos and conditioners interact with the hair cuticle. Since there are both similarities and differences when comparing the tribological trends at both scales, it is thus recognized that scale effects are an important aspect of studying the tribology of hair. However, no microscale tribological data for hair exists in literature. This is unfortunate because many interactions between hair-skin, hair-comb, and hair-hair contact takes place at microasperities ranging from a few {mu}m to hundreds of {mu}m. Thus, to bridge the gap between the macro- and nanoscale data, as well as to gain a full understanding of the mechanisms behind the trends, it is now worthwhile to look at hair tribology on the microscale. Presented in this paper are coefficient of friction and adhesive force data on various scales for virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without conditioner treatment. Macroscale coefficient of friction was determined using a traditional friction test apparatus. Microscale and nanoscale tribological characterization was performed with AFM tips of various radii. The nano-, micro-, and macroscale trends are compared and the mechanisms behind the scale effects are discussed. Since the coefficient of friction changes drastically (on any scale) depending on whether the direction of motion is along or against the cuticle scales, the directionality dependence and responsible mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  7. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  8. Hair cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products.

  9. Research on the Relationship between Hair Mercury and the Frequency of Fish-eating in Pregnant Women in Wujiang City%吴江地区孕期妇女发汞与食鱼频率关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡胜蓝; 吕弘道; 苏海兰; 郭俊良

    2014-01-01

    Objective:By determinating mercury content in hair and analysising relevance between hair mercury and the frequency of fish-eating during pregnancy,to make suggestions for suitable fish intake.Method:Conducting fish-eating history investigation(fish-eating species and weekly frequency) of the hospitalized pregnant women that lived locally during the entire pregnancy and had no major disease history and history of occupation of mercury,while determinating mercury content in hair by collecting the hair of pregnant women at the same time.Result:The average content of mercury in hair of the 303 cases was (494.28±1.94)ng/g.Amone the 303 cases,the numbers of weekly fish-eating during pregnancy were 1-2 times(142 cases), 3-4 times(145 cases),5 and above times(16 cases).The corresponding average values of mercury in hair were (319.82±1.70)ng/g,(719.62±1.67)ng/g and (800.57±1.57)ng/g.Thus,the cases of mercury in hair that exceeded the RfD were positively correlation to the frequency of fish-eating during pregnancy(P<0.01).Conclusion:Fish-eating is the main source of mercury exposure in the general population.Because Methyl mercury affected the development of nervous system of fetus,for the special sensitive pregnant women,that are suggested to eat fiah less than 2 times per week and can add the necessary nutrients through diet by more diverse ways.%目的:测定孕期妇女发汞含量,分析孕期食鱼频率与发汞的相关性,从而对孕期适宜的鱼类摄入量提出建议。方法:对整个孕期生活在本地,无重大疾病史和职业汞接触史的入院孕妇,进行孕期食鱼史(食鱼种类和每周食鱼频率)调查;同时采集产妇头发进行汞含量测定。结果:303例发汞含量均值为(494.28±1.94)ng/g。303例中,孕期每周食鱼次数:1~2次(142例)、3~4次(145例)、5次及以上(16例),相应的发汞均值分别为(319.82±1.70)ng/g、(719.62±1.67)ng/g、(800.57±1.57)ng/g;发汞含量超出RfD例数与

  10. Dermatologic Microsutures Using Human Hair: A Useful Technique in Cutaneous Stitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azrak, Mohammed; Ogawa, Rei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Facial wounds are challenging for dermatologic surgeons, particularly traumatic facial wounds, because they can yield disfiguring scars. To obtain good results, narrow needles and sutures are needed. Hair filaments have a very small diameter (0.06-0.1 mm) and could serve as suture threads for facial wounds. Objective: To determine the aesthetic outcomes by using autologous hair to suture facial wounds. Patients and Methods: This case series study examined the aesthetic outcomes of all consecutive female patients with traumatic facial wounds who underwent autologous hair-based stitching in 2009-2016. Autologous hair ampoules were generated from an insulin needle. Micro instruments were used for wound stitching. Results: In total, 54 females (mean age, 10.8; range, 3-45) years had 56 traumatic wounds. Mean wound length was 3.6 (range, 1-12) cm. Injury depth varied from cutaneous-only to muscle involvement. Suturing yielded good edge coaptation, nice healing, and excellent aesthetic outcomes; the scars were often scarcely visible. Suture marks were not detected. Cutaneous reactions did not occur. Conclusion: Autologous hair can serve as a thread for closing facial wounds. It is low cost and thus suitable in settings characterized by facility and equipment limitations. It is also suitable for the battlefield.

  11. Mercury specifically induces LINE-1 activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    L1 retro-elements comprise 17% of the human genome. Approximately 100 copies of these autonomous mobile elements are active in our DNA and can cause mutations, gene disruptions, and genomic instability. Therefore, human cells control the activities of L1 elements, in order to prevent their deleterious effects through different mechanisms. However, some toxic agents increase the retrotransposition activity of L1 elements in somatic cells. In order to identify specific effects of neurotoxic metals on L1 activity in neuronal cells, we studied the effects of mercury and cobalt on L1-retroelement activity by measuring levels of cellular transcription, protein expression, and genomic retrotransposition in a neuroblastoma cell line compared with the effects in three non-neuronal cell lines. Our results show that mercury increased the expression of L1 RNA, the activity of the L1 5'UTR, and L1 retrotransposition exclusively in the neuroblastoma cell line but not in non-neuronal cell lines. However, cobalt increased the expression of L1 RNA in neuroblastoma cells, HeLa cells, and wild-type human fibroblasts, and also increased the activity of the L1 5'UTR as well as the SV40 promoter in HeLa cells but not in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to cobalt did not result in increased retrotransposition activity in HeLa cells or neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that non-toxic levels of the neurotoxic agent mercury could influence DNA by increasing L1 activities, specifically in neuronal cells, and may make these cells susceptible to neurodegeneration over time.

  12. Characterization of human hair melanin and its degradation products by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Simona; Baroni, Simona; Burgio, Daniela; Digilio, Giuseppe; Fukuhara, Masaki; Martino, Paola; Monda, Keiji; Nervi, Carlo; Kiyomine, Akira; Aime, Silvio

    2008-05-01

    Melanin granules (MGs) have been extracted from human Chinese black hairs by either acid hydrolysis (CH-type MGs) or enzymatic digestion (CP-type MGs), and their chemical structure investigated at the solid state by means of (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS NMR) and EPR spectroscopy. Both types of MGs contain a large amount of protein that is tightly bound to the true melanin polymer, with CP-type MGs having a larger protein content than CH-type ones. Moreover, MGs may also contain variable amounts of lipid-like material. A high amount of paramagnetic metals is detected by EPR in CP-type MGs, in particular Fe(III). Iron can be bound in two chemical forms: as isolated high spin Fe(III) ions with rhombic symmetry and as small oxy-hydroxy Fe(III) aggregates. Iron is poorly available to chelators. CH-type MGs contain much fewer metals. CP-type MGs have then been subjected to partial bleaching by hydrogen peroxide in ammonia, yielding a residual solid, called residual oxidized melanin (ROM) and a soluble but still pigmented fraction called melanin free acid (MFA). MFA can be isolated by precipitation at acidic pH. The (13)C-CPMAS NMR and EPR spectra of these derivatives indicated that ROM has a structure very similar to that of parent MGs, whereas MFA shows a decrease of the protein content with respect to the melanin and a decreased amount of bound iron. Thus, the oxidative degradation of CP-type MGs is a process not involving the bulk of MGs, but rather it proceeds from the solvent-exposed outer parts to the interior. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yong HUANG; Gandhi, Monica; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Gee, Winnie; Lin, Emil T.; Messenkoff, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of three antiretroviral agents, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair. Hair samples from adherent HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapies were cut into about 1 mm length segments and drugs were extracted by first shaking the samples with methanol in a 37°C water bath overnight (>14 h), followed by methyl tert...

  14. Determination of total and methyl mercury in human permanent healthy teeth by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after extraction in organic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber-Tehrani, M; Givianrad, M H; Hashemi-Moghaddam, H

    2007-02-28

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of inorganic and methyl mercury in biological samples by ETAAS. For determination of methyl mercury; it was transferred to toluene phase by acid leaching extraction method. For total mercury after digestion of samples; it was extracted to toluene phase by means of the chelating agent diethyldithiocarbamate. Formation of complex between MeHg and diethyldithiocarbamate enhance the MeHg signal and increases the reproducibility. Furthermore, Pd-DDC was used as modifier for both mercury and methyl mercury determinations. The optimization performance was independently carried out by modifying the parameters such as temperature of mineralization, atomization and gas flow rate for methylmercury and inorganic mercury in ETAAS. The limits of detection were 0.15 and 0.12mugg(-1) for methyl mercury and total mercury, respectively. The repeatability of the measurements of whole procedure were 15.8% for methyl mercury and 16.9% for total mercury determination. The accuracy of the method has been investigated by means of spiking different amounts of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to the samples. The recoveries were found within the range of 88-95% for methyl mercury and 85-92% for total mercury. For determination of total mercury, the method was validated by CVAAS. The obtained results by the present procedure were in good agreement with those of the CVAAS. The proposed method was applied for 30 human permanent healthy teeth (without filling) which significant positive correlations were found among number of amalgam filling and total mercury and MeHg.

  15. Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thanh; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Liao, Chunyang; Tao, Yongqing; Jiang, Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 microg/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu > Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 microg/g) was also found to be significantly higher compared to that in hair samples from control areas. Differences with age, gender, residence status and villages could be distinguished for most of the elements. The high levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were likely found to be originated from e-waste related activities, and specific sources were discussed. This study shows that human scalp hair could be a useful biomarker to assess the extent of heavy metal exposure to workers and residents in areas with intensive e-waste recycling activities.

  16. KONSUMSI IKAN LAUT KADAR MERCURY DALAM RAMBUT DAN KESEHATAN NELAYAN DI PANTAI KENJERAN SURABAYA (Sea Fish Consumption, Degree of Mercury Content in Hair, and Fisherman Health at Surabaya Kenjeran Beach, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmaji Sudarmaji

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pantai Kenjeran di Surabaya mempunyai banyak fungsi baik sebagai tempat rekreasi, perikanan serta tempat pembuangan limbah dari kota Surabaya. Studi sebelumnya telah menjelaskan bahwa pantai Kenjeran telah tercemar khususnya Hg. Polutan ini telah diindikasikan terdapat dalam ikan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat sekitar. Penelitian ini mengkaji dampak mengkonsumsi ikan dari Kenjeran kaitannya dengan kesehatan masyarakat yang menkonsumsi ikan. Peneliltian ini rnengambil sample 70 orang yang mengkonsumsi ikan dan 45 orang sebagai kontrol grup. Dalarn penelitian ini rambut responden diambil dan dikaji dengan Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Penelitian ini menghasilkan bahwa responden yang mengkonsumsi ikan sebanyak rata-rata 99,11 gram/hari mempunyai kadar Hg dalam rambutnya sebesar 0.511 ppb. Penelitian ini mengindikasikan gejala-gejala penyakit yang terjadi pada mereka yang rnengkonsumsi ikan antara lain ginjal, pusing-pusing, tumor, pendarahan gusi, dan gangguan penglihatan. Penelitian ini rnenyimpulkan adanya korelasi yang signifikan antara responden yang mengkonsumsi ikan yang tercemar dengan kadar Hg dalam rambutnya.   ABSTRACT Surabaya Kenjeran Beach, as a part of Eastern coastal area at East Java, functions as a sea recreation place and fishing. The condition of Surabaya Kenderan Beach is polluted by Hg as observed by previous researchers. They suggested that water, sediment, and fish from Kenjeran beach were already contaminated by Hg at dangerous level. Fisherman communities is one of the group which have a risk of getting affected by methyl Hg, because they usually consume fish from sea. This research is to study the relationship between consumption of sea fish and degree of Hg in fisherman’s hair, to measure the average degree of Hg in their hair and then to compare it with limit value. It is also studying the health disorder that likely appears as a result of Hg poisoning. This research took place at Kenjeran district

  17. Cell death effects of resin-based dental material compounds and mercurials in human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Franz-Xaver [Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany); Esters, Magali; Simon, Sabine; Seiss, Mario [Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kehe, Kai [Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Regensburg, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Regensburg (Germany); Folwaczny, Matthias; Glas, Juergen; Hickel, Reinhard [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    In order to test the hypothesis that released dental restorative materials can reach toxic levels in human oral tissues, the cytotoxicities of the resin-based dental (co)monomers hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisglycidylmethacrylate (BisGMA) compared with methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) and the amalgam component mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) were investigated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) using two different test systems: (1) the modified XTT-test and (2) the modified H 33342 staining assay. The HGF were exposed to various concentrations of the test-substances in all test systems for 24 h. All tested (co)monomers and mercury compounds significantly (P<0.05) decreased the formazan formation in the XTT-test. EC{sub 50} values in the XTT assay were obtained as half-maximum-effect concentrations from fitted curves. Following EC{sub 50} values were found (mean [mmol/l]; s.e.m. in parentheses; n=12; * significantly different to HEMA): HEMA 11.530 (0.600); TEGDMA* 3.460 (0.200); UDMA* 0.106 (0.005); BisGMA* 0.087 (0.001); HgCl{sub 2}* 0.013 (0.001); MeHgCl* 0.005 (0.001). Following relative toxicities were found: HEMA 1; TEGDMA 3; UDMA 109; BisGMA 133; HgCl{sub 2} 887; MeHgCl 2306. A significant (P<0.05) increase of the toxicity of (co)monomers and mercurials was found in the XTT-test in the following order: HEMA < TEGDMA < UDMA < BisGMA < HgCl{sub 2} < MeHgCl. TEGDMA and MeHgCl induced mainly apoptotic cell death. HEMA, UDMA, BisGMA, and HgCl{sub 2} induced mainly necrotic cell death. The results of this study indicate that resin composite components have a lower toxicity than mercury from amalgam in HGF. HEMA, BisGMA, UDMA, and HgCl{sub 2} induced mainly necrosis, but it is rather unlikely that eluted substances (solely) can reach concentrations, which might induce necrotic cell death in the human physiological situation, indicating that other (additional) factors may be involved in

  18. Influence of different oils on penetration of human hair by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, S; Kushwaha, R K

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis The hair perforating ability of Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii was tested in presence of seventeen oils. Clove, olive and turpentine oils were found to be fully inhibitory for hair penetration by both fungi. Hair segments smeared with cantheridine oil and keocarpin hair vitalizer failed to reveal any perforation by T. vanbreuseghemii whereas arnica and shikakai oils showed little perforation by this fungus. Résumé La capacité de pénétration du Microsporum gypseum et du Trichophyton vanbreuseghemii a été testée en présence de 17 huiles. Les huiles de clou de girofle, d'olive et de térébenthine se sont avérées complétement inhibitrices du pouvoir de pénétration des 2 levures sur les cheveux. Des cheveux frottés avec de l'huile de cantharidine et un produit vitalisant des cheveux à kéocarpine n'ont révélé aucune pénétration par le T. vanbreuseghemii alors que l'huile d'arnica et l'huile de shikakai ont favorisé une légère pénétration par cette levure.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 18 abused opioids and metabolites in human hair using LC-MS/MS and illegal opioids abuse proven by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Ji, Dajeong; Kang, Soyoung; Park, Meejung; Yang, Wonkyung; Kim, Eunmi; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-02-01

    Natural and synthetic opioids have efficient analgesic activity but can also be addictive. Thus, the determination of opioids and their metabolites in biological specimens is of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. The analysis of drugs in hair provides valuable information on previous chronic drug use and has been successfully applied to the diagnosis of drug abuse, tolerance, compliance and gestational drug exposure. Despite the abuse of prescription opioids along with heroin and other illegal opiates, few studies have been conducted on the simultaneous determination of the broad range of opioids covering those drugs in hair. In the present study, an analytical method for the simultaneous detection in hair of 18 opioids and metabolites considered to have a high abuse risk based on the results of urine drug screening was established and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the purpose of clinical and forensic applications. The drugs and metabolites were extracted from hair using methanol and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The validation results proved that the method was selective, accurate and precise with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. No significant variation was observed by different sources of matrices. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.25ng/10mg hair and from 0.05 to 0.5ng/10mg hair, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to 15 hair samples from opioids users. This method will be very useful for monitoring the inappropriate use of opioid drugs.

  20. Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Hair Follicle Stem Cells on Chitosan-Skin Engineered Template in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hair follicles repeatedly regress and reconstitute themselves, suggesting the presence of intrinsic tissue stem cells. Among the unique characteristics of adult stem cells isolated from hair follicles is their ability to differentiate into keratinocytes. Study on chitosan skin-engineered templates (SETs as scaffolds for the proliferation of human fibroblasts have shown the promise of SETs in facilitating skin cell growth in three-dimensional culture. High proliferation in three-dimensional culture using human cells allows the researcher to extensively evaluate the cultivation of desirable cell types on chitosan SETs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro attachment, proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs on a chitosan SETs. HFSCs were isolated from human scalp tissues using collagenase type I prior to propagation in supplemented CnT-07 media. The phenotype of the HFSCs was verified using the markers keratin-15 (K15 and CD200, as detected by immunocytochemical staining. The attachment and proliferation of the HFSCs on the chitosan SETs were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an alamar blue assay and a live/dead assay. Subsequently, the HFSCs were differentiated using CnT-2D differentiation media. The cells’ differentiation was verified using the markers involucrin and keratin-6 (K6, as detected by immunofluorescence staining. The HFSCs were successfully isolated, proliferated and differentiated according to staining positivity and microscopy imaging. HFSCs are able to proliferate and directly differentiate into keratinocytes on a chitosan SETs, which may facilitate their use in regenerative medicine.

  1. Determination of terbuthylazine and desethylterbuthylazine in human urine and hair samples by eletrospray ionization-liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Terbuthylazine (TBA) is a widely applied herbicide and an environmental contaminant. Following its use, humans, such as agricultural workers and rural residents, may be exposed. An isotope-dilution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of TBA, and its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine (DET) in human urine and hair was developed and validated. Under the optimised conditions, analytes were extracted from urine using a solid phase cartridge or from hair by sonication in methanol. Analytes were separated using a C18 reversed-phase chromatographic column and quantified, after positive ionization using a heated electrospray source, by a triple quadrupole mass detector in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Validation showed linear dynamic ranges up to 100 μg/L or 5.00 ng/mg hair, inter- and intra-run precisions <7%, and accuracies within 12% of spiked concentrations. Limits of quantification were 0.25 μg/L in urine and 0.01 ng/mg hair for both TBA and DET. Matrix effect evaluation showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. TBA and DET were determined in specimens of agriculture workers exposed to TBA using the validated method. Hair samples contained TBA levels in the low nanogram per milligram range, and urine samples contained DET levels in the low microgram per liter range. Conversely, TBA levels in urine samples and DET levels in hair samples were always below the limit of quantification.

  2. Simultaneous quantitation of amphetamines and opiates in human hair by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Ray H; Lin, Dong-Liang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an incubation, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-MS-MS procedure was developed, validated and used for simultaneous analysis of amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC) in hair. Hair samples were initially cut into sections, washed with dichloromethane, then sonicated in a methanol-trifluoroacetic acid mixture. The resulting solutions were processed with a SPE procedure before undergoing LC-MS-MS analysis. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed in positive-ion, multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, using appropriate collision energy for each selected precursor ion. The overall protocol, when applied to the analysis of hair (50 mg) samples fortified with 100-10,000 pg/mg of the analytes, was found to achieve 55.5-74.6% recovery of the six analytes with the following analytical parameters: (i) intra- and interday precision/accuracy data for the six analytes in the 1.6-7.6%/-6.0-12.8% and 1.3-6.6%/-6.9-9.3% ranges, respectively; (ii) r(2) > 0.998 for all six analytes and (iii) LOD 2 pg/mg for AP and MA, and 8 pg/mg for MOR, COD, 6-AM and 6-AC; LOQ 10 pg/mg for all six analytes. This method was then utilized to (i) analyze hair samples collected from 86 self-reported drug users and (ii) evaluate the deposition pattern of drugs in head hairs from four female MA and heroin users in a rehabilitation facility. This relatively simple protocol was found superior over the GC-MS methods we have previously developed and utilized in our laboratory for the analysis of these six analytes.

  3. Evaluating the effect of age and area of residence in the metal and metalloid contents in human hair and urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, Antonio; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring the levels of trace elements in hair can allow estimating the effects of the geographical location and also can provide a notion of the metal body burden. However, the use of human hair is controversial due to the different confounding factors that could affect the presence of trace elements in hair. As a result, a comprehensive monitoring study was performed in Alcalá de Henares, one of the major cities in the Madrid region, Spain. Trace elements have been monitored in urban topsoils and in human hair of two well-defined and healthy groups of population: children (6-9 years) and adolescents (13-16 years). The city was divided into four areas or zones with different characteristics to assess the possible effect of area of residence and age in the presence of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl and Zn in soils and hair. There is no current hypothesis that explains the possible effect of the area of monitoring in the distribution of Be, Cr, Ni, Sn and Ti found in these urban soils, maybe because urban soils receive high disturbance, and there are many factors involved. The presence of most of the trace elements monitored was significantly higher in the hair of the children population, except for Sn and Zn. This could be attributed mainly to dietary habits. Other factors influencing metal content in hair such as environmental factors would have had a minimal effect in the population groups here studied. Finally, none of the levels of trace elements studied in hair were significantly correlated with levels measured in the topsoils of public parks in Alcalá de Henares, with the exception of Pb in adolescent participants.

  4. Mercury content in amalgam tattoos of human oral mucosa and its relation to local tissue reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsell, M.; Larsson, B.; Ljungqvist, A.; Carlmark, B.; Johansson, O

    1998-02-01

    Mucosal biopsies from 48 patients with and 9 without amalgam tattoos were analysed with respect to their mercury content, distribution of mercury in the tissue, and histological tissue reactions. The distribution of mercury was assessed by auto-metallography (AMG), a silver amplification technique. The mercury content was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), a multielemental analysis. Mercury was observed in connective tissue where it was confined to fibroblasts and macrophages, in vessel walls and in structures with the histological character of nerve fibres. A correlation was found between the histopathological tissue reaction, the type of mercury deposition, the intensity of the AMG reaction, and the mercury content. Mercury was also found in patients with amalgam dental fittings but without amalgam tattoos. (au) 24 refs.

  5. Determination of trace elements in human hair. Reference intervals for 28 elements in nonoccupationally exposed adults in the US and effects of hair treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, E S; Phillips, D L; Paschal, D C; Neese, J W

    1989-10-01

    The concentrations of 28 elements in hair of three populations of non-occupationally exposed adults in the US (n = 271) were determined. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles, and geometric means for these data were obtained to define reference intervals for these elements. The effects of various hair treatments, age, and sex on concentrations of 17 selected elements in hair were determined for these populations. Age had little effect on elemental concentrations. Males tended to have higher Cd and Pb levels, but lower Mg and Ti levels than females. Males using dandruff shampoo had significantly higher concentrations of Na, Se, and Ti than those using only regular shampoo and/or conditioners. Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Na, and Sr were all elevated in females using permanents or color treatments, compared to those using only dandruff shampoo, regular shampoo, and/or conditioners.

  6. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  7. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-04-13

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  9. Human exposure to methylmercury through rice intake in mercury mining areas, Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinbin; Li, Ping; Qiu, Guangle; Wang, Shaofeng; Li, Guanghui; Shang, Lihai; Meng, Bo; Jiang, Hongmei; Bai, Weiyang; Li, Zhonggen; Fu, Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (Me-Hg) has caused widespread public human concern as a result of several widely publicized disasters. Me-Hg is highly toxic, and the nervous system is its principal target tissue for humans. Although the general population is primarily exposed to Me-Hg through contaminated fish and marine mammals, in Hg mining areas a long history of mining activities can produce serious Hg pollution to the local environment In a study of 98 persons from the Wanshan Hg mining area, hair Me-Hg levels indicated Me-Hg exposure. Rice, the staple food of the local inhabitants also showed high total Hg (T-Hg) and Me-Hg levels. The geometric mean concentration of T-Hg and mean concentration of Me-Hg in rice samples collected from 3 villages in Wanshan Hg mining area were 36.2 (ranging from 4.9 to 214.7), and 8.5 (ranging from 1.9 to 27.6) microg/kg, respectively, which were significantly elevated compared to the rice samples collected from a reference area, where the mean T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations were 7.0 (3.2-15.1) and 2.5 (0.8-4.3) microg/kg, respectively. Pork meat, vegetable, and drinking water samples collected in Wanshan Hg mining area contained highly elevated T-Hg, but very low levels of Me-Hg. The relationships between the estimated rice Me-Hg intake and hair Me-Hg levels (r = 0.65, p levels indeed was the main route of Me-Hg exposure for the local residents in the Wanshan Hg mining area. From our study, we can conclude that the main human exposure to Me-Hg via food consumption is not restricted to fish, but in some cases in mining areas of China to frequent rice meals.

  10. Uncovering the structure of human red hair pheomelanin: benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinolines as key building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giorgia; Panzella, Lucia; Verotta, Luisella; d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2011-04-25

    Biomimetic oxidation of the pheomelanin precursor 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the presence of Zn(2+) ions led to the isolation of two isomeric products, one of which could be identified as the benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinoline 5, while the other proved too unstable for a complete characterization. Both these products were converted into more stable oxidized forms, which after ethylchloroformate derivatization were characterized as the ethyl ester/ethoxycarbonyl isoquinolines 8 and 9. Compound 5 exhibited absorption characteristics similar to those of red hair pheomelanin, including a main band around 400 nm in acids. Similarly to red hair pheomelanin and synthetic pigments, 5 afforded on chemical degradation a thiazolylpyridinecarboxylic acid fragment. Model chemical studies allowed the proposal of a formation mechanism for the benzothiazole and dihydroisoquinoline systems in compound 5.

  11. Non Invasive XRF Analysis of Human Hair for Health State Determination of Breast Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Maziar, Asghar; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; CHANGIZI, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Using hair samples to analyze the trace element concentrations is of interest among many researchers. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are the most common methods in studying the structure and concentration of elements of tissues and also crystalline materials, using low energy X-ray. Objectives: In the present study, the detection ability of Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) of breast cancer at early stages was evaluated and the results were compared with...

  12. Cortisol during human fetal life: Characterization of a method for processing small quantities of newborn hair from 26 to 42 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M Camille; D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly; Benitez, Patrick; Ross, Randal G; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Fetal cortisol may be reflected in hair collected shortly after birth. The objective of this study was to determine the range of human fetal hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in live-born neonates using an approach for processing small quantities of hair. Hair was cut on the day of birth from neonates and their mothers, born between 26 and 42 weeks gestational age (GA). HCC was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Maternal sociodemographics and birth data were collected. T-tests, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test were used as appropriate. Ninety maternal and neonatal hair samples were cut from 79 term (T) and 11 preterm (PT) delivered pregnancies. All samples weighed ≥2.5 mg. Fetal HCC correlated with GA (r = .25, p = .02) and birth weight (r = .25, p = .03) and was lower in PT (4.3 ± .3 LN pg/mg) than T (5.3 ± .1, LN pg/mg, p hair. Preterm neonates have significantly lower HCC than term neonates and fetal HCC is associated with GA at delivery and birth weight. Fetal HCC is significantly higher than maternal HCC cut on the same day. These data provide novel information on the intrauterine fetal cortisol environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Identification and localization of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) messenger RNAs in human hair follicle dermal papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, J A; Mercuri, F A; Werther, G A

    1996-03-01

    The role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in hair follicle biology has recently been recognized, although their actions, sites of production, and modulation by the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) have not to date been defined. IGF-I is essential for normal hair growth and development, and may be important in regulation of the hair growth cycle. In many culture systems, IGF-I actions are modulated by the IGFBPs. Thus, if IGFBPs are produced in the human hair follicle, they may play a role in targeting IGF-I to its receptor or may modulate IGF-I action by interaction with matrix proteins. We have used in situ hybridization to localize messenger RNA for the six IGFBPs in anagen hair follicles. Anti-sense and sense RNA probes for the IGFBPs (IGFBP-1 to -6) were produced, and 5-micrometer sections of adult facial skin were probed. Messenger RNA for IGFBP-3, -4, and -5 were identified, with predominantly IGFBP-3 and -5 mRNA found in the dermal papilla, and to a lesser extent IGFBP-4 mRNA. IGFBP-4 mRNA was also found at the dermal papilla/epithelial matrix border. Messenger RNAs for both IGFBP-4 and -5 were also demonstrated in the dermal sheath surrounding the hair follicle. Messenger RNAs for IGFBP-1, -2, and -6 were not identified. These studies demonstrate specific localization of IGFBP mRNAs in hair follicles, suggesting that they each play specific roles in the local modulation of IGF action during the hair growth cycle.

  14. Study of thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from α-keratin protein found in human hairs and nails: potential use in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D R; Soni, A; Rawat, N S; Bokam, G

    2016-05-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of human nails and hairs containing α-keratin proteins have been investigated. For the present studies, black hairs and finger nails were selectively collected from individuals with ages between 25 and 35 years. The collected hairs/nails were cut to a size of TL glow peaks in the temperature range from 70 to 210 ° C. Continuous wave (CW)-OSL measurements of hair samples at a wavelength of 470 nm showed the presence of two distinct OSL components with photoionization cross section (PIC) values of about 1.65 × 10(-18) cm(2) and about 3.48 × 10(-19) cm(2), while measurements of nail samples showed PIC values of about 6.98 × 10(-18) cm(2) and about 8.7 × 10(-19) cm(2), respectively. This difference in PIC values for hair and nail samples from the same individual is attributed to different arrangement of α-keratin protein concentrations in the samples. The OSL sensitivity was found to vary ± 5 times among nail and hair samples from different individuals, with significant fading (60% in 11 h) at room temperature. The remaining signal (after fading) can be useful for dose estimation when a highly sensitive OSL reader is used. In the absorbed dose range of 100 mGy-100 Gy, both the TL and OSL signals of hair and nail samples showed linear dose dependence. The results obtained in the present study suggest that OSL using hair and nail samples may provide a supplementary method of dose estimation in radiological and nuclear emergencies.

  15. Limits and possibilities in the geolocation of humans using multiple isotope ratios (H, O, N, C) of hair from east coast cities of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Linda M; Burt, Nicole; Koon, Hannah E C; Tuross, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    We examined multiple natural abundance isotope ratios of human hair to assess biological variability within and between geographic locations and, further, to determine how well these isotope values predict location of origin. Sampling locations feature differing seasonality and mobile populations as a robust test of the method. Serially-sampled hair from Cambridge, MA, USA, shows lower δ(2)H and δ(18)O variability over a one-year time course than model-predicted precipitation isotope ratios, but exhibits considerable differences between individuals. Along a ∼13° north-south transect in the eastern USA (Brookline, MA, 42.3 ° N, College Park, MD, 39.0 ° N, and Gainesville, FL, 29.7 ° N) δ(18)O in human hair shows relatively greater differences and tracks changes in drinking water isotope ratios more sensitively than δ(2)H. Determining the domicile of humans using isotope ratios of hair can be confounded by differing variability in hair δ(18)O and δ(2)H between locations, differential incorporation of H and O into this protein and, in some cases, by tap water δ(18)O and δ(2)H that differ significantly from predicted precipitation values. With these caveats, randomly chosen people in Florida are separated from those in the two more northerly sites on the basis of the natural abundance isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

  16. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  17. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  18. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2015-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity.

  19. Environmental biomonitoring of essential and toxic elements in human scalp hair using accelerated microwave-assisted sample digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakli, Hope; Duncan, A'ja V; McDaniel, Kiara; Mehari, Tsdale F; Stephenson, Jamira; Maple, Lareisha; Crawford, Zaria; Macemore, Calvin L; Babyak, Carol M; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-05-01

    Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study. The concentrations of essential elements in scalp hair were larger than those of toxic elements, with Ca having the highest average concentration (3080 μg/g, s = 14,500, n = 194). Some of the maximum concentrations observed for As (65 μg/g), Ni (331 μg/g), Cd (2.96 μg/g), and Cr (84.6 μg/g) in individual samples were concerning, however. Samples were statistically analyzed to determine the influence of race, gender, smoking habits, or age on the elemental concentrations in scalp hair. Higher concentrations of essential elements were observed in the scalp hair of Caucasians, females, and non-smokers, and the differences were often significant at a 90% confidence level. Several pairs of essential elements, for example Ca-K, Ca-Mg, and Ca-Zn, were strongly correlated in Caucasian hair but uncorrelated in African-American hair. Similarly, essential elements were strongly correlated in female hair but weakly correlated in male hair. Toxic element pairs (As-Cd, As-Se, Pb-As, and Se-Cd) were strongly correlated in the hair of smokers but uncorrelated in that of non-smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke is a common source of toxic elements in humans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. BODIPY-based self-assembled nanoparticles as fluorescence turn-on sensor for the selective detection of zinc in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ming-Yan; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Niu, Li-Ya; Feng, Liang

    2016-11-15

    Zinc plays important roles in regulating physiological and pathological processes. Regrettably, mild to moderate zinc deficiency is common worldwide. Hair Zn(2+) concentration, which reflects a zinc storage status, is useful for tracking trends in zinc status within populations. In this work, we report BODIPY-based self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) as fluorescence turn-on sensor for the selective sensing of Zn(2+) in human hair. The BODIPY monomers (BAN) self-assemble in aqueous medium to form nonfluorescent NPs. In the presence of Zn(2+) ions, the NPs selectively show an obvious turn-on fluorescence change. This selective response of the NPs allows the determination and quantification of Zn(2+) in human hair with a detection limit of 61.3nM. This study demonstrates that the small molecule self-assembled nanoparticle is a versatile and useful tool, and shows great potential for applications in sensing of important analytes in biological systems.

  1. Study of spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric mercury and its human exposure around an integrated steel plant, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, S.; Koshle, A.; Pervez, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Mercury release by coal combustion has been significantly increased in India. Mercury content in coal has been analyzed to 0.272 ppm by Central Pollution Control Board. Toxicological effects of elemental Hg (Hg0) exposure include respiratory and renal failures, cardiac arrest, and cerebral oedema, while subclinical exposure may induce kidney, behavioral, and cognitive dysfunctions. The present work is focused on dispersion pattern and inter-phase exchange phenomena of ambient mercury between air-particulate matter evaluations of alongwith dominance of various major routes of human exposure-dose response using regression analysis around an integrated steel plant in central India. Source-downwind type stratified random sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted for ambient monitoring of total mercury, while representative sampling plant has been adopted for persona exposure-dose response study In space-time framework. Control sites and subjects have been chosen from uncontaminated area (100 km away from any industrial activities). 06 ambient air monitoring stations and 17 subjects from workers, non-workers but local residents' categories and from controlled sites have been chosen for the study. Samples of mercury biomarkers (blood, breast milk and urine) have also been collected from same subjects in each month during sampling period. The sampling period was March 2005 to February 2006 . Samples of 30% acidified KMnO4 for air-Hg absorption, PM10, RPM and biological samples were analyzed for total mercury by ICP-AES using standard methods. Local soils and ground water were also monitored for total mercury content during the sampling period. Results have shown that mercury concentration is very high compared to prescribed limits in all receptors. Results of exchange phenomenon have shown the higher transfer of mercury from air to particulate during combustion in steel plant environment due to presence of huge amount of iron particles, in contrast to

  2. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  3. Assessment of human hair as an indicator of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. Case study on a Norwegian mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Cequier, Enrique; Thomsen, Cathrine; Becher, Georg; Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    A major challenge of non-invasive human biomonitoring using hair is to assess whether it can be used as an indicator of exposure to Flame Retardants, such as Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs), since the contribution of atmospheric deposition (air and/or dust) cannot be neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using human hair more thoroughly by comparison of (i) levels of PFRs in human hair (from 48 mothers and 54 children), with levels measured in dust and air in their respective households; and (ii) levels of selected PFRs in hair with the levels of corresponding PFR metabolites in matching urine samples collected simultaneously. Most PFRs (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethyl-hexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) were detected in all human hair samples, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in 93%, tri-cresyl-phosphate (TCP) in 69% and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in 21% of the samples. Levels of individual PFRs ranged between dust from the participants' homes. Several statistically significant associations between PFR levels in human hair and PFR levels in house dust and/or air were found, e.g. Spearman correlation (rS = 0.561, p < 0.05) between TBOEP in children's hair and in indoor air. Also, associations were found between TDCIPP in hair and its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) in urine; they were stronger for children (e.g. Pearson correlation rP = 0.475; p = 0.001) than for mothers (rP = 0.395, p = 0.01). Levels of diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) in mothers' and children's urine were slightly correlated (rS = 0.409, p = 0.008), suggesting similar sources of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with such design and our findings might help to understand human exposure to and body burdens of PFRs.

  4. You are not what you eat during physiological stress: Isotopic evaluation of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ortenzio, Lori; Brickley, Megan; Schwarcz, Henry; Prowse, Tracy

    2015-07-01

    Variation in δ(13) C and δ(15) N values can be assessed to understand not only diet, but also the influence of physiological factors on an individual. The metabolic balance of an individual can impact isotopic signals in tissues that are forming during the periods of metabolic stress. Fluctuating δ(15) N values are associated with physiological stressors that alter an individual's metabolism such as infection, injury, or pregnancy. This study examines variation in δ(13) C and δ(15) N values along sequentially segmented hair in both modern and archaeological individuals. Subjects with an observable skeletal pathology, known chronic illness, or evidence of pregnancy were compared with controls exhibiting no evidence of physiological stress. The results on hair samples from individuals from 19(th) century Belleville, Ontario, four modern cadavers (two with cancer and two sudden deaths), and two living pregnant women indicate that δ(15) N values are approximately 1‰ higher in individuals with a pathological condition (e.g., infection, fracture, or cancer) and are 1‰ lower during pregnancy, whereas δ(13) C values show less variability. Higher nitrogen values may represent the recycling of nitrogen derived from the breakdown of existing proteins in the body (catabolism), whereas lower δ(15) N values are related to increased utilization of dietary and urea nitrogen for tissue synthesis during pregnancy. These findings suggest that short-term fluctuations of δ(15) N values may be the result of changes in an individual's metabolic balance, and that metabolic imbalance poses a confounding factor to ancient dietary studies when using rapidly growing tissues such as hair.

  5. Postoperative systemic dissemination of injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-04-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcutaneous layer of abdomen. Partial hemilaminectomy and open mercury evacuation of spinal canal was performed. For the removal of abdominal subcutaneous mercury, C-arm guided needle aspiration was done. After surgery, radiologic study showed disseminated mercury in the lung, heart, skull base and low spinal canal. Neck pain and abdominal pain were improved after surgery. During 1 month after surgery, there was no symptom of mercury intoxication except increased mercury concentration of urine, blood and hair. We assumed the bone work during surgery might have caused mercury dissemination. Therefore, we recommend minimal invasive surgical technique for removal of injected mercury. If open exposures are needed, cautious surgical technique to prohibit mercury dissemination is necessary and normal barrier should be protected to prevent the migration of mercury.

  6. Effect of environmental exposure to mercury on the functioning of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cyran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is classified as a heavy metal and thus is commonly referred to as a death metal due to its high toxicity. In the environment it occurs in metallic form or in combination with other compounds. Amidst the sources of exposure to mercury, the most important environmental sources are dental amalgam and mercury vapor from the production of chlorine which is the most important source of occupational exposure. Mercury is easily soluble in fats, so it penetrates through biological membranes. Both - acute and chronic mercury poisoning causes characteristic clinical symptoms. There are several connections between exposure to this metal and toxic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and kidneys. Thus mercury damages the structure of many organs and impairs their function

  7. Feasibility of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells/CultiSpher(®)-G constructs in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengdong; Liu, Feilin; Wu, Chunling; Jiang, Wenyue; Zhao, Guifang; Liu, Li; Bai, Tingting; Wang, Li; Jiang, Yixu; Guo, Lili; Qi, Xiaojuan; Kou, Junna; Fan, Ruirui; Hao, Deshun; Lan, Shaowei; Li, Yulin; Liu, Jin Yu

    2015-10-01

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell therapies has increased the demand for strategies that allow efficient cell scale-up. Preliminary data on the three-dimensional (3D) spinner culture describing the potential use of microcarriers for hMSCs culture scale-up have been reported. We exploited a rich source of autologous stem cells (human hair follicle) and demonstrated the robust in vitro long-term expansion of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs) by using CultiSpher(®)-G microcarriers. We analyzed the feasibility of 3D culture by using hHF-MSCs/CultiSpher(®)-G microcarrier constructs for its potential applicability in regenerative medicine by comparatively analyzing the performance of hHF-MSCs adhered to the CultiSpher(®)-G microspheres in 3D spinner culture and those grown on the gelatin-coated plastic dishes (2D culture), using various assays. We showed that the hHF-MSCs seeded at various densities quickly adhered to and proliferated well on the microspheres, thus generating at least hundreds of millions of hHF-MSCs on 1 g of CultiSpher(®)-G within 12 days. This resulted in a cumulative cell expansion of greater than 26-fold. Notably, the maximum and average proliferation rates in 3D culture were significantly greater than that of the 2D culture. However, the hHF-MSCs from both the cultures retained surface marker and nestin expression, proliferation capacity and differentiation potentials toward adipocytes, osteoblasts and smooth muscle cells and showed no significant differences as evidenced by Edu incorporation, cell cycle, colony formation, apoptosis, biochemical quantification and qPCR assays.

  8. Bipedality and hair loss in human evolution revisited: The impact of altitude and activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid-Barrett, Tamás; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-05-01

    Bipedality evolved early in hominin evolution, and at some point was associated with hair loss over most of the body. One classic explanation (Wheeler 1984: J. Hum. Evol. 13, 91-98) was that these traits evolved to reduce heat overload when australopiths were foraging in more open tropical habitats where they were exposed to the direct effects of sunlight at midday. A recent critique of this model (Ruxton & Wilkinson 2011a: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20965-20969) argued that it ignored the endogenous costs of heat generated by locomotion, and concluded that only hair loss provided a significant reduction in heat load. We add two crucial corrections to this model (the altitude at which australopiths actually lived and activity scheduling) and show that when these are included there are substantial reductions in heat load for bipedal locomotion even for furred animals. In addition, we add one further consideration to the model: we extend the analysis across the full 24 h day, and show that fur loss could not have evolved until much later because of the thermoregulatory costs this would have incurred at the altitudes where australopiths actually lived. Fur loss is most likely associated with the exploitation of open habitats at much lower altitudes at a much later date by the genus Homo.

  9. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Chen; M. Hoptroff; X. Fei; Y. Su; H.-G. Janssen

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal st

  10. Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Hein, D.W.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    In the organism of mammals, important detoxification pathways of arylamines are catalysed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). A recent case-control epidemiology study suggested that human NAT2 slow acetylators exposed to oxidative hair dyes may be at greater risk to develop bladder cancer. We therefore

  11. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Su, Y.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal st

  12. Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Skare, J.A.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Hein, D.W.; Bie, A.T.H.J. de; Toutain, H.

    2004-01-01

    In the organism of mammals, important detoxification pathways of arylamines are catalysed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). A recent case-control epidemiology study suggested that human NAT2 slow acetylators exposed to oxidative hair dyes may be at greater risk to develop bladder cancer. We therefore

  13. In vitro studies evaluating leaching of mercury from mine waste calcine using simulated human body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Crock, James G.; Lowers, Heather A.; Witten, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) studies were carried out on samples of mercury (Hg) mine-waste calcine (roasted Hg ore) by leaching with simulated human body fluids. The objective was to estimate potential human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne calcine particulates and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing calcines. Mine waste calcines collected from Hg mines at Almadén, Spain, and Terlingua, Texas, contain Hg sulfide, elemental Hg, and soluble Hg compounds, which constitute primary ore or compounds formed during Hg retorting. Elevated leachate Hg concentrations were found during calcine leaching using a simulated gastric fluid (as much as 6200 μg of Hg leached/g sample). Elevated Hg concentrations were also found in calcine leachates using a simulated lung fluid (as much as 9200 μg of Hg leached/g), serum-based fluid (as much as 1600 μg of Hg leached/g), and water of pH 5 (as much as 880 μg of Hg leached/g). The leaching capacity of Hg is controlled by calcine mineralogy; thus, calcines containing soluble Hg compounds contain higher leachate Hg concentrations. Results indicate that ingestion or inhalation of Hg mine-waste calcine may lead to increased Hg concentrations in the human body, especially through the ingestion pathway.

  14. Definitive Endoderm Formation from Plucked Human Hair-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and SK Channel Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Illing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells present an extraordinary powerful tool to investigate embryonic development in humans. Essentially, they provide a unique platform for dissecting the distinct mechanisms underlying pluripotency and subsequent lineage commitment. Modest information currently exists about the expression and the role of ion channels during human embryogenesis, organ development, and cell fate determination. Of note, small and intermediate conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels have been reported to modify stem cell behaviour and differentiation. These channels are broadly expressed throughout human tissues and are involved in various cellular processes, such as the after-hyperpolarization in excitable cells, and also in differentiation processes. To this end, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs generated from plucked human hair keratinocytes have been exploited in vitro to recapitulate endoderm formation and, concomitantly, used to map the expression of the SK channel (SKCa subtypes over time. Thus, we report the successful generation of definitive endoderm from hiPSCs of ectodermal origin using a highly reproducible and robust differentiation system. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that SKCas subtypes are dynamically regulated in the transition from a pluripotent stem cell to a more lineage restricted, endodermal progeny.

  15. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmedo, P.; Pla, A.; Hernandez, A.F.; Lopez-Guarnido, O.; Rodrigo, L. [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain); Gil, F., E-mail: fgil@ugr.es [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, School of Medicine (Spain)

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  16. On-line diffusion profile of a lipophilic model dye in different depths of a hair follicle in human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Lamers, Gerda; Sturmann, Nico; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2005-10-01

    In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500 microm in the skin, a fast increase of fluorescence is observed in the gap followed by accumulation of the dye in the hair cuticle. Penetration was also observed via the stratum corneum and the epidermis. Little label reached depths greater than 2000 microm. Fat cells accumulated the label fastest, followed by the cuticular area and the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Sweat glands revealed very low staining, whereas the bulb at a depth of 4000 microm was visualized only by autofluorescence. From this study, we conclude that on-line visualization is a promising technique to access diffusion processes in deep skin layers even on a cellular level. Furthermore, we conclude that the gap and the cuticle play an important role in the initial diffusion period with the label in the cuticle originating from the gap.

  17. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; López-Guarnido, O; Rodrigo, L; Gil, F

    2010-02-05

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  18. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  19. Hair loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ... Sinclair RD, El Shabrawi-Caelen L. Alopecias. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ...

  20. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  1. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair...... systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type...

  2. Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust and hair samples from Northern Poland; an assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among most ubiquitous compounds to be found in indoor environment and ingestion of household dust is considered an important route of exposure to PBDEs, especially in toddlers and young children. The present work reported concentration levels of PBDE congeners (PBDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) in hair and dust samples from selected households from Northern Poland. The concentrations of PBDEs in dust ranged from PBDEs via ingestion of household dust varied from 21 to 92ngd(-1) in toddlers and from 3.7 to 20ngd(-1) in adults. By comparison of correlation between the concentrations of PBDEs in paired hair and dust samples the present work also investigated the possibility of use of hair for reflecting the actual exposure to PBDEs in humans. Finally the possible uncertainties associated with exposure assessment were investigated in the present study.

  3. Evaluation of human exposure to metals from some commonly used hair care products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu M.A. Iwegbue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of nine metals, namely, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe, were determined in 26 brands of hair care products including hair relaxers, conditioners and shampoos. The study was aimed at providing information on the possible risks arising from heavy metals associated with the use of these products. The concentrations of the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of the samples with a mixture of acids. The concentrations of the respective metals in hair relaxers, shampoos and conditioners were found to be 0.8–2.5, 0.6–3.0,

  4. Hair shape of curly hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2003-06-01

    The hair follicle is a unique composite organ, composed of epithelial and dermal compartments interacting with each other in a surprisingly autonomous way. This is a self-renewing organ that seems to be a true paradigm of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions. Each of the follicular compartments is endowed with a specific differentiation pathway under the control of an intricate network of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. As observed for ethnic hairs, even the shape of the hair shaft is intrinsically programmed from the bulb.

  5. Measurement of mercury species in human blood using triple spike isotope dilution with SPME-GC-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Yuliya L; Verdon, Carl P; Fresquez, Mark R; Ward, Cynthia D; Wood, Elliott B; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg), and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple-spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic CombiPAL(®) sample handling station featuring twin fiber-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) injector heads. The use of two SPME fibers significantly reduces sample analysis cycle times making this method very suitable for high sample throughput, which is a requirement for large public health biomonitoring studies. Our sample preparation procedure involved solubilization of blood samples with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) followed by the derivatization with sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate (NaBPr(4)) to promote volatility of mercury species. We thoroughly investigated mercury species stability in the blood matrix during the course of sample treatment and analysis. The method accuracy for quantifying iHg, MeHg, and EtHg was validated using NIST standard reference materials (SRM 955c level 3) and the Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ) proficiency testing (PT) samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for iHg, MeHg, and EtHg in human blood was determined to be 0.27, 0.12, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively.

  6. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system.

  7. Human mesenchymal stromal cells could deliver erythropoietin and migrate to the basal layer of hair shaft when subcutaneously implanted in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F; Chua, K H; Ainoon, O

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration.

  8. Tandem focused ultrasound (TFU) combined with fast furnace analysis as an improved methodology for total mercury determination in human urine by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Dos Reis, C D; Maduro, C; Mota, A

    2004-09-01

    A new sample preparation procedure based on tandem (that is, different diameter probe sonicators used in the same sample treatment) focused ultrasound (TFU) for mercury separation, preconcentration and back-extraction in aqueous solution from human urine has been developed. The urine is first oxidized with KMnO(4)/HCl/focused ultrasound (6mm probe). Secondly, the mercury is extracted and preconcentrated with dithizone and cyclohexane. Finally, the mercury is back-extracted and preconcentrated again with the aid of focused ultrasound (3mm probe). The procedure allows determining mercury by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with fast furnace analysis and calibration against aqueous standards. Matrix modification is provided by the chemicals used in the sample treatment. The procedure is accomplished with low sample volume (8.5ml). Low volume and low concentration reagents are used. The sample treatment is rapid (less than 3min per sample) and avoids the use of organic phase in the graphite furnace. The preconcentration factor used in this work was 14. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification in urine were, respectively, 0.27 and 0.9mugl(-1). The relative standard deviation of aqueous standards (n=10) was 4% for a concentration of 100mugl(-1) and 5% for a concentration of 400mugl(-1). Recoveries from spiked urine with inorganic mercury, methyl-mercury, phenyl-mercury and diphenyl-mercury ranged from 86 to 98%.

  9. [Metallic mercury poisoning. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichte, B; Ritzau, F; Assmann, H

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  10. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  13. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  14. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  15. [Hair shaft anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H

    1997-06-01

    Hair shaft disorders lead to brittle and uncombable hair. As a rule the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may present as localized of generalized alterations. Genetic predisposition and exogenous factors are able to produce hair shaft abnormalities. The most important examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Treatment of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important.

  16. Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Haslam, Iain S; Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez, Francisco; Gandarillas, Alberto; Izeta, Ander; Paus, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) are required to generate, maintain and renew the continuously cycling hair follicle (HF), supply cells that produce the keratinized hair shaft and aid in the reepithelialization of injured skin. Therefore, their study is biologically and clinically important, from alopecia to carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine. However, human eHFSCs remain ill defined compared to their murine counterparts, and it is unclear which murine eHFSC markers really apply to the human HF. We address this by reviewing current concepts on human eHFSC biology, their immediate progeny and their molecular markers, focusing on Keratin 15 and 19, CD200, CD34, PHLDA1, and EpCAM/Ber-EP4. After delineating how human eHFSCs may be selectively targeted experimentally, we close by defining as yet unmet key challenges in human eHFSC research. The ultimate goal is to transfer emerging concepts from murine epithelial stem cell biology to human HF physiology and pathology.

  17. Umbilical Cord Mercury Concentration as Biomarker of Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.

    2005-01-01

    biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord.......biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord....

  18. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  19. Hair follicle growth controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenn, K S; Combates, N J; Eilertsen, K J; Gordon, J S; Pardinas, J R; Parimoo, S; Prouty, S M

    1996-10-01

    Research in hair biology has embarked in the pursuit for molecules that control hair growth. Many molecules already have been associated with the controls of hair patterning, hair maturation, and hair cycling and differentiation. Knowing how these molecules work gives us the tools for understanding and treating patients with hair disorders.

  20. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: Preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.

    2015-01-01

    -consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested...

  1. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  2. Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis arises from the active initiation and propagation of a series of highly orchestrated specific biochemical events leading to the demise of the cell. It is a normal physiological process, which occurs during embryonic development as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Diverse groups of molecules are involved in the apoptosis pathway and it functions as a mechanism to eliminate unwanted or irreparably damaged cells. However, inappropriate induction of apoptosis by environmental agents has broad ranging pathologic implications and has been associated with several diseases including cancer. The toxicity of several heavy metals such as mercury has been attributed to their high affinity to sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and their ability to disrupt cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis in various tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for mercury to induce early and late-stage apoptosis in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG2 cells. Cells were exposed to mercury for 10 and 48 hours respectively at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL based on previous cytotoxicity results in our laboratory indicating an LD50 of 3.5 ± 0.6 μg/mL for mercury in HepG2 cells. The study data indicated a dose response relationship between mercury exposure and the degree of early and late-stage apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.03 ± 0.03%, 5.19 ± 0.04%, 6.36 ± 0.04%, and 8.84 ± 0.02% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively, indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells undergoing late apoptosis were 3.58 ± 0.03%, 17.06 ± 0

  3. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  4. Mercúrio total em cabelo de crianças de uma população costeira, Cananéia, São Paulo, Brasil Total hair mercury in children from a coastal population in Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Farias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de mercúrio (Hg total em cabelos estão diretamente relacionados à alimentação, particularmente ao consumo de peixes por populações costeiras com grande representação caiçara. No presente estudo foram avaliados os níveis de mercúrio total em cabelos de crianças com idade entre 4 e 12 anos, pertencente a três escolas públicas da cidade de Cananéia, São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos (mediana e intervalo para mercúrio total foram de: 0,04mg.kg-1 (0,01-0,77mg.kg-1, 0,39mg.kg-1 (Mercury (Hg levels in hair are directly related to eating habits, especially fish consumption by coastal populations with a large contingent of traditional fishing families. This study assessed total Hg levels in children's hair. The study group was selected from three public elementary schools in Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil (ages 4 to 12 years. The results (median and range for total Hg levels in children's hair were: 0.04mg.kg-1 (0.01-0.77mg.kg-1, 0.39mg.kg-1 (< 0.01-3.33mg.kg-1, and 0.39mg.kg-1 (< 0.01-2.81mg.kg-1 for schools ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The values were well below the level set by World Health Organization for an adult population unexposed to Hg (2.0mg.kg-1. However, since there are no existing reference values for total Hg in children's hair, these results can be used as a contribution to establishing reference values for total hair Hg in Brazilian children living in coastal areas.

  5. Correlation clusters in the accumulation of metals in human scalp hair: effects of age, community of residence, and abundances of metals in air and water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Davison, A J; Smith, T J; Fadl, S

    1988-06-15

    Scalp hair samples taken from 122 children and 27 adults from three native Indian villages in northern Alberta, Canada were analyzed for 32 metals, in an attempt to trace industrial pollution into the human population. One of the villages has been exposed since 1967 to increased levels of several metals due to its proximity to the world's first two oil sands petroleum extraction plants (Suncor and Syncrude), which release large amounts of metals into the environment. Metal-enriched particulates are emitted at a rate of 547-780 kg h-1 for Suncor, and 713-1067 kg h-1 for Syncrude. To test the hypothesis that hair content reflected accumulation of environmental metals, water and aerometric samples were collected and analyzed for their metal content. These analyses demonstrated that elevated levels of nine metals in hair from children in one of the control villages (Garden River) are (with the exception of Al) correlated with increased levels of metals in water and air. Moreover, increased levels of Cu, but lowest levels of all other metals were found in hair and environmental samples from one control village (Fort Chipewyan). Correlation matrices for metals in the hair samples revealed three sets of highly intercorrelated metals ('correlation clusters'): (i) Pb/Cd; (ii) Al/V/Fe; (iii) Ca/Mg/Sr/Ba. These groups of metals were significantly intercorrelated (r greater than 0.6, p less than 0.001) in the total population, and in both children and adults, or both males and females, as well as when the population was compared according to community of residence. The robustness of the clusters is particularly noteworthy in view of large differences in the proportions and absolute amounts of the various metals in hair from children in the three villages. Plots of metal levels in hair as a function of age of subject reveal a dramatic decrease in concentrations of Al, V, and Fe during the first years of life. The high levels of Al and V in hair from very young children may

  6. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  7. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain

    OpenAIRE

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of the neuronal adaptor protein Fe65 grown in the presence of a mercury derivative show a dramatic improvement in resolution, permitting SAD phasing.

  8. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  9. Mercury cycling and human health concerns in remote ecosystems in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Canuel, René; LUCOTTE,Marc; Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher de

    2009-01-01

    Fish constitutes a praised—and sometimes irreplaceable—component of the daily diet for numerous communities throughout the Americas. These populations can be exposed to mercury (Hg)—ubiquitous in fish flesh—to levels potentially harmful to their health. Mercury is subjected to various chemical transformations once released to the environment. From diffuse loading on land and waters to accumulation in the aquatic food web, this paper draws a general picture of the main processes influencing th...

  10. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair.

  11. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  12. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  13. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A.M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics); Bahnassy, A.A. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Medicine); Denton, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP 11/34 data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair. (author).

  14. Gold mining as a source of mercury exposure in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, O

    1998-05-01

    Amalgamation has been used for more than 4500 years in mining processes. Mercury has been extensively used in South America by Spanish colonizers for precious metal recovery