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Sample records for human group iii

  1. An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.

  2. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in type III group B streptococcal invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sooan; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Maneesh, Paul-Satyaseela; Lee, Jong-Seok; Romer, Lewis H; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2006-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), the leading cause of neonatal meningitis, has been shown to invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier. GBS invasion of HBMEC has been shown to require the host cell actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that are involved in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC. We showed that type III GBS invasion was inhibited by genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor (mean 54% invasion decrease at 100 microM), and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase inhibitor (mean 70% invasion decrease at 50 microM), but not by PP2, an inhibitor of the Src family tyrosine kinases. We subsequently showed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was the one of the host proteins tyrosine phosphorylated by type III GBS. Over-expression of a dominant negative form of the FAK C-terminal domain significantly decreased type III GBS invasion of HBMEC (mean 51% invasion decrease). In addition, we showed that FAK phosphorylation correlated with its association of paxillin, an adapter protein of actin filament, and PI3-kinase subunit p85. This is the first demonstration that FAK phosphorylation and its association with paxillin and PI3 kinase play a key role in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC.

  3. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  4. Leadership in moving human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Boos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group--on the basis of movement alone--a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement.

  5. Genomics of Clostridium botulinum group III strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Oguma, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    In Clostridium botulinum, the characteristics of type C and D strains are quite different from other types, and they are classified as group III. They produce C2 binary toxin and C3 exoenzyme in addition to type C and D neurotoxins. Two different phages and many plasmids are identified in the organisms. The genes of neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme are converted from toxigenic strains to non-toxigenic strains by the specific bacteriophages (phages), whereas, the C2 toxin gene is carried by large or small plasmids. Classification of type C and D strains has been in confusion because 1) antigenicity of type C and D neurotoxins is complex, 2) the cells produce two types of toxins, neurotoxin and C2 toxin, and 3) some non-toxigenic strains can be converted to produce C or D neurotoxin by the infection with phages. Until now, entire nucleotide sequences of cell chromosomes, phages, and plasmids have been determined. Since both genetic and protein-chemical analyses have been clarifying the above confusions, these data are reviewed historically.

  6. Group-III Nitride Field Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Berishev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Field-emission devices (cold cathodes) having low electron affinities can be fabricated through lattice-mismatched epitaxial growth of nitrides of elements from group III of the periodic table. Field emission of electrons from solid surfaces is typically utilized in vacuum microelectronic devices, including some display devices. The present field-emission devices and the method of fabricating them were developed to satisfy needs to reduce the cost of fabricating field emitters, make them compatible with established techniques for deposition of and on silicon, and enable monolithic integration of field emitters with silicon-based driving circuitry. In fabricating a device of this type, one deposits a nitride of one or more group-III elements on a substrate of (111) silicon or other suitable material. One example of a suitable deposition process is chemical vapor deposition in a reactor that contains plasma generated by use of electron cyclotron resonance. Under properly chosen growth conditions, the large mismatch between the crystal lattices of the substrate and the nitride causes strains to accumulate in the growing nitride film, such that the associated stresses cause the film to crack. The cracks lie in planes parallel to the direction of growth, so that the growing nitride film becomes divided into microscopic growing single-crystal columns. The outer ends of the fully-grown columns can serve as field-emission tips. By virtue of their chemical compositions and crystalline structures, the columns have low work functions and high electrical conductivities, both of which are desirable for field emission of electrons. From examination of transmission electron micrographs of a prototype device, the average column width was determined to be about 100 nm and the sharpness of the tips was determined to be characterized by a dimension somewhat less than 100 nm. The areal density of the columns was found to about 5 x 10(exp 9)/sq cm . about 4 to 5 orders of magnitude

  7. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  8. Patterns of authorship in the IPCC Working Group III report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbera, Esteve; Calvet-Mir, Laura; Hughes, Hannah; Paterson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has completed its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Here, we explore the social scientific networks informing Working Group III (WGIII) assessment of mitigation for the AR5. Identifying authors’ institutional pathways, we highlight the persistence and extent of North-South inequalities in the authorship of the report, revealing the dominance of US and UK institutions as training sites for WGIII authors. Examining patterns of co-authorship between WGIII authors, we identify the unevenness in co-authoring relations, with a small number of authors co-writing regularly and indicative of an epistemic community’s influence over the IPCC’s definition of mitigation. These co-authoring networks follow regional patterns, with significant EU-BRICS collaboration and authors from the US relatively insular. From a disciplinary perspective, economists, engineers, physicists and natural scientists remain central to the process, with insignificant participation of scholars from the humanities. The shared training and career paths made apparent through our analysis suggest that the idea that broader geographic participation may lead to a wider range of viewpoints and cultural understandings of climate change mitigation may not be as sound as previously thought.

  9. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  10. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  11. Characterization of human carbonic anhydrase III from skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N; Jeffery, S; Shiels, A; Edwards, Y; Tipler, T; Hopkinson, D A

    1979-10-01

    A third form of human carbonic anhydrase (CA III), found at high concentrations in skeletal muscle, has been purified and characterized. This isozyme shows relatively poor hydratase and esterase activities compared to the red cell isozymes, CA I and CA II, but is similar to these isozymes in subunit structure (monomer) and molecular size (28,000). CA III is liable to posttranslational modification by thiol group interaction. Monomeric secondary isozymes, sensitive to beta-mercaptoethanol, are found in both crude and purified material and can be generated in vitro by the addition of thiol reagents. Active dimeric isozymes, generated apparently by the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges, also occur but account for only a small proportion of the total protein and appear only when the concentration of CA III is particularly high.

  12. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  13. Recombinant human antithrombin III: rhATIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    GTC Biotherapeutics (formerly Genzyme Transgenics Corporation) is developing a transgenic form of antithrombin III known as recombinant human antithrombin III [rhATIII]. It is produced by inserting human DNA into the cells of goats so that the targeted protein is excreted in the milk of the female offspring. The transgenic goats have been cloned in collaboration with the Louisiana State University Agriculture Center. GTC Biotherapeutics is conducting clinical trials of rhATIII in coagulation disorders. rhATIII is believed to be both safer and more cost-effective than the currently available plasma-derived product. rhATIII is also being investigated in cancer and acute lung injury. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation, originally a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation, changed its name to GTC Biotherapeutics in June 2002; it is no longer a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation. GTC Biotherapeutics is seeking partners for the commercialisation of rhATIII. Restructuring of GTC Biotherapeutics to support its commercialisation programmes was announced in February 2004. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation was developing rhATIII in association with Genzyme General (Genzyme Corporation) in the ATIII LLC joint venture, but in November 2000 a letter of intent was signed for the reacquisition of the rights by Genzyme Transgenics Corporation. It was announced in February 2001 that this reacquisition was not going to be completed and that the development of rhATIII was to continue with ATIII LLC. However, in July 2001, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation reacquired all the rights in the transgenic antithrombin III programme. SMI Genzyme Ltd, a joint venture between Sumitomo Metal Industries, Japan, and Genzyme Transgenics Corporation, USA, was set up to fund development of transgenic antithrombin III in Asia. However, in October 2000, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation reacquired, from Sumitomo Metal Industries, the rights to its technology for production of medicines from milk in 18 Asian countries

  14. Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Predominantly Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Phase III Study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Bjerre, Karsten D; Jakobsen, Erik H;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this phase III study was to compare the efficacy of gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) versus docetaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative patients were randomly assigned to ge...... GD compared with docetaxel demonstrated increased TTP in metastatic breast cancer. However, RR and OS were similar. Thus, the addition of gemcitabine failed to demonstrate any clinically meaningful benefit when combined with docetaxel....

  15. Iron(III)-chelating resins. X. Iron detoxification of human plasma with iron(III)-chelating resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, M.; Feng, M.H.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.

    1994-01-01

    Iron detoxification of human blood plasma was studied with resins containing desferrioxamine B (DFO) or 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinone (HMP) as iron(III)-chelating groups. The behaviour of four resins was investigated: DFO-Sepharose, HMP-Sepharose and crosslinked copolymers of

  16. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2015-03-17

    Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.

  17. Method for Improving Mg Doping During Group-III Nitride MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, J. Randall; Wang, George T.

    2008-11-11

    A method for improving Mg doping of Group III-N materials grown by MOCVD preventing condensation in the gas phase or on reactor surfaces of adducts of magnesocene and ammonia by suitably heating reactor surfaces between the location of mixing of the magnesocene and ammonia reactants and the Group III-nitride surface whereon growth is to occur.

  18. Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monemar, B.; Pozina, G.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper attempts an overview of a presently very active research field: the III-nitrides and their interesting possibilities for a range of device applications employing heterostructures and low-dimensional quantum structures. The family of materials containing AlN, GaN, InN and the alloys between them span a range of direct bandgaps between 6.2 and 1.9 eV, with very large band offsets in type I heterojunctions, which is very favourable for a number of interesting device concepts. A very important feature of these materials is the dominant influence of strong polarisation fields (spontaneous as well as piezo-electric) on the physical properties of multilayer structures, as well as on devices. Exciton binding energies are large, and excitonic effects are therefore important at room temperature. Many alloy systems, in particular InGaN, have a high miscibility gap, leading to a strong tendency for phase separation and consequently to many novel physical properties which yet have to be explored in detail. Localization effects for carriers and excitons are very important in quantum structures based on these alloys. Devices based on III-N heterostructures cover a wide range, from optical devices (violet lasers, LEDs covering a range from UV to red, white LEDs, photodetectors, UV cameras) to high-frequency power devices, both unipolar transistors (AlGaN/GaN HEMTs) and bipolar HBTs.

  19. Human dipeptidyl peptidase III acts as a post-proline-cleaving enzyme on endomorphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsun, Marina; Jajcanin, Nina; Vukelić, Bojana; Spoljarić, Jasminka; Abramić, Marija

    2007-03-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is a zinc exopeptidase with an implied role in the mammalian pain-modulatory system owing to its high affinity for enkephalins and localisation in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Our study revealed that this human enzyme hydrolyses opioid peptides belonging to three new groups, endomorphins, hemorphins and exorphins. The enzymatic hydrolysis products of endomorphin-1 were separated and quantified by capillary electrophoresis and the kinetic parameters were determined for human DPP III and rat DPP IV. Both peptidases cleave endomorphin-1 at comparable rates, with liberation of the N-terminal Tyr-Pro. This is the first evidence of DPP III acting as an endomorphin-cleaving enzyme.

  20. Group III-nitride lasers: a materials perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Hardy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview of III-Nitride based laser diodes (LDs is presented focusing on the materials challenges in each phase of device development. We discuss early breakthroughs leading to the first commercial GaN LDs, covering crystal growth, p-type doping, and defect reduction. Additional device issues, such as polarization effects, strain, and index dispersion are addressed as they apply to the development of blue and green LDs for pico-projector applications. State of the art device results are highlighted. Devices grown on non-polar and semi-polar GaN substrates address many polarization related problems present in c-plane GaN growth. Device results, advantages, and limitations of various non-polar and semi-polar systems are discussed in terms of polarization properties, Indium incorporation, extended defect formation, and critical thickness. A brief description of challenges and progress in UV LDs is also presented.

  1. Human Requirements of Flight. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Arthur D.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Human Requirements of Flight." It provides specific guidelines for teachers using the textbook. The guidelines for each chapter are organized according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  2. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  3. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.

  4. Non-nearest-neighbor dependence of stability for group III RNA single nucleotide bulge loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jessica L; McCann, Michael D; Phillips, Daniel; Panaro, Brandon L; Lim, Geoffrey F S; Serra, Martin J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-five RNA duplexes containing single nucleotide bulge loops were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters for each duplex determined. The bulge loops were of the group III variety, where the bulged nucleotide is either a AG/U or CU/G, leading to ambiguity to the exact position and identity of the bulge. All possible group III bulge loops with Watson-Crick nearest-neighbors were examined. The data were used to develop a model to predict the free energy of an RNA duplex containing a group III single nucleotide bulge loop. The destabilization of the duplex by the group III bulge could be modeled so that the bulge nucleotide leads to the formation of the Watson-Crick base pair rather than the wobble base pair. The destabilization of an RNA duplex caused by the insertion of a group III bulge is primarily dependent upon non-nearest-neighbor interactions and was shown to be dependent upon the stability of second least stable stem of the duplex. In-line structure probing of group III bulge loops embedded in a hairpin indicated that the bulged nucleotide is the one positioned further from the hairpin loop irrespective of whether the resulting stem formed a Watson-Crick or wobble base pair. Fourteen RNA hairpins containing group III bulge loops, either 3' or 5' of the hairpin loop, were optically melted and the thermodynamic parameters determined. The model developed to predict the influence of group III bulge loops on the stability of duplex formation was extended to predict the influence of bulge loops on hairpin stability.

  5. Human erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells are affected in vitro by Au(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwalsky, Mario, E-mail: msuwalsk@udec.cl [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160C, Concepcion (Chile); Gonzalez, Raquel [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160C, Concepcion (Chile); Villena, Fernando [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Aguilar, Luis F.; Sotomayor, Carlos P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Bolognin, Silvia; Zatta, Paolo [CNR Center on Metalloproteins, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Gold compounds are well known for their neurological and nephrotoxic implications. However, haematological toxicity is one of the most serious toxic and less studied effects. The lack of information on these aspects of Au(III) prompted us to study the structural effects induced on cell membranes, particularly that of human erythrocytes. AuCl{sub 3} was incubated with intact erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) and molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane. The latter consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. This report presents evidence that Au(III) interacts with red cell membranes as follows: (a) in scanning electron microscopy studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that Au(III) induced shape changes at a concentration as low as 0.01 {mu}M; (b) in isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes Au(III) induced a decrease in the molecular dynamics and/or water content at the glycerol backbone level of the lipid bilayer polar groups in a 5-50 {mu}M concentration range, and (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that Au(III) in the 10 {mu}m-1 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation only to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Additional experiments were performed in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. A statistically significant decrease of cell viability was observed with Au(III) ranging from 0.1 {mu}M to 100 {mu}M.

  6. Quantum groups and quantum field theory III. Renormalisation

    CERN Document Server

    Brouder, C; Brouder, Christian; Schmitt, William

    2002-01-01

    The Hopf algebra of renormalisation in quantum field theory is described at a general level. The products of fields at a point are assumed to form a bialgebra B and renormalisation endows T(T(B)^+), the double tensor algebra of B, with the structure of a noncommutative bialgebra. When the bialgebra B is commutative, renormalisation turns S(S(B)^+), the double symmetric algebra of B, into a commutative bialgebra. The usual Hopf algebra of renormalisation is recovered when the elements of $T^1(B)$ are not renormalised, i.e. when Feynman diagrams containing one single vertex are not renormalised. When B is the Hopf algebra of a commutative group, a homomorphism is established between the bialgebra S(S(B)^+) and the Faa di Bruno bialgebra of composition of series. The relation with the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebra of diffeomorphisms is given. Finally, the bialgebra S(S(B)^+) is shown to give the same results as the standard renormalisation procedure for the scalar field.

  7. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  8. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  9. Intrinsic acidity of aluminum, chromium (III) and iron (III) μ 3-hydroxo functional groups from ab initio electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, James R.; Dixon, David A.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2000-05-01

    Density functional calculations are performed on M 3(OH) 7(H 2O) 62+ and M 3O(OH) 6(H 2O) 6+ clusters for MAl, Cr(III), and Fe(III), allowing determination of the relative acidities of the μ 3-hydroxo and aquo functional groups. Contrary to previous predictions and rationalizations, Fe 3OH and Al 3OH groups have nearly the same intrinsic acidity, while Cr 3OH groups are significantly more acidic. The gas-phase acidity of the Fe 3OH site is in good agreement with the value predicted by the molecular mechanics model previously used to estimate the relative acidities of surface sites on iron oxides. [ J. R. Rustad et al. (1996)Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 1563]. Acidities of aquo functional groups were also computed for Al and Cr. The AlOH 2 site is more acidic than the Al 3OH site, whereas the Cr 3OH site is more acidic than the CrOH 2 site. These findings predict that the surface charging behavior of chromium oxides/oxyhydroxides should be distinguishable from their Fe, Al counterparts. The calculations also provide insight into why the lepidocrocite/boehmite polymorph is not observed for CrOOH.

  10. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  11. Platinum group metallodrug-protein binding studies by capillary electrophoresis - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: a further insight into the reactivity of a novel antitumor ruthenium(III) complex toward human serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polec-Pawlak, Kasia; Abramski, Jan K; Semenova, Olga; Hartinger, Christian G; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Keppler, Bernhard K; Jarosz, Maciej

    2006-03-01

    Biochemical speciation analysis has become a hot area of CE research due largely to growing emergence of inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS as a proper detection technique. A benefit of CE-ICP-MS coupling in species-selective analysis of anticancer metal-based drugs is the possibility of distinguishing the signals of the intact drug and its metabolites and hence of quantifying them independently. This advantage (over CE with UV-vis detection) was exploited here in order to gain better knowledge about the rate and degree of the transformation of indazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019), a promising tumor-inhibiting agent that successfully finished phase I clinical studies, upon its binding toward individual serum transport proteins. At increasing the KP1019/protein molar ratio, the reaction rate expressed by an evolving peak of the protein adduct became faster, with the equilibrium state being reached after about 40 and 60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C for transferrin and albumin, respectively. The binding reaction was shown to obey the first-order character that enabled for reliable calculation of the corresponding rate constants as (28.7 +/- 1.5) x 10(-4) and (10.6 +/- 0.7) x 10(-4)/s, respectively. When incubated with a ten-fold excess of KP1019, albumin and transferrin bound, respectively, up to 8 and 10 equiv. of ruthenium (Ru). Relative affinity of KP1019 toward different proteins under simulated physiological conditions was also characterized in terms of the overall binding constants (5600 and 10 600/M, respectively). To emphasize the difference in the protein-binding behavior, a competitive interaction of KP1019 was followed by CE-ICP-MS at the actual molar ratio of proteins in blood, i.e. a ten-fold excess of albumin over transferrin. The fact that KP1019 binds to albumin stronger than to transferrin was manifested by finding almost all ruthenium (98-99%) in the albumin fraction.

  12. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature Tsub has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. N-rich conditions lead to nanowire growth and Tsub has an important influence. For GaN an increase of Tsub enhances the Ga desorption, thus lo...

  13. Human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne pollen allergen Lol p III (rye III) is associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Meyers, D A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1989-05-01

    A well-characterized allergen of Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen, Lol p III, has been used as a model antigen to study the genetic control of the human immune response. Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responsiveness to Lol p III were studied in two groups of skin-test-positive Caucasoid adults (N = 135 and 67). We found by nonparametric and parametric analyses that immune responsiveness to Lol p III was significantly associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5. No association was found between any DQ type and immune responsiveness to Lol p III. Geometric mean IgE or IgG Ab levels to Lol p III were not different between B8+, DR3+ subjects and B8-, DR3+ subjects, showing that HLA-B8 had no influence on the association. Lol p III IgG Ab data obtained on subjects after grass antigen immunotherapy showed that 100% of DR3 subjects and 100% of DR5 subjects were Ab+. A comparison of all the available protein sequences of DRB gene products showed that the first hypervariable region of DR3 and DR5 (and DRw6), and no other region, contains the sequence Glu9-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser13. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that immune responsiveness to the allergen Lol p III is associated with this amino acid sequence in the first hypervariable region of the DR beta 1 polypeptide chain.

  14. Subtle interactions and electron transfer between U{sup III}, Np{sup III}, or Pu{sup III} and uranyl mediated by the oxo group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Polly L.; Dutkiewicz, Michal S.; Zegke, Markus [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). EaStCHEM School of Chemistry; and others

    2016-10-04

    A dramatic difference in the ability of the reducing An{sup III} center in AnCp{sub 3} (An = U, Np, Pu; Cp = C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) to oxo-bind and reduce the uranyl(VI) dication in the complex [(UO{sub 2})(THF)(H{sub 2}L)] (L = ''Pacman'' Schiff-base polypyrrolic macrocycle), is found and explained. These are the first selective functionalizations of the uranyl oxo by another actinide cation. At-first contradictory electronic structural data are explained by combining theory and experiment. Complete one-electron transfer from Cp{sub 3}U forms the U{sup IV}-uranyl(V) compound that behaves as a U{sup V}-localized single molecule magnet below 4 K. The extent of reduction by the Cp{sub 3}Np group upon oxo-coordination is much less, with a Np{sup III}-uranyl(VI) dative bond assigned. Solution NMR and NIR spectroscopy suggest Np{sup IV}U{sup V} but single-crystal X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry suggest a Np{sup III}-U{sup VI} assignment. DFT-calculated Hirshfeld charge and spin density analyses suggest half an electron has transferred, and these explain the strongly shifted NMR spectra by spin density contributions at the hydrogen nuclei. The Pu{sup III}-U{sup VI} interaction is too weak to be observed in THF solvent, in agreement with calculated predictions.

  15. Growth, morphology, and structural properties of group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J. [ISOM and Dpt. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cerutti, L. [ISOM and Dpt. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centre d' Electronique et de Micro-Optoelectronique de Montpellier (CEM2), Universite Montpellier II, UMR CNRS 5507, Case 067, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Sanchez, G.; Griol, A.; Sanchez, B. [Nanophotonics Technology Centre, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    The growth conditions to achieve group-III-nitride nanocolumns and nanocolumnar heterostructures by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The evolution of the nanocolumnar morphology with the growth conditions is determined for (Ga,Al)N and (In,Ga)N nanocolumns. The mechanisms behind the nanocolumnar growth under high N-rich conditions are clarified in the sense that no seeding or catalysts are required, as it is the case in the vapour-liquid-solid model that applies to most nanocolumns grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition, either with group-III nitrides, II-VI or III-V compounds. Some examples of nanocolumnar heterostructures are given, like quantum disks and cylindrical nanocavities. Preliminary results on the growth of arrays of ordered GaN nanocolumns are reported. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D; Gow, Neil A R; Maiden, Martin C J; Odds, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.

  17. New Insights into the genetic diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through extensive genome exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eWoudstra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia. Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination.

  18. New Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through Extensive Genome Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Mermoud, Isabelle; Desoutter, Denise; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia). Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination.

  19. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  20. 49 CFR 173.213 - Non-bulk packagings for solid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group III. 173.213 Section 173.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group III. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a solid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I, II or...

  1. 49 CFR 173.203 - Non-bulk packagings for liquid hazardous materials in Packing Group III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Packing Group III. 173.203 Section 173.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... materials in Packing Group III. (a) When § 172.101 of this subchapter specifies that a liquid hazardous... of part 173, to the requirements of part 178 of this subchapter at the Packing Group I, II or...

  2. Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III, and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Jason; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; van den Bos, Fédor; Carter, Andrew T.; Peck, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favorable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in spore germination. Here we present models for spore germination in C. botulinum based on comparative genomics analyses, with C. botulinum Groups I and III sharing similar pathways, which differ from those proposed for C. botulinum Groups II and IV. All spores germinate in response to amino acids interacting with a germinant receptor, with four types of germinant receptor identified [encoded by various combinations of gerA, gerB, and gerC genes (gerX)]. There are three gene clusters with an ABC-like configuration; ABC [gerX1], ABABCB [gerX2] and ACxBBB [gerX4], and a single CA-B [gerX3] gene cluster. Subtypes have been identified for most germinant receptor types, and the individual GerX subunits of each cluster show similar grouping in phylogenetic trees. C. botulinum Group I contained the largest variety of gerX subtypes, with three gerX1, three gerX2, and one gerX3 subtypes, while C. botulinum Group III contained two gerX1 types and one gerX4. C. botulinum Groups II and IV contained a single germinant receptor, gerX3 and gerX1, respectively. It is likely that all four C. botulinum Groups include a SpoVA channel involved in dipicolinic acid release. The cortex-lytic enzymes present in C. botulinum Groups I and III appear to be CwlJ and SleB, while in C. botulinum Groups II and IV, SleC appears to be important. PMID:27840626

  3. Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brunt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favourable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in spore germination. Here we present models for spore germination in C. botulinum based on comparative genomics analyses, with C. botulinum Groups I and III sharing similar pathways, which differ from those proposed for C. botulinum Groups II and IV. All spores germinate in response to amino acids interacting with a germinant receptor, with four types of germinant receptor identified (encoded by various combinations of gerA, gerB and gerC genes (gerX. There are three gene clusters with an ABC-like configuration; ABC gerX1, ABABCB gerX2 and ACxBBB gerX4, and a single CA-B gerX3 gene cluster. Subtypes have been identified for most germinant receptors types, and the individual GerX subunits of each cluster show similar grouping in phylogenetic trees. C. botulinum Group I contained the largest variety of gerX subtypes, with three gerX1, three gerX2 and one gerX3 subtypes, while C. botulinum Group III contained two gerX1 types and one gerX4. C. botulinum Groups II and IV contained a single germinant receptor, gerX3 and gerX1, respectively. It is likely that all four C. botulinum Groups include a SpoVA channel involved in DPA release. The cortex lytic enzymes present in C. botulinum Groups I and III appear to be CwlJ and SleB, while in C. botulinum Groups II and IV, SleC appears to be important.

  4. WMS-III performance in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: group differences and individual classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, N; Strauss, E; Chelune, G J; Loring, D W; Martin, R C; Hermann, B P; Sherman, E; Hunter, M

    2001-11-01

    The utility of the WMS-III in detecting lateralized impairment was examined in a large sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods of analysis included evaluation of group means on the various indexes and subtest scores, the use of ROC curves, and an examination of Auditory-Visual Index discrepancy scores. In addition, performance on immediate and delayed indexes in the auditory and the visual modality was compared within each group. Of the WMS-III scores, the Auditory-Visual Delayed Index difference score appeared most sensitive to side of temporal dysfunction, although patient classification rates were not within an acceptable range to have clinical utility. The ability to predict laterality based on statistically significant index score differences was particularly weak for those with left temporal dysfunction. The use of unusually large discrepancies led to improved prediction, however, the rarity of such scores in this population limits their usefulness. Although the utility of the WMS-III in detecting laterality may be limited in preoperative cases, the WMS-III may still hold considerable promise as a measure of memory in documenting baseline performance and in detecting those that may be at risk following surgery.

  5. Study on Speciation of Pr(III) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of Pr(III) in human blood plasma has been investigated by computer simulation. The speciation and distribution of Pr(III) has been obtained. It has been found that most of Pr(III) is bound to phosphate and to form precipitate. The results obtained are in accord with experimental observations.

  6. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    investigations summarized in Table 2-1 include analyses of a broad range of system properties (cf. Adorno et al, 1950, MacKinnon, 1965; Beavers, 1977, Goffman...also characteristic of the authoritarian personality ( Adorno , et al., 1950). The balance of feeling within an underbounded system is typically less...groups being studied. 2 - 45 REFERENCES Adam R.N. and Preiss, J.J. (eds.) Human Organization Research. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey, 1960. Adorno , T.W

  7. Transferable tight binding model for strained group IV and III-V heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Micheal; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    Modern semiconductor devices have reached critical device dimensions in the range of several nanometers. For reliable prediction of device performance, it is critical to have a numerical efficient model that are transferable to material interfaces. In this work, we present an empirical tight binding (ETB) model with transferable parameters for strained IV and III-V group semiconductors. The ETB model is numerically highly efficient as it make use of an orthogonal sp3d5s* basis set with nearest neighbor inter-atomic interactions. The ETB parameters are generated from HSE06 hybrid functional calculations. Band structures of strained group IV and III-V materials by ETB model are in good agreement with corresponding HSE06 calculations. Furthermore, the ETB model is applied to strained superlattices which consist of group IV and III-V elements. The ETB model turns out to be transferable to nano-scale hetero-structure. The ETB band structures agree with the corresponding HSE06 results in the whole Brillouin zone. The ETB band gaps of superlattices with common cations or common anions have discrepancies within 0.05eV.

  8. Binary group III-nitride based heterostructures: band offsets and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roul, Basanta; Kumar, Mahesh; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years, there has been remarkable progress in the development of group III-nitride based materials because of their potential application in fabricating various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, laser diodes, tandem solar cells and field effect transistors. In order to realize these devices, growth of device quality heterostructures are required. One of the most interesting properties of a semiconductor heterostructure interface is its Schottky barrier height, which is a measure of the mismatch of the energy levels for the majority carriers across the heterojunction interface. Recently, the growth of non-polar III-nitrides has been an important subject due to its potential improvement on the efficiency of III-nitride-based opto-electronic devices. It is well known that the c-axis oriented optoelectronic devices are strongly affected by the intrinsic spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields, which results in the low electron-hole recombination efficiency. One of the useful approaches for eliminating the piezoelectric polarization effects is to fabricate nitride-based devices along non-polar and semi-polar directions. Heterostructures grown on these orientations are receiving a lot of focus due to enhanced behaviour. In the present review article discussion has been carried out on the growth of III-nitride binary alloys and properties of GaN/Si, InN/Si, polar InN/GaN, and nonpolar InN/GaN heterostructures followed by studies on band offsets of III-nitride semiconductor heterostructures using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. Current transport mechanisms of these heterostructures are also discussed.

  9. Involvement of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the modulation of spinal nociceptive signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaorong Yang; Yu Zhang; Xin Zhao; Naihong Liu; Jiantian Qiao; Ce Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous morphological studies have demonstrated that group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are commonly found in nociceptive pathways,particularly in the terminals of primary afferent fibers in the spinal dorsal horn.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of group III mGluRs in a rat model of spinal nociception by intrathecal administration of a selective agonist,L-Serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP).DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled,animal experiment.The study was performed at the Department of Physiology and Neurobiology,Shanxi Medical University,between March 2007 and May 2008.MATERIALS:L-SOP of group III mGluRs (Tocris Cookson Ltd,UK),formalin (Sigma,USA),rabbit anti-c-Fos polyclonal antibody and biotin-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG (Cell Signaling Technology,USA) were used in this study.METHODS:A total of 26 healthy Wistar rats,aged 1 month and weighing 100-120 g,were subjected to intrathecal catheter implantation.After 5-8 days,10 rats were selected according to experimental requirements.L-SOP 250 nmol in 10 μL,or the equivalent volume of normal saline,was administered by intrathecal injection into the L3-5 region of the spinal cord in the experimental and control groups,respectively.After 15 minutes,formalin (5%,50 μL) was subcutaneously injected into the plantar of the left hindpaw of each rat to establish formalin-induced pain models.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nociceptive behavioral responses and immunohistochemical examination of Fos expression.RESULTS:Intrathecal injection of L-SOP significantly attenuated the second phase nociceptive response compared with the control group (P<0.05),and Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn was significantly decreased along with the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Group III mGluRs are involved in the modulation of nociceptive signals,and their activation suppresses the transmission of nociceptive signals.

  10. Increased expression of class III β-tubulin in castration-resistant human prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, S; Ploussard, G.; Allory, Y; Nicolaiew, N; Boissière-Michot, F; Maillé, P; Kheuang, L; Coppolani, E; Ali, A.; Bibeau, F; Culine, S; Buttyan, R; de la Taille, A; Vacherot, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: Class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin) is expressed in tissues of neuronal lineage and also in several human malignancies, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma, breast and ovarian cancer. Overexpression of βIII-tubulin in these tumours is associated with an unfavourable outcome and resistance to taxane-based therapies. At present, βIII-tubulin expression remains largely uncharacterised in prostate cancer. Methods: In this report, we evaluated the expression of βIII-tubulin in 138 d...

  11. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of europium(III) and curium(III) with components of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An) in case of ingestion accidents etc., investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Our previous study revealed that mucin, an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system, shows a strong interaction with Eu(III). Based on these results, the present study focuses on the components of this glycoprotein and identified N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) as the dominant binding carbohydrate of mucin. TRLFS measurements suggest the formation of a 1: 1 complex with log β of 3.2 ± 0.1 for Eu(III) and 3.3 ± 0.1 for Cm(III), respectively.

  12. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  13. High affinity group III mGluRs regulate mossy fiber input to CA3 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Meriney, Stephen D; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2011-12-01

    Stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons (L-Mi) in hippocampal area CA3 target the apical dendrite of pyramidal cells providing feedforward inhibition. Here we report that selective activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) 4/8 with L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphnobytyric acid (L-AP4; 10 μM) decreased the probability of glutamate release from the mossy fiber (MF) terminals synapsing onto L-Mi. Consistent with this interpretation, application of L-AP4 in the presence of 3 mM strontium decreased the frequency of asynchronous MF EPSCs in L-Mi. Furthermore, the dose response curve showed that L-AP4 at 400 μM produced no further decrease in MF EPSC amplitude compared with 20 μM L-AP4, indicating the lack of mGluRs 7 at these MF terminals. We also found that one mechanism of mGluRs 4/8-mediated inhibition of release is linked to N-type voltage gated calcium channels at MF terminals. Application of the group III mGluR antagonist MSOP (100 μM) demonstrated that mGluRs 4/8 are neither tonically active nor activated by low and moderate frequencies of activity. However, trains of stimuli to the MF at 20 and 40 Hz delivered during the application of MSOP revealed a relief of inhibition of transmitter release and an increase in the overall probability of action potential firing in the postsynaptic L-Mi. Interestingly, the time to first action potential was significantly shorter in the presence of MSOP, indicating that mGluR 4/8 activation delays L-Mi firing in response to MF activity. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the timing and probability of action potentials in L-Mi evoked by MF synaptic input is regulated by the activation of presynaptic high affinity group III mGluRs.

  14. Utility of DSM-5 section III personality traits in differentiating borderline personality disorder from comparison groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Bo, S

    2016-01-01

    to determine how the alternative DSM-5 Section III personality trait dimensions differentiates such features in BPD patients versus comparison groups. To date, no study has attempted such validation. METHOD: The current study examined the utility of the DSM-5 trait dimensions in differentiating patients...... with the categorical DSM-IV/5 diagnosis of BPD (n=101) from systematically matched samples of other PD patients (n=101) and healthy controls (n=101). This was investigated using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Results indicated that Emotional Lability, Risk Taking...

  15. A quantitative infection assay for human type I, II, and III interferon antiviral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Upon virus infection, cells secrete a diverse group of antiviral molecules that signal proximal cells to enter into an antiviral state, slowing or preventing viral spread. These paracrine signaling molecules can work synergistically, so measurement of any one antiviral molecule does not reflect the total antiviral activity of the system. Results We have developed an antiviral assay based on replication inhibition of an engineered fluorescent vesicular stomatitis virus reporter strain on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our assay provides a quantitative functional readout of human type I, II, and III interferon activities, and it provides better sensitivity, intra-, and inter-assay reproducibility than the traditional crystal violet based assay. Further, it eliminates cell fixation, rinsing, and staining steps, and is inexpensive to implement. Conclusions A dsRed2-strain of vesicular stomatitis virus that is sensitive to type I, II, and III interferons was used to develop a convenient and sensitive assay for interferon antiviral activity. We demonstrate use of the assay to quantify the kinetics of paracrine antiviral signaling from human prostate cancer (PC3) cells in response to viral infection. The assay is applicable to high-throughput screening for anti-viral compounds as well as basic studies of cellular antiviral signaling. PMID:23829314

  16. Computer Simulation of Insoluble Pr(III) Speciation in Human Interstitial Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-phase model of Pr(III) speciation in human interstitial fluid was constructed and insoluble Pr(III) speciation was studied. When the total concentration of Pr(III) is below 8.401E-10 mol/L, soluble Pr(III) species are main species. With rising the total concentration of Pr(III), Pr(III) is firstly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of PrPO4, then bound to carbonate and another precipitate of Pr2(CO3)3 was obtained. When the total concentration is between 1.583E-9 mol/L and 4.000E-3 mol/L, the insoluble species are predominant Pr(III) species.

  17. Magnetocaloric properties of manganese(III) porphyrins bearing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. V.; Lomova, T. N.; Maslennikova, A. N.; Korolev, D. V.; Shpakovsky, D. B.; Zhang, Jianwei; Milaeva, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and heat capacity during the magnetization of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (1), (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (2), and (5-(4-palmitoyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (3) in their aqueous suspensions were determined by the microcalorimetric method over the temperature range of 278-320 K and in magnetic fields from 0 to 1 T. MCE was positive for all complexes studied, i.e. the magnetic field impression under adiabatic conditions led to an increase in temperature of the complexes suspensions. MCE increased with an increase in the magnetic field induction at all temperatures studied. Dependences of MCE on temperature had weak maxima at 298 K at all magnetic induction values. The disturbance of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of hydroxyl groups is one of probable reasons for such dependences type. MCE values increased under the palmitoyl substituent incorporation into one of the phenol groups at all temperatures. The heat capacity of the studied complexes rose slightly with temperature growth. Dependences of the heat capacity on temperature showed that the magnetic component of the heat capacity did not appear due to the presence of the manganese atom acting as a paramagnetic center in complexes 1, 2, and 3. The relation between the complexes structure and their magnetothermal properties was analyzed. It was justified that the changes of magnetothermal properties were caused by electronic substitution effects and, to an even greater degree, by the conditions of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formation in the paramagnetic materials.

  18. Interaction of Cm(III) and Am(III) with human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nicole; Fröhlich, Daniel R; Panak, Petra J

    2014-05-14

    The complexation of Cm(III) with human serum transferrin was investigated in a pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). At pH ≥ 7.4 Cm(III) is incorporated at the Fe(III) binding site of transferrin whereas at lower pH a partially bound Cm(III) transferrin species is formed. At physiological temperature (310 K) at pH 7.4, about 70% of the partially bound and 30% of the incorporated Cm(III) transferrin species are present in solution. The Cm(III) results obtained by TRLFS are in very good agreement with Am(III) EXAFS results, confirming the incorporation of Am(III) at the Fe(III) binding site at pH 8.5.

  19. Cycloadditions to Epoxides Catalyzed by GroupIII-V Transition-Metal Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2015-05-25

    Complexes of groupIII-V transition metals are gaining increasing importance as Lewis acid catalysts for the cycloaddition of dipolarophiles to epoxides. This review examines the latest reports, including homogeneous and heterogeneous applications. The pivotal step for the cycloaddition reactions is the ring opening of the epoxide following activation by the Lewis acid. Two modes of cleavage (C-C versus C-O) have been identified depending primarily on the substitution pattern of the epoxide, with lesser influence observed from the Lewis acid employed. The widely studied cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides to afford cyclic carbonates (C-O bond cleavage) has been scrutinized in terms of catalytic efficiency and reaction mechanism, showing that unsophisticated complexes of groupIII-V transition metals are excellent molecular catalysts. These metals have been incorporated, as well, in highly performing, recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. Cycloadditions to epoxides with other dipolarophiles (alkynes, imines, indoles) have been conducted with scandium triflate with remarkable performances (C-C bond cleavage). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Contributions of in vitro transcription to the understanding of human RNA polymerase III transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Durrieu-Gaillard, Stéphanie; El Ayoubi, Leyla; Parrot, Camila; Teichmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase III transcribes small untranslated RNAs that contribute to the regulation of essential cellular processes, including transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of this transcription system by in vitro transcription techniques has largely contributed to the discovery of its transcription factors and to the understanding of the regulation of human RNA polymerase III transcription. Here we review some of the key steps that led to the identification of transcription factors and to the definition of minimal promoter sequences for human RNA polymerase III transcription.

  1. NMR and molecular dynamics studies of the conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, J R; Uhrinova, S; Woods, R J; van der Zwan, M; Jarrell, H C; Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; Jennings, H J

    1997-03-18

    The conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide (GBSP III) exhibits unique properties which can be ascribed to the presence of sialic acid in its structure and the requirement for an extended binding site. By means of NMR and molecular dynamics studies on GBSP III and its fragments, the extended epitope of GBSP III was further defined. The influence of sialic acid on the conformational properties of GBSP III was examined by performing conformational analysis on desialylated GBSP III, which is identical to the polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14, and also on oxidized and reduced GBSP III. Conformational changes were gauged by 1H and 13C chemical shift analysis, NOE, 1D selective TOCSY-NOESY experiments, J(HH) and J(CH) variations, and NOE of OH resonances. Changes in mobility were examined by 13C T1 and T2 measurements. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water using the AMBER force field and the GLYCAM parameter set were used to assess static and dynamic conformational models, simulate the observable NMR parameters and calculate helical parameters. GBSP III was found to be capable of forming extended helices. Hence, the length dependence of the conformational epitope could be explained by its location on extended helices within the random coil structure of GBSP III. The interaction of sialic acid with the backbone of the PS was also found to be important in defining the conformational epitope of GBSP III.

  2. Members of WRKY Group III transcription factors are important in TYLCV defense signaling pathway in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Meng-Yao; Wu, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Que, Feng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-10-07

    Transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV) has posed serious threats to plant growth and development. Plant innate immune systems against various threats involve WRKY Group III transcription factors (TFs). This group participates as a major component of biological processes in plants. In this study, 6 WRKY Group III TFs (SolyWRKY41, SolyWRKY42, SolyWRKY53, SolyWRKY54, SolyWRKY80, and SolyWRKY81) were identified, and these TFs responded to TYLCV infection. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that SolyWRKY41 and SolyWRKY54 were nuclear proteins in vivo. Many elements, including W-box, were found in the promoter region of Group III TFs. Interaction network analysis revealed that Group III TFs could interact with other proteins, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MAPK) and isochorismate synthase (ICS), to respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Positive and negative expression patterns showed that WRKY Group III genes could also respond to TYLCV infection in tomato. The DNA content of TYLCV resistant lines after SolyWRKY41 and SolyWRKY54 were subjected to virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was lower than that of the control lines. In the present study, 6 WRKY Group III TFs in tomato were identified to respond to TYLCV infection. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and VIGS analyses demonstrated that Group III genes served as positive and negative regulators in tomato-TYLCV interaction. WRKY Group III TFs could interact with other proteins by binding to cis elements existing in the promoter regions of other genes to regulate pathogen-related gene expression.

  3. Comparison between the effect of static contraction and tendon stretch on the discharge of group III and IV muscle afferents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawn G. Hayes; Angela E. Kindig; Marc P. Kaufman

    2005-01-01

    ... afferents as does static contraction. We have tested the veracity of this assumption in decerebrated cats by comparing the responses of group III and IV muscle afferents to tendon stretch with those to static contraction...

  4. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.

  5. Recombinant human collagen III gel for transplantation of autologous skin cells in porcine full-thickness wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutila, Kristo; Peura, Matti; Suomela, Sari; Hukkanen, Mika; Siltanen, Antti; Harjula, Ari; Vuola, Jyrki; Kankuri, Esko

    2015-12-01

    Complex skin wounds, such as chronic ulcers and deep burns, require lengthy treatments and cause extensive burdens on healthcare and the economy. Use of biomaterials and cell transplantation may improve traditional treatments and promote the healing of difficult-to-treat wounds. In this study, we investigated the use of recombinant human collagen III (rhCol-III) gel as a delivery vehicle for cultured autologous skin cells (keratinocytes only or keratinocyte-fibroblast mixtures). We examined its effect on the healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine wound-healing model. Two Landrace pigs were used for the study. Fourteen deep dermal wounds were created on the back of each pig with an 8 mm biopsy punch. Syringes containing acellular rhCol-III gel (n = 8) or rhCol-III gel with autologous keratinocytes (n = 8) or rhCol-III gel with autologous keratinocytes and fibroblasts (n = 8) were applied into wounds. Untreated wounds were used as controls for the treatment groups (n = 4). We used rhCol-III gel to manufacture a cell-delivery syringe containing autologous skin cells. In a full-thickness wound-healing model, we observed that rhCol-III gel enhances early granulation tissue formation. Interestingly, we found cell type-dependent differences in the stability of rhCol-III in vivo. Fibroblast-containing gel was effectively removed from the wound, whereas gels without cells or with keratinocytes only remained intact. Our results demonstrate that the properties of rhCol-III gel for skin cell transplantation can be significantly altered in a cell type-dependent manner.

  6. Computer Simulation of Gd(III) Speciation in Human Interstitial Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The speciation and distribution of Gd(III) in human interstitial fluid was studied by computer simulation. Meantime artificial neural network was applied to the estimation of log β values of complexes. The results show that the precipitate species, GdPO4 and Gd2(CO3)3, are the predominant species. Among soluble species, the free Gd(III), [Gd(HSA)] , [Gd(Ox)] and then the ternary complexes of Gd(III) with citrate are main species and [Gd3(OH)4] becomes the predominant species at the Gd(III) total concentration of 2.2×10-2mol/L.

  7. Utility of DSM-5 section III personality traits in differentiating borderline personality disorder from comparison groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Bo, S; Simonsen, E

    2016-09-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent diagnosis in mental health care and includes a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms. As the field of personality disorder (PD) research moves to emphasize dimensional traits in its operationalization, it is important to determine how the alternative DSM-5 Section III personality trait dimensions differentiates such features in BPD patients versus comparison groups. To date, no study has attempted such validation. The current study examined the utility of the DSM-5 trait dimensions in differentiating patients with the categorical DSM-IV/5 diagnosis of BPD (n=101) from systematically matched samples of other PD patients (n=101) and healthy controls (n=101). This was investigated using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results indicated that Emotional Lability, Risk Taking, and Suspiciousness uniquely differentiated BPD patients from other PD patients, whereas Emotional Lability, Depressivity, and Suspiciousness uniquely differentiated BPD patients from healthy controls. Emotional Lability is in particular a key BPD feature of the proposed Section III model, whereas Suspiciousness also augments essential BPD features. Provided that these findings are replicated cross-culturally in forthcoming research, a more parsimonious traits operationalization of BPD features is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase transitions in Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    The structures and transition pressures of Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and of a pseudobinary system (Ga/x/In/1-x/Sb) have been investigated. Results indicate that GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaAs and possible AlP assume Metallic structures at high pressures; a tetragonal, beta-Sn-like structure is adopted by only InSb and GaSb. The rocksalt phase is preferred in InP, InAs, AlSb, ZnO and ZnS. The model of Van Vechten (1973) gives transition pressures which are in good agreement with measured values, but must be refined to account for the occurrence of the ionic rocksalt structure in some compounds. In addition, discrepancies between the theoretical scaling values for volume changes at the semiconductor-to-metal transitions are observed.

  9. Integration of an opto-chemical detector based on group III-nitride nanowire heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, R; Becker, P; Cimalla, V; Grewe, A; Hille, P; Krüger, M; Schörmann, J; Schwarz, U T; Teubert, J; Eickhoff, M; Sinzinger, S

    2015-02-01

    The photoluminescence intensity of group III nitrides, nanowires, and heterostructures (NWHs) strongly depends on the environmental H(2) and O(2) concentration. We used this opto-chemical transducer principle for the realization of a gas detector. To make this technology prospectively available to commercial gas-monitoring applications, a large-scale laboratory setup was miniaturized. To this end the gas-sensitive NWHs were integrated with electro-optical components for optical addressing and read out within a compact and robust sensor system. This paper covers the entire realization process of the device from its conceptual draft and optical design to its fabrication and assembly. The applied approaches are verified with intermediate results of profilometric characterizations and optical performance measurements of subsystems. Finally the gas-sensing capabilities of the integrated detector are experimentally proven and optimized.

  10. Magnetic and optical bistability in tetrairon(III) single molecule magnets functionalized with azobenzene groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Thazhe Kootteri; Poneti, Giordano; Sorace, Lorenzo; Rodriguez-Douton, Maria Jesus; Barra, Anne-Laure; Neugebauer, Petr; Costantino, Luca; Sessoli, Roberta; Cornia, Andrea

    2012-07-21

    Tetrairon(III) complexes known as "ferric stars" have been functionalized with azobenzene groups to investigate the effect of light-induced trans-cis isomerization on single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour. According to DC magnetic data and EPR spectroscopy, clusters dispersed in polystyrene (4% w/w) exhibit the same spin (S = 5) and magnetic anisotropy as bulk samples. Ligand photoisomerization, achieved by irradiation at 365 nm, has no detectable influence on static magnetic properties. However, it induces a small but significant acceleration of magnetic relaxation as probed by AC susceptometry. The pristine behaviour can be almost quantitatively recovered by irradiation with white light. Our studies demonstrate that magnetic and optical bistability can be made to coexist in SMM materials, which are of current interest in molecular spintronics.

  11. High-field electron transport in nanoscale group-III nitride devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komirenko, S.M.; Kim, K.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Kochelap, V.A. [Inst. of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev-28 (Ukraine); Stroscio, M.A. [Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Mathematical Sciences Div.

    2001-11-08

    Focusing on the short-size group-III nitride heterostructures, we have developed a model which takes into account main features of transport of electrons injected into a polar semiconductor under high electric fields. The model is based on an exact analytical solution of Boltzmann transport equation. The electron velocity distribution over the device is analyzed at different fields and the basic characteristics of the high-field electron transport are obtained. The critical field for the runaway regime, when electron energies and velocities increase with distance which results in the average velocities higher than the peak velocity in bulk-like samples, is determined. We have found that the runaway electrons are characterized by a distribution function with population inversion. Different nitride-based small-size devices where this effect can have an impact on the device performance are considered. (orig.)

  12. Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, WorkingGroup III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Terry; Bashmakov, Igor; Bernstein, Lenny; Bogner,Jean; Bosch, Peter; Dave, Rutu; Davidson, Ogunlade; Fisher, Brian; Grubb,Michael; Gupta, Sujata; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Heij, Bertjan; Kahn Ribeiro,Suzana; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Levine, Mark; Martino, Daniel; MaseraCerutti, Omar; Metz, Bert; Meyer, Leo; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Najam, Adil; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Rogner, Hans Holger; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye,Jayant; Schock, Robert; Shukla, Priyaradshi; Sims, Ralph; Smith, Pete; Swart, Rob; Tirpak, Dennis; Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Zhou, Dadi

    2007-04-30

    A. Introduction 1. The Working Group III contribution to theIPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on thescientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects ofmitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third AssessmentReport (TAR) and the Special Reports on COB2B Capture and Storage (SRCCS)and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The following summary is organised into six sections after thisintroduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends, - Mitigation in theshort and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030), -Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030), - Policies, measures andinstruments to mitigate climate change, - Sustainable development andclimate change mitigation, - Gaps in knowledge. References to thecorresponding chapter sections are indicated at each paragraph in squarebrackets. An explanation of terms, acronyms and chemical symbols used inthis SPM can be found in the glossary to the main report.

  13. Magnetocaloric properties of manganese(III) porphyrins bearing 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.V., E-mail: vvk@isc-ras.ru [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str., 1, Ivanovo 153045 (Russian Federation); Lomova, T.N.; Maslennikova, A.N.; Korolev, D.V. [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str., 1, Ivanovo 153045 (Russian Federation); Shpakovsky, D.B.; Zhang, Jianwei; Milaeva, E.R. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Fine Organic Synthesis, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and heat capacity during the magnetization of (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (1), (5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (2), and (5-(4-palmitoyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) porphynato) manganese (III) chloride (3) in their aqueous suspensions were determined by the microcalorimetric method over the temperature range of 278–320 K and in magnetic fields from 0 to 1 T. MCE was positive for all complexes studied, i.e. the magnetic field impression under adiabatic conditions led to an increase in temperature of the complexes suspensions. MCE increased with an increase in the magnetic field induction at all temperatures studied. Dependences of MCE on temperature had weak maxima at 298 K at all magnetic induction values. The disturbance of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding of hydroxyl groups is one of probable reasons for such dependences type. MCE values increased under the palmitoyl substituent incorporation into one of the phenol groups at all temperatures. The heat capacity of the studied complexes rose slightly with temperature growth. Dependences of the heat capacity on temperature showed that the magnetic component of the heat capacity did not appear due to the presence of the manganese atom acting as a paramagnetic center in complexes 1, 2, and 3. The relation between the complexes structure and their magnetothermal properties was analyzed. It was justified that the changes of magnetothermal properties were caused by electronic substitution effects and, to an even greater degree, by the conditions of intermolecular hydrogen bonds formation in the paramagnetic materials. - Highlights: • The magnetocaloric effect and heat capacity of 3 manganese porphyrin were determined. • Temperature dependences of magnetocaloric effect has been studied. • The relation between the

  14. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow are able to infect tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Luo, Fu-Guang; Huang, Yan; Liang, Wan-Wen; Huang, Ting; Lei, Ai-Ying; Gan, Xi; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-10-22

    Recent studies have shown that group B streptococcus (GBS) may be infectious across hosts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pathogenicity of clinical GBS isolates with serotypes Ia, III and V from human and cow to tilapia and the evolutionary relationship among these GBS strains of different sources. A total of 27 clinical GBS isolates from human (n=10), cow (n=2) and tilapia (n=15) were analyzed using serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among them, 15 isolates were tested for their pathogenicity to tilapia. The results showed that five human GBS strains (2 serotype III, 2 serotype Ia and 1 serotype V) infected tilapia with mortality rate ranging from 56.67% to 100%, while the other five human GBS strains tested were unable to infect tilapia. In addition, two cow GBS strains C001 and C003 of serotype III infected tilapia. However, they had significantly lower pathogenicity than the five human strains. Furthermore, human GBS strains H005 and H008, which had very strong ability to infect tilapia, had the same PFGE pattern. MLST analysis showed that the five human and the two cow GBS strains that were able to infect tilapia belonged to clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103. The study for the first time confirmed that human or cow GBS clonal complexes CC19, CC23 and CC103 containing strains with serotypes Ia, III and V could infect tilapia and induce clinical signs under experimental conditions.

  15. 78 FR 12807 - Call for Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the Working Group III Contribution to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Expert Reviewers to the U.S. Government Review of the Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth..., request expert review of the Second Order Draft of the Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth..._procedures.shtml . In October 2009, the IPCC approved the outline for the Working Group III contribution...

  16. Molecular gene profiling of Clostridium botulinum group III and its detection in naturally contaminated samples originating from various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cedric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Bano, Luca; Koene, Miriam; Sansonetti, Marie-Hélène; Desoutter, Denise; Hansbauer, Eva-Maria; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G; Fach, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    We report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping Clostridium botulinum group III targeting the newly defined C. novyi sensu lato group; the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH)-encoding gene ntnh; the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-encoding genes bont/C, bont/C/D, bont/D, and bont/D/C; and the flagellin (fliC) gene. The genetic diversity of fliC among C. botulinum group III strains resulted in the definition of five major subgroups named fliC-I to fliC-V. Investigation of fliC subtypes in 560 samples, with various European origins, showed that fliC-I was predominant and found exclusively in samples contaminated by C. botulinum type C/D, fliC-II was rarely detected, no sample was recorded as fliC-III or fliC-V, and only C. botulinum type D/C samples tested positive for fliC-IV. The lack of genetic diversity of the flagellin gene of C. botulinum type C/D would support a clonal spread of type C/D strains in different geographical areas. fliC-I to fliC-III are genetically related (87% to 92% sequence identity), whereas fliC-IV from C. botulinum type D/C is more genetically distant from the other fliC types (with only 50% sequence identity). These findings suggest fliC-I to fliC-III have evolved in a common environment and support a different genetic evolution for fliC-IV. A combination of the C. novyi sensu lato, ntnh, bont, and fliC PCR assays developed in this study allowed better characterization of C. botulinum group III and showed the group to be less genetically diverse than C. botulinum groups I and II, supporting a slow genetic evolution of the strains belonging to C. botulinum group III.

  17. Molecular Gene Profiling of Clostridium botulinum Group III and Its Detection in Naturally Contaminated Samples Originating from Various European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cedric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Bano, Luca; Koene, Miriam; Sansonetti, Marie-Hélène; Desoutter, Denise; Hansbauer, Eva-Maria; Dorner, Martin B.; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping Clostridium botulinum group III targeting the newly defined C. novyi sensu lato group; the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH)-encoding gene ntnh; the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-encoding genes bont/C, bont/C/D, bont/D, and bont/D/C; and the flagellin (fliC) gene. The genetic diversity of fliC among C. botulinum group III strains resulted in the definition of five major subgroups named fliC-I to fliC-V. Investigation of fliC subtypes in 560 samples, with various European origins, showed that fliC-I was predominant and found exclusively in samples contaminated by C. botulinum type C/D, fliC-II was rarely detected, no sample was recorded as fliC-III or fliC-V, and only C. botulinum type D/C samples tested positive for fliC-IV. The lack of genetic diversity of the flagellin gene of C. botulinum type C/D would support a clonal spread of type C/D strains in different geographical areas. fliC-I to fliC-III are genetically related (87% to 92% sequence identity), whereas fliC-IV from C. botulinum type D/C is more genetically distant from the other fliC types (with only 50% sequence identity). These findings suggest fliC-I to fliC-III have evolved in a common environment and support a different genetic evolution for fliC-IV. A combination of the C. novyi sensu lato, ntnh, bont, and fliC PCR assays developed in this study allowed better characterization of C. botulinum group III and showed the group to be less genetically diverse than C. botulinum groups I and II, supporting a slow genetic evolution of the strains belonging to C. botulinum group III. PMID:25636839

  18. Decreased type III collagen expression in human uterine cervix of prolapse uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWAHASHI, MASAAKI; MURAGAKI, YASUTERU

    2011-01-01

    The precise mechanism of prolapse uteri is not fully understood. There is evidence to suggest that abnormalities of collagen, the main component of extracellular matrix, or its repair mechanism, may predispose women to prolapse. To investigate the characteristic structure of human uterine cervix of patients with prolapse uteri, various types of collagen expression in the uterine cervix tissues of the prolapse uteri were compared to those of normal uterine cervix. After informed consent, 36 specimens of uterine cervical tissues were obtained at the time of surgery from 16 postmenopausal women with prolapse uteri (stage III–IV by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination) and 20 postmenopausal women without prolapse uteri (control group). Collagens were extracted from the uterine cervix tissues by salt precipitation methods. The relative levels of various collagens were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The uterine cervix was longer in the patients with prolapse uteri than those of postmenopausal controls without prolapse uteri. The ratios of type III to type I collagen in the uterine cervical tissues were significantly decreased in the prolapse uteri, as compared to those of the postmenopausal uterine cervix without prolapse. These results suggest that decreased type III collagen expression may play an important role in determing the physiology and structure of the uterine cervix tissues of prolapse uteri. PMID:22977496

  19. Development of human factors design review guidelines(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25, human factors engineering program review model' and '26, review criteria for human factors aspects of advanced controls and instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents NUREG--0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm system. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994.

  20. Two DNA-binding and Nick Recognition Modules in Human DNA Ligase III*

    OpenAIRE

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Human DNA ligase III contains an N-terminal zinc finger domain that binds to nicks and gaps in DNA. This small domain has been described as a DNA nick sensor, but it is not required for DNA nick joining activity in vitro. In light of new structural information for mammalian ligases, we measured the DNA binding affinity and specificity of each domain of DNA ligase III. These studies identified two separate, independent DNA-binding modules in DNA ligase III that each bin...

  1. Types I and III procollagen extension peptides in serum respond to fracture in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Jensen, L T; Andersen, G R

    1992-01-01

    Markers of types I and III collagen turnover were measured in serial blood samples in 16 patients with a Colles' fracture. The collagen markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP......). Significant increases were found of PIIINP within 1 week and of PICP within 2 weeks. This sequential appearance of PIIINP and PICP was found to be in agreement with the appearance of types III and I collagen during early fracture healing as demonstrated in previous animal experimental studies. PICP had...... prove relevant as non-invasive markers of normal and pathological fracture healing in humans....

  2. Lattice site location of impurities in group III nitrides using emission channeling

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, Bart; Wahl, Ulrich

    The group III nitrides comprise the semiconducting materials InN, GaN, AlN and their ternary alloys. During the last decade, GaN has attracted widespread attention due to its large band gap and hardness. These properties, combined with the fact that its band gap can be adjusted by alloying it with InN and AlN, make GaN a suitable material for the fabrication of optical components that operate in the blue to ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and for microwave and high-power applications. Indeed, during the last couple of years, GaN-based blue and violet light-emitting devices (LEDs) and laser diodes have been realized and commercialized: the violet laser diodes will even be the keystone to the next generation of optical data storage standards, Blu-ray and HD-DVD. \\\\ \\\\ A key aspect in device production is the incorporation of dopants that can alter the electronic, magnetic or optical properties of the host material. For example, Si is often used to generate n-type GaN, while Mg is the most fr...

  3. Superconductivity in Group III-V Semiconductor AlN Under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selva Dancy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of cubic zinc blende type group III-V semiconductor AlN under pressure is studied using full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO method. At normal pressure, AlN is an indirect bandgap semiconductor with band gap value 4.56 eV. When the pressure is increased, there is enhanced overlapping between the wave functions of the neighboring atoms. As a result the widths of the valence and empty conduction bands increase. These changes lead to the narrowing and indirect closing of the band gaps in AlN (metallization. On further increase of pressure, AlN becomes a superconductor and AlN comes under the class of electron-phonon-mediated high pressure superconductors. The superconducting transition temperatures (Tc of AlN are obtained as a function of pressure for the CsCl structure. It is also confirmed that the metallization, structural phase transition and onset of superconductivity do not occur simultaneously in this compound. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.628

  4. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy on group-III nitrides and transition- metal oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Niessner, W

    2000-01-01

    A main topic represent electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies of the group-III nitrides AlN, GaN, InN, as well as their mixing systems Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N, In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x N. In EELS measurements with excitation energies above 1 keV clear collective excitations in AlN at 21 eV and in GaN at 15 eV were observed. In the mixing system Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x M a 2-mode behaviour is observed. Up to x=0.2 a GaN-like excitation remains preserved, while from x=0.44 the eigenfrequency of a AlN-like resonance shifts continuously. With vanadium dioxide a d sup 1 transition metal oxide was studied, which passes at 68 C a semiconductor-metal transition. In the EELS valence band spectra beside band transitions from the O2p subsigma and O2p subpi band an intense signal with a loss energy of 1 eV occurs. EELS studies on W- and F-doped VO sub 2 show, that it deals with a band transition from the V3d into the pd subpi band. EELS studies were for the first time also performed at lead t...

  5. Laser field induced optical gain in a group III-V quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Peter, Amalorpavam John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2016-08-01

    Effect of intense high frequency laser field on the electronic and optical properties of heavy hole exciton in an InAsP/InP quantum well wire is investigated taking into consideration of the spatial confinement. Laser field induced exciton binding energies, optical band gap, oscillator strength and the optical gain in the InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum well wire are studied. The variational formulism is applied to find the respective energies. The laser field induced optical properties are studied. The optical gain as a function of photon energy, in the InAs0.8P0.2/InP quantum wire, is obtained in the presence of intense laser field. The compact density matrix method is employed to obtain the optical gain. The results show that the 1.55 μm wavelength for the fibre optic telecommunication applications is achieved for 45 Å wire radius in the absence of laser field intensity whereas the 1.55 μm wavelength is obtained for 40 Å if the amplitude of the laser field amplitude parameter is 50 Å. The characterizing wavelength for telecommunication network is optimized when the intense laser field is applied for the system. It is hoped that the obtained optical gain in the group III-V narrow quantum wire can be applied for fabricating laser sources for achieving the preferred telecommunication wavelength.

  6. Effect of NADPH on formation and decay of human metarhodopsin III at physiological temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szundi, I; Lewis, J W; van Kuijk, F J; Kliger, D S

    2000-01-01

    Difference absorption spectra were recorded during the formation and decay of metarhodopsin III after sonicated membrane suspensions of rhodopsin were bleached at 37 degrees C. The data were analyzed using SVD, spectral decomposition and global exponential fitting. By comparison of the results in the presence or absence of 70 microM NADPH and those for bovine or human rhodopsin, a single comprehensive scheme was fit to all the data, including reduction of retinal to retinol by the intrinsic retinol dehydrogenase. On the time scale studied the mechanism involves two 382 nm absorbing species and two 468 nm, absorbing species, supporting the notion that human metarhodopsin III is not a homogeneous species. The results confirm that metarhodopsin III forms and persists sufficiently long in the human retina under physiological conditions that it could undergo secondary photoisomerization.

  7. Molecular genetics of human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne (rye) allergen, Lol p III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Marsh, D G

    1989-01-01

    Lol p II and III are each about 11-kD protein allergens from the pollen of Lolium perenne (rye grass). We have found that human immune responses (IgE and IgG antibodies) to both proteins are significantly associated with HLA-DR3. In addition, the two proteins are cross-reactive with the antibodies in many human sera (about 84% human sera showed the cross-reactivity). We have determined greater than 90% of the amino acid sequences of the two proteins and found that they are at least 54% homologous. Berzofsky found that 75% of the 23 known T cell sites in various proteins had an amphipathic structure. Our analysis by the same method showed that both Lol p II and III have a major region of amphipathicity (at residues 61-67, Lol p III numbering) which might contain sites for binding to an Ia molecule and a T cell receptor. This region is identical between Lol p II and III, except for an Arg-Lys substitution, and could account, in part, for the DR3 association with responsiveness to both molecules. An interesting difference between the two proteins is that immune response to Lol p III is associated with DR5 (in addition to DR3), whereas no DR5 association is found in the case of Lol p II. One possibility is that Lol p III has an additional site which binds to the DR5 Ia molecule. Lol p III indeed has a second highly amphiphathic peptide, 24-30 (Lol p III 24 R P G D T L A 30), which is different and not amphipathic in Lol p II.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Human DPP III – Keap1 Interactions: A Combined Experimental And Computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gundić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1 is a cellular sensor for oxidative stress and a negative regulator of the transcription factor Nrf2. Keap1 and Nrf2 control expression of nearly 500 genes with diverse cytoprotective functions and the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway is a major regulator of cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. It was found that the metallopeptidase dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III contributes to Nrf2 activation by binding to Keap1, probably by binding to the Kelch domain, and thereby influences Nrf2 activity in cancer. We here first determined that the KD of the DPP III-Kelch domain complex is in the submicromolar range. In order to elucidate the molecular details of the DPP III – Kelch interaction we then built models of the complex between human DPP III and the Keap1 Kelch domain and performed coarse-grained and atomistic simulations of the complexes. In the most stable complexes, the ETGE motif in the DPP III flexible loop binds near the central pore of the six-blade β-propeller Kelch domain. According to the preliminary HD exchange experiments DPP III binds to the more unstructured end of Kelch domain. According to the results of MD simulations DPP III binding to the Kelch domain does not influence the overall DPP III structure or the long-range domain fluctuations. We can conclude that DPP III forms the stable complexes with the Keap1 Kelch domain by inserting the flexible loop into the entrance to the central pore of the six blade β-propeller Kelch domain at its more unstructured, N-terminus. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  9. Group III alcohol dehydrogenase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum: insights into enzymatic activity and organization of the metal ion-containing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Fodor, Krisztian; von der Heyde, Amélie; Klippel, Barbara; Wilmanns, Matthias; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-05-01

    NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely distributed in all phyla. These proteins can be assigned to three nonhomologous groups of isozymes, with group III being highly diverse with regards to catalytic activity and primary structure. Members of group III ADHs share a conserved stretch of amino acid residues important for cofactor binding and metal ion coordination, while sequence identities for complete proteins are highly diverse (90 %). A putative group III ADH PaYqhD has been identified in BLAST analysis from the plant pathogenic enterobacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The PaYqhD gene was expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified in a two-step purification procedure to homogeneity indicating an obligate dimerization of monomers. Four conserved amino acid residues involved in metal ion coordination were substituted with alanine, and their importance for catalytic activity was confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum determination, in vitro, and growth experiments. PaYqhD exhibits optimal activity at 40 °C with short carbon chain aldehyde compounds and NADPH as cofactor indicating the enzyme to be an aldehyde reductase. No oxidative activities towards alcoholic compounds were detectable. EDTA completely inhibited catalytic activity and was fully restored by the addition of Co(2+). Activity measurements together with sequence alignments and structure analysis confirmed that PaYqhD belongs to the butanol dehydrogenase-like enzymes within group III of ADHs.

  10. [Separation and purification of human apolipoproteins A-I and C-III by chromatofocusing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B

    1993-08-01

    Human very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were isolated and purified by a process of combined dextran sulfate precipitation and density gradient ultracentrifugation. Chromatofocusing, which separates protein based on differences in isoelectric point, was used to separate apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein C-III from human HDL and VLDL, respectively. Discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF) were used to study the purity of different fractions. Both purified apoA-I and apoC-III showed single bands on SDS-PAGE at molecular weights of 28183 and 9400 Daltons, respectively. As determined by IEF in the presence of 8 mol/L urea, apoA-I had eight isoforms with pI of 5.66-5.87. The pI's of the three isoproteins of apoC-III (C-III0, C-III1 and C-III2) were 5.06, 4.88 and 4.72, respectively. Chromatofocusing, a new simple technique combining the high resolving power of IEF with the high capacity of ion-exchange column chromatography, is extremely valuable for large-scale purification of the major apolipoproteins of VLDL and HDL.

  11. The coupling of thermochemistry and phase diagrams for group III-V semiconductor systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.J.

    1998-07-21

    The project was directed at linking the thermochemical properties of III-V compound semiconductors systems with the reported phase diagrams. The solid-liquid phase equilibrium problem was formulated and three approaches to calculating the reduced standard state chemical potential were identified and values were calculated. In addition, thermochemical values for critical properties were measured using solid state electrochemical techniques. These values, along with the standard state chemical potentials and other available thermochemical and phase diagram data, were combined with a critical assessment of selected III-V systems. This work was culminated with a comprehensive assessment of all the III-V binary systems. A novel aspect of the experimental part of this project was the demonstration of the use of a liquid encapsulate to measure component activities by a solid state emf technique in liquid III-V systems that exhibit high vapor pressures at the measurement temperature.

  12. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijers, R.J.

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  13. Determination of polarization fields in group III-nitride heterostructures by capacitance-voltage-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetsky, Monir; Koslow, Ingrid; Avinc, Baran; Rass, Jens; Wernicke, Tim; Bellmann, Konrad; Sulmoni, Luca; Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus; Wild, Johannes; Zweck, Josef; Witzigmann, Bernd; Kneissl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The polarization fields in wurtzite group III-nitrides strongly influence the optical properties of InAlGaN-based light emitters, e.g., the electron and hole wave function overlap in quantum wells. In this paper, we propose a new approach to determine these fields by capacitance-voltage measurements (CVM). Sheet charges generated by a change of the microscopic polarization at heterointerfaces influence the charge distribution in PIN junctions and therefore the depletion width and the capacitance. We show that it is possible to determine the strength and direction of the internal fields by comparing the depletion widths of two PIN junctions, one influenced by internal polarization fields and one without as a reference. For comparison, we conducted coupled Poisson/carrier transport simulations on the CVM of the polarization-influenced sample. We also demonstrate the feasibility and limits of the method by determining the fields in GaN/InGaN and GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures on (0001) c-plane grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and compare both evaluation methods. The method yields (-0.50 ± 0.07) MV/cm for In0.08Ga0.92N/GaN, (0.90 ± 0.13) MV/cm for Al0.18Ga0.82N/GaN, and (2.0 ± 0.3) MV/cm for Al0.31Ga0.69N/GaN heterostructures.

  14. Determination of polarization fields in group III-nitride heterostructures by capacitance-voltage-measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychetsky, Monir, E-mail: monir.rychetsky@physik.tu-berlin.de; Avinc, Baran; Wernicke, Tim; Bellmann, Konrad; Sulmoni, Luca [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Koslow, Ingrid; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Wild, Johannes; Zweck, Josef [Fakultät für Physik, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Witzigmann, Bernd [Computational Electronics and Photonics Group and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany)

    2016-03-07

    The polarization fields in wurtzite group III-nitrides strongly influence the optical properties of InAlGaN-based light emitters, e.g., the electron and hole wave function overlap in quantum wells. In this paper, we propose a new approach to determine these fields by capacitance-voltage measurements (CVM). Sheet charges generated by a change of the microscopic polarization at heterointerfaces influence the charge distribution in PIN junctions and therefore the depletion width and the capacitance. We show that it is possible to determine the strength and direction of the internal fields by comparing the depletion widths of two PIN junctions, one influenced by internal polarization fields and one without as a reference. For comparison, we conducted coupled Poisson/carrier transport simulations on the CVM of the polarization-influenced sample. We also demonstrate the feasibility and limits of the method by determining the fields in GaN/InGaN and GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures on (0001) c-plane grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and compare both evaluation methods. The method yields (−0.50 ± 0.07) MV/cm for In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N/GaN, (0.90 ± 0.13) MV/cm for Al{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N/GaN, and (2.0 ± 0.3) MV/cm for Al{sub 0.31}Ga{sub 0.69}N/GaN heterostructures.

  15. Organization of layers II-III connections in human visual cortex revealed by in vitro injections of biocytin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan-Vaknin, G; Ouaknine, G E; Razon, N; Malach, R

    1992-10-30

    In the search for cortical mechanisms subserving psychological phenomena, a better understanding of human cortical circuitry is crucial. In this report we describe aspects of intrinsic connectivity of supragranular layers in human visual cortex, revealed by extracellular injections of the anterograde tracer biocytin in vitro. Human cortical slices were obtained from visual association cortex in the posterior-medial portion of the dorsal bank of the occipital lobe, removed during neurosurgical tumor ablations. Small iontophoretic injections of biocytin into layers II-III revealed intense Golgi-like staining of axonal projections emanating from the injection sites. Vertically descending axons are grouped in bundles 20 microns in diameter which are spaced 15 microns apart. Some of these axons enter the white matter and send long oblique and horizontal collaterals. The main horizontal spread of the axons could be observed in layers II-III and V. The bulk of projections extends to a distance of 1.5 mm in layers II-III and 1.1 mm in layer V. Few individual axons could be observed at greater distances. In contrast, layer IV is almost devoid of horizontal connections, forming a clear gap between supra- and infragranular layers. Axon collaterals in the infragranular layers project mostly in a descending oblique direction with long horizontal collaterals in lower layer VI.

  16. Thermal and chemical stabilities of group-III sesquioxides in a flow of either N2 or H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Rie; Kisanuki, Yumi; Goto, Ken; Murakami, Hisashi; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Monemar, Bo; Koukitu, Akinori; Kumagai, Yoshinao

    2016-12-01

    The thermal and chemical stabilities of group-III sesquioxides (Al2O3, Ga2O3, and In2O3) were comparatively investigated at an atmospheric pressure at heat treatment temperatures ranging from 250 to 1450 °C in a flow of either N2 or H2. In a flow of N2, the thermal decomposition of α-Al2O3 was not observed at the temperatures investigated, while the decompositions of β-Ga2O3 and c-In2O3 occurred above 1150 and 1000 °C, respectively, with no generation of group-III metal droplets on the surfaces. In contrast, the chemical reactions of α-Al2O3, β-Ga2O3, and c-In2O3 began at low temperatures of 1150, 550, and 300 °C in a flow of H2. Thus, the presence of H2 in the gas flow significantly promotes the decomposition of group-III sesquioxides. The order of thermal and chemical stabilities (α-Al2O3 ≫ β-Ga2O3 > c-In2O3) obtained experimentally was verified by thermodynamic analysis, which also clarified dominant decomposition reactions of group-III sesquioxides.

  17. Chromium III histidinate exposure modulates antioxidant gene expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the toxicity of hexavalent chromium is well established, trivalent Cr (Cr(III)) is an essential nutrient involved in insulin and glucose homeostasis. Recently, antioxidant effects of chromium (III) histidinate (Cr(III)His) were reported in HaCaT human keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress...

  18. Molecular characterization of EGFR and EGFRvIII signaling networks in human glioblastoma tumor xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hannah; Del Rosario, Amanda M; Bryson, Bryan D; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N; White, Forest M

    2012-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant primary brain tumor with a mean survival of 15 months with the current standard of care. Genetic profiling efforts have identified the amplification, overexpression, and mutation of the wild-type (wt) epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR) in ≈ 50% of GBM patients. The genetic aberration of wtEGFR is frequently accompanied by the overexpression of a mutant EGFR known as EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII, de2-7EGFR, ΔEGFR), which is expressed in 30% of GBM tumors. The molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis driven by EGFRvIII overexpression in human tumors have not been fully elucidated. To identify specific therapeutic targets for EGFRvIII driven tumors, it is important to gather a broad understanding of EGFRvIII specific signaling. Here, we have characterized signaling through the quantitative analysis of protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation across a panel of glioblastoma tumor xenografts established from patient surgical specimens expressing wtEGFR or overexpressing wtEGFR (wtEGFR+) or EGFRvIII (EGFRvIII+). S100A10 (p11), major vault protein, guanylate-binding protein 1(GBP1), and carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) were identified to have significantly increased expression in EGFRvIII expressing xenograft tumors relative to wtEGFR xenograft tumors. Increased expression of these four individual proteins was found to be correlated with poor survival in patients with GBM; the combination of these four proteins represents a prognostic signature for poor survival in gliomas. Integration of protein expression and phosphorylation data has uncovered significant heterogeneity among the various tumors and has highlighted several novel pathways, related to EGFR trafficking, activated in glioblastoma. The pathways and proteins identified in these tumor xenografts represent potential therapeutic targets for this disease.

  19. III-10, a newly synthesized flavonoid, induces cell apoptosis with the involvement of reactive oxygen species-mitochondria pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qinsheng; Yin, Qian; Zhao, Yikai; Guo, Ruichen; Li, Zhiyu; Ma, Shiping; Lu, Na

    2015-10-05

    Study of the mechanisms of apoptosis in tumor cells is an important field of tumor therapy and cancer molecular biology. We recently established that III-10, a new flavonoid with a pyrrolidinyl and a benzyl group substitution, exerted its anti-tumor effect via inducing differentiation of human U937 leukemia cells. In this study, we demonstrated that III-10 induced cell apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and the increased expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were detected in III-10-induced apoptosis. Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, partly attenuated the apoptotic induction of III-10 on both HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. Furthermore, the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and the reduction of mitochondria ΔΨm were also observed in BEL-7402 and HepG2 cells after the treatment of III-10. Pretreatment with NAC, a reactive oxygen species production inhibitor, partly attenuated the apoptosis induced by III-10 via blocking the reactive oxygen species generation. Our data also showed that III-10 induced the release of cytochrome c and AIF to cytosol followed after the reactive oxygen species accumulation. Moreover, the GSH levels and ATP generation were both inhibited after III-10 treatment. Besides, the MAPK, the downstream effect of reactive oxygen species accumulation including JNK could be activated by III-10, as well as the inactivation of ERK. Collectively, the generation of reactive oxygen species might play an crucial role in III-10-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, provided more stubborn evidence for III-10 as a potent anticancer therapeutic candidate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human DNA Ligase III Recognizes DNA Ends by Dynamic Switching between Two DNA-Bound States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom (Scripps); (Maryland-MED); (WU-MED); (LBNL)

    2010-09-13

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a 'jackknife model' in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  1. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  2. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... American Pistachio Growers trade association. III. Response to Comments In this section, EPA describes the... profitable minor crop. For these reasons, EPA concludes it would be appropriate to include Chinese jujube as.... EPA received one comment from the American Pistachio Growers trade association that supported...

  3. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  4. Antisense Oligonucleotide Inhibition of Apolipoprotein C-III Reduces Plasma Triglycerides in Rodents, Nonhuman Primates, and Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Mark J; Lee, Richard G; Bell, III, Thomas A; Fu, Wuxia; Mullick, Adam E; Alexander, Veronica J; Singleton, Walter; Viney, Nick; Geary, Richard; Su, John; Baker, Brenda F; Burkey, Jennifer; Crooke, Stanley T; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2013-01-01

    .... METHODS AND RESULTS:Rodent- and human-specific second-generation antisense oligonucleotides were identified and evaluated in preclinical models, including rats, mice, human apoC-III transgenic mice, and nonhuman...

  5. Multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing Clostridium botulinum group III organisms and their mosaic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skarin, Hanna; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Knutsson, Rickard; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease that can occur in all warm-blooded animals, birds, and fishes. The disease in animals is mainly caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum strains belonging to group III, although outbreaks due to toxins produced by group I and II organisms have been recognized. Group III strains are capable of producing botulinum toxins of type C, D, and C/D and D/C mosaic variants. Definitive diagnosis of animal botulism is made by combining clinical findings with laboratory investigations. Detection of toxins in clinical specimens and feed is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis. Since toxins may be degraded by organisms contained in the gastrointestinal tract or may be present at levels below the detection limit, the recovery of C. botulinum from sick animal specimens is consistent for laboratory confirmation. In this article we report the development and in-house validation of a new multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing the neurotoxin genes found in C. botulinum group III organisms. Validation procedures have been carried out according to ISO 16140, using strains and samples recovered from cases of animal botulism in Italy and France.

  6. Laboratory blood group examination of proteolysis degradation human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Ahlam Gizela, Beta Ahlam Gizela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood group examination has many purposes and one of them is identification. In several forensic cases there is incompatibility of blood group in corpse and in other evidences usually used blood group examination is serum agglutination method. From the previous study, it was found that there was increasing osmotic fragility of red cell. For that reason, we need to know how the result of blood group tests in degradation human blood.Objective: The purpose of this study is to know bl...

  7. Electronic structure investigations of group III-nitrides surface and interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Die Halbleiter der Gruppe III-Nitride und ihre Verbindungen haben in den letzten Jahren wegen ihrer weitreichenden Anwendungen als Feldemitter für kurze Wellenlängen und optoelektronische Bauteile großes Interesse hervorgerufen. Diese Entwicklung ist vor allem der Realisierung des p-dotierten Nitridhalbleiters und des erfolgreichen Wachstums dünner Schichten hoher Qualität zu verdanken. Ungeachtet der steigenden Zahl an kommerziellen Produkten auf Nitridbasis, sind viele fundamentelle Fragen ...

  8. MOVPE Growth and Characterization of Group-III Nitrides Using In Situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Wachstumsmechanismen der Gruppe III-Nitride GaN und InN in der metallorganischen Gasphasenepitaxie (MOVPE) mittels spektroskopischer Ellipsometrie (SE) in situ. Dabei ermöglicht SE einen direkten Zugang zu den Materialparametern wie Bandlückenenergie, Bandlückenverbreiterung, Schichtdicken- oder Rauhigkeitsentwicklung bereits während des Wachstumsprozesses. Das Verfolgen der Änderungen dieser Materialparameter in direkter Abhängigkeit der gewähl...

  9. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  10. Hawkins Group I fracture of neck of talus and Salter Harris Type III tibial epiphyseal injury of medial malleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kodali Siva R K; Vali, Hamza; Hussain, Altaf

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting an unusual combination of Hawkins Group I fracture of the neck of left talus in association with Salter Harris Type III distal tibial epiphyseal injury of medial malleolus in a child with cerebral palsy and hemiplegia of contralateral limbs and discussed the possible mechanism as well as management. Fractures of medial malleolus usually occur in Hawkins Group III fracture-dislocations in adults. Forced dorsiflexion of talus against the anterior edge of tibia appears to be the accepted common mechanism, despite limited experimental and clinical evidence incriminating axial compression. Fracture of medial malleolus implicates supination. We managed this unusual pattern of injury conservatively. At 15 months, the child was asymptomatic with no radiological evidence of avascular necrosis of body of talus or growth disturbance of distal tibial epiphysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction of human serum albumin with Fe(III)–deferasirox studied by multispectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Gholamreza, E-mail: dehghan2001d@yahoo.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shaghaghi, Masoomeh [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697 Tehran, I.R. of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sattari, Safura [Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between the iron complex of deferasirox (Fe(III)–DFX) and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence, UV–vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Binding constants, number of binding sites and binding distance (r) were calculated. Fluorescence data at different temperatures revealed that the fluorescence intensity of HSA is decreased in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex, and the fluorescence quenching was the result of the formation of the Fe(III)–DFX–HSA complex, therefore the quenching mechanism was static. The binding constant (K{sub a}) for the interaction was 10{sup 4}, and the number of binding site was obtained ∼1. The thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy (∆H), entropy (∆S) and Gibb's free energy (∆G) changes were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. These data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex and the association process was spontaneous. The interaction of HSA with Fe(III)–DFX was also confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectra. The quantitative analysis data of CD spectra showed significant alterations of HSA secondary structure in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex in aqueous solution with reduction of α-helices content and increase of β-turn structure. - Highlights: • The interaction between Fe(III)–DFX and (HSA) was studied by multispectroscopic methods. • Fluorescence intensity of HSA is decreased in the presence of Fe(III)–DFX complex through a static quenching procedure. • Thermodynamic data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the dominant intermolecular force and the association process was spontaneous. • The CD spectra showed significant alterations of HSA secondary structure with reduction of α-helices content and increase of β-turn structure.

  12. Galaxy evolution in nearby galaxy groups. III. A GALEX view of NGC 5846, the largest group in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Antonietta; Rampazzo, Roberto; Bianchi, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We explore the co-evolution of galaxies in nearby groups (V < 3000 km/s) with a multi-wavelength approach. We analyze GALEX far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) imaging and SDSS u,g,r,i,z data of groups spanning a large range of dynamical phases. We characterize the photometric properties of spectroscopically-confirmed galaxy members and investigate the global properties of the groups through a dynamical analysis. Here we focus on NGC 5846, the third most massive association of Early-Type Galaxies (ETG) after the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The group, composed of 90 members, is dominated by ETGs (about 80 per cent), and among ETGs about 40\\% are dwarfs. Results are compared with those obtained for three groups in the LeoII cloud, which are radically different both in member-galaxy population and dynamical properties. The FUV-NUV cumulative colour distribution and the normalized UV luminosity function (LF) significantly differ due to the different fraction of late-type galaxy population. The UV LF of NGC 5846 rese...

  13. Substrate complexes of human dipeptidyl peptidase III reveal the mechanism of enzyme inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Reithofer, Viktoria; Reisinger, Manuel; Wallner, Silvia; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Human dipeptidyl-peptidase III (hDPP III) is a zinc-dependent hydrolase cleaving dipeptides off the N-termini of various bioactive peptides. Thus, the enzyme is likely involved in a number of physiological processes such as nociception and is also implicated in several forms of cancer. We present high-resolution crystal structures of hDPP III in complex with opioid peptides (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, endomorphin-2) as well as with angiotensin-II and the peptide inhibitor IVYPW. These structures confirm the previously reported large conformational change of the enzyme upon ligand binding and show that the structure of the closed conformation is independent of the nature of the bound peptide. The overall peptide-binding mode is also conserved ensuring the correct positioning of the scissile peptide bond with respect to the catalytic zinc ion. The structure of the angiotensin-II complex shows, how longer peptides are accommodated in the binding cleft of hDPP III. Differences in the binding modes allow a distinction between real substrates and inhibitory peptides or “slow” substrates. The latter displace a zinc bound water molecule necessitating the energetically much less favoured anhydride mechanism as opposed to the favoured promoted-water mechanism. The structural data also form the necessary framework for the design of specific hDPP III inhibitors. PMID:27025154

  14. Groups II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors differentially modulate brief and prolonged nociception in primate STT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, V; Chen, P S; Willis, W D

    2000-12-01

    The heterogeneous family of G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) provides excitatory and inhibitory controls of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the nervous system. Eight mGluR subtypes have been cloned and are classified in three subgroups. Group I mGluRs can stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis and activate protein kinase C whereas group II (mGluR2 and 3) and group III (mGluR4, 6, 7, and 8) mGluRs share the ability to inhibit cAMP formation. The present study examined the roles of groups II and III mGluRs in the processing of brief nociceptive information and capsaicin-induced central sensitization of primate spinothalamic tract (STT) cells in vivo. In 11 anesthetized male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), extracellular recordings were made from 21 STT cells in the lumbar dorsal horn. Responses to brief (15 s) cutaneous stimuli of innocuous (brush), marginally and distinctly noxious (press and pinch, respectively) intensity were recorded before, during, and after the infusion of group II and group III mGluR agonists into the dorsal horn by microdialysis. Different concentrations were applied for at least 20 min each (at 5 microliter/min) to obtain cumulative concentration-response relationships. Values in this paper refer to the drug concentrations in the microdialysis fibers; actual concentrations in the tissue are about three orders of magnitude lower. The agonists were also applied at 10-25 min after intradermal capsaicin injection. The group II agonists (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG1, 1 microM-10 mM, n = 6) and (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4, 6-dicarboxylate (LY379268; 1 microM-10 mM, n = 6) had no significant effects on the responses to brief cutaneous mechanical stimuli (brush, press, pinch) or on ongoing background activity. In contrast, the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (LAP4, 0. 1 microM-10 mM, n = 6) inhibited the responses to cutaneous mechanical stimuli in a

  15. Dynamic Task Performance, Cohesion, and Communications in Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.

  16. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  17. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  18. Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, J. W.; Foxon, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The group III nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) represent an important trio of semiconductors because of their direct band gaps which span the range 1.95-6.2 eV, including the whole of the visible region and extending well out into the ultraviolet (UV) range. They form a complete series of ternary alloys which, in principle, makes available any band gap within this range and the fact that they also generate efficient luminescence has been the main driving force for their recent technological development. High brightness visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now commercially available, a development which has transformed the market for LED-based full colour displays and which has opened the way to many other applications, such as in traffic lights and efficient low voltage, flat panel white light sources. Continuously operating UV laser diodes have also been demonstrated in the laboratory, exciting tremendous interest for high-density optical storage systems, UV lithography and projection displays. In a remarkably short space of time, the nitrides have therefore caught up with and, in some ways, surpassed the wide band gap II-VI compounds (ZnCdSSe) as materials for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to review these developments and to provide essential background material in the form of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the nitrides, relevant to these applications. We have been guided by the fact that the devices so far available are based on the binary compound GaN (which is relatively well developed at the present time), together with the ternary alloys AlGaN and InGaN, containing modest amounts of Al or In. We therefore concentrate, to a considerable extent, on the properties of GaN, then introduce those of the alloys as appropriate, emphasizing their use in the formation of the heterostructures employed in devices. The nitrides crystallize preferentially in the hexagonal wurtzite structure and devices have so

  19. Homogeneous water oxidation by half-sandwich iridium(III)NHC complexes with pendant hydroxy and amino groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, Bani; González Miera, Greco; Martínez-Castro, Elisa; Bedin, Michele; Martín-Matute, Belén; Ott, Sascha; Thapper, Anders

    2017-09-08

    Herein we report three Ir(III)Cp* complexes with hydroxy- (1, 2) or amino- (3) functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands as catalysts for efficient water oxidation induced by addition of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). The pendant hydroxy- or amino- groups are very important for activity and the complexes with heteroatom-functionalized NHC ligands show up to 15 times higher rate of oxygen evolution in CAN-induced water oxidation compared to a reference Ir(III)Cp* complex without heteroatom functionalization (4). The presence of molecular high-valent Ir intermediates that are presumably involved in the rate-determining step for water oxidation is established by UV-vis spectroscopic and ESI mass spectrometric analyses during turnover conditions. The hydroxy-groups on the NHC ligands, as well as chloride ligands on the iridium center are proposed to structurally stabilize the high-valent species, and thereby improve the catalytic activity. The Ir(III) complex 1 with a hydroxy-functionalized NHC shows the highest catalytic activity with a TON of 2500 obtained in 3 h and with >90% yield relative to the amount of used oxidant. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. "Taking the human out of human rights" human rights or group rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What interest me are the reasons why “human” or “human rights” could be important or possibly most important in constituting a group (hence the introduction of the complicated word “group” and “group right(s” in the subtitle. If I had to justify the existence of the latest debates on nature, justification and universality of human rights, on their distinction from other normative standards, on the philosophy and (legal foundation of human rights, on “Human Rights without (or with Foundations” (Raz, Tasioulas, Besson, then I would immediately conclude that this “process of grandiose concretization” of a complete fabrication is far from over. Despite the innumerable pacts and international conventions established after World War II, the slew of obligations to which states have agreed in the last few decades, the establishment of rights to secession or humanitarian intervention it is as if the constitution of classification of basic human rights and their universality is far from over. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  1. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    ) is considered the dominant "protective" immune mediator. Here we study the fine specificity and potential host reactivity of a panel of well-characterized murine monoclonal Abs against the type III CPS by examining the binding of the Abs to intact and neuraminidase-digested GBS, purified CPS, synthetic......Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Despite aggressive campaigns using antenatal prophylactic antibiotic therapy, infections continue. Developing an effective maternal vaccine is a public health priority. Antibody (Ab) to the capsular polysaccharide (CPS...... carbohydrate array technology. The anti-CPS(III) mAbs did not react with cells expressing GD3 and GT3, nor did mAbs specific for the host carbohydrates cross-react with GBS, raising questions about the physiological relevance of this cross-reaction. But in the process of these investigations, we...

  2. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  3. Metabolism of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in cultures of human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Blaehr, H; Andersen, C B;

    1992-01-01

    Degradation of the intact form of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) has been established in the liver, whereas the col 1 domain of PIIINP is extracted by the kidneys. We used native human PIIINP and col 1 domain of PIIINP to investigate the degradation of PIIINP...... in cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Normal renal tissue was obtained from the healthy part of kidneys surgically removed and from biopsies from a total of 10 patients. The degradation was characterized by incubation of [125I]-PIIINP followed by gel filtration. We found that in physiological...

  4. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III reduces plasma triglycerides in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark J; Lee, Richard G; Bell, Thomas A; Fu, Wuxia; Mullick, Adam E; Alexander, Veronica J; Singleton, Walter; Viney, Nick; Geary, Richard; Su, John; Baker, Brenda F; Burkey, Jennifer; Crooke, Stanley T; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2013-05-24

    Elevated plasma triglyceride levels have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) represents both an independent risk factor and a key regulatory factor of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, elevated apoC-III levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To date, no selective apoC-III therapeutic agent has been evaluated in the clinic. To test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of apoC-III with antisense drugs in preclinical models and in healthy volunteers would reduce plasma apoC-III and triglyceride levels. Rodent- and human-specific second-generation antisense oligonucleotides were identified and evaluated in preclinical models, including rats, mice, human apoC-III transgenic mice, and nonhuman primates. We demonstrated the selective reduction of both apoC-III and triglyceride in all preclinical pharmacological evaluations. We also showed that inhibition of apoC-III was well tolerated and not associated with increased liver triglyceride deposition or hepatotoxicity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I clinical study was performed in healthy subjects. Administration of the human apoC-III antisense drug resulted in dose-dependent reductions in plasma apoC-III, concomitant lowering of triglyceride levels, and produced no clinically meaningful signals in the safety evaluations. Antisense inhibition of apoC-III in preclinical models and in a phase I clinical trial with healthy subjects produced potent, selective reductions in plasma apoC-III and triglyceride, 2 known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This compelling pharmacological profile supports further clinical investigations in hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

  5. Study on Effect of Gd (III) Speciation on Ca (II) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ca (II) speciation and effect of Gd (III) speciation on Ca (II) speciation in human blood plasma were studied by computer simulation. [CaHCO3]+ is a predominant compound species of Ca (II). Gd (III) can compete with Ca (II) for biological molecules. The presence of Gd (III) results in a increase of concentration of free Ca (II) and a decrease of concentration of Ca (II) compounds.

  6. Group choice: the ideal free distribution of human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J R; Baum, W M

    2001-07-01

    Group choice refers to the distribution of group members between two choice alternatives over time. The ideal free distribution (IFD), an optimal foraging model from behavioral ecology, predicts that the ratio of foragers at two resource sites should equal the ratio of obtained resources, a prediction that is formally analogous to the matching law of individual choice, except that group choice is a social phenomenon. Two experiments investigated the usefulness of IFD analyses of human group choice and individual-based explanations that might account for the group-level events. Instead of nonhuman animals foraging at two sites for resources, a group of humans chose blue and red cards to receive points that could earn cash prizes. The groups chose blue and red cards in ratios in positive relation to the ratios of points associated with the cards. When group choice ratios and point ratios were plotted on logarithmic coordinates and fitted with regression lines, the slopes (i.e., sensitivity measures) approached 1.0 but tended to fall short of it (i.e., undermatching), with little bias and little unaccounted for variance. These experiments demonstrate that an IFD analysis of group choice is possible and useful, and suggest that group choice may be explained by the individual members' tendency to optimize reinforcement.

  7. Transcription of Satellite III non-coding RNAs is a general stress response in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgardsdottir, Rut; Chiodi, Ilaria; Giordano, Manuela; Rossi, Antonio; Bazzini, Silvia; Ghigna, Claudia; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    In heat-shocked human cells, heat shock factor 1 activates transcription of tandem arrays of repetitive Satellite III (SatIII) DNA in pericentromeric heterochromatin. Satellite III RNAs remain associated with sites of transcription in nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). Here we use real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of these genomic regions. Transcription is highly asymmetrical and most of the transcripts contain the G-rich strand of the repeat. A low level of G-rich RNAs is detectable in unstressed cells and a 104-fold induction occurs after heat shock. G-rich RNAs are induced by a wide range of stress treatments including heavy metals, UV-C, oxidative and hyper-osmotic stress. Differences exist among stressing agents both for the kinetics and the extent of induction (>100- to 80.000-fold). In all cases, G-rich transcripts are associated with nSBs. On the contrary, C-rich transcripts are almost undetectable in unstressed cells and modestly increase after stress. Production of SatIII RNAs after hyper-osmotic stress depends on the Tonicity Element Binding Protein indicating that activation of the arrays is triggered by different transcription factors. This is the first example of a non-coding RNA whose transcription is controlled by different transcription factors under different growth conditions. PMID:18039709

  8. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  9. Serum type III procollagen peptide in patients with Pneumocystis carinii infection. The Copenhagen-Amsterdam PCP-Prednisolone Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Nielsen, T L; Eaftinck Schattenkerk, J K

    1993-01-01

    Inflammation may play a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Serum levels of the amino-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen (PIIINP) reflect inflammatory activity in granulation tissue and in chronic rheumatic and liver disorders. To investi......Inflammation may play a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Serum levels of the amino-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen (PIIINP) reflect inflammatory activity in granulation tissue and in chronic rheumatic and liver disorders....... To investigate changes in PIIINP serum levels during an episode of HIV-related PCP, consecutive serum samples were taken from 48 HIV-infected patients with PCP in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effect of adjunctive methylprednisolone therapy (26 in corticosteroid [CS] group and 22 in control group...... steroid was administered. At Days 21 to 28 there were no difference in the levels of PIIINP between the two groups. PIIINP serum levels may predict the clinical outcome of PCP. The antimicrobial therapy may exacerbate the inflammatory reaction in HIV-related PCP, leading to respiratory failure. CS...

  10. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors.

  11. Autoradiographic visualization of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors using [3H]-L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Hudtloff, Camilla; Thomsen, Christian

    1998-01-01

    In vitro receptor autoradiography using [3H]-L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate ([3H]-L-AP4) binding to sections of rat brain has been characterized and shown to most likely represent labelling of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.Specific [3H]-L-AP4 binding to rat brain sections was observed at high densities in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex and the outer layer of the superior colliculus. Moderate levels were observed throughout the cerebral cortex, in the molecular layer ...

  12. A dynamic new group within Human Resources Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Since 1st May CERN's training and development and personnel management teams have been fused into a new group called Personnel Management and Development. The new Personnel Management and Development Group is responsible for career advancement and management, recruitment, remuneration and for language, communication, management, academic and technical training, keys to a sense of greater well-being and to career progression. The new group was born on 1st May out of the fusion of the "Personnel Management" and "Training and Development" Groups within CERN's Human Resources Division. Its aim is to offer a practical and easily accessible service to assist the members of the personnel and supervisors to manage careers more harmoniously, to make progress and to continue to learn on the job. With Sue Foffano as its Group Leader, the Group comprises four sections: Academic and Technical Training under the guiding hand of Mick Storr; Management, Communication and Language Training headed by Sudeshna Datta-Cockeril...

  13. Distribution of CTX-M group I and group III β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Samyyia; Vajeeha, Ayesha; Ul-Ain, Noor; Riaz, Saba

    2017-02-01

    Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015. ESBL production was screened by double disc synergism, combination disc (cefotaxime and ceftazidime with clavulanic acid) and E-test. These strains were further characterized by PCR (CTX-M I, CTX-M III) and sequencing. After ribotyping of strains accession numbers were obtained. These isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, and cefuroxime but susceptible to carbapenems, sulfzone, amikacin and tazocin. Multiple antibiotic resistances index (MAR) revealed that 51% of E. coli strains fell in the range of 0.61-0.7 and 39% of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains fell in the range of 0.71-0.8. 64% Double disc synergism (DDS), 76.4% combination disc (CD), 74% E-test showed ESBL positivity in strains. In E. coli ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 212 (72.1%) and 25 (8.5%) respectively. In Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 89 (82.4%) and 10 (9.2%). Combination of both genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were found in 16 (5.4%) of E. coli strains and 5 (4.6%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Sequencing revealed that CTXM-15 was predominately present in the CTX-M-I group. The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was high and the majority of them positive for blaCTX-M-I as compared to blaCTX-M-III. These findings highlight the need to further investigate the epidemiology of other CTX-M beta

  14. Neural mechanisms of perceptual grouping in human visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Lihua; HAN Shihui; GUO Chunyan; JIANG Yi

    2004-01-01

    The current work examined neural substrates of perceptual grouping in human visual cortex using event-related potential (ERP) recording. Stimulus arrays consisted of local elements that were either evenly spaced (uniform stimuli) or grouped into columns or rows by proximity or color similarity (grouping stimuli). High-density ERPs were recorded while subjects identified orientations of perceptual groups in stimulus arrays that were presented randomly in one of the four quadrants of the visual field. Both uniform and grouping stimulus arrays elicited an early ERP component (C1), which peaked at about 70 ms after stimulus onset and changed its polarity as a function of stimulated elevations. Dipole modeling based on realistic- head boundary-element models revealed generators of the C1 component in the calcarine cortex. The C1 was modulated by perceptual grouping of local elements based on proximity, and this grouping effect was stronger in the upper than in the lower visual field. The findings provide ERP evidence for the engagement of human primary visual cortex in the early stage of perceptual grouping.

  15. HindIII identifies a two allele DNA polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caenazzo, L.; Hoehe, M.R.; Hsieh, W.T.; Berrettini, W.H.; Bonner, T.I.; Gershon, E.S. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-09-11

    HCNR p5, a 0.9 kb BamHI/EcoRI fragment from the human cannabinoid receptor gene inserted into pUC19, was used as probe. The fragment is located in an intron approximately 14 kb 5{prime} of the initiation codon. This fragment is a clean single copy sequence by genomic blotting. Hybridization of human genomic DNA digested with HindIII identified a two allele RFLP with bands at 5.5 (A1) and 3.3 kb (A2). The human cannabinoid receptor gene has been genetically mapped in CEPH reference pedigrees to the centromeric/q region of chromosome 6. In situ hybridization localizes it to 6q14-q15. Codominant segregation has been observed in 26 informative two- and three-generation CEPH pedigrees and in 14 medium-sized disease families.

  16. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (III): constraints on particle dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regis, Marco; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; de Blok, W. J. G.; Massardi, Marcella; Richter, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with

  17. Part III, Free Actions of Compact Quantum Groups on C*-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Kay; Wagner, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    We study and classify free actions of compact quantum groups on unital C^*-algebras in terms of generalized factor systems. Moreover, we use these factor systems to show that all finite coverings of irrational rotation C^*-algebras are cleft.

  18. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (III): constraints on particle dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regis, Marco; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; de Blok, W. J. G.; Massardi, Marcella; Richter, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with

  19. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-06-20

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  20. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  1. Electrochemical Sensing of Casein Based on the Interaction between Its Phosphate Groups and a Ruthenium(III) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Iku; Kuramitz, Hideki; Sugawara, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    A reaction to casein, along with β-lactoglobulin, is a main cause of milk allergies, and also is a useful indicator of protein in allergic analyses. In the present study, a simple casein sensor was developed based on the interaction between a phosphate group of casein and electroactive [Ru(NH3)6](3+). We evaluated the voltammetric behavior of a casein-[Ru(NH3)6](3+) complex using a glassy carbon electrode. When the ruthenium(III) complex was combined with the phosphate groups of casein, the structure of the casein was changed. Since the hydrophobicity of casein was increased due to the binding, the casein was adsorbed onto the electrode. Furthermore, we modified an electrode with a ruthenium(III) ions/collagen film. When the sensor was applied to the detection of the casein contained in milk, the values coincided with those indicated by the manufacturer. Accordingly, this electrode could be a powerful sensor for the determination of casein in several foods.

  2. Moessbauer study of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes of some nitrogen-, oxygen- and sulphur donor ligands, reduction of iron(III) by the mercaptide group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, G.L.; Baijal, J.S. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics); Chandra, S. (Zakir Hussain College, Ajmeri Gate, Delhi (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Pandeya, K.B. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1981-01-01

    Complex formation reactions of iron(II) and iron(III) with semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones of pyruvic acid and phenyl pyruvic acid have been studied by magnetic measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy. With iron(II), all the ligands form hexa-coordinated octahedral complexes of the type Fe(ligand-H/sub 2/). With iron(III) semicarbazones, complexes of the composition (Fe(ligand-H)/sub 2/)(OH) are formed. Thiosemicarbazones first reduce iron(III) to iron(II) and then form iron(II) complexes of the type Fe(ligand-H)/sub 2/.

  3. Fossil group origins. III. The relation between optical and X-ray luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; De Grandi, S.; D'Onghia, E.; Barrena, R.; Boschin, W.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Zarattini, S.; Biviano, A.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Corsini, E. M.; del Burgo, C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: This study is part of the Fossil group origins (FOGO) project which aims to carry out a systematic and multiwavelength study of a large sample of fossil systems. Here we focus on the relation between the optical luminosity (Lopt) and X-ray luminosity (LX). Methods: Out of a total sample of 28 candidate fossil systems, we consider a sample of 12 systems whose fossil classification has been confirmed by a companion study. They are compared with the complementary sample of 16 systems whose fossil nature has not been confirmed and with a subsample of 102 galaxy systems from the RASS-SDSS galaxy cluster survey. Fossil and normal systems span the same redshift range 0 cannibalism of other group galaxies with conservation of the optical light. We find no evidence for a peculiar state of the hot intracluster medium. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Research program at CEBAF (III): Report of the 1987 summer study group, June 1--August 28, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, V.; Gross, F.; Mecking, B.; Mougey, J.; Nanda, S.; Whitney, R.

    1988-01-01

    An informal Study Group consisting of the CEBAF scientific staff and about 43 visiting scientists met during the summer of 1987 to discuss issues of importance to planning the CEBAF scientific program. The contributions to this volume grew out of these discussions, and out of additional discussion with the User community and with CEBAF's new Associate Director for Research, John Domingo, which extended into the fall of 1987. Reports of the 1985 and 1986 Summer Study Groups have been previously published by CEBAF under the title Research Programs at CEBAF (RPAC) and hence it is appropriate to refer to this volume as RPAC III. The contributions to this volume have been organized into the following six general areas reflecting the focus of principle activities during this period: High Resolution Spectrometers; Large Acceptance Spectrometer; Out-of-Plane Experiments at CEBAF; Neutron Detection at CEBAF; Illustrative Experiments and Experimental Design; and Theory.

  5. Fossil Groups Origins III. Characterization of the sample and observational properties of fossil systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zarattini, S; Girardi, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Boschin, W; Aguerri, J A L; Méndez-Abreu, J; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Corsini, E M; del Burgo, C; D'Onghia, E; Herrera-Ruiz, N; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Bailon, E Jimenez; Muñoz, M Lozada; Napolitano, N; Vilchez, J M

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Fossil systems are group- or cluster-sized objects whose luminosity is dominated by a very massive central galaxy. In the current cold dark matter scenario, these objects formed hierarchically at an early epoch of the Universe and then slowly evolved until present day. That is the reason why they are called {\\it fossils}. We started an extensive observational program to characterize a sample of 34 fossil group candidates spanning a broad range of physical properties. Deep $r-$band images were taken for each candidate and optical spectroscopic observations were obtained for $\\sim$ 1200 galaxies. This new dataset was completed with SDSS DR7 archival data to obtain robust cluster membership and global properties of each fossil group candidate. For each system, we recomputed the magnitude gaps between the two brightest galaxies ($\\Delta m_{12}$) and the first and fourth ranked galaxies ($\\Delta m_{14}$) within 0.5 $R_{{\\rm 200}}$. We consider fossil systems those with $\\Delta m_{12} \\ge 2$ mag or $\\Del...

  6. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  7. Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

  8. Competition in human groups-Impact on group cohesion, perceived stress and outcome satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Margarete; Franiel, Xaver; Belz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness.

  9. Clustering of Local Group distances: publication bias or correlated measurements? III. The Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at providing a firm mean distance estimate to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and thus to place it within the internally consistent Local Group distance framework we recently established, we compiled the current-largest database of published distance estimates to the galaxy. Based on careful statistical analysis, we derive mean distance estimates to the SMC using eclipsing binary systems, variable stars, stellar population tracers, and star cluster properties. Their weighted mean leads to a final recommendation for the mean SMC distance of $(m-M)_0^{\\rm SMC} = 18.96 \\pm 0.02$ mag, where the uncertainty represents the formal error. Systematic effects related to lingering uncertainties in extinction corrections, our physical understanding of the stellar tracers used, and the SMC's complex geometry---including its significant line-of-sight depth, its irregular appearance which renders definition of the galaxy's center uncertain, as well as its high inclination and possibly warped disk---may contribute a...

  10. Evolutionary aspects of ABO blood group in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2015-04-15

    The antigens of the ABO blood group system (A, B and H determinants) are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on red blood cells and on a variety of other cell lines and tissues. Growing evidence is accumulating that ABO antigens, beyond their key role in transfusion medicine, may interplay with the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including infectious, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this narrative review, after succinct description of the current knowledge on the association between ABO blood groups and the most severe diseases, we aim to elucidate the particularly intriguing issue of the possible role of ABO system in successful aging. In particular, focus will be placed on studies evaluating the ABO phenotype in centenarians, the best human model of longevity.

  11. Satisfaction Levels of Students and Professors with the Integration Workshop on Human Morphophysiology III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Mass Sosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integration is a skill that is acquired and developed through exercises and learning activities designed for this purpose.Objective: To determine the level of satisfaction of students and professors with the integration workshop on the subject of Human Morphophysiology III in medicine studies from 2010 to 2011.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted at the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos, in the 2010-2011 academic years, with all students and professors who attended the workshop on the subject of Integration of Human Morphophysiology III, of medicine studies, (91 students and 16 teachers. A questionnaire was administered to students and professors who addressed the organizational and methodological considerations for the development of these activities.Results: Students were satisfied with the usefulness of the study guide (Iadov 0.68 and the activities for the consolidation of the contents (Iadov 0.60. Professors showed satisfaction with quality of the guide, usefulness of tasks and organization of the workshop (Iadov 0.81. Students reported the following as positive aspects of the workshop: basic clinical linking (36.46%, usefulness of the activity for the consolidation of content (32.97% and the participation of professors in the clinical area (26.37 %. Coincidentally, professors also considered as positive the latter two aspects. There were contradictions with the participation of students and professors.Conclusions: There was satisfaction in student and professors with organizational aspects and methodological considerations taken into account.

  12. Anisotropy of the nitrogen conduction states in the group III nitrides studied by polarized x-ray absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Group III nitrides (AlN, GaN, and InN) consist of the semiconductors which appear recently as a basic materials for optoelectronic devices active in the visible/ultraviolet spectrum as well as high-temperature and high-power microelectronic devices. However, understanding of the basic physical properties leading to application is still not satisfactory. One of the reasons consists in unsufficient knowledge of the band structure of the considered semiconductors. Several theoretical studies of III-nitrides band structure have been published but relatively few experimental studies have been carried out, particularly with respect to their conduction band structure. This motivated the authors to examine the conduction band structure projected onto p-states of the nitrogen atoms for AlN, GaN and InN. An additional advantage of their studies is the availability of the studied nitrides in two structures, hexagonal (wurtzite) and cubic (zincblende). This offers an opportunity to gain information about the role of the anisotropy of electronic band states in determining various physical properties.

  13. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group E and Its Involvement in Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Le Dantec

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retrovirus group E (HERV-E elements are stably integrated into the human genome, transmitted vertically in a Mendelian manner, and are endowed with transcriptional activity as alternative promoters or enhancers. Such effects are under the control of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTR that are organized into three HERV-E phylogenetic subgroups, namely LTR2, LTR2B, and LTR2C. Moreover, HERV-E expression is tissue-specific, and silenced by epigenetic constraints that may be disrupted in cancer, autoimmunity, and human placentation. Interest in HERV-E with regard to these conditions has been stimulated further by concerns regarding the capacity of HERV-E elements to modify the expression of neighboring genes and/or to produce retroviral proteins, including immunosuppressive env peptides, which in turn may induce (auto-antibody (Ab production. Finally, better understanding of HERV-E elements may have clinical applications for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

  14. A qualitative focus group study to identify the needs of survivors of stage II and III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Maria Y; McBride, Mary L; Gotay, Carolyn; Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig C; Relova, Sharon; Tsonis, Miranda; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Cheung, Winson Y

    2016-12-01

    Prior survivorship research has largely focused on issues faced by survivors of childhood tumors, breast cancers, or hematologic malignancies. Relatively little is known about the needs of other prevalent survivor groups. Our aim was to identify the specific concerns of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the key domains of physical functioning, psychological wellbeing, and social relationships. We conducted focus groups with stage II and III CRC survivors who had completed their primary active anti-cancer treatments. Patients were asked to describe how their diagnosis and treatment impacted their lives, to outline deficiencies in the care that they received, and to suggest ways of addressing any unmet needs. A content analysis was subsequently conducted to identify major themes. Thirty CRC survivors participated in six focus groups. Individuals reported some degree of dissatisfaction with the amount and type of diagnostic and treatment information they received at their initial clinic visit. Distress from toxicities, such as peripheral neuropathy, was also common among the survivors. Similarly, the majority faced challenges adjusting to their lives and daily activities, especially in caring for their colostomy. Having survived CRC, many survivors expressed an interest in advocacy and health promotion of CRC. CRC survivors face many barriers after their cancer treatment. Issues with colostomy are unique to this survivor group. Interventions to improve CRC survivorship care should also incorporate opportunities for patient advocacy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Laser-induced europium(III) luminescence as a probe of the metal ion mediated association of human prothrombin with phospholipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, M J; Horrocks, W D; Kosow, D P

    1982-09-14

    7F0 leads to 5D0 excitation spectroscopy of Eu(III) has been used to investigate the Eu(III) and phospholipid binding properties of human prothrombin. The results indicate that human prothrombin contains four high-affinity Eu(III) binding sites which are distributed into two classes of binding sites. When 4 equiv of Eu(III) is bound to prothrombin, the prothrombin is capable of binding to phospholipid vesicles. The deuterium isotope effect on the lifetime of the Eu(III)-prothrombin complex and the Eu(III)-prothrombin-phospholipid complex was used to determine the number of water molecules coordinated to the Eu(III). In both complexes, each of the Eu(III)'s coordinated to 2.5 +/- 0.5 water molecules. These results indicate that the binding of the Eu(III)-prothrombin complex to the phospholipid does not require the formation of a prothrombin-Eu(III)-phospholipid bridge.

  16. Spectroscopic investigations on the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with organic model ligands and their binding mode in human urine (in vitro); Spektroskopische Untersuchungen zur Komplexbildung von Cm(III) und Eu(III) mit organischen Modellliganden sowie ihrer chemischen Bindungsform in menschlichem Urin (in vitro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Anne

    2011-10-26

    In case of incorporation, trivalent actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)) pose a serious health risk to humans. An(III) are artificial, highly radioactive elements which are mainly produced during the nuclear fuel cycle in nuclear power plants. Via hazardous accidents or nonprofessional storage of radioactive waste, they can be released in the environment and enter the human food chain. In contrast, Ln(III) are nonradioactive, naturally occurring elements with multiple applications in technique and medicine. Consequently it is possible that humans get in contact and incorporate both, An(III) and Ln(III). Therefore, it is of particular importance to elucidate the behaviour of these elements in the human body. While macroscopic processes such as distribution, accumulation and excretion are studied quite well, knowledge about the chemical binding form (speciation) of An(III) and Ln(III) in various body fluids is still sparse. In the present work, for the first time, the speciation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) in natural human urine (in vitro) has been investigated spectroscopically and the formed complex identified. For this purpose, also basic investigations on the complex formation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) in synthetic model urine as well as with the urinary relevant, organic model ligands urea, alanine, phenylalanine, threonine and citrate have been performed and the previously unknown complex stability constants determined. Finally, all experimental results were compared to literature data and predictions calculated by thermodynamic modelling. Since both, Cm(III) and Eu(III), exhibit unique luminescence properties, particularly the suitability of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) could be demonstrated as a method to investigate these metal ions in untreated, complex biofluids. The results of this work provide new scientific findings on the biochemical reactions of An(III) and Ln(III) in human body fluids on a molecular scale and

  17. Surface chemistry of the atomic layer deposition of metals and group III oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David Nathan

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a thin-film growth technique offering precise control of film thickness and the ability to coat high-aspect-ratio features such as trenches and nanopowders. Unlike other film growth techniques, ALD does not require harsh processing conditions and is not limited by line-of-sight deposition. Emerging applications for ALD materials include semiconductor devices, gas sensors, and water-diffusion barriers. The chemistry behind ALD involves understanding how the precursors interact with surfaces to deposit the desired material. All ALD precursors need to be stable on the substrate to ensure self-limiting behavior yet reactive enough to be easily removed with the second reagent. Recent precursor development has provided many volatile organometallic compounds for most of the periodic table. As the number of precursors increases, proper precursor choice becomes crucial. This is because the film properties, growth rates, and growth temperature vary widely between the precursors. Many of the above traits can be predicted with knowledge of the precursor reaction mechanisms. This thesis aims to link surface reaction mechanisms to observed growth and nucleation trends in metal and oxide ALD systems. The first portion of this thesis explores the mechanisms of two ALD oxide systems. First, I examine the mechanism of ALD alumina with ozone. Ozone is used as an oxidant in the semiconductor industry because the deposited Al 2O3 films possess better insulating properties and ozone is easier to purge from a vacuum system. FT-IR analysis reveals a complicated array of surface intermediates such as formate, carbonate, and methoxy groups that form during Al2O3 growth with ozone. Next, a new method to deposit thin films of Ga2O3 is introduced. Gallium oxide is a transparent conducting oxide that needs expensive solid precursors to be deposited by ALD. I show that trimethylgallium is a good high-temperature ALD precursor that deposits films of Ga2O 3 with

  18. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (III): constraints on particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Colafrancesco, Sergio [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); De Blok, W.J.G. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Massardi, Marcella [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Richter, Laura, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.colafrancesco@wits.ac.za, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: blok@astron.nl, E-mail: massardi@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: laura@ska.ac.za [SKA South Africa, 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Road, Pinelands, 7405 (South Africa)

    2014-10-01

    We performed a deep search for radio synchrotron emissions induced by weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilation or decay in six dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Local Group. Observations were conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity better than 0.05 mJy/beam in each field. In this work, we first discuss the uncertainties associated with the modeling of the expected signal, such as the shape of the dark matter (DM) profile and the dSph magnetic properties. We then investigate the possibility that point-sources detected in the proximity of the dSph optical center might be due to the emission from a DM cuspy profile. No evidence for an extended emission over a size of few arcmin (which is the DM halo size) has been detected. We present the associated bounds on the WIMP parameter space for different annihilation/decay final states and for different astrophysical assumptions. If the confinement of electrons and positrons in the dSph is such that the majority of their power is radiated within the dSph region, we obtain constraints on the WIMP annihilation rate which are well below the thermal value for masses up to few TeV. On the other hand, for conservative assumptions on the dSph magnetic properties, the bounds can be dramatically relaxed. We show however that, within the next 10 years and regardless of the astrophysical assumptions, it will be possible to progressively close in on the full parameter space of WIMPs by searching for radio signals in dSphs with SKA and its precursors.

  19. The evolution of altruistic social preferences in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; House, Bailey R

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we consider three hypotheses to account for the evolution of the extraordinary capacity for large-scale cooperation and altruistic social preferences within human societies. One hypothesis is that human cooperation is built on the same evolutionary foundations as cooperation in other animal societies, and that fundamental elements of the social preferences that shape our species' cooperative behaviour are also shared with other closely related primates. Another hypothesis is that selective pressures favouring cooperative breeding have shaped the capacity for cooperation and the development of social preferences, and produced a common set of behavioural dispositions and social preferences in cooperatively breeding primates and humans. The third hypothesis is that humans have evolved derived capacities for collaboration, group-level cooperation and altruistic social preferences that are linked to our capacity for culture. We draw on naturalistic data to assess differences in the form, scope and scale of cooperation between humans and other primates, experimental data to evaluate the nature of social preferences across primate species, and comparative analyses to evaluate the evolutionary origins of cooperative breeding and related forms of behaviour.

  20. The Human Group Optimizer (HGO): Mimicking the collective intelligence of human groups as an optimization tool for combinatorial problems

    CERN Document Server

    De Vincenzo, Ilario; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A large number of optimization algorithms have been developed by researchers to solve a variety of complex problems in operations management area. We present a novel optimization algorithm belonging to the class of swarm intelligence optimization methods. The algorithm mimics the decision making process of human groups and exploits the dynamics of this process as an optimization tool for combinatorial problems. In order to achieve this aim, a continuous-time Markov process is proposed to describe the behavior of a population of socially interacting agents, modelling how humans in a group modify their opinions driven by self-interest and consensus seeking. As in the case of a collection of spins, the dynamics of such a system is characterized by a phase transition from low to high values of the overall consenus (magnetization). We recognize this phase transition as being associated with the emergence of a collective superior intelligence of the population. While this state being active, a cooling schedule is a...

  1. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben

    2017-01-01

    The fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane (FLRT) protein family consists in humans of 3 proteins, FLRT1, -2, and -3. The FLRT proteins contain two extracellular domains separated by an unstructured linker. The most membrane distal part is a leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain responsible for both cis......- and trans-interactions, whereas the membrane proximal part is a fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain responsible for a cis-interaction with members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) family, which results in FGFR tyrosine kinase activation. Whereas the structures of FLRT LRR domains from...... in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. His-tags permitted affinity purification of the domains, which subsequently were refolded on a Ni-NTA agarose column by reducing the concentration of urea. The refolding was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and 1H-NMR. By thermal unfolding experiments we show...

  2. Surface Hydrophilicity and Functional Group-Driven Iron(III) Hydroxide Nucleation on Organic-Coated Substrates in Aqueous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J.; Lee, B.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Homogeneous and heterogeneous iron hydroxide nanoparticle nucleation can occur continuously in both natural and complex aqueous systems. Iron oxide nanoparticles can act as sinks and/or carriers for heavy metal contaminants; therefore, it is important to develop a better understanding of factors affecting their formation. Organic coatings are ubiquitous in aqueous environments where they can exist on mineral surfaces (e.g., biofilm), as nanoparticle surface coatings (e.g., natural organic matter), or be introduced as coagulants in water treatment systems. These surface coatings could influence the formation of iron oxide nanoparticles and thus, the mobility of aqueous contaminants. Therefore, to better understand the fate and transport of contaminants in complex aqueous environments, we need more accurate information about mechanisms governing heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation and growth of iron(III) hydroxide nanoparticles in the presence of organic surface coatings. In this work, we used a unique measurement technique allowing for simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and grazing incidence (GISAXS) analysis to monitor nanoparticle nucleation in solution and at substrate surfaces. Clean quartz, and polyaspartate- and alginate-coated substrates were chosen as model substrates to represent mineral coatings, engineered organic coatings and natural organic coatings. Polyaspartate was determined to be the most negatively charged substrate and quartz to be the least negatively charged substrate; however, after 2 h of reaction, the total nanoparticle volume calculations—determined from GISAXS—indicate that precipitation of positively-charged iron(III) hydroxide nanoparticles is 10 times higher on the quartz substrate than on the polyaspartate substrate. This implies that electrostatics do not govern iron(III) hydroxide nucleation. Furthermore, homogeneous nucleation approximately 250 μm above the substrate surface was highest in the presence of the

  3. The Spanish human papillomavirus vaccine consensus group: a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Bordoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2010-08-01

    Successful implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in each country can only be achieved from a complementary and synergistic perspective, integrating all the different points of view of the diverse related professionals. It is this context where the Spanish HPV Vaccine Consensus Group (Grupo Español de Consenso sobre la Vacuna VPH, GEC-VPH) was created. GEC-VPH philosophy, objectives and experience are reported in this article, with particular attention to the management of negative publicity and anti-vaccine groups. Initiatives as GEC-VPH--adapted to each country's particular idiosyncrasies--might help to overcome the existing barriers and to achieve wide and early implementation of HPV vaccination.

  4. Microscopic study of human spleen in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizamma Alex

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microscopic structure of spleen is variable depending on the developmental stage of the organ, and the age and immune status of the individual. The aim of the investigation was to study the microscopic structure of human spleen in different age groups, starting from a six month old foetus up to the eighth decade of life. Methods: Seventy formalin fixed human spleens obtained postmortem, were included in the study. They were classified into different age groups, in both sexes, for a detailed study of the microscopic details. Results: The white pulp of spleen showed peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS and lymphatic follicles. The corona or mantle zone and the germinal centre were discernible in many of the Malpighian bodies. The marginal zone separating the red pulp from the white pulp also could be clearly demarcated. The marginal sinus and peri-follicular zone could be seen in some sections only. The capsule thickness, trabecular network, cellularity of white pulp and red pulp, the connective tissue framework seen in the red pulp etc., showed variations in the different age groups. Conclusion: The microscopic structure of spleen varies in different age groups, with the PALS and the white pulp showing scanty cellularity in the six month foetus, and almost uniform cellularity in all areas of spleen at full term. Thereafter the follicles showed increase in its cellularity up to the third decade, and then seemed becoming progressively atrophic. Further studies are required on age related changes in the cellular architecture of this organ correlating with its functions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1701-1706

  5. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M. Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2–9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  6. Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L S; Hines, M; Shryne, J E; Gorski, R A

    1989-02-01

    A quantitative analysis of the volume of 4 cell groups in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (PO-AHA) and of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the human brain was performed in 22 age-matched male and female individuals. We suggest the term Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH 1-4) to identify these 4 previously undescribed cell groups in the PO-AHA. While 2 INAH and the SON were not sexually dimorphic, gender-related differences were found in the other 2 cell groups. One nucleus (INAH-3) was 2.8 times larger in the male brain than in the female brain irrespective of age. The other cell group (INAH-2) was twice as large in the male brain, but also appeared to be related in women to circulating steroid hormone levels. Since the PO-AHA influences gonadotropin secretion, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in several mammalian species, these results suggest that functional sex differences in the hypothalamus may be related to sex differences in neural structure.

  7. Human Retroviruses and AIDS. A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences: I--II; III--V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, G.; Korber, B. [eds.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wain-Hobson, S. [ed.] [Laboratory of Molecular Retrovirology, Pasteur Inst.; Smith, R.F. [ed.] [Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pavlakis, G.N. [ed.] [National Cancer Inst., Frederick, MD (United States). Cancer Research Facility

    1993-12-31

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (I) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Sequences; (III) Analyses; (IV) Related Sequences; and (V) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium.

  8. Entropy-driven binding of opioid peptides induces a large domain motion in human dipeptidyl peptidase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Gustavo A; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Viertlmayr, Roland; Dong, Aiping; Binter, Alexandra; Abramic, Marija; Macheroux, Peter; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Gruber, Karl

    2012-04-24

    Opioid peptides are involved in various essential physiological processes, most notably nociception. Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) is one of the most important enkephalin-degrading enzymes associated with the mammalian pain modulatory system. Here we describe the X-ray structures of human DPP III and its complex with the opioid peptide tynorphin, which rationalize the enzyme's substrate specificity and reveal an exceptionally large domain motion upon ligand binding. Microcalorimetric analyses point at an entropy-dominated process, with the release of water molecules from the binding cleft ("entropy reservoir") as the major thermodynamic driving force. Our results provide the basis for the design of specific inhibitors that enable the elucidation of the exact role of DPP III and the exploration of its potential as a target of pain intervention strategies.

  9. Distribution of Blood Groups(ABO between Symptomatic & Asymptomatic Human Leishmania Infantum Infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the hypothesis that leishmania parasites can be escaped from immune system covered by blood group antigens (ABO to prevent its recognition by the immune system. The aim of this study was to show the associated blood groups with symptomatic or asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in human. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the population was divided into two groups. The first group included 54 patients with kala-azar (antibody against Leishmania titers ≥1:3200 by TDA with clinical specificity and the second group consisted of 45 subjects infected with Leishmania infantum (Leishmania antibody titers of1: 800 and 1:1600 by DAT method and non-specific symptoms. The distribution of the 4 main blood groups ABO type, sex, age, presence or absence of symptoms, clinical signs, and response to Glucantim therapy and DAT results were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Most of the patients in group 1 were blood group A (37% and the lowest number of blood group were B (12.8%. In the second group, most of the ABO blood group A (42.2% and lowest in the ABO blood group AB (8.9%.There was no significant association between blood groups and clinical symptoms (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no association between blood group and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic kala-azar. Key words: Leishmania Infantum, Kala-azar, Blood Group, Human

  10. Epitaxial growth of group III-nitride films by pulsed laser deposition and their use in the development of LED devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    Recently, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology makes viable the epitaxial growth of group III-nitrides on thermally active substrates at low temperature. The precursors generated from the pulsed laser ablating the target has enough kinetic energy when arriving at substrates, thereby effectively suppressing the interfacial reactions between the epitaxial films and the substrates, and eventually makes the film growth at low temperature possible. So far, high-quality group III-nitride epitaxial films have been successfully grown on a variety of thermally active substrates by PLD. By combining PLD with other technologies such as laser rastering technique, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), III-nitride-based light-emitting diode (LED) structures have been realized on different thermally active substrates, with high-performance LED devices being demonstrated. This review focuses on the epitaxial growth of group III-nitrides on thermally active substrates by PLD and their use in the development of LED devices. The surface morphology, interfacial property between film and substrate, and crystalline quality of as-grown group III-nitride films by PLD, are systematically reviewed. The corresponding solutions for film homogeneity on large size substrates, defect control, and InGaN films growth by PLD are also discussed in depth, together with introductions to some newly developed technologies for PLD in order to realize LED structures, which provides great opportunities for commercialization of LEDs on thermally active substrates.

  11. Silicon-Based Integration of Groups III, IV, V Chemical Vapor Depositions in High-Quality Photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon (Si) technology is an interesting approach to utilize the advantages of both high-speed photonic and electronic properties. The work presented in this thesis is initiated by this major goal of merging III-V semiconductor technology with

  12. Silicon-Based Integration of Groups III, IV, V Chemical Vapor Depositions in High-Quality Photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon (Si) technology is an interesting approach to utilize the advantages of both high-speed photonic and electronic properties. The work presented in this thesis is initiated by this major goal of merging III-V semiconductor technology with

  13. Human uroporphyrinogen-III synthase: genomic organization, alternative promoters, and erythroid-specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizencang, G; Solis, C; Bishop, D F; Warner, C; Desnick, R J

    2000-12-01

    Uroporphyrinogen-III (URO) synthase is the heme biosynthetic enzyme defective in congenital erythropoietic porphyria. The approximately 34-kb human URO-synthase gene (UROS) was isolated, and its organization and tissue-specific expression were determined. The gene had two promoters that generated housekeeping and erythroid-specific transcripts with unique 5'-untranslated sequences (exons 1 and 2A) followed by nine common coding exons (2B to 10). Expression arrays revealed that the housekeeping transcript was present in all tissues, while the erythroid transcript was only in erythropoietic tissues. The housekeeping promoter lacked TATA and SP1 sites, consistent with the observed low level expression in most cells, whereas the erythroid promoter contained GATA1 and NF-E2 sites for erythroid specificity. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the housekeeping promoter was active in both erythroid K562 and HeLa cells, while the erythroid promoter was active only in erythroid cells and its activity was increased during hemin-induced erythroid differentiation. Thus, human URO-synthase expression is regulated during erythropoiesis by an erythroid-specific alternative promoter.

  14. In situ measurement of adsorbed nitrogen atoms for PA-MBE growth of group III nitrides on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohachi, Tadashi; Yamabe, Nobuhiko; Yamamoto, Yuka; Wada, Motoi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotababe, Kyoto (Japan); Ariyada, Osamu [Arios Inc. Akishima, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    An atom probe of two parallel electrodes is proposed to monitor adsorbed (ADS) nitrogen atoms in situ during growth of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} using indirect exposure of effusing active nitrogen beam from the radio frequency induction coupled plasma cell. The {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} film is a component of a double buffer layer (DBL) AlN(0001)/{beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si(111) to grow high quality the group III nitrides and their alloys on Si. Atom current between the parallel electrodes corresponds to flux of the ADS nitrogen atoms on the inside surface at the atom potential, V{sub A}. The ADS atom current received influence of wall and shutter of the cell, because adsorption of nitrogen atom depended wall condition such as temperature and the concentration of adatoms on the wall (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen antibodies in the temporomandibular joint disc of human foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.C. de Moraes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the morphology of the articular disc and analyse the immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen markers in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc of human foetuses of different gestational ages. Twenty TMJ from human foetuses supplied by Universidade Federal de Uberaba with gestational ages from 17 to 24 weeks were studied. The gestational age of the foetuses was determined by measuring the crown-rump (CR length. Macroscopically, the foetuses were fixed in 10% formalin solution and dissected by removing the skin and subcutaneous tissue and exposing the deep structures. Immunohistochemical markers of type I and III were used to characterize the existence of collagen fibres. Analysis of the immunohistochemical markers of types I and III collagen revealed the presence of heterotypical fibril networks.

  16. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  17. Application technology on human general function as a group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki; Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Niwa, Yasuyuki; Ando, Hirotomo [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    An operation assistant system for two operators as an object of plant model simulated on PWR was made experimentally, effectiveness on applying 3D-VR spatial indication and repulsive feedback input apparatus to plant operation assistance was investigated. By adopting a transmission type HMD, combination use with the conventional type operation monitoring system was made possible, and then it could be thought to become possible that human error was found by oneself by adding intuitive indication and feedback to judgement and operation used by a system assisting with logic understanding. And, by sharing these informations in a group, it was also found that correction of not only selfish but also other operator's error was made possible. (G.K.)

  18. Adaptation of group A Streptococcus to human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease.

  19. Separation and isolation of human apolipoproteins C-II, C-III0, C-III1, and C-III2 by chromatofocusing on the Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, M W; Strong, W L

    1987-09-01

    Chromatofocusing, which separates proteins based on differences in isoelectric point, has been used on the Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system (Pharmacia) to separate the C apolipoproteins from human very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Using a Mono P column (Pharmacia), a pH gradient between pH 6.2 and pH 4.0 was generated using buffers containing 6 M urea, at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Typically, runs took approximately 45 min. Chromatofocusing of delipidated whole VLDL produced sharp, well-resolved peaks for the C apolipoproteins. However, as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF), the apolipoprotein E isoforms were not separated from apoC-II, and they contaminated the other apoC species to a variable extent. In addition, apoC-II was not resolved from apoC-III0. Preliminary precipitation of VLDL with acetone prior to delipidation removed both apolipoproteins E and B. Using a start buffer of 25 mM histidine, pH 6.2, and a 1:30 dilution of the polybuffer exchanger (eluting buffer), apoC-II, C-III0, C-III1, and C-III2 were well resolved in run-times of approximately 60 min. The C apoproteins proved to be pure by analytical IEF and immunoassay with monospecific antisera against apoC-II and C-III. Recovery was over 90% of the protein chromatographed. In addition, a variant of apoC-II present in VLDL of a hypertriglyceridemic subject was clearly resolved from the other C apolipoproteins. This technique is superior to conventional methodology in terms of its time saving and high resolution. The application of this technique to the study of C apolipoprotein variants and C apolipoprotein specific radioactivity determinations is possible.

  20. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Tainer, John A; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-08-18

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation.

  1. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  2. Effect of agricultural programmes on the livelihood of the vulnerable group: a case study of the Fadama III programme in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of the Fadama III programme to the livelihood of the vulnerable group in Kwara State, Nigeria. Results revealed that the group was made up of mainly old, less-educated, small-scale farmers, with many years of farming experience. Benefits derived from the programme by the group include input support, asset acquisition, rural infrastructure, advisory services, capacity building, increased output, and income. The major constraints faced by the group were illiteracy, pests and diseases, inadequate inputs, and untimely funding. This study suggests policy measures on how to better the livelihood of the vulnerable group of farmers.

  3. Parsing the recognition memory components of the WMS-III face memory subtest: normative data and clinical findings in dementia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Delis, Dean C

    2004-06-01

    The WMS-III face memory subtest was developed as a quick, reliable, measure of non-verbal recognition memory. While the face memory subtest has demonstrated clinical sensitivity, the test has been criticized for low correlation with other WMS-III visual memory subtests and for failing to differentiate performance between clinical groups. One possible reason for these findings may be due to the impact of response bias associated with recognition memory tests. Four studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of applying signal detection measures to the face memory subtests. The first two studies used the WMS-III standardization data set to determine age and education effects and to present normative and reliability data for hits, false positives, discriminability and response bias. The third study tested the hypothesis that using response components and signal detection measures would enhance the correlation between face memory and the other WMS-III visual memory subtests. The fourth study compared performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome and demographically matched controls on the new face memory scores. The new measures did not have higher correlation with other WMS-III visual memory measures than the standard scoring of the test. Analysis of the clinical samples indicated that the discriminability index best differentiated patients from controls. The response components, particularly delayed false positives, differentiated performance among the clinical groups. Normative and reliability data are presented.

  4. Rationalization of paclitaxel insensitivity of yeast β-tubulin and human βIII-tubulin isotype using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Lalita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel arrests cell division by binding to the hetero-dimeric protein tubulin. Subtle differences in tubulin sequences, across eukaryotes and among β-tubulin isotypes, can have profound impact on paclitaxel-tubulin binding. To capture the experimentally observed paclitaxel-resistance of human βIII tubulin isotype and yeast β-tubulin, within a common theoretical framework, we have performed structural principal component analyses of β-tubulin sequences across eukaryotes. Results The paclitaxel-resistance of human βIII tubulin isotype and yeast β-tubulin uniquely mapped on to the lowest two principal components, defining the paclitaxel-binding site residues of β-tubulin. The molecular mechanisms behind paclitaxel-resistance, mediated through key residues, were identified from structural consequences of characteristic mutations that confer paclitaxel-resistance. Specifically, Ala277 in βIII isotype was shown to be crucial for paclitaxel-resistance. Conclusions The present analysis captures the origin of two apparently unrelated events, paclitaxel-insensitivity of yeast tubulin and human βIII tubulin isotype, through two common collective sequence vectors.

  5. Rh(III)-catalyzed decarboxylative ortho-heteroarylation of aromatic carboxylic acids by using the carboxylic acid as a traceless directing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xurong; Sun, Denan; You, Qiulin; Cheng, Yangyang; Lan, Jingbo; You, Jingsong

    2015-04-03

    Highly selective decarboxylative ortho-heteroarylation of aromatic carboxylic acids with various heteroarenes has been developed through Rh(III)-catalyzed two-fold C-H activation, which exhibits a wide substrate scope of both aromatic carboxylic acids and heteroarenes. The use of naturally occurring carboxylic acid as the directing group avoids troublesome extra steps for installation and removal of an external directing group.

  6. Evolution of human G4P[8] group A rotavirus strains circulating in Italy in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Giovanni; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco M

    2015-06-02

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young (humans worldwide are associated with the five major G/P combinations G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. During RVA gastroenteritis surveillance in Italy, a total of 1112 samples collected from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in 2013 were RVA positive and were genotyped following standardized protocols from the EuroRotaNet. Most strains analyzed belonged to the five major human genotypes. Among these common strains, 22 G4P[8] RVA strains from different Italian regions were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of their VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP4 genes to investigate their evolution. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Italian strains belonged to lineage G4-I for VP7 and to lineage P[8]-III for VP4, in line with the modern G4P[8] RVA strains detected in children worldwide. The phylogenetic trees revealed high degrees of nucleotide identity between the RVA strains involved in this study and G4P[8] strains detected previously in Europe, Asia and Africa, but also demonstrated at least three separate evolution clusters within the same lineage. Based on the amino acid sequences deduced for their hypervariable regions, both the VP7 and VP8* proteins of the Italian G4P[8] RVA strains presented amino acid substitutions near known neutralizing epitopes.

  7. Group I, II, and III mGluR compounds affect rhythm generation in the gastric circuit of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, W D; Nguyen, D; Pérez-Acevedo, N L; Selverston, A I

    2000-03-01

    We have studied the effects of group I, II, and III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists on rhythm generation by the gastric circuit of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. All mGluR agonists and some antagonists we tested in this study had clear and distinct effects on gastric rhythm generation when superfused over combined oscillating or blocked silent STG preparations. A consistent difference between group I agonists and group II and III agonists was that group I agonists acted excitatory. The group I-specific agonists L-quisqualic acid and (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, as well as the nonspecific agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid accelerated ongoing rhythms and could induce gastric rhythms in silent preparations. The group II agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) and the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) slowed down or completely blocked ongoing gastric rhythms and were without detectable effect on silent preparations. The action of L-CCG-I was blocked partially by the group-II-specific antagonist, (RS)-1-amino-5-phosphonoindan-1-carboxylic acid [(RS)APICA], and the group-III-specific antagonist (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine completely blocked the action of L-AP4. Besides its antagonistic action, the group-II-specific antagonist (RS)APICA had a remarkably strong apparent inverse agonist action when applied alone on oscillating preparations. The action of all drugs was dose dependent and reversible, although recovery was not always complete. In our experiments, the effects of none of the mGluR-specific agonists were antagonized or amplified by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-specific antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, excluding the contamination of responses to mGluR agonists by nonspecific cross-reactivity with NMDA receptors. Picrotoxin did not prevent the inhibitory action of L-CCG-I and

  8. Dependence of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio on intracellular localization in ceria nanoparticles internalized by human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Daniela; Tredici, Ilenia G; Ghigna, Paolo; Castillio-Michel, Hiram; Falqui, Andrea; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Alberti, Giancarla; Ricci, Vittorio; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Sommi, Patrizia

    2017-01-26

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) have been investigated as promising antioxidant agents with significant activity in the therapy of diseases involving free radicals or oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism responsible for CNP activity has not been completely elucidated. In particular, in situ evidence of modification of the oxidative state of CNPs in human cells and their evolution during cell internalization and subsequent intracellular distribution has never been presented. In this study we investigated modification of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio following internalization in human cells by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). From this analysis on cell pellets, we observed that CNPs incubated for 24 h showed a significant increase in Ce(iii). By coupling on individual cells synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with micro-XANES (μXANES) we demonstrated that the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio is also dependent on CNP intracellular localization. The regions with the highest CNP concentrations, suggested to be endolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy, were characterized by Ce atoms in the Ce(iv) oxidation state, while a higher Ce(iii) content was observed in regions surrounding these areas. These observations suggest that the interaction of CNPs with cells involves a complex mechanism in which different cellular areas play different roles.

  9. Dependence of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio on intracellular localization in ceria nanoparticles internalized by human cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ferraro, Daniela

    2017-01-09

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) have been investigated as promising antioxidant agents with significant activity in the therapy of diseases involving free radicals or oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism responsible for CNP activity has not been completely elucidated. In particular, in situ evidence of modification of the oxidative state of CNPs in human cells and their evolution during cell internalization and subsequent intracellular distribution has never been presented. In this study we investigated modification of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio following internalization in human cells by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). From this analysis on cell pellets, we observed that CNPs incubated for 24 h showed a significant increase in Ce(iii). By coupling on individual cells synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with micro-XANES (μXANES) we demonstrated that the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio is also dependent on CNP intracellular localization. The regions with the highest CNP concentrations, suggested to be endolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy, were characterized by Ce atoms in the Ce(iv) oxidation state, while a higher Ce(iii) content was observed in regions surrounding these areas. These observations suggest that the interaction of CNPs with cells involves a complex mechanism in which different cellular areas play different roles.

  10. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 dependent overexpression of sulfiredoxin and peroxiredoxin III in human lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Ki Bum; Park, Joo Hun; Chung, Wou Young; Lee, Keu Sung; Sheen, Seung Soo; Park, Kwang Joo; Hwang, Sung Chul

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative stress results in protein oxidation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is responsible for the enzymatic reversal of inactivated peroxiredoxin (Prx). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant responsive elements and upregulates the expression of Srx and Prx during oxidative stress. We aimed to elucidate the biological functions and potential roles of Srx in lung cancer. To study the roles of Srx and Prx III in lung cancer, we compared the protein levels of Nrf2, Prxs, thioredoxin, and Srx in 40 surgically resected human lung cancer tissues using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. Transforming growth factor-β(1), tumor necrosis factor-α, and camptothecin treatment were used to examine Prx III inactivation in Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cells and A549 lung cancer cells. Prx I and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in lung cancer tissues. A significant increase in the oxidized form of a cysteine sulfhydryl at the catalytic site of Prxs was found in carcinogenic lung tissue compared to normal lung tissue. Densitometric analyses of immunoblot data revealed significant Srx expression, which was higher in squamous cell carcinoma tissue (60%, 12/20) than in adenocarcinoma (20%, 4/20). Also, Nrf2 was present in the nuclear compartment of cancer cells. Srx and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in human squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting that these proteins may play a protective role against oxidative injury and compensate for the high rate of mitochondrial metabolism in lung cancer.

  11. Heterocyclic tri-urea isocyanurate bridged groups modified periodic mesoporous organosilica synthesized for Fe(III) adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Vijay Kumar [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University Jalgaon-425001 (India); Division of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune-411 008 (India); Selvaraj, M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Parambadath, Surendran; Chu, Sang-Wook; Park, Sung Soo [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Satyendra [Department of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University Jalgaon-425001 (India); Singh, Raj Pal [Division of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune-411 008 (India); Ha, Chang-Sik, E-mail: csha@pnu.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    To achieve a high level of heavy metal adsorption, 1,1 Prime ,1 Double-Prime -(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)urea) (TTPU) was synthesized as a novel melamine precursor and incorporated on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs) were synthesized under acidic conditions using TTPU, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and Pluronic P123 as a template and the modified PMOs were characterized using the relevant instrumental techniques. The characteristic materials were used as adsorbents for the adsorption of Fe(III) ions. Fe(III) adsorption studies revealed MPMO-7.5 to be a good absorbent with higher adsorption efficiency than other MPMOs. - Graphical Abstract: A new organosilica precursor, TTPU, has been successfully synthesized and characterized to incorporate on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs), in particular, the MPMO-7.5 was found to exhibit good adsorption efficiency for Fe(III). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of new melamine modified periodic mesoporous organosilicas (MPMOs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new organosilica precursor, TTPU, has been successfully synthesized for the MPMOs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MPMOs were characterized by the relevant instrumental techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPMO-7.5 exhibits higher adsorption efficiency for Fe(III) ions than other MPMOs.

  12. Bacteria attenuation by iron electrocoagulation governed by interactions between bacterial phosphate groups and Fe(III) precipitates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaire, Caroline; van Genuchten, Case M.; Amrose, Susan E.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2016-01-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) is a low-cost process in which Fe(II) generated from an Fe(0) anode reacts with dissolved O2 to form (1) Fe(III) precipitates with an affinity for bacterial cell walls and (2) bactericidal reactive oxidants. Previous work suggests that Fe-EC is a promising treatment o

  13. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  14. Production of Group II and III base oils by hybrid route using brazilian crude; Producao de oleos basicos lubrificantes dos grupos II e III pela rota hibrida ou mista a partir de petroleo brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Wlamir Soares; Fontes, Anita Eleonora Ferreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a series of pilot plant tests made at PETROBRAS Research Centre, considering hydrotreatment and solvent dewaxing steps, to produce group II and group III lube base oils from Baiano Light crude feeds (Brazilian crude). RLAM Refinery has been using Baiano light crude to produce group I base oils by conventional route and in the pilot plant studies, two types of process scheme were tested. In the first one, an industrial run was performed at RLAM Refinery, including distillation, dewaxing and extraction and the light raffinate was used as a feed for a hydrotreatment pilot plant, followed by a distillation to remove the front ends. In the second scheme, another industrial run was performed, including distillation and dewaxing steps and the medium dewaxed oil was used as a charge for a hydrotreatment followed by distillation and dewaxing pilot plant tests. Products of excellent quality were obtained. Due to their high viscosity indexes (from 96 to 126), low contaminants levels (sulfur < 5 ppm and nitrogen < 5 ppm) and low aromatic content (CA < 2 %), the lube base oils produced are therefore classified as group II and group III. The main advantages of this route are related to the base oils quality improvements with low investment and more flexibility in terms of crude source. (author)

  15. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eGonzalez-Kristeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10% have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs.

  16. A Molecular Predictor Reassesses Classification of Human Grade II/III Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Rème

    Full Text Available Diffuse gliomas are incurable brain tumors divided in 3 WHO grades (II; III; IV based on histological criteria. Grade II/III gliomas are clinically very heterogeneous and their prognosis somewhat unpredictable, preventing definition of appropriate treatment. On a cohort of 65 grade II/III glioma patients, a QPCR-based approach allowed selection of a biologically relevant gene list from which a gene signature significantly correlated to overall survival was extracted. This signature clustered the training cohort into two classes of low and high risk of progression and death, and similarly clustered two external independent test cohorts of 104 and 73 grade II/III patients. A 22-gene class predictor of the training clusters optimally distinguished poor from good prognosis patients (median survival of 13-20 months versus over 6 years in the validation cohorts. This classification was stronger at predicting outcome than the WHO grade II/III classification (P≤2.8E-10 versus 0.018. When compared to other prognosis factors (histological subtype and genetic abnormalities in a multivariate analysis, the 22-gene predictor remained significantly associated with overall survival. Early prediction of high risk patients (3% of WHO grade II, and low risk patients (29% of WHO grade III in clinical routine will allow the development of more appropriate follow-up and treatments.

  17. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of CofB, the minor pilin subunit of CFA/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Tooru; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkubo, Tadayasu

    2015-06-01

    Colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) is one of the virulence factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that forms the long, thin, proteinaceous fibres of type IV pili through assembly of its major and minor subunits CofA and CofB, respectively. The crystal structure of CofA has recently been reported; however, the lack of structural information for CofB, the largest among the known type IV pilin subunits, hampers a comprehensive understanding of CFA/III pili. In this study, constructs of wild-type CofB with an N-terminal truncation and the corresponding SeMet derivative were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.97, c = 364.57 Å for the wild-type construct and a = b = 103.47, c = 362.08 Å for the SeMet-derivatized form. Although the diffraction quality of these crystals was initially very poor, dehydration of the crystals substantially improved the resolution limit from ∼ 4.0 to ∼ 2.0 Å. The initial phase was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method using a dehydrated SeMet CofB crystal, which resulted in an interpretable electron-density map.

  18. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (pClass II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  19. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase III study

    OpenAIRE

    Kimihiro Okubo; Minoru Gotoh; Mikiya Asako; Yasuyuki Nomura; Michinori Togawa; Akihiro Saito; Takayuki Honda; Yoshihiro Ohashi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1 antihistamine, has been approved in most European countries since 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the superiority of bilastine over placebo in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III study (trial registration number JapicCTI-142600) evaluated the effect of a 2-week treatment period with bilastine (20 mg once daily), fexo...

  20. High-resolution analysis of the duodenal interdigestive phase III in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castedal, M; Abrahamsson, H

    2001-10-01

    To study the spatial organization of the propagating pressure waves of duodenal phase III, we performed fasting antroduodenal high-resolution manometry with a 16-channel catheter in 12 healthy subjects. The phase III pressure waves diverged in an anterograde and retrograde direction from the start site of each pressure wave. The pressure waves maintained this configuration as the activity front moved distally in the duodenum. The start site of the pressure waves moved gradually to a point approximately 12 cm (median) distal to the pylorus and remained at this point for about 40% of the phase III time before moving further distally. The length of retrograde pressure wave propagation increased to 6 cm (median) as the pressure wave origin moved aborally to a point 10-14 cm distal to the pylorus, and then decreased when the origin of pressure waves reached the distal end of the duodenum. Bidirectional pressure waves dominated in both retrograde and anterograde activity fronts. Three pressure-wave mechanisms behind the duodenal phase IV were observed. Isolated pyloric pressure waves were absent during late duodenal phase III retroperistalsis. Thus, a number of new features of the duodenal phase III-related motility were observed using high-temporospatial resolution recordings.

  1. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  2. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S; Böttiger, B; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children......One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children...

  3. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  4. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-1 and Type III Collagen in Human Primary Renal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Mou

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tubulointerstitial changes in the diabetic kidney correlate closely with renal fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1 is thought to play a key role in this process. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF has shown therapeutic effects on injured renal tubules in animal models. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the preventive effects of HGF may result from interventions in TGF-β1-mediated signaling and collagen III secretion. We examined the expression of HGF/HGF receptor (c-Met and TGF-β1 in renal fibroblasts at multiple time points. The effects of recombinant human HGF on TGF-β1 expression were studied by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the levels of collagen III were measured by ELISA. In the high-glucose condition, the expression of HGF and c-Met in renal fibroblasts was detected as early as 6 hours following cell culture while the level of TGF-β1 peaked at 96 hours. The addition of recombinant human HGF to the culture media dose-dependently inhibited TGF-β1 mRNA expression and reduced collagen III secretion by 34%. These results indicate that, during hyperglycemia, HGF inhibits TGF-β1 signaling and type III collagen activation in interstitial fibroblasts. Furthermore, we should recognize that changes in the balance between HGF and TGF-β1 might be decisive in the pathogenesis of chronic renal fibrosis. Therefore, administration of HGF to restore this balance may offer a novel therapeutic intervention in managing renal fibrogenesis in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Compact groups in theory and practice - III. Compact groups of galaxies in the Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    McConnachie, Alan; Ellison, Sara; Simard, Luc

    2008-01-01

    We present the largest publicly available catalogue of compact groups of galaxies identified using the original selection criteria of Hickson, selected from the Sixth Data Release (DR6) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We identify 2297 compact groups down to a limiting magnitude of r = 18 (~0.24groups degree^{-2}), and 74791 compact groups down to a limiting magnitude of r = 21 (~6.7groups degree^{-2}). This represents 0.9% of all galaxies in the SDSS DR6 at these magnitude levels. Contamination due to gross photometric errors has been removed from the bright sample of groups, and we estimate it is present in the large sample at the 14% level. Spectroscopic information is available for 4131 galaxies in the bright catalogue (43% completeness), and we find that the median redshift of these groups is z_{med} = 0.09. The median line-of-sight velocity dispersion within the compact groups from the bright catalogue is sigma_{LOS} ~ 230km/s and their typical inter-galactic separations are of order 50 - 100kpc....

  6. III TALLER DE DISCUSIÓN SOBRE RESTITUCIÓN DE RESTOS HUMANOS DE INTERÉS ARQUEOLÓGICO Y BIOANTROPOLÓGICO / III Discussion Workshop on the Return of Human Remains of Archaeological and Bioanthropological Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Endere

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del III Taller de Discusión sobre Restitución de Restos Humanos de Interés Arqueológico llevado a cabo en Junio de 2013 en la ciudad de Olavarría.   Palabras Clave: restos humanos de origen arqueológico, restitución, etica, práctica profesional   Abstract This paper presents the results of the III Discussion Workshop to discuss human remains restitution of archaeological interest, held in June 2013 in the city of Olavarria.   Keywords: human remains from archaeological contexts, restitution, ethics, professional practice.

  7. Lanthanide(III) complexes of aminoethyl-DO3A as PARACEST contrast agents based on decoordination of the weakly bound amino group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krchová, Tereza; Kotek, Jan; Jirák, Daniel; Havlíčková, Jana; Císařová, Ivana; Hermann, Petr

    2013-11-28

    2-Aminoethyl DOTA analogues with unsubstituted (H3L1), monomethylated (H3L2) and dimethylated (H3L3) amino groups were prepared by improved synthetic procedures. Their solid-state structures exhibit an extensive system of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, which is probably present in solution and leads to the rather high value of the last dissociation constant. The protonation sequence of H3L1 in solution corresponds to that found in the solid state. The stability constants of the H3L1 complexes with La(3+) and Gd(3+) (20.02 and 22.23, respectively) are similar to those of DO3A and the reduction of the pK(A) value of the pendant amino group from 10.51 in the free ligand to 6.06 and 5.83 in the La(3+) and Gd(3+) complexes, respectively, points to coordination of the amino group. It was confirmed in the solid state structure of the [Yb(L1)] complex, where disorder between the SA' and TSA' isomers was found. A similar situation is expected in solution, where a fast equilibration among the isomers hampers the unambiguous determination of the isomer ratio in solution. The PARACEST effect was observed in Eu(III)-H3L1/H3L2 and Yb(III)-H3L1/H3L2 complexes, being dependent on pH in the region of 4.5-7.5 and pH-independent in more alkaline solutions. The decrease of the PARACEST effect parallels with the increasing abundance of the complex protonated species, where the pendant amino group is not coordinating. Surprisingly, a small PARACEST effect was also observed in solutions of Eu(III)/Yb(III)-H3L3 complexes, where the pendant amino group is dimethylated. The effect is detectable in a narrow pH region, where both protonated and deprotonated complex species are present in equilibrium. The data points to the new mechanism of the PARACEST effect, where the slow coordination-decoordination of the pendant amine is coupled with the fast proton exchange between the free amino group and bulk water mediates the magnetization transfer. The pH-dependence of the effect was proved to be

  8. Phase I/II Study of Temozolomide Plus Nimustine Chemotherapy for Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: Kyoto Neuro-oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    AOKI, Tomokazu; ARAKAWA, Yoshiki; UEBA, Tetsuya; ODA, Masashi; NISHIDA, Namiko; AKIYAMA, Yukinori; TSUKAHARA, Tetsuya; IWASAKI, Koichi; MIKUNI, Nobuhiro; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this phase I/II study was to examine the efficacy and toxicity profile of temozolomide (TMZ) plus nimustine (ACNU). Patients who had received a standard radiotherapy with one or two previous chemo-regimens were enrolled. In phase I, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) by TMZ (150 mg/m2/day) (Day 1–5) plus various doses of ACNU (30, 35, 40, 45 mg/m2/day) (Day 15) per 4 weeks was defined on a standard 3 + 3 design. In phase II, these therapeutic activity and safety of this regimen were evaluated. Forty-nine eligible patients were enrolled. The median age was 50 years-old. Eighty percent had a KPS of 70–100. Histologies were glioblastoma (73%), anaplastic astrocytoma (22%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (4%). In phase I, 15 patients were treated at four cohorts by TMZ plus ACNU. MTD was TMZ (150 mg/m2) plus ACNU (40 mg/m2). In phase II, 40 patients were treated at the dose of cohort 3 (MTD). Thirty-five percent of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities, mainly hematologic. The overall response rate was 11% (4/37). Sixty-eight percent (25/37) had stable disease. Twenty-two percent (8/37) showed progression. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% (95% CI, 12–35%) and 8% (95% CI, 4–15%). Median PFS was 13 months (95% CI, 9.2–17.2 months). Overall survival (OS) at 6 and 12 were 78% (95% CI, 67–89%) and 49% (95% CI, 33–57%). Median OS was 11.8 months (95% CI, 8.2–14.5 months). This phase I/II study showed a moderate toxicity in hematology and may has a promising efficacy in OS, without inferiority in PFS. PMID:27725524

  9. A JASTRO study group report. A randomized phase III trial of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1998-06-01

    Result of study about local effect of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors was reported. The irradiation was more than 90% isodose for lesion, and total dose was 60 Gy in cases with anamnesis and 40-50 Gy and without anamnesis at a rate of five times a week and 2 Gy at one time. Hyperthermia was carried out four times; once a week, at 42.5 degrees on tumor side edge, and for 40 minutes. Total 53 cases (neck lymph node metastasis 30 cases, relapse breast cancer 11, advanced breast cancer 1, other superficial tumor 11) were divided into 2 groups. Radiotherapy without hyperthermia (group R) was 27 cases, radiotherapy with hyperthermia (group H) was 26 cases. CR and CR+PR within 2 months after treatment were as follows: Group R: 50%, 85%, Group H: 64%, 100%. The CR+PR was superior in group H (p=0.0497). The CR at maximum effect after treatment was 65% of group R and 86% of group H (p=0.17). The local control rate after CR was not different in both groups. (K.H.)

  10. Saliva versus plasma bioequivalence of rusovastatin in humans: validation of class III drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2015-03-01

    Bioequivalence of rusovastatin in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 72 h after oral administration of rusovastatin 40 mg to 12 healthy humans. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Analysis of variance, 90 % confidence intervals, and intra-subject and inter-subject variability values of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was also calculated by SimCYP program V13. Rusovastatin falls into class III (high permeability/low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A correlation coefficient of 0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations, and a saliva/plasma concentration ratio of 0.175 were observed. The 90 % confidence limits of area under the curve (AUClast) and maximum concentration (C max) showed similar trends in both saliva and plasma. On the other hand, inter- and intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than in plasma, leading to the need for a slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies. Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of the invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioequivalence of SECS class III drugs when an adequate sample size is used.

  11. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  12. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They have progressively dominated their environment by the strength and creativity provided by and within their grouping. It is well recognised that human groups are highly structured, and the anthropological literature has loosely classified them according to their size and function, such as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups and so on. Recently, combining data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study, Zhou et al. identified a quantitative discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to $3$, which was later confirmed for hunter-gatherer groups and for other mammalian societies. Using high precision large scale Internet-based social network data, we extend these early findings on a very large data set. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of a massive m...

  13. MMP-12 catalytic domain recognizes and cleaves at multiple sites in human skin collagen type I and type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, Samuel; Jung, Michael C; Ihling, Christian; Heinz, Andrea; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2010-04-01

    Collagens of either soft connective or mineralized tissues are subject to continuous remodeling and turnover. Undesired cleavage can be the result of an imbalance between proteases and their inhibitors. Owing to their superhelical structure, collagens are resistant to many proteases and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required to initiate further degradation by other enzymes. Several MMPs are known to degrade collagens, but the action of MMP-12 has not yet been studied in detail. In this work, the potential of MMP-12 in recognizing sites in human skin collagen types I and III has been investigated. The catalytic domain of MMP-12 binds to the triple helix and cleaves the typical sites -Gly(775)-Leu(776)- in alpha-2 type I collagen and -Gly(775)-Ile(776)- in alpha-1 type I and type III collagens and at multiple other sites in both collagen types. Moreover, it was observed that the region around these typical sites contains comparatively less prolines, of which some have been proven to be only partially hydroxylated. This is of relevance since partial hydroxylation in the vicinity of a potential scissile bond may have a local effect on the conformational thermodynamics with probable consequences on the collagenolysis process. Taken together, the results of the present work confirm that the catalytic domain of MMP-12 alone binds and degrades collagens I and III. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  15. Modeling Mixed Groups of Humans and Robots with Reflexive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    The Reflexive Game Theory is based on decision-making principles similar to the ones used by humans. This theory considers groups of subjects and allows to predict which action from the set each subject in the group will choose. It is possible to influence subject's decision in a way that he will make a particular choice. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how robots can refrain humans from risky actions. To determine the risky actions, the Asimov's Three Laws of robotics are employed. By fusing the RGT's power to convince humans on the mental level with Asimov's Laws' safety, we illustrate how robots in the mixed groups of humans and robots can influence on human subjects in order to refrain humans from risky actions. We suggest that this fusion has a potential to device human-like motor behaving and looking robots with the human-like decision-making algorithms.

  16. Comparison of backbone dynamics of the type III antifreeze protein and antifreeze-like domain of human sialic acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Geun [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin-Ju [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Eun; Seo, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Ae-Ree; Choi, Seo-Ree; Lee, Shim Sung; Lee, Joon-Hwa, E-mail: joonhwa@gnu.ac.kr [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in a variety of cold-adapted (psychrophilic) organisms to promote survival at subzero temperatures by binding to ice crystals and decreasing the freezing temperature of body fluids. The type III AFPs are small globular proteins that consist of one α-helix, three 3{sub 10}-helices, and two β-strands. Sialic acids play important roles in a variety of biological functions, such as development, recognition, and cell adhesion and are synthesized by conserved enzymatic pathways that include sialic acid synthase (SAS). SAS consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal antifreeze-like (AFL) domain, which is similar to the type III AFPs. Despite having very similar structures, AFL and the type III AFPs exhibit very different temperature-dependent stability and activity. In this study, we have performed backbone dynamics analyses of a type III AFP (HPLC12 isoform) and the AFL domain of human SAS (hAFL) at various temperatures. We also characterized the structural/dynamic properties of the ice-binding surfaces by analyzing the temperature gradient of the amide proton chemical shift and its correlation with chemical shift deviation from random coil. The dynamic properties of the two proteins were very different from each other. While HPLC12 was mostly rigid with a few residues exhibiting slow motions, hAFL showed fast internal motions at low temperature. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis of thermostability and structural flexibility in homologous psychrophilic HPLC12 and mesophilic hAFL proteins.

  17. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  18. [Expectations of patients with ovarian cancer. Results of the European investigation EXPRESSION III in French patients from GINECO group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Laure; Kieffer, Anne; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Joly, Florence; Weber, Béatrice

    2015-03-01

    EXPRESSION III was designed to evaluate the information, needs and expectations of patients with ovarian cancer in different European countries. This abstract focuses on specific results from French OC patients. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients filled a 27-item questionnaire during a medical visit. Median age range was 63 years (26-89). Nearly all the patients (94 %) had primary surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy (95 %), 50 % had recurrent disease. At the time of the survey, 85 % reported symptoms: fatigue: 88 %, neuropathy: 55 %, nausea/vomiting: 40 %, pain: 39 %. Patients wished for non-alopeciant treatment (52 %) and a better management of fatigue (42 %). Eighty percent of the patients knew their chemotherapy but 60 % ignored their initial disease stage and how to find more information for treatment choice (91 %). Most patients (92 %) preferred to get it directly from their physician. Sixty-six percent expressed the need for clear information about their life expectancy. Still 21 % patients did not want to get negative information. French patients need for more support and clearer information on their disease. Direct information from their physician remains the mainstay of communication.

  19. Helicon Discharge with Selectable Nitrogen Reactive Species Production as a Plasma Source for III-group Nitrides Growth by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biloiu, Costel; Doss, Forest; Scime, Earl

    2004-11-01

    Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) of III-N materials is a potential alternative to MOCVD for fabrication of high quality wide band gap semiconductor devices. In the helicon plasma source, it may be possible to control the population of specific reactive nitrogen species by modification of the electron energy distribution function through the resonant wave-particle interaction arising from electrons traveling at same velocity as the helicon wave phase velocity. We report preliminary results on control of reactive nitrogen species performed in a steady state, high density, helicon plasma source CHEWIE (Compact HElicon Waves and Instabilities Experiment). The helicon vacuum chamber is a 12 cm long, Pyrex tube, 6 cm in diameter, connected to a stainless steel diffusion chamber. RF power of up to 1.0 kW over a frequency range of 3-28 MHz is used to create the steady state plasma. A 7 cm long, half wave, m = +1, helical antenna couples the rf energy into the plasma. A single solenoidal magnetic field coil surrounds the source and is capable of generating axial magnetic fields up to 600 G. Optical emission spectroscopy investigations show that under certain conditions, the decay from the long lived A^3Σ_u^+ state dominates the emission spectrum of the plasma.

  20. Implication of TLR- but not of NOD2-signaling pathways in dendritic cell activation by group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lemire

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is an important agent of life-threatening invasive infection. It has been previously shown that encapsulated type III GBS is easily internalized by dendritic cells (DCs, and that this internalization had an impact on cytokine production. The receptors underlying these processes are poorly characterized. Knowledge on the mechanisms used by type V GBS to activate DCs is minimal. In this work, we investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway, the particular involvement of TLR2, and that of the intracellular sensing receptor NOD2 in the activation of DCs by types III and V GBS. The role of capsular polysaccharide (CPS, one of the most important GBS virulence factors in bacterial-DC interactions was evaluated using non-encapsulated mutants. Despite differences in the role of CPS between types III and V GBS in bacterial internalization and intracellular survival, no major differences were observed in their capacity to modulate release of cytokines by DC. For both serotypes, CPS had a minor role in this response. Production of cytokines by DCs was shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize GBS and become activated mostly through TLR signaling. Yet, GBS-infected TLR2-/- DCs only showed a partial reduction in the production of IL-6 and CXCL1 compared to control DCs. Surprisingly, CXCL10 release by type III or type V GBS-infected DCs was MyD88-independent. No differences in DC activation were observed between NOD2-/- and control DCs. These results demonstrate the involvement of various receptors and the complexity of the cytokine production pathways activated by GBS upon DC infection.

  1. Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 Group O and P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haworth Kevin G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. Results We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. Conclusions The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread.

  2. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  3. Patterns of Selection of Human Movements III: Energy Efficiency, Mechanical Advantage, and Walking Gait

    OpenAIRE

    Hagler, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Human movements are physical processes combining the classical mechanics of the human body moving in space and the biomechanics of the muscles generating the forces acting on the body under sophisticated sensory-motor control. One way to characterize movement performance is through measures of energy efficiency that relate the mechanical energy of the body and metabolic energy expended by the muscles. We expect the practical utility of such measures to be greater when human subjects execute m...

  4. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Joeris, Thorsten;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and c...... in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy.......Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement...

  5. Retrohoming of a Mobile Group II Intron in Human Cells Suggests How Eukaryotes Limit Group II Intron Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Truong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile bacterial group II introns are evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retroelements in eukaryotes. They consist of an autocatalytic intron RNA (a "ribozyme" and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase, which function together to promote intron integration into new DNA sites by a mechanism termed "retrohoming". Although mobile group II introns splice and retrohome efficiently in bacteria, all examined thus far function inefficiently in eukaryotes, where their ribozyme activity is limited by low Mg2+ concentrations, and intron-containing transcripts are subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD and translational repression. Here, by using RNA polymerase II to express a humanized group II intron reverse transcriptase and T7 RNA polymerase to express intron transcripts resistant to NMD, we find that simply supplementing culture medium with Mg2+ induces the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB intron to retrohome into plasmid and chromosomal sites, the latter at frequencies up to ~0.1%, in viable HEK-293 cells. Surprisingly, under these conditions, the Ll.LtrB intron reverse transcriptase is required for retrohoming but not for RNA splicing as in bacteria. By using a genetic assay for in vivo selections combined with deep sequencing, we identified intron RNA mutations that enhance retrohoming in human cells, but <4-fold and not without added Mg2+. Further, the selected mutations lie outside the ribozyme catalytic core, which appears not readily modified to function efficiently at low Mg2+ concentrations. Our results reveal differences between group II intron retrohoming in human cells and bacteria and suggest constraints on critical nucleotide residues of the ribozyme core that limit how much group II intron retrohoming in eukaryotes can be enhanced. These findings have implications for group II intron use for gene targeting in eukaryotes and suggest how differences in intracellular Mg2+ concentrations between bacteria and eukarya may have

  6. From evolution to revolution: understanding mutability in large and disruptive human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Felmlee, Diane; Verma, Dinesh C.; Preece, Alun; Williams, Grace-Rose

    2017-05-01

    Over the last 70 years there has been a major shift in the threats to global peace. While the 1950's and 1960's were characterised by the cold war and the arms race, many security threats are now characterised by group behaviours that are disruptive, subversive or extreme. In many cases such groups are loosely and chaotically organised, but their ideals are sociologically and psychologically embedded in group members to the extent that the group represents a major threat. As a result, insights into how human groups form, emerge and change are critical, but surprisingly limited insights into the mutability of human groups exist. In this paper we argue that important clues to understand the mutability of groups come from examining the evolutionary origins of human behaviour. In particular, groups have been instrumental in human evolution, used as a basis to derive survival advantage, leaving all humans with a basic disposition to navigate the world through social networking and managing their presence in a group. From this analysis we present five critical features of social groups that govern mutability, relating to social norms, individual standing, status rivalry, ingroup bias and cooperation. We argue that understanding how these five dimensions interact and evolve can provide new insights into group mutation and evolution. Importantly, these features lend themselves to digital modeling. Therefore computational simulation can support generative exploration of groups and the discovery of latent factors, relevant to both internal group and external group modelling. Finally we consider the role of online social media in relation to understanding the mutability of groups. This can play an active role in supporting collective behaviour, and analysis of social media in the context of the five dimensions of group mutability provides a fresh basis to interpret the forces affecting groups.

  7. Synthesis and catalytic activity of Ln(III) complexes with an unsymmetrical Schiff base including multi()C = N-groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚克敏; 李宁; 沈联芳

    2003-01-01

    A synthetic method for a new unsymmetrical Schiff base and its Ln (III) complexes including multi C == N- groups is reported. The complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, 1H and 13C NMR, especially 2D-COSY1H, 1H NMR spectra. The general formula of the obtained complexes is [Ln3(TBLY)(NO3)3]@nH2O (Ln = La, n = 3; Ln = Nd, n = 5; Ln = Gd, Dy, Yb, Y, n = 7), whereTBLY = tetraglycol aldehyde-2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde bis-lysine Schiff base. In addition, the evidence for existence of C == CH-NH- group is supported bythe AM1 method. The complexes obtained may be used as a catalyst. Conversion rate of 80% with the viscosity-average molecular weight 220000 for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) without addition of any cocatalyst has been obtained.

  8. “Structural Transformations in Ceramics: Perovskite-like Oxides and Group III, IV, and V Nitrides”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James P. Lewis (PI, former Co-PI), Dorian M. Hatch (Co-PI, former PI), and Harold T. Stokes (Co-PI)

    2006-12-31

    1 Overview of Results and their Significance Ceramic perovskite-like oxides with the general formula (A. A0. ...)(B. B0. ...)O3and titanium-based oxides are of great technological interest because of their large piezoelectric and dielectric response characteristics.[1] In doped and nanoengineered forms, titantium dioxide finds increasing application as an organic and hydrolytic photocatalyst. The binary main-group-metal nitride compounds have undergone recent advancements of in-situ heating technology in diamond anvil cells leading to a burst of experimental and theoretical interest. In our DOE proposal, we discussed our unique theoretical approach which applies ab initio electronic calculations in conjunction with systematic group-theoretical analysis of lattice distortions to study two representative phase transitions in ceramic materials: (1) displacive phase transitions in primarily titanium-based perovskite-like oxide ceramics, and (2) reconstructive phase transitions in main-group nitride ceramics. A sub area which we have explored in depth is doped titanium dioxide electrical/optical properties.

  9. DNA ligase III and DNA ligase IV carry out genetically distinct forms of end joining in human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sehyun; Harvey, Adam; Zimbric, Jacob; Wang, Yongbao; Nguyen, Thanh; Jackson, Pauline J; Hendrickson, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    Ku-dependent C-NHEJ (classic non-homologous end joining) is the primary DNA EJing (end joining) repair pathway in mammals. Recently, an additional EJing repair pathway (A-NHEJ; alternative-NHEJ) has been described. Currently, the mechanism of A-NHEJ is obscure although a dependency on LIGIII (DNA ligase III) is often implicated. To test the requirement for LIGIII in A-NHEJ we constructed a LIGIII conditionally-null human cell line using gene targeting. Nuclear EJing activity appeared unaffected by a deficiency in LIGIII as, surprisingly, so were random gene targeting integration events. In contrast, LIGIII was required for mitochondrial function and this defined the gene's essential activity. Human Ku:LIGIII and Ku:LIGIV (DNA ligase IV) double knockout cell lines, however, demonstrated that LIGIII is required for the enhanced A-NHEJ activity that is observed in Ku-deficient cells. Most unexpectedly, however, the majority of EJing events remained LIGIV-dependent. In conclusion, although human LIGIII has an essential function in mitochondrial maintenance, it is dispensable for most types of nuclear DSB repair, except for the A-NHEJ events that are normally suppressed by Ku. Moreover, we describe that a robust Ku-independent, LIGIV-dependent repair pathway exists in human somatic cells.

  10. Investigation of the genotype III to genotype I shift in Japanese encephalitis virus and the impact on human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Adams, James; Fang, Wei; Liu, Si-Qing; Rayner, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito borne disease and is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific area. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can be phylogenetically classified into five genotypes based on nucleotide sequence. In recent years, genotype I (GI) has displaced genotype III (GIII) as the dominant lineage, but the mechanisms behind this displacement event requires elucidation. In an earlier study, we compared host variation over time between the two genotypes and observed that GI appears to have evolved to achieve more efficient infection in hosts in the replication cycle, with the tradeoff of reduced infectivity in secondary hosts such as humans. To further investigate this phenomenon, we collected JEV surveillance data on human cases and, together with sequence data, and generated genotype/case profiles from seven Asia-Pacific countries and regions to characterize the GI/GIII displacement event. We found that, when comprehensive and consistent vaccination and surveillance data was available, and the GIII to GI shift occurred within a well-defined time period, there was a statistically significant drop in JEV human cases. Our findings provide further support for the argument that GI is less effective in infecting humans, who represent a dead end host. However, experimental investigation is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The study highlights the value of alternative approaches to investigation of epidemics, as well as the importance of effective data collection for disease surveillance and control.

  11. Head excursion of restrained human volunteers and hybrid III dummies in steady state rollover tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle's restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion.

  12. Radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay of antibodies to the core protein (P24) of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV III). [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Sproul, P.

    1985-05-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses designated HTLV III or LAV are considered to represent the causative agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Therefore a simple direct RIA or ELISA method for antibodies to distinct epitopes of HTLV III/LAV structural components would be of great value. The authors describe RIA and ELISA assays which obviate the need for purified virus or virus proteins, do not utilize infected cells and thus do not diminish the source for continuous production of viral antigens and are specific for a major core protein of HTLV III/LAV.

  13. HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to the human host is largely unknown. Previous data have shown that pandemic HIV-1 Group M, but not non-pandemic Group O or rare Group N viruses, efficiently antagonize the human orthologue of the restriction factor tetherin (BST-2, HM1.24, CD317 suggesting that primate lentiviruses may have to gain anti-tetherin activity for efficient spread in the human population. Thus far, three SIV/HIV gene products (vpu, nef and env are known to have the potential to counteract primate tetherin proteins, often in a species-specific manner. Here, we examined how long Group P may have been circulating in humans and determined its capability to antagonize human tetherin as an indicator of adaptation to humans. Results Our data suggest that HIV-1 Group P entered the human population between 1845 and 1989. Vpu, Env and Nef proteins from both Group P viruses failed to counteract human or gorilla tetherin to promote efficient release of HIV-1 virions, although both Group P Nef proteins moderately downmodulated gorilla tetherin from the cell surface. Notably, Vpu, Env and Nef alleles from the two HIV-1 P strains were all able to reduce CD4 cell surface expression. Conclusions Our analyses of the two reported HIV-1 Group P viruses suggest that zoonosis occurred in the last 170 years and further support that pandemic HIV-1 Group M strains are better adapted to humans than non-pandemic or rare Group O, N and P viruses. The inability to antagonize human tetherin may potentially explain the limited spread of HIV-1 Group P in the human population.

  14. Practical routes to (SiH₃)₃P: applications in group IV semiconductor activation and in group III-V molecular synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jesse B; Chizmeshya, A V G; Tolle, J; D' Costa, V R; Menendez, J; Kouvetakis, J

    2010-05-21

    The (SiH₃)₃P hydride is introduced as a practical source for n-doping of group IV semiconductors and as a highly-reactive delivery agent of -(SiH₃)₂P functionalities in exploratory synthesis. In contrast to earlier methods, the compound is produced here in high purity quantitative yields via a new single-step method based on reactions of SiH₃Br and (Me₃Sn)₃P, circumventing the need for toxic and unstable starting materials. As an initial demonstration of its utility we synthesized monosubstituted Me₂M-P(SiH₃)₂ (M = Al, Ga, In) derivatives of Me₃M containing the (SiH₃)₂P ligand for the first time, in analogy to the known Me₂M-P(SiMe₃)₂ counterparts. A dimeric structure of Me₂M-P(SiH₃)₂ is proposed on the basis of spectroscopic characterizations and quantum chemical simulations. Next, in the context of materials synthesis, the (SiH₃)₃P compound was used to dope germanium for the first time by building a prototype p(++)Si(100)/i-Ge/n-Ge photodiode structure. The resultant n-type Ge layers contained active carrier concentrations of 3-4 × 10¹⁹ atoms cm⁻³ as determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and confirmed by SIMS. Strain analysis using high resolution XRD yielded a Si content of 4 × 10²⁰ atoms cm⁻³ in agreement with SIMS and within the range expected for incorporating Si₃P type units into the diamond cubic Ge matrix. Extensive characterizations for structure, morphology and crystallinity indicate that the Si co-dopant plays essentially a passive role and does not compromise the device quality of the host material nor does it fundamentally alter its optical properties.

  15. Looking for the new preparations for antibacterial therapy III. New antimicrobial agents from the quinolones group in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiuk, Izabela; Tyski, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    There is an essential need for searching for the new compounds effective in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This paper is the third part of a series associated with the exploration of new antibacterial agents and it discusses the compounds belonging to the group of quinolones and substances possessing a hybrid structure composed of the quinolone molecule and other compounds. Eleven new substances at the stage of clinical trials are presented. Three of them belong to the group of non-fluorinated quinolone (nemonoxacin, ozenoxacin and KRP-AM 1977X), while six are the quinolones containing fluorine atom at 6 position of the carbon atom in the quinoline ring (zabofloxacin, finafloxacin, delafloxacin, JNJ-Q2, WCK771 and KPI-10). The remaining two compounds possess a hybrid construction composed of the quinolone structure and other molecules (cadazolid and CBR-2092). There is a chance in the near future, that the presented compounds can extend the range of existing antibacterial drugs and provide an alternative to currently available medicinal products.

  16. High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence: Working Group Reports (I. Applications Software II. Software Libraries and Tools III. Systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Computing plays an essential role in all aspects of high energy physics. As computational technology evolves rapidly in new directions, and data throughput and volume continue to follow a steep trend-line, it is important for the HEP community to develop an effective response to a series of expected challenges. In order to help shape the desired response, the HEP Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) initiated a roadmap planning activity with two key overlapping drivers -- 1) software effectiveness, and 2) infrastructure and expertise advancement. The HEP-FCE formed three working groups, 1) Applications Software, 2) Software Libraries and Tools, and 3) Systems (including systems software), to provide an overview of the current status of HEP computing and to present findings and opportunities for the desired HEP computational roadmap. The final versions of the reports are combined in this document, and are presented along with introductory material.

  17. High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence: Working Group Reports (I. Applications Software II. Software Libraries and Tools III. Systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, Salman; LeCompte, Tom; Marshall, Zach; Borgland, Anders; Viren, Brett; Nugent, Peter; Asai, Makoto; Bauerdick, Lothar; Finkel, Hal; Gottlieb, Steve; Hoeche, Stefan; Sheldon, Paul; Vay, Jean-Luc; Elmer, Peter; Kirby, Michael; Patton, Simon; Potekhin, Maxim; Yanny, Brian; Calafiura, Paolo; Dart, Eli; Gutsche, Oliver; Izubuchi, Taku; Lyon, Adam; Petravick, Don

    2015-01-01

    Computing plays an essential role in all aspects of high energy physics. As computational technology evolves rapidly in new directions, and data throughput and volume continue to follow a steep trend-line, it is important for the HEP community to develop an effective response to a series of expected challenges. In order to help shape the desired response, the HEP Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) initiated a roadmap planning activity with two key overlapping drivers -- 1) software effectiveness, and 2) infrastructure and expertise advancement. The HEP-FCE formed three working groups, 1) Applications Software, 2) Software Libraries and Tools, and 3) Systems (including systems software), to provide an overview of the current status of HEP computing and to present findings and opportunities for the desired HEP computational roadmap. The final versions of the reports are combined in this document, and are presented along with introductory material.

  18. Human papillomavirus infection is principally found with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia-III in Toluca, State of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; de León-Escobedo, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection (HPV) in cases of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN), micro-invasive carcinoma and invasive carcinoma in Toluca, State of Mexico. Cross-sectional study analysing slides with the diagnosis of CIN I to invasive carcinoma for one year and reporting the presence of HPV; also identifying these cervical-uterine cancer stages noted during one semester in the registery of histopathological studies, at the Department of Pathology, General Regional Hospital 220, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). In one year, from a total of 5755 studies, 731 (13%) were of cervical-uterine cancer, 112 (16%) of these were positive for some stage of cervical cancer and 46.43% had HPV infection. In one semester, 2918 histopathological studies were done, 341 (11.68%) of these were cervix uterine biopsies, colposcopies and hysterectomies. 62 women (18.18%) diagnosed with CIN II-III, carcinoma in situ (CIS), micro-invasive carcinoma or invasive carcinoma and finding HPV infection in 51.92% of total cases. The prevalence of HPV was higher than that reported in developed world and CIN II-III are the most common stages in Toluca, State of Mexico.

  19. Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer of uroporphyrinogen III synthase fully corrects the porphyric phenotype in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géronimi, F; Richard, E; Lamrissi-Garcia, I; Lalanne, M; Ged, C; Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Moreau-Gaudry, F; de Verneuil, H

    2003-05-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an inherited disease due to a deficiency in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme of the heme biosynthesis pathway. It is characterized by accumulation of uroporphyrin I in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and other organs. The prognosis of CEP is poor, with death often occurring early in adult life. For severe transfusion-dependent cases, when allogeneic cell transplantation cannot be performed, the autografting of genetically modified primitive/stem cells may be the only alternative. In vitro gene transfer experiments have documented the feasibility of gene therapy via hematopoietic cells to treat this disease. In the present study lentiviral transduction of porphyric cell lines and primary CD34(+) cells with the therapeutic human uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) cDNA resulted in both enzymatic and metabolic correction, as demonstrated by the increase in UROS activity and the suppression of porphyrin accumulation in transduced cells. Very high gene transfer efficiency (up to 90%) was achieved in both cell lines and CD34(+) cells without any selection. Expression of the transgene remained stable over long-term liquid culture. Furthermore, gene expression was maintained during in vitro erythroid differentiation of CD34(+) cells. Therefore the use of lentiviral vectors is promising for the future treatment of CEP patients by gene therapy.

  20. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  1. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  2. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) in fresh waters and human hair extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; Chen Beibei; Xia Linbo [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-02-16

    A new method of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as extractant combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using Pd as permanent modifier has been described for the speciation of As(III) and As(V). In a pH range of 3.0-4.0, the complex of As(III)-APDC complex can be extracted using toluene as the extraction solvent leaving As(V) in the aqueous layer. The post extraction organic phase was directly injected into ETAAS for the determination of As(III). To determine total arsenic in the samples, first As(V) was reduced to As(III) by L-cysteine, and then a microextraction method was performed prior to the determination of total arsenic. As(V) assay was based on subtracting As(III) form the total arsenic. All parameters, such as pH of solution, type of organic solvent, the amount of APDC, stirring rate and extraction time, affecting the separation of As(III) from As(V) and the extraction efficiency of As(III) were investigated, and the optimized extraction conditions were established. Under optimized conditions, a detection limit of 0.12 ng mL{sup -1} with enrichment factor of 78 was achieved. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the method for five replicate determinations of 5 ng mL{sup -1} As(III) was 8%. The developed method was applied to the speciation of As(III) and As(V) in fresh water and human hair extracts, and the recoveries for the spiked samples are 86-109%. In order to validate the developed method, three certified reference materials such as GBW07601 human hair, BW3209 and BW3210 environmental water were analyzed, and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values provided.

  3. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 < Mstar < 10^8 Msun) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived from analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) Lower mass galaxies quench earlier than higher mass galaxies; (2) Inside of virial radius there is no correlation between a satellite's current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; (3) There are hints of systematic differences in quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  4. ADH IB expression, but not ADH III, is decreased in human lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutka, Sarah C; Green, Lucia H; Verderber, Evie L; Richards, Jane P; Looker, Doug L; Chlipala, Elizabeth A; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer.

  5. ADH IB expression, but not ADH III, is decreased in human lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Mutka

    Full Text Available Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, mediate nitric oxide (NO-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer.

  6. Saliva versus Plasma Relative Bioavailability of Tolterodine in Humans: Validation of Class III Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, N; Najib, N; Salem, I I; Najib, O

    2016-06-01

    Relative bioavailability study of tolterodine in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected up to 16 h after 2 mg oral dose. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non compartmental analysis using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was optimized by SimCYP program V13. Tolterodine falls into class III (High permeability/Low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A high pearsons correlation coefficient of 0.97 between mean saliva and plasma concentrations, and saliva/plasma concentrations ratio of 0.33 were observed. In addition, correlation coefficients and saliva/plasma ratios of area under curve and maximum concentration were 0.98, 0.95 and 0.42, 0.34 respectively. On the other hand, time to reach maximum concentration was higher in saliva by 2.37 fold. In addition, inter subject variability values in saliva were slightly higher than plasma leading to need for slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies (55 vs. 48 subjects). Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioavailability and bioequivalence of SECS class I drugs when adequate sample size is used. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Manganese (III) Complex in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Is Mediated by the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Followed by Mitochondrial Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anbaky, Qudes; Al-Karakooly, Zeiyad; Kilaparty, Surya P; Agrawal, Megha; Albkuri, Yahya M; RanguMagar, Ambar B; Ghosh, Anindya; Ali, Nawab

    2016-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) complexes are widely studied because of their important catalytic properties in synthetic and biochemical reactions. A Mn (III) complex of an amidoamine ligand was synthesized using a tetradentate amidoamine ligand. In this study, the Mn (III) complex was evaluated for its biological activity by measuring its cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Cytotoxic effects of the Mn (III) complex were determined using established biomarkers in an attempt to delineate the mechanism of action and the utility of the complex as a potential anticancer drug. The Mn (III) complex induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by microculture tetrazolium assay, a measure of cytotoxic cell death. Our results demonstrated that cytotoxic effects were significantly increased at higher concentrations of Mn (III) complex and with longer time of treatment. The IC50 (Inhibitor concentration that results in 50% cell death) value of Mn (III) complex in MCF-7 cells was determined to be 2.5 mmol/L for 24 hours of treatment. In additional experiments, we determined the Mn (III) complex-mediated cell death was due to both apoptotic and nonspecific necrotic cell death mechanisms. This was assessed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and flow cytometry techniques. The Mn (III) complex produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase 1 and ultimately damaging the mitochondrial function as is evident by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment of the cells with free radical scavenger, N, N-dimethylthiourea decreased Mn (III) complex-mediated generation of ROS and attenuated apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the Mn (III) complex-mediated MCF-7 cell death utilizes combined mechanism involving apoptosis and necrosis perhaps due to the generation of ROS.

  8. Mutations in the UQCC1-interacting protein, UQCC2, cause human complex III deficiency associated with perturbed cytochrome b protein expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena J Tucker

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS is responsible for generating the majority of cellular ATP. Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase is the third of five OXPHOS complexes. Complex III assembly relies on the coordinated expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, with 10 subunits encoded by nuclear DNA and one by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Complex III deficiency is a debilitating and often fatal disorder that can arise from mutations in complex III subunit genes or one of three known complex III assembly factors. The molecular cause for complex III deficiency in about half of cases, however, is unknown and there are likely many complex III assembly factors yet to be identified. Here, we used Massively Parallel Sequencing to identify a homozygous splicing mutation in the gene encoding Ubiquinol-Cytochrome c Reductase Complex Assembly Factor 2 (UQCC2 in a consanguineous Lebanese patient displaying complex III deficiency, severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal lactic acidosis and renal tubular dysfunction. We prove causality of the mutation via lentiviral correction studies in patient fibroblasts. Sequence-profile based orthology prediction shows UQCC2 is an ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex III assembly factor, Cbp6p, although its sequence has diverged substantially. Co-purification studies show that UQCC2 interacts with UQCC1, the predicted ortholog of the Cbp6p binding partner, Cbp3p. Fibroblasts from the patient with UQCC2 mutations have deficiency of UQCC1, while UQCC1-depleted cells have reduced levels of UQCC2 and complex III. We show that UQCC1 binds the newly synthesized mtDNA-encoded cytochrome b subunit of complex III and that UQCC2 patient fibroblasts have specific defects in the synthesis or stability of cytochrome b. This work reveals a new cause for complex III deficiency that can assist future patient diagnosis, and provides insight into human complex III assembly by

  9. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies. III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 108 {{M}⊙ }) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived by analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) lower-mass galaxies quench earlier than higher-mass galaxies; (2) inside of Rvirial there is no correlation between a satellite’s current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; and (3) there are hints of systematic differences in the quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with results from the literature, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z = 0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ˜7 dex in stellar mass (104 ≲ {{M}\\star } ≲ 1011.5 {{M}⊙ }). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases toward the present, with both the lowest and highest-mass systems exhibiting the largest quenched fractions at all redshifts. In contrast, galaxies between {{M}\\star } ˜ 108-1010 {{M}⊙ } have the lowest quenched fractions. We suggest that such intermediate-mass galaxies are the least efficient at quenching. Finally, we compare our quenching times with predictions for infall times for low-mass galaxies associated with the MW. We find that some of the lowest-mass satellites (e.g., CVn II, Leo IV) may have been quenched before infall, while higher-mass satellites (e.g., Leo I, Fornax) typically quench ˜1-4 Gyr after infall. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA constract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. III. The effect of cryoprotectants on motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critser, J K; Huse-Benda, A R; Aaker, D V; Arneson, B W; Ball, G D

    1988-08-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to examine potential toxic effects of cryoprotectants on motility of human spermatozoa. The data indicated that exposure of spermatozoa to cryoprotectant medium for as little as 15 minutes at room temperature caused a reduction in motility. This reduction in motility was caused by glycerol. Lowering glycerol concentrations from 7.5% to 5.0% improved sperm motility at 24 hours post-thaw. Sperm motility was not affected by either slow or abrupt cooling rates above -5 degrees C. Motility was greater in cryopreserved sperm at 24 hours post-thaw when glycerol was added at -5 degrees C rather than at room temperature. These data suggest that avoiding glycerol toxicity either by reducing the concentration used or by adding glycerol at a lower temperature, or both, may improve human sperm cryosurvival rates.

  11. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Do humans and nonhuman animals share the grouping principles of the iambic-trochaic law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mora, Daniela M; Nespor, Marina; Toro, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    The iambic-trochaic law describes humans' tendency to form trochaic groups over sequences varying in pitch or intensity (i.e., the loudest or highest sounds mark group beginnings), and iambic groups over sequences varying in duration (i.e., the longest sounds mark group endings). The extent to which these perceptual biases are shared by humans and nonhuman animals is yet unclear. In Experiment 1, we trained rats to discriminate pitch-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in pitch. In Experiment 2, rats were trained to discriminate duration-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in duration. We found that nonhuman animals group sequences based on pitch variations as trochees, but they do not group sequences varying in duration as iambs. Importantly, humans grouped the same stimuli following the principles of the iambic-trochaic law (Exp. 3). These results suggest the early emergence of the trochaic rhythmic grouping bias based on pitch, possibly relying on perceptual abilities shared by humans and other mammals, whereas the iambic rhythmic grouping bias based on duration might depend on language experience.

  13. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J.; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal\\ud growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure\\ud in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval\\ud sample (N:450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteona...

  14. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  15. Human papillomavirus type influences the extent of chromosomal lag during mitosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; VanLeeuwen, AM; Hollema, H; Quint, WGV; Pieters, WJLM

    1997-01-01

    The level of risk for carcinoma in the uterine cervix depends on the type of human papillomavirus (HPV) present. We examined whether the HPV type influences the proliferation rate and occurrence of mitotic figures with lagging chromosomes in the precursor of cervical carcinoma. The study group compr

  16. Human papillomavirus type influences the extent of chromosomal lag during mitosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; VanLeeuwen, AM; Hollema, H; Quint, WGV; Pieters, WJLM

    The level of risk for carcinoma in the uterine cervix depends on the type of human papillomavirus (HPV) present. We examined whether the HPV type influences the proliferation rate and occurrence of mitotic figures with lagging chromosomes in the precursor of cervical carcinoma. The study group

  17. [Development and developmental disorders of the human brain. III. Neuronal migration disorders of the cerebrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Wesseling, P.; Thijssen, H.O.M.; Renier, W.O.; Gabreëls, F.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Neuronal migration disorders of the cerebral cortex form a heterogeneous group of abnormalities, characterised by mental retardation, epilepsy and hypotonia. They are prevalent in 1% of the population and in 20-40% of the untreatable forms of epilepsy. Disorders at the start of the migration result

  18. Enhanced expression of the type II transforming growth factor beta receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells without alteration of type III receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, H; Yamanaka, Y; Büchler, M; Berger, H G; Kobrin, M S; Baldwin, R L; Korc, M

    1993-06-15

    We have recently found that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibit strong immunostaining for the three mammalian transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isoforms. These important growth-regulating polypeptides bind to a number of proteins, including the type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-I), type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-II), and the type III TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-III). In the present study we sought to determine whether T beta R-II and T beta R-III expression is altered in pancreatic cancer. Northern blot analysis indicated that, by comparison with the normal pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibited a 4.6-fold increase (P beta R-II. In contrast, mRNA levels encoding T beta R-III were not increased. In situ hybridization showed that T beta R-II mRNA was expressed in the majority of cancer cells, whereas mRNA grains encoding T beta R-III were detectable in only a few cancer cells and were present mainly in the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest that enhanced levels of T beta R-II may have a role in regulating human pancreatic cancer cell growth, while T beta R-III may function in the extracellular matrix.

  19. Human RNase P ribonucleoprotein is required for formation of initiation complexes of RNA polymerase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serruya, Raphael; Orlovetskie, Natalie; Reiner, Robert; Dehtiar-Zilber, Yana; Wesolowski, Donna; Altman, Sidney; Jarrous, Nayef

    2015-01-01

    Human RNase P is implicated in transcription of small non-coding RNA genes by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), but the precise role of this ribonucleoprotein therein remains unknown. We here show that targeted destruction of HeLa nuclear RNase P inhibits transcription of 5S rRNA genes in whole cell extracts, if this precedes the stage of initiation complex formation. Biochemical purification analyses further reveal that this ribonucleoprotein is recruited to 5S rRNA genes as a part of proficient initiation complexes and the activity persists at reinitiation. Knockdown of RNase P abolishes the assembly of initiation complexes by preventing the formation of the initiation sub-complex of Pol III. Our results demonstrate that the structural intactness, but not the endoribonucleolytic activity per se, of RNase P is critical for the function of Pol III in cells and in extracts. PMID:25953854

  20. Thermodynamic Study of Human Serum Albumin upon Interaction with Ytterbium (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rezaei Behbehani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexation reaction between Yb3+ and human serum albumin is examined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. The extension solvation theory was used to reproduce the enthalpies of HAS + Yb3+ interactions over the whole range of Yb3+ concentrations. The binding parameters recovered from this model were attributed to the structural change of HSA. The results show that Yb3+ ions bind to HSA with three equivalent affinity sites. It was found that in the high concentrations of the ytterbium ions, the HSA structure was destabilized.

  1. Thermal investigation of Human Serum Albumin upon Interaction with Ytterbium (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Rezaei Behbehani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper complexation reaction between Yb3+ and Human serum albumin is examined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. The extended solvation model was used to reproduce the enthalpies of HAS+Yb3+ interactions over the whole range of Yb3+ concentrations. The binding parameters recovered from this model were attributed to the structural change of HSA. The results show that Yb3+ ions bind to HSA with three equivalent affinity sites. It was found that in the high concentrations of the ytterbium ions, the HSA structure was destabilized.

  2. Human Well Being: A Decile Group Analysis on Indian Household Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This is an attempt to measure human well being across different sections of the society in India over time where sections have been made in terms of ten decile groups of income. In this context, the extent to which rural sector is lagging behind the urban sector is another dimension of the study. The study uses grouped household data, collected…

  3. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  4. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-06

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  5. Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Narraway, Claire; Hodgson, Lindsay; Weatherill, Aidan; Sommer, Volker; Sumner, Seirian

    2011-04-23

    Early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment, and modern humans encounter equivalent spatial-temporal coordination problems on a daily basis. A fundamental, but untested assumption is that our evolved capacity for communication is integral to our success in such tasks, allowing information exchange and consensus decisions based on mutual consideration of pooled information. Here we examine whether communication enhances group performance in humans, and test the prediction that consensus decision-making underlies group success. We used bespoke radio-tagging methodology to monitor the incremental performance of communicating and non-communicating human groups (small group sizes of two to seven individuals), during a social foraging experiment. We found that communicating groups (n = 22) foraged more effectively than non-communicating groups (n = 21) and were able to reach consensus decisions (an 'agreement' on the most profitable foraging resource) significantly more often than non-communicating groups. Our data additionally suggest that gesticulations among group members played a vital role in the achievement of consensus decisions, and therefore highlight the importance of non-verbal signalling of intentions and desires for successful human cooperative behaviour.

  6. Regional assignment of the human uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) gene to chromosome 10q25.2----q26.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrin, K H; Warner, C A; Yoo, H W; Goodfellow, P J; Tsai, S F; Desnick, R J

    1991-05-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase [UROS; hydroxymethylbilane hydro-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.2.1.75] is the fourth enzyme in the human heme biosynthetic pathway. The recent isolation of the cDNA encoding human UROS facilitated its chromosomal localization. Human UROS sequences were specifically amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from genomic DNA of two independent panels of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. There was 100% concordance for the presence of the human UROS PCR product and human chromosome 10. For each of the other chromosomes, there was 19%-53% discordance with human UROS. The chromosomal assignment was confirmed by Southern hybridization analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids with the full-length UROS cDNA. Using human-rodent hybrids containing different portions of human chromosome 10, we assigned the UROS gene to the region 10q25.2----q26.3.

  7. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  8. Pharmacological antagonism of the actions of group II and III mGluR agonists in the lateral perforant path of rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, T J; Jane, D E; Tse, H W; Watkins, J C; Garthwaite, J; Collingridge, G L

    1996-04-01

    1. An understanding of the physiological and pathological roles of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) is currently hampered by the lack of selective antagonists. Standard extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the activity of recently reported mGluR antagonists on agonist-induced depressions of synaptic transmission in the lateral perforant path of hippocampal slices obtained from 12-16 day-old rats. 2. The group III specific mGluR agonist, (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4) depressed basal synaptic transmission in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The mean (+/-s.e. mean) depression obtained with 100 microM L-AP4 (the maximum concentration tested) was 74 +/- 3% and the IC50 value was 3 +/- 1 microM (n = 5). 3. The selective group II mGluR agonists, (1S,3S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylate ((1S,3s)-ACPD) and (2S, 1'R, 2'R, 3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) also depressed basal synaptic transmission in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The mean depression obtained with 200 microM (1S,3S)-ACPD was 83 +/- 8% and the IC50 value was 12 +/- 3 microM (n = 5). The mean depression obtained with 1 microM DCG-IV was 73 +/- 7% and the IC50 value was 88 +/- 15 nM (n = 4). 4. Synaptic depressions induced by the actions of 20 microM (1S,3S)-ACPD and 10 microM L-AP4 were antagonized by the mGluR antagonists (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+)-MCPG), (S)-2-methyl-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (MAP4), (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-methyl-2(2'-carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (MCCG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-tetrazolylphenylglycine (MTPG), (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-sulphonophenylglycine (MSPG) and (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) (all tested at 500 microM). 5. (+)-MCPG was a weak antagonist of both L-AP4 and (1S,3S)-ACPD-induced depressions. MCCG was selective towards (1S,3S)-ACPD, but analysis of its effects were complicated by apparent partial agonist activity. MAP4 showed good selectivity for L-AP4-induced effects. 6

  9. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF.

  10. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.

  11. Metabolism of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in cultures of human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Blaehr, H; Andersen, C B

    1992-01-01

    in cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Normal renal tissue was obtained from the healthy part of kidneys surgically removed and from biopsies from a total of 10 patients. The degradation was characterized by incubation of [125I]-PIIINP followed by gel filtration. We found that in physiological...... concentrations (4.4 micrograms l-1 and 11.9 micrograms l-1 intact PIIINP was almost totally degraded, but not col 1 domain. High concentrations of PIIINP (20-50 micrograms l-1) had a non-linear, non-monoexponential degradation over time, which suggests several steps. Gel filtration of [125I]-PIIINP after 1 h, 3...... h, 6 h and 24 h of incubation confirmed the observation by showing the rapid formation of a high-molecular-weight fraction, followed by the slower formation of a low-molecular-weight fraction. The high-molecular-weight fraction was PIIINP immunoreactive, but not the low-molecular-weight fraction. We...

  12. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  13. Group III-nitrides nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Caro, M.; Ramírez-López, M.; Rojas-Ramírez, J. S.; Martínez-Velis, I.; Casallas-Moreno, Y.; Gallardo-Hernández, S.; Babu, B. J.; Velumani, S.; López-López, M.

    2012-02-01

    We report on the growth and characterization of self-assembled InGaN columnar nanostructures grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) on Si(111) substrates. At a zero concentration of Ga, InN nanocolumns (NCs) were successfully grown. In the case of InGaN, the surface morphology is dependent on composition; however, in general, InGaN samples exhibit columnar features. At concentrations near 50%, the samples show phase separation; this result is explained in terms of solid phase immiscibility.

  14. Expression of LacdiNAc Groups on N-Glycans among Human Tumors Is Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Hirano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of proteins and lipids is one of the characteristic features of malignantly transformed cells. The GalNAcβ1 → 4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc or LDN group at the nonreducing termini of both N- and O-glycans is not generally found in mammalian cells. We previously showed that the expression level of the LacdiNAc group in N-glycans decreases dramatically during the progression of human breast cancer. In contrast, the enhanced expression of the LacdiNAc group has been shown to be associated with the progression of human prostate, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. Therefore, the expression of the disaccharide group appears to be dependent on types of tumors. The mechanism of formation of the LacdiNAc group in human tumors and cancer cells has been studied, and two β4-N-acetylgalacto-saminyltransferases (β4GalNAcTs, β4GalNAcT3 and β4GalNAcT4, have been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of this disaccharide group in a tissue-dependent manner. Transfection of the β4GalNAcT3 gene brought about significant changes in the malignant phenotypes of human neuroblastoma, indicating that this disaccharide group is important for suppressing the tumor growth.

  15. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  16. One-pot synthesis of four-coordinate boron(III) complexes by the ligand-promoted organic group migration between boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadu, Venkata S; Bin, Hye-Rin; Lee, Do-Min; Lee, Kee-In

    2017-03-21

    Multidisciplinary applications of four-coordinate boron(III) complexes make them very attractive and challenging research field in chemistry, biology and material sciences. The dual role played by boron atom in stabilising the chelate ligand and enhancing the π-conjugation makes them very useful as luminescent materials for organic electronics and photonics, and sensing and imaging probes for biomedical purposes. The conventional methods involve the use of diarylborinic acids or anhydrides and triaryl boranes, which are made from organometallic reagents. The strong nucleophilicity of these reagents limits the peripheral modifications onto the boron cores. Here, we report a metal-free one-pot synthesis of four-coordinate organoborons using boronic acids, which represents the first instance of ligand assisted organic group migration between boronic acids. A tetrahedral boron 'ate' complex capable of transferring an organic group to the adjacent sp(2) boron within a boronic anhydride intermediate is proposed and preliminary mechanistic studies by MALDI-TOF and (11)B NMR support this proposal. The products are available from a series of N,O-, N,N- and O,O-bidentate ligands upon a wide array of boronic acids. We anticipate that this reaction will impact the way of producing the four-coordinate organoborons, and propel a new discovery of such materials for optoelectronic and biomedical applications.

  17. Binding properties of a blood group Le(a+) active sialoglycoprotein, purified from human ovarian cyst, with applied lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; WU, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Tsai, M C

    1996-06-07

    Studies on the structures and binding properties of the glycoproteins, purified from human ovarian cyst fluids, will aid the understanding of the carbohydrate alterations occurring during the biosynthesis of blood group antigens and neoplasm formation. These glycoproteins can also serve as important biological materials to study blood group A, B, H, Le(a), Le(b), Le(x), Le(y), T and Tn determinants, precursor type I and II sequences and cold agglutinin I and i epitopes. In this study, the binding property of a cyst glycoprotein from a human blood group Le(a+) nonsecretor individual, that contains an unusually high amount (18%) of sialic acid (HOC 350) was characterized by quantitative precipitin assay with a panel of lectins exhibiting a broad range of carbohydrate-binding specificities. Native HOC 350 reacted well only with three out of nineteen lectins tested. It precipitated about 80% of Ricinus communis (RCA1), 50% of Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and 37% of Bauhinia purpurea aba (BPA) agglutinins, respectively. However, its asialo product had dramatically enhanced reactivity and reacted well with many I/II (Gal beta1 --> 3/4GcNAc), T(Gal beta1 --> 3GalNAc) and Tn(GaNIAc alphaI --> Ser/Thr) active lectins. It bound best to Jacalin, BPA, and abrin-a and completely precipitated all the lectins added. Asialo-HOC 350 also reacted strongly with Wistaria floribunda, Abrus precatorius agglutinin, ricin and RCA1 and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, and moderately with Arachis hypogaea, Maclura pomifera, WGA, Vicia viosa-B4, Codium fragile tomentosoides and Ulex europaeus-II. But native HOC 350 and its asialo product reacted not at all or poorly with Dolichos biflorus, Helix pomatia, Lotus tetra-gonolobus, Ulex europaeus-I, Lens culinaris lectins and Con A. The lectin-glycoform interactions through bioactive sugars were confirmed by precipitin inhibition assay. Mapping the precipitation profiles of the interactions have led to the conclusion that HOC 350

  18. Association between the ABO blood group and the human intestinal microbiota composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkivuokko Harri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucus layer covering the human intestinal epithelium forms a dynamic surface for host-microbial interactions. In addition to the environmental factors affecting the intestinal equilibrium, such as diet, it is well established that the microbiota composition is individually driven, but the host factors determining the composition have remained unresolved. Results In this study, we show that ABO blood group is involved in differences in relative proportion and overall profiles of intestinal microbiota. Specifically, the microbiota from the individuals harbouring the B antigen (secretor B and AB differed from the non-B antigen groups and also showed higher diversity of the Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides (EREC and Clostridium leptum (CLEPT -groups in comparison with other blood groups. Conclusions Our novel finding indicates that the ABO blood group is one of the genetically determined host factors modulating the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, thus enabling new applications in the field of personalized nutrition and medicine.

  19. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society.

  20. Structural characterization of the isoenzymatic forms of human myeloperoxidase: evaluation of the iron-containing prosthetic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J; Bastian, N; Davis, T A; Zuo, C; Yoshimoto, S; Orme-Johnson, W H; Tauber, A I

    1990-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) from human neutrophils has been purified and found to exist in three isoenzymatic forms, resolved by ion exchange chromatography. In addition to differences in subunit size and cellular compartmentalization of the isoenzymes, differences have been reported in their activity and susceptibility to inhibition. The structural basis of these isoenzymes is unclear; we attempted to further define their functional characteristics and structural identity. First, we measured respective enzymatic activity using a panel of substrates; MPO I was found to have lower activity with some substrates (pyrogallol, guaiacol, potassium iodide [KI]), but similar activity to the other isoenzymes with 4-aminoantipyrine. These studies confirm that MPO I is enzymatically distinct from MPO II and MPO III. Next, we examined the structural basis of these differences by evaluating the iron-containing prosthetic group in each form using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and determination of the pyridine hemochrome. No significant difference between the isoenzymes was noted in these parameters, suggesting that the prosthetic group is the same in each protein. The cause for any difference in enzymatic activity must lie then in variations extrinsic to the heme, and based on previous studies of the gene and protein analysis, the posttranslational modification of MPO must account for these isoenzymatic species.

  1. Balancing selfishness and prosociality can enhance the resilience of human groups

    CERN Document Server

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Nardin, Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation among humans is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time like climate change, financial crises, and over exploitation of natural resources. While several mechanisms of self-governance for supporting cooperation, such as peer punishment, reciprocity, and social norms have been extensively explored, the impact of cooperation on the ability of human groups to absorb changes and still persist, their resilience, has received less attention. Here we develop an analytically-tractable model that incorporates both selfish and prosocial aspects as constituents of cooperative decision making, which quantitatively reproduce findings from recent large scale experiments on cooperation with humans. The model parameters inferred from experimental data are near a line of critical points, which suggests a way in which cooperation can be sustained and impact the resilience of human groups to external variability.

  2. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces-from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or "homophily").

  3. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and computational analysis of mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes: antiproliferative and in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2014-12-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type [(DACH)Au(en)]Cl3, 1,2-Diaminocyclohexane ethylenediamine gold(III) chloride [where 1,2-DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2diaminocyclohexane and en = ethylenediamine] have been synthesized and characterized using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectra; and solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and ethylenediamine (en) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. Their electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also reported at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. The coordination sphere of these complexes around gold(III) center adopts distorted square planar geometry. The computational study also demonstrates that trans- conformations is slightly more stable than the cis-conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 1 is the most effective antiproliferative agent among mixed ligand based gold(III) complexes 1-3. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complexes 1 and 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells are fairly better than that of cisplatin.

  5. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Barker

    Full Text Available Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic "tug-of-war" model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

  6. Capsular polysaccharide of Group B Streptococcus mediates biofilm formation in the presence of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fan Di; Mallet, Adeline; Caliot, Elise; Gao, Cherry; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an asymptomatic colonizer of human mucosal surfaces that is responsible for sepsis and meningitis in neonates. Bacterial persistence and pathogenesis often involves biofilm formation. We previously showed that biofilm formation in medium supplemented with glucose is mediated by the PI-2a pilus. Here, biofilm formation was tested in cell culture medium supplemented with human plasma. GBS strains were able to form biofilms in these conditions unlike Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of mutants impaired for various surface components revealed that the GBS capsule is a key component in this process.

  7. Complexation of Cm(III) with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, N; Smith, V C; MacGillivray, R T A; Panak, P J

    2015-01-28

    The complexation of Cm(III) with the recombinant N-lobe of human serum transferrin (hTf/2N) is investigated in the pH range from 4.0 to 11.0 using TRLFS. At pH ≥ 7.4 a Cm(III) hTf/2N species is formed with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site. The results are compared with Cm(III) transferrin interaction at the C-lobe and indicate the similarity of the coordination environment of the C- and N-terminal binding sites with four amino acid residues of the protein, two H2O molecules and three additional ligands (e.g. synergistic anions such as carbonate) in the first coordination sphere. Measurements at c(carbonate)tot = 0.23 mM (ambient carbonate concentration) and c(carbonate)tot = 25 mM (physiological carbonate concentration) show that an increase of the total carbonate concentration suppresses the formation of the Cm(III) hTf/2N species significantly. Additionally, the three Cm(III) carbonate species Cm(CO3)(+), Cm(CO3)2(-) and Cm(CO3)3(3-) are formed successively with increasing pH. In general, carbonate complexation is a competing reaction for both Cm(III) complexation with transferrin and hTf/2N but the effect is significantly higher for the half molecule. At c(carbonate)tot = 0.23 mM the complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin and hTf/2N starts at pH ≥ 7.4. At physiological carbonate concentration the Cm(III) transferrin species II forms at pH ≥ 7.0 whereas the Cm(III) hTf/2N species is not formed until pH > 10.0. Hence, our results reveal significant differences in the complexation behavior of the C-terminal site of transferrin and the recombinant N-lobe (hTf/2N) towards trivalent actinides.

  8. Refining American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control TNM stage and prognostic groups for human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao Hui; Xu, Wei; Waldron, John; Siu, Lillian; Shen, Xiaowei; Tong, Li; Ringash, Jolie; Bayley, Andrew; Kim, John; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Giuliani, Meredith; Hansen, Aaron; Irish, Jonathan; Gilbert, Ralph; Gullane, Patrick; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan; Liu, Fei-Fei; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2015-03-10

    To refine stage and prognostic group for human papillomavirus (HPV) -related nonmetastatic (M0) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). All patients with nonmetastatic (M0) p16-confirmed OPC treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy from 2000 to 2010 were included. Overall survival (OS) was compared among TNM stages for patients with HPV-related and HPV-unrelated OPC separately. For HPV-related OPC, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) derived new RPA stages objectively. Cox regression was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) to derive AHR stages. The performance of survival prediction of RPA stage and AHR stage was assessed against the current seventh edition TNM stages. Prognostic groups were derived by RPA, combining RPA stage and nonanatomic factors. The cohort comprised 573 patients with HPV-related OPC and 237 patients with HPV-unrelated OPC, with a median follow-up of 5.1 years. Lower 5-year OS with higher TNM stage was evident for patients with HPV-unrelated OPC (stage I, II, III, and IV 5-year OS: 70%, 58%, 50%, and 30%, respectively; P = .004) but not for patients with HPV-related OPC (stage I, II, III, and IV 5-year OS: 88%, 78%, 71%, and 74%, respectively; P = .56). RPA divided HPV-related OPC into RPA-I (T1-3N0-2b), RPA-II (T1-3N2c), and RPA-III (T4 or N3; 5-year OS: 82%, 76%, and 54%, respectively; P 20 PY), group III (T4 or N3_age ≤ 70), and group IVA (T4 or N3_age > 70; 5-year OS: 89%, 64%, 57%, and 40%, respectively; P TNM stage grouping (stage I/II/III: T1-3N0-N2b/T1-3N2c/T4 or N3, with M1 as stage IV) is proposed for HPV-related OPC as a result of significantly improved survival prediction compared with the seventh edition TNM, and prognostication is further improved by an RPA-based prognostic grouping within the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control TNM framework for HPV-related OPC. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Binding of the blood group-reactive lectins to human adult kidney specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L; Juusela, H; Virtanen, I

    1990-01-01

    The binding of a panel of blood group-reactive lectins to frozen sections of human kidney was studied with a special emphasis on reactivity with endothelia and basement membranes. The blood group A-reactive lectins, all specific for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), Helix aspersa (HAA), Helix pomatia (HPA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GSA-I-A4) agglutinins bound to the endothelium in specimens with blood groups A and AB. In other samples, these lectins reacted predominantly with tubular basement membranes, as well as with certain tubules. Both Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinins (VVA), reported to react with blood group A1 substance, failed to reveal endothelia in most specimens, but bound differently to tubules in all blood groups. The blood group B-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-D-galactose (alpha-Gal) or GalNAc, respectively, GSA-I-B4 and Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), bound to the endothelia in specimens from blood group B or AB and in other specimens bound only to certain tubules. Among the blood group O-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-L-fucose (Fuc), Ulex europaeus I agglutinin (UEA-I) conjugates, but not other lectins with a similar nominal specificity, bound strongly to endothelia in specimens with blood group O. The UEA-I conjugates bound distinctly more faintly to endothelia in specimens of other blood groups. The present results indicate that lectins, binding to defined blood group determinants, react with endothelia in specimens of the respective blood group status. Furthermore, they suggest that basement membranes and some tubules in the human kidney show a distinct heterogeneity in their expression of saccharide residues, related to their blood group status.

  10. Influence of Arsenic (III, Cadmium (II, Chromium (VI, Mercury (II, and Lead (II Ions on Human Triple Negative Breast Cancer (HCC1806 Cell Cytotoxicity and Cell Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsdale F. Mehari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous consequences of heavy metal ions (HMIs on human health necessitate the immediate need to probe fundamentally the interactions and cytotoxic effects of HMIs on humans. This study investigated the influence of five toxic HMIs (arsenic (As (III, cadmium (Cd (II, chromium (Cr (VI, mercury (Hg (II, and lead (Pb (II on human TNBC (HCC 1806 cell viability using optical microscopy, trypan blue dye-exclusion assays, and flow cytometry. The TNBC cells were exposed to varying concentrations of HMIs for 24 and 48 hours. We evaluated the influence of the concentrations and duration of HMIs exposure on TNBC cell viability. Light microscopy, cell viability assays, revealed that after 48-hour treatment of TNBC cells with 1 x 10-5 M of As (III, Cd (II, Hg (II, Cr (IV, and Pb (II resulted in cell viabilities of 23%, 34%, 35%, 56%, 91% respectively, suggesting that As (III has the greatest cytotoxicity (77% cell death while Pb (II showed the least (9% cell death. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that while Pb (II, As (III and Cr (IV had significant increases in cell death, Hg (II caused a G1 arrest. Together, this study revealed that HMIs cause a differential cytotoxic effect on TNBC cells and suggest that they may have very different genotoxic targets and implications in their mutagenic potential.

  11. Large-signal characterizations of DDR IMPATT devices based on group III-V semiconductors at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Aritra; Mallik, Aliva; Banerjee, Debopriya; Ganguli, Suman; Das, Arindam; Dasgupta, Sudeepto; Banerjee, J. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-signal (L-S) characterizations of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on group III-V semiconductors such as wurtzite (Wz) GaN, GaAs and InP have been carried out at both millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) frequency bands. A L-S simulation technique based on a non-sinusoidal voltage excitation (NSVE) model developed by the authors has been used to obtain the high frequency properties of the above mentioned devices. The effect of band-to-band tunneling on the L-S properties of the device at different mm-wave and THz frequencies are also investigated. Similar studies are also carried out for DDR IMPATTs based on the most popular semiconductor material, i.e. Si, for the sake of comparison. A comparative study of the devices based on conventional semiconductor materials (i.e. GaAs, InP and Si) with those based on Wz-GaN shows significantly better performance capabilities of the latter at both mm-wave and THz frequencies.

  12. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  13. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2013-01-01

    laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may......Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so...... large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one...

  14. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  15. Antithrombin III, but not C1 esterase inhibitor reduces inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes in an ex-vivo whole blood setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Patrick; Nestler, Frank; Leimert, Anja; Bucher, Michael; Czeslick, Elke; Sablotzki, Armin; Raspè, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    In order to examine the immunomodulatory effects of antithrombin III (AT-III) and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) in human monocytes, we investigated the intracellular expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an ex-vivo laboratory study in a whole blood setting. Heparinized whole blood samples from 23 healthy male and female volunteers (mean age: 27±7years) were pre-incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of AT-III (n=11) and C1-INH (n=12), then stimulated with 0.2 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3h. After phenotyping CD14⁺ monocytes, intracellular expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was assessed using flow cytometry. In addition, 12 whole blood samples (AT-III and C1-INH, n=6 each) were examined using hirudin for anticoagulation; all samples were processed in the same way. To exclude cytotoxicity effects, 7-amino-actinomycin D and Nonidet P40 staining were used to investigate probes. This study is the first to demonstrate the influence of C1-INH and AT-III on the monocytic inflammatory response in a whole blood setting, which mimics the optimal physiological setting. Cells treated with AT-III exhibited significant downregulation of the proportion of gated CD14⁺ monocytes for IL-6 and IL-8, in a dose-dependent manner; downregulation for TNF-α did not reach statistical significance. There were no significant effects on mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). In contrast, C1-INH did not significantly reduce the proportion of gated CD14⁺ monocytes or the MFI regarding IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8. When using hirudin for anticoagulation, no difference in the anti-inflammatory properties of AT-III and C1-INH in monocytes occurs. Taken together, in contrast to TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly downregulated in monocytes in an ex-vivo setting of human whole blood when treated with AT-III. This finding implicates monocytes as an important point of action regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of AT-III in sepsis. C1

  16. Differences Between Human Figure Drawings of Child Molesters and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Frances A.; Johnston, Shawn A.

    1986-01-01

    Attempted to identify differences between human figure drawings of adult and juvenile child molesters and adult and juvenile control groups, based on ratings obtained for psychodiagnostic signs. Results revealed, for the molesters, factors of overall quality with a component of gender identity confusion, figure-size only, fingers only, and hidden…

  17. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval sample (N = 450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteonal parameters were recorded in posterior midshaft femoral sections from adult males (N = 233) and females (N = 217). Using univariate and multivariate statistics, intact, fragmentary, and osteon population densities, Haversian canal area and diameter, and osteon area were compared between the two groups, accounting for sex, age, and estimated femoral robusticity. The size of osteons and their Haversian canals, as well as osteon density, varied significantly between the socio-economic groups, although minor inconsistencies were observed in females. Variation in microstructure was consistent with historical textual evidence that describes differences in mechanical loading and nutrition between the two groups. Results demonstrate that aspects of ancient human lifestyle can be inferred from bone microstructure.

  18. Lurking on the Internet: A Small-Group Assignment that Puts a Human Face on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph; Judge, Abigail M.; Wiss, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Lurking on the Internet aims to put a human face on psychopathology for the abnormal psychology course. Student groups are assigned major diagnostic categories and instructed to search the Internet for discussion forums, individual blogs, or YouTube videos where affected individuals discuss their symptoms and lives. After discussing the ethics of…

  19. High mobility group A1 enhances tumorigenicity of human cholangiocarcinoma and confers resistance to therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has ...

  20. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Kinga Lemieszek, Marta; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-06-02

    Pantoea agglomerans, a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with P. agglomerans usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with P. agglomerans, others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with P. agglomerans is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by Pantoea agglomerans in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus). P. agglomerans strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. Pantoea agglomerans usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental plant called Chinese taro (Alocasia cucullata), and a grass called onion couch

  1. Demography-based adaptive network model reproduces the spatial organization of human linguistic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A.; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of human linguistic groups presents a number of interesting and nontrivial patterns. The distributions of the number of speakers per language and the area each group covers follow log-normal distributions, while population and area fulfill an allometric relationship. The topology of networks of spatial contacts between different linguistic groups has been recently characterized, showing atypical properties of the degree distribution and clustering, among others. Human demography, spatial conflicts, and the construction of networks of contacts between linguistic groups are mutually dependent processes. Here we introduce an adaptive network model that takes all of them into account and successfully reproduces, using only four model parameters, not only those features of linguistic groups already described in the literature, but also correlations between demographic and topological properties uncovered in this work. Besides their relevance when modeling and understanding processes related to human biogeography, our adaptive network model admits a number of generalizations that broaden its scope and make it suitable to represent interactions between agents based on population dynamics and competition for space.

  2. Serum antibody response to group II chaperonin from Methanobrevibacter oralis and human chaperonin CCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kimito; Maeda, Hiroshi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Takashiba, Shogo

    2013-06-01

    Both group I (HSP60) and group II (CCT) chaperonins are targets of autoantibodies. Autoimmune reactions to HSP60 have been well characterized, while immune reactions to group II chaperonin have not been clarified. Methanobrevibacter oralis is a suspected periodontal pathogen with group II chaperonin. In this study, serum responses to M. oralis chaperonin, human HSP60, and CCT subunits were examined using sera from patients with periodontitis and autoimmune diseases. In comparison with healthy controls, periodontitis patients showed significantly higher responses to CCT4 and CCT8 on dot blot analysis. Signals for CCT3 and CCT8 in autoimmune disease patients were significantly higher than in controls. Significant differences were also demonstrated by Western blotting in anti-CCT4 response in both patient groups. All subjects showed strong reactivity to M. oralis chaperonin and faint signals to human HSP60. Autoantibodies were raised against CCT rather than HSP60; and CCT3, CCT4, and CCT8 were shown to be the main targets. Host immune systems may be frequently exposed to chaperonins of Archaea in various habitats. Although further studies of the cross-reactivity between M. oralis chaperonin and human CCT are required, anti-CCT autoantibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and autoimmune diseases.

  3. Analisis Matriks Boston Consulting Group (BCG untuk Memenangkan Strategi Organisasi (Studi Kasus Perguruan Tinggi Di Kopertis Wilayah III – DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to know position of market growth in higher education, especially Sekolah Tinggi, based on market share, using BCG metrics. Unit analysis is all private higher educations in Kopertis III – DKI Jakarta, consisting of University, Sekolah Tinggi, Institute, and Academics. The object of analysis is the numberof new student admission. Method of data collection in this paper is field research including observation and literature research method. The secondary data used in this study is data from Kopertis region III. Based on the results of the study, it is obtained Sekolah Tinggi for the academic year 2008 and 2009 is in quadrant III (Cash Cow.

  4. Performance Comparison of Gender and Age Group Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on performance comparison of gender and age group recognition to perform robot’s application services for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI. HRI is a core technology that can naturally interact between human and robot. Among various HRI components, we concentrate audio-based techniques such as gender and age group recognition from multichannel microphones and sound board equipped withrobots. For comparative purposes, we perform the performancecomparison of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC andLinear Prediction Coding Coefficients (LPCC in the feature extraction step, Support Vector Machine (SVM and C4.5 Decision Tree (DT in the classification step. Finally, we deal with the usefulness of gender and age group recognition for humanrobot interaction in home service robot environments.

  5. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Methods This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. Results 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was −9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of −15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). Conclusions SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. Trial registration numbers NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. PMID:26150601

  6. Differentiation of the nuclear groups in the posterior horn of the human embryonic spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, A; Bruska, M; Woźniak, W

    2011-11-01

    The formation of nuclear groups in the posterior horns of the human embryonic spinal cord was traced in serial sections of embryos of developmental stages 13 to 23 (32 to 56 postovulatory days). The following observations, new for the human, are presented: 1. The differentiation of the neural tube into 3 zones (germinal, mantle and marginal) is detected in the middle of the 5(th) week. 2. The primordia of the posterior horns are marked at stage 14 (33 days). 3. In the middle of the 7(th) week the nucleus proprius and substantia gelatinosa are discerned. 4. Differentiation of the nuclei within the posterior horns proceeds in the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal gradients.

  7. Hierarchical Clustering Multi-Task Learning for Joint Human Action Grouping and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-An; Su, Yu-Ting; Nie, Wei-Zhi; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical clustering multi-task learning (HC-MTL) method for joint human action grouping and recognition. Specifically, we formulate the objective function into the group-wise least square loss regularized by low rank and sparsity with respect to two latent variables, model parameters and grouping information, for joint optimization. To handle this non-convex optimization, we decompose it into two sub-tasks, multi-task learning and task relatedness discovery. First, we convert this non-convex objective function into the convex formulation by fixing the latent grouping information. This new objective function focuses on multi-task learning by strengthening the shared-action relationship and action-specific feature learning. Second, we leverage the learned model parameters for the task relatedness measure and clustering. In this way, HC-MTL can attain both optimal action models and group discovery by alternating iteratively. The proposed method is validated on three kinds of challenging datasets, including six realistic action datasets (Hollywood2, YouTube, UCF Sports, UCF50, HMDB51 & UCF101), two constrained datasets (KTH & TJU), and two multi-view datasets (MV-TJU & IXMAS). The extensive experimental results show that: 1) HC-MTL can produce competing performances to the state of the arts for action recognition and grouping; 2) HC-MTL can overcome the difficulty in heuristic action grouping simply based on human knowledge; 3) HC-MTL can avoid the possible inconsistency between the subjective action grouping depending on human knowledge and objective action grouping based on the feature subspace distributions of multiple actions. Comparison with the popular clustered multi-task learning further reveals that the discovered latent relatedness by HC-MTL aids inducing the group-wise multi-task learning and boosts the performance. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first work that breaks the assumption that all actions are either

  8. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  9. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  10. [Consequences of the composition of human milk for the nutrition of low-birth-weight neonates. III. Sodium and potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, G; Springer, S

    1990-12-01

    The concentrations of sodium and potassium were studied in the 24 hour pooled human milk of 37 mothers delivered preterm (PTM) and of 19 mothers delivered at term (TM) from the second to the eighth postnatal day and in addition in the PTM during the third week of lactation. During the 4th week of life the sodium balance was estimated in 31 very low birth weight infants fed a human milk formula enriched with NaCl (n = 11) or NaH2PO4 (n = 11) and in 9 infants fed the same formula without supplementary sodium. The concentrations of sodium decrease significantly during the first week of lactation. The values are significantly higher in PTM than in TM during the first 3 days but decrease in both milks to values between 1 and 2 mmol/100 ml. The concentrations of potassium increase up to the 4th day of lactation and fall to approximately 1.5 mmol/100 ml at the end of the first week of lactation. There are no differences between PTM and TM. In all three balance groups the sodium balance are positive. But only in the infants fed a sodium-supplemented human milk formula the weight gain was adequate according to the protein and caloric intakes. No signs of a pathological sodium retention could be observed during the balance period. The data suggest that a sodium intake of more than 2.5 mmol/kg/day is necessary for optimal growth. Thus, the phosphorus supplementation should be done generally as 1 mmol NaH2PO4/100 ml human milk in very low birth weight infants.

  11. Human tumor cells segregate into radiosensitivity groups that associate with ATM and TP53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jerry R.; Yonggang Zhang; Russell, James [Radiobiology Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Oncology Center. Baltimore, MD (United States); Koch, Cameron [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Little, John B. [John B. Little Center, Harvard School of Public Health. Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We seek to determine whether cellular radiosensitivity in nineteen human colorectal tumor cell lines and three human glioblastoma tumor cell lines segregate into statistically distinct groups and whether such groups correlate with gene expression. We measure clonogenic survival in 22 cell lines that vary in radiosensitivity and in expression of selected genes: ATM, TP53, CDKN1A, 14-3-3{sigma}, Ki-ras and DNA mismatch repair genes. We describe and compare radiosensitivity in these cell lines by one-parameter or two parameter analysis. Radiosensitivity varies among and between colorectal tumor cell lines and glioblastoma cell lines. When compared directly using survival, or using two-parameter analysis of radiosensitivity, cell lines distribute into four statistically-significant radiosensitivity groups. These groups associate strongly with the status of two genes, ATM and TP53, but do not associate with CDKN1A, 14-3-3{sigma}, Ki-ras and DNA mismatch repair genes. Intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of 22 colorectal and glioblastoma cell lines fall into four radiosensitivity groups that associate with expression of ATM and TP53. These analyses suggest multiple mechanisms underlay intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity.

  12. Sb(V) and Sb(III) distribution in human erythrocytes: speciation methodology and the influence of temperature, time and anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; Aguilar, Luis; Barría, Macarena; Veneciano, Jocelyn; Martínez, Daniel; Bravo, Manuel; Lobos, María Gabriela; Mercado, Luis

    2013-10-15

    In this research a new method was developed and optimized for the determination of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in human erythrocytes fractions (plasma and cytoplasm) by high performance liquid chromatography with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The method considers the first step of samples cleaning by protein precipitation by salting out followed by C18 solid phase extraction, EDTA elution, and finally a chromatographic separation by using anion exchange PRPX-100 (100 mm × 4.1mm) and EDTA 20 mmol L(-1) as mobile phase. The method was optimized by experimental design with a recovery of 90% for Sb(V) and 55-75% for Sb(III) approximately. The analytical method was applied to study the distribution of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in human erythrocytes considering temperature and time of incubations and with special attention about the influence of the anticoagulant. Results showed that both Sb(V) and Sb(III) are capable to enter the red blood cell in a proportion of approximately 40-60%. On the other hand, both species are then excreted from the interior of the cell, where the percentage considerably decreased from approximately 60 to less than 30% within the cell. An increase in the culture temperature increases the capacity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) to penetrate the membrane barrier and reach the cytoplasm. In order to preserve the original distribution of Sb in blood, heparin seems to be the best anticoagulant for sample preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Migration distance rather than migration rate explains genetic diversity in human patrilocal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Sarah J; Levy, Hila; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Montinaro, Francesco; Capelli, Cristian

    2012-10-01

    In patrilocal groups, females preferentially move to join their mate's paternal relatives. The gender-biased gene flow generated by this cultural practice is expected to affect genetic diversity across human populations. Greater female than male migration is predicted to result in a larger decrease in between-group differentiation for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than for the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY). We address the question of how patrilocality affects the distribution of genetic variation in human populations controlling for confounding factors such as ethno-linguistic heterogeneity and geographic distance which possibly explain the contradictory results observed in previous studies. By combining genetic and bio-demographic data from Lesotho and Spain, we show that preferential female migration over short distances appears to minimize the impact of a generally higher female migration rate in patrilocal communities, suggesting patrilocality might influence genetic variation only at short ranges.

  14. The human dimensions of post-stroke homecare: experiences of older carers from diverse ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Carole; Greenwood, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Very little is known about how older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups caring for someone after a stroke access and engage with social care services. This paper explores both the experiences of carers whose relative was receiving social care services in their own home and the value of a theory of humanising care to understand and explain these experiences. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 50 carers from five different ethnic groups: Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean and White British. Data were thematically analysed within a phenomenological framework. Five interacting themes emerged: communication and bureaucracy; time and timing; communication and rapport building; trust and safety; humanity and the human dimensions of care. Many of the experiences could be interpreted within a conceptual framework of humanising care underpinned by eight interacting dimensions of what it means to be treated as an individual and a human. Carers from BME and White British groups share many experiences of homecare although language and cultural difference may exacerbate common pressures and stresses. The framework for humanising care is a useful tool to evaluate aspects of homecare that are responsive to dignity and diversity. Implications for Rehabilitation Explicitly identifying, describing and valuing the human dimensions of care may support services in responding appropriately to homecare users from black minority ethnic communities as well as those from white majority groups. Unresponsive services and poor communication may lead to loss of trust with care agencies and undermine BME carers' sense of entitlement and competence in engaging with homecare services. Care worker continuity investing time in building relationships and care worker familiarity is important to many families who access social care services.

  15. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing bacteria, mostly during performing of agricultural occupations and gardening, or children playing. Septic arthritis or synovitis appears as a common clinical outcome of exogenous infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i], others include endophthalmitis, periostitis, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Another major reason for clinical infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] is exposure of hospitalized, often immunodeficient individuals to medical equipment or fluids contaminated with this bacterium. Epidemics of nosocomial septicemia with fatal cases have been described in several countries, both in adult and paediatric patients. In most cases, however, the clinical course of the hospital-acquired disease was mild and application of the proper antibiotic treatment led to full recovery. Compared to humans, there are only few reports on infectious diseases caused by [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] in vertebrate animals. This species has been identified as a possible cause of equine abortion and placentitis and a haemorrhagic disease in dolphin fish ([i]Coryphaena hippurus[/i]. [i]P. agglomerans[/i] strains occur commonly, usually as symbionts, in insects and other arthropods. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] usually occurs in plants as an epi- or endophytic symbiont, often as mutualist. Nevertheless, this species has also also been identified as a cause of diseases in a range of cultivable plants, such as cotton, sweet onion, rice, maize, sorghum, bamboo, walnut, an ornamental

  16. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-02-12

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4-8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Human group C rotavirus in children with diarrhea in the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira J.M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Group C rotaviruses are fastidious in their in vitro cell culture requirements. Recent serosurveys indicate that antibody to group C rotavirus is present in 3-45% of the human population in certain geographic locations, suggesting that rotavirus group C infection is more prevalent than previously believed and that the low rate of detection of these agents is probably due to the lack of sensitive diagnostic assays. From March to December 1994, 406 fecal specimens were collected from children under five years of age who were outpatients at the emergency services of nine public hospitals in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. In addition to the samples from children, one public outpatient unit requested virological investigation of a stool sample from an HIV-seropositive adult male with diarrhea of sudden onset. All samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for group A rotavirus and adenovirus (EIARA and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. One hundred and seven (26% were positive for group A rotavirus. Four samples from children and the sample from the HIV-seropositive patient, although negative by EIARA, showed a group C rotavirus profile by PAGE and were positive for rotavirus by electron microscopy. Using specific VP6 and VP7 primers for group C rotavirus, a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed and products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. These products were confirmed to be specific for group C rotavirus by using digoxigenin-oligonucleotide probes, Southern hybridization and chemiluminescent detection. The five positive group C rotavirus samples were detected in August (3 samples and September (2 samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of group C rotavirus detected in the Federal District, Brazil and in an HIV-seropositive patient with acute gastroenteritis.

  18. Racial and Ethnic Group Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviors about Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Lopez, Cristina M; Ford, Marvella E; Brandt, Heather M; Gore, Elena I; Zapka, Jane G; Alberg, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Although there has been improvement in uptake, there are notable ethnic/racial disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand factors related to vaccine uptake among female adolescents from 3 racial/ethnic groups: African American (AA), Hispanic, and Caucasian. Findings can inform the development of optimal messages and strategies for clinical and population-based interventions. This mixed-methods descriptive study included completion of a brief structured survey and focus group discussion. Six focus groups were conducted with female adolescents, 2 each in the AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian groups. Brief structured survey questions and the focus group protocol addressed knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Participants were 60 female adolescents (ages 13-19, mean age = 16.6 years) recruited from high schools, public health clinics, and churches. Themes across questions were remarkably similar among AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian participants. Each group had high awareness of the terms HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer, but with little in-depth knowledge about these topics. There was a high acceptance of HPV vaccination. Misperceptions about optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies such as simply knowing one's partner and good hygiene were most common among Hispanic adolescents. Awareness about Pap testing was most common among Caucasian adolescents. Predominantly uniform perceptions of HPV vaccines across racial/ethnic groups suggest a "one size fits all" approach will likely have greater reach with cervical cancer prevention messaging than culturally tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lenalidomide-bendamustine-rituximab in untreated mantle cell lymphoma > 65 years, the Nordic Lymphoma Group phase I+II trial NLG-MCL4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    For elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there is no defined standard therapy. In this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial we evaluated the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment to elderly MCL patients. Patients >65 years with untr......For elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there is no defined standard therapy. In this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial we evaluated the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment to elderly MCL patients. Patients >65 years...

  20. A Human-Centric Approach To Group-Based Context-Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ghadiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging need for qualitative approaches in context-aware information processing calls for proper modelling of context information and efficient handling of its inherent uncertainty resulted from human interpretation and usage. Many of the current approaches to context-awareness either lack a solid theoretical basis for modelling or ignore important requirements such as modularity, high-order uncertainty management and group-based context-awareness. Therefore, their real-world application and extendibility remains limited. In this paper, we present f-Context as a service-based contextawareness framework, based on language-action perspective (LAP theory for modelling. Then we identify some of the complex, informational parts of context which contain high-order uncertainties due to differences between members of the group in defining them. An agent-based perceptual computer architecture is proposed for implementing f-Context that uses computing with words (CWW for handling uncertainty. The feasibility of f-Context is analyzed using a realistic scenario involving a group of mobile users. We believe that the proposed approach can open the door to future research on context-awareness by offering a theoretical foundation based on human communication, and a service-based layered architecture which exploits CWW for context-aware, group-based and platform-independent access to information systems.

  1. Synthesis, Properties, and Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell (LEEC) Device Fabrication of Cationic Ir(III) Complexes Bearing Electron-Withdrawing Groups on the Cyclometallating Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amlan K; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Momblona, Cristina; Ortı, Enrique; Samuel, Ifor D W; Bolink, Henk J; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2016-10-17

    The structure-property relationship study of a series of cationic Ir(III) complexes in the form of [Ir(C^N)2(dtBubpy)]PF6 [where dtBubpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine and C^N = cyclometallating ligand bearing an electron-withdrawing group (EWG) at C4 of the phenyl substituent, i.e., -CF3 (1), -OCF3 (2), -SCF3 (3), -SO2CF3 (4)] has been investigated. The physical and optoelectronic properties of the four complexes were comprehensively characterized, including by X-ray diffraction analysis. All the complexes exhibit quasireversible dtBubpy-based reductions from -1.29 to -1.34 V (vs SCE). The oxidation processes are likewise quasireversible (metal + C^N ligand) and are between 1.54 and 1.72 V (vs SCE). The relative oxidation potentials follow a general trend associated with the Hammett parameter (σ) of the EWGs. Surprisingly, complex 4 bearing the strongest EWG does not adhere to the expected Hammett behavior and was found to exhibit red-shifted absorption and emission maxima. Nevertheless, the concept of introducing EWGs was found to be generally useful in blue-shifting the emission maxima of the complexes (λem = 484-545 nm) compared to that of the prototype complex [Ir(ppy)2(dtBubpy)]PF6 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridinato) (λem = 591 nm). The complexes were found to be bright emitters in solution at room temperature (ΦPL = 45-66%) with microsecond excited-state lifetimes (τe = 1.14-4.28 μs). The photophysical properties along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the emission of these complexes originates from mixed contributions from ligand-centered (LC) transitions and mixed metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT/MLCT) transitions, depending on the EWG. In complexes 1, 3, and 4 the (3)LC character is prominent over the mixed (3)CT character, while in complex 2, the mixed (3)CT character is much more pronounced, as demonstrated by DFT calculations and the observed positive solvatochromism effect. Due to the

  2. The X chromosome Alu insertions as a tool for human population genetics: data from European and African human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Esteban, Esther; Via, Marc; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Moschonas, Nicholas; Chaabani, Hassen; Moral, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements in the human genome (approximately 1,100,000 copies). Polymorphic Alu elements have been proved to be useful in studies of human origins and relationships owing to two important advantages: identity by descent and absence of the Alu element known to be the ancestral state. Alu variation in the X chromosome has been described previously in human populations but, as far as we know, these elements have not been used in population relationship studies. Here, we describe the allele frequencies of 13 'young' Alu elements of the X chromosome (Ya5DP62, Ya5DP57, Yb8DP49, Ya5a2DP1, Yb8DP2, Ya5DP3, Ya5NBC37, Yd3JX437, Ya5DP77, Ya5NBC491, Yb8NBC578, Ya5DP4 and Ya5DP13) in six human populations from sub-Saharan Africa (the Ivory Coast), North Africa (Moroccan High Atlas, Siwa oasis in Egypt, Tunisia), Greece (Crete Island) and Spain (Basque Country). Eight out of 13 Alu elements have shown remarkably high gene diversity values in all groups (average heterozygosities: 0.342 in the Ivory Coast, 0.250 in North Africa, 0.209 in Europe). Genetic relationships agree with a geographical pattern of differentiation among populations, with some peculiar features observed in North Africans. Crete Island and the Basque Country show the lowest genetic distance (0.0163) meanwhile Tunisia, in spite of its geographical location, lies far from the other two North African samples. The results of our work demonstrate that X chromosome Alu elements comprise a reliable set of genetic markers useful to describe human population relationships for fine-scale geographical studies.

  3. Group Ia afferents contribute to short-latency interlimb reflexes in the human biceps femoris muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2017-01-01

    and velocity of the iKnee rotations. Methods 11 seated participants (mean age: 25 ± 5 years) performed a voluntary isometric knee extension with the ipsilateral leg and contralateral knee flexion to 10% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). A mechanical actuator (MTS-Systems Corporation) imposed i...... amplitudes (4 vs. 8°) at the same 150°/s velocity (p’s > 0.08). Conclusion Because fast conducting group Ia muscle spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in muscle stretch velocity, while group II spindle afferents are sensitive to changes in amplitude (Grey et al., JPhysiol., 2001; Matthews, Trends...... Neurosci., 1991), group Ia velocity sensitive muscle spindle afferents likely contribute to the short-latency crossed spinal reflexes in the cBF muscle following iKnee joint rotations. This supports the findings for the short-latency crossed responses in the human soleus muscle (Stubbs & Mrachacz...

  4. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-12-23

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. We tested this hypothesis in humans, using data from two professional sports competitions: football (the Bundesliga, the German first division of football) and basketball (the NBA, the North American National Basketball Association). We defined RHP based on the league ranks of the teams involved in the competition (i.e. their competitive ability) and measured conflict escalation by the number of fouls committed. We found that in both sports the number of fouls committed increased when the difference in RHP was smaller. Thus, we provide what is to our best knowledge the first evidence that, as in conflicts between individuals, conflicts escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP.

  5. Maintenance of EGFR and EGFRvIII expressions in an in vivo and in vitro model of human glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Broholm, Helle; Villingshøj, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    with mutation of EGFR, and the constitutive activated deletion variant EGFRvIII is the most common EGFR mutation found in GBM. Activated EGFR signaling, through overexpression and/or mutation, is involved in increased tumorigenic potential. As such, EGFR is an attractive target for GBM therapy. However...... the expressions of EGFR and EGFRvIII are maintained both in xenograft tumors growing subcutaneously on mice and in cell cultures established in stem cell conditions. With this model it will be possible to further study the role of EGFR and EGFRvIII, and response to targeted therapy, in GBM.......Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, and most aggressive primary brain tumor among adults. A vast majority of the tumors express high levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a consequence of gene amplification. Furthermore, gene amplification is often associated...

  6. A randomized phase III trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan, leucovorin and fluorouracil versus leucovorin and fluorouracil for stage II and III colon cancer: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratiou Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer is a public health problem worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection for stage III colon cancer has been shown to improve both progression-free and overall survival, and is currently recommended as standard therapy. However, its value for patients with stage II disease remains controversial. When this study was designed 5-fluorouracil (5FU plus leucovorin (LV was standard adjuvant treatment for colon cancer. Irinotecan (CPT-11 is a topoisomerase I inhibitor with activity in metastatic disease. In this multicenter adjuvant phase III trial, we evaluated the addition of irinotecan to weekly 5FU plus LV in patients with stage II or III colon cancer. Methods The study included 873 eligible patients. The treatment consisted of weekly administration of irinotecan 80 mg/m2 intravenously (IV, LV 200 mg/m2 and 5FU 450 mg/m2 bolus (Arm A versus LV 200 mg/m2 and 5FU 500 mg/m2 IV bolus (Arm B. In Arm A, treatments were administered weekly for four consecutive weeks, followed by a two-week rest, for a total of six cycles, while in Arm B treatments were administered weekly for six consecutive weeks, followed by a two-week rest, for a total of four cycles. The primary end-point was disease-free survival (DFS at three years. Results The probability of overall survival (OS at three years was 0.88 for patients in Arm A and 0.86 for those in Arm B, while the five-year OS probability was 0.78 and 0.76 for patients in Arm A and Arm B, respectively (P = 0.436. Furthermore, the probability of DFS at three years was 0.78 and 0.76 for patients in Arm A and Arm B, respectively (P = 0.334. With the exception of leucopenia and neutropenia, which were higher in patients in Arm A, there were no significant differences in Grades 3 and 4 toxicities between the two regimens. The most frequently recorded Grade 3/4 toxicity was diarrhea in both treatment arms. Conclusions Irinotecan added to weekly bolus 5FU plus LV did not result

  7. OP-19 APPLICABILITY OF THE ROME III CRITERIA IN CHILDREN PRESENTED WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN FOR A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED GROUP INTERVENTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posovszky, Carsten; Roesler, Vreni; Kresz, Andrea; Calvano, Claudia; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) according to the paediatric ROME III (pRIII) criteria appears to be highly prevalent among school children. The differentiation between organic and functional abdominal pain is a challenge. Indeed, the capacity of the pRIII criteria to identify patients with FAP is still debated.

  8. Multi-group covariance and mean structure modeling of the relationship between the WAIS-III common factors and sex and educational attainment in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolan, C.V.; Colom, R.; Abad, F.J.; Wicherts, J.M.; Hessen, D.J.; van de Sluis, S.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated sex effects and the effects of educational attainment (EA) on the covariance structure of the WAIS-III in a subsample of the Spanish standardization data. We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence (g

  9. Blood group astrology - why the AB0 blood groups do not determine the human character nor the appropriate nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gajšek Grbec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AB0 blood groups are inherited markers on blood cells. Since their discovery, there were numerous attempts to be attributed a wide variety of biological functions they don’t possess. The purpose of this article is primarily to inform the professional, as well as lay public that the theory of healthy nutrition based on AB0 blood groups represents nothing more than a pseudoscience used for mass exploitation and commercial purposes. ABO blood groups were attributed such characteristics by naturopathic doctor Peter D'Adamo, who on the basis of false methods and erroneous assumptions wrote a bestseller "Eat Right For Your Type". It claims that the blood groupsAB0 represent a "key to the functioning of our immune system" and that the blood group based diet represents a “key to the health of every man”. As in the case of nutrition based on the ABO blood groups, the scientific knowledge in the field of immunohematology is misused to mislead the lay public, we are obliged to explain the real meaning and the role of blood groups in health and disease, the misuse of blood groups in relation to healthy nutrition.

  10. Vitamin D and the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 enhance group a streptococcus resistance to killing by human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John F; Tran-Winkler, Hien J; Wessels, Michael R

    2012-10-23

    The CsrRS two-component regulatory system of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) responds to subinhibitory concentrations of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. LL-37 signaling through CsrRS results in upregulation of genes that direct synthesis of virulence factors, including the hyaluronic acid capsule and streptolysin O (SLO). Here, we demonstrate that a consequence of this response is augmented GAS resistance to killing by human oropharyngeal keratinocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages. LL-37-induced upregulation of SLO and hyaluronic acid capsule significantly reduced internalization of GAS by keratinocytes and phagocytic killing by neutrophils and macrophages. Because vitamin D induces LL-37 production by macrophages, we tested its effect on macrophage killing of GAS. In contrast to the reported enhancement of macrophage function in relation to other pathogens, treatment of macrophages with 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 paradoxically reduced the ability of macrophages to control GAS infection. These observations demonstrate that LL-37 signals through CsrRS to induce a virulence phenotype in GAS characterized by heightened resistance to ingestion and killing by both epithelial cells and phagocytes. By inducing LL-37 production in macrophages, vitamin D may contribute to this paradoxical exacerbation of GAS infection. IMPORTANCE It remains poorly understood why group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes asymptomatic colonization or localized throat inflammation in most individuals but rarely progresses to invasive infection. The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, which is produced as part of the innate immune response to GAS infection, signals through the GAS CsrRS two-component regulatory system to upregulate expression of multiple virulence factors. This study reports that two CsrRS-regulated GAS virulence factors-streptolysin O and the hyaluronic acid capsule-are critical in LL-37-induced resistance of GAS to killing by human throat epithelial cells

  11. New patterns in human biogeography revealed by networks of contacts between linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán, José A; Bock Axelsen, Jacob; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-03-07

    Human languages differ broadly in abundance and are distributed highly unevenly on the Earth. In many qualitative and quantitative aspects, they strongly resemble biodiversity distributions. An intriguing and previously unexplored issue is the architecture of the neighbouring relationships between human linguistic groups. Here we construct and characterize these networks of contacts and show that they represent a new kind of spatial network with uncommon structural properties. Remarkably, language networks share a meaningful property with food webs: both are quasi-interval graphs. In food webs, intervality is linked to the existence of a niche space of low dimensionality; in language networks, we show that the unique relevant variable is the area occupied by the speakers of a language. By means of a range model analogous to niche models in ecology, we show that a geometric restriction of perimeter covering by neighbouring linguistic domains explains the structural patterns observed. Our findings may be of interest in the development of models for language dynamics or regarding the propagation of cultural innovations. In relation to species distribution, they pose the question of whether the spatial features of species ranges share architecture, and eventually generating mechanism, with the distribution of human linguistic groups. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Mature Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing 5-Flourouracil with Leucovorin to 5-Flourouracil with Levamisole as Adjuvant Therapy of Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer- The Israel Cooperative Oncology Group (ICOG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Figer, Aviram Nissan, Adi Shani, Riva Borovick, Mariana Stiener, Mario Baras, Herbert R. Freund, Aaron Sulkes, Alexander Stojadinovic, Tamar Peretz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival benefit with adjuvant therapy was shown in patients with Stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. This study evaluates long-term (10-year outcome in patients with CRC randomly assigned to adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin (5FU+LV or 5-FU/Levamisole (5FU+LEV.Methods: Between 1990 and 1995, 398 patients with curatively resected Stage II-III CRC were randomly assigned to adjuvant 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV for 12 months.Results: No difference was evident in 10-year relapse-free or overall survival between study groups. Grade III toxicity was similar between groups; however, neurotoxicity was significantly greater with 5FU+LEV (p=0.02 and gastrointestinal toxicity with 5FU+LV (p=0.03. Female patients treated with 5FU+LEV had improved overall survival.Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment of CRC is still based on leucovorin modulated fluorouracil. The long-term follow-up results of this trial indicate that the adjuvant treatment of Stage II-III CRC with 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV is equally effective. The finding of improved survival in female subjects treated with 5FU+LEV warrants further study to determine if Levamisole is a better modulator of 5-FU than Leucovorin in this patient subset.

  13. Mature Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing 5-Flourouracil with Leucovorin to 5-Flourouracil with Levamisole as Adjuvant Therapy of Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer- The Israel Cooperative Oncology Group (ICOG) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figer, Arie; Nissan, Aviram; Shani, Adi; Borovick, Riva; Stiener, Mariana; Baras, Mario; Freund, Herbert R.; Sulkes, Aaron; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Peretz, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Survival benefit with adjuvant therapy was shown in patients with Stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). This study evaluates long-term (10-year) outcome in patients with CRC randomly assigned to adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin (5FU+LV) or 5-FU/Levamisole (5FU+LEV). Methods: Between 1990 and 1995, 398 patients with curatively resected Stage II-III CRC were randomly assigned to adjuvant 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV for 12 months. Results: No difference was evident in 10-year relapse-free or overall survival between study groups. Grade III toxicity was similar between groups; however, neurotoxicity was significantly greater with 5FU+LEV (p=0.02) and gastrointestinal toxicity with 5FU+LV (p=0.03). Female patients treated with 5FU+LEV had improved overall survival. Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment of CRC is still based on leucovorin modulated fluorouracil. The long-term follow-up results of this trial indicate that the adjuvant treatment of Stage II-III CRC with 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV is equally effective. The finding of improved survival in female subjects treated with 5FU+LEV warrants further study to determine if Levamisole is a better modulator of 5-FU than Leucovorin in this patient subset. PMID:21475636

  14. Inhibitory surround and grouping effects in human and computational multiple object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Guler, Sadiye; Ogmen, Haluk

    2008-02-01

    Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) experiments show that human observers can track over several seconds up to five moving targets among several moving distractors. We extended these studies by designing modified MOT experiments to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of human visuo-cognitive mechanisms for tracking and applied the findings and insights obtained from these experiments in designing computational multiple object tracking algorithms. Recent studies indicate that attention both enhances the neural activity of relevant information and suppresses the irrelevant visual information in the surround. Results of our experiments suggest that the suppressive surround of attention extends up to 4 deg from the target stimulus, and it takes at least 100 ms to build it. We suggest that when the attentional windows corresponding to separate target regions are spatially close, they can be grouped to form a single attentional window to avoid interference originating from suppressive surrounds. The grouping experiment results indicate that the attentional windows are grouped into a single one when the distance between them is less than 1.5 deg. Preliminary implementation of the suppressive surround concept in our computational video object tracker resulted in less number of unnecessary object merges in computational video tracking experiments.

  15. A New Chemical Approach to Human ABO Histo-Blood Group Type 2 Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new chemical approach to synthesizing human ABO histo-blood type 2 antigenic determinants was developed. N-Phthaloyl-protected lactosaminyl thioglycoside derived from lactulose via the Heyns rearrangement was employed to obtain a type 2 core disaccharide. Use of this scheme lowered the overall number of reaction steps. Stereoselective construction of the α-galactosaminide/galactoside found in A- and B-antigens, respectively, was achieved by using a unique di-tert-butylsilylene-directed α-glycosylation method. The proposed synthetic scheme provides an alternative to existing procedures for preparing ABO blood group antigens.

  16. An assessment of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms as indicators of human faecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, K; Stickler, D J

    1985-01-01

    Membrane filtration techniques were used to enumerate Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) organisms and Escherichia coli in a variety of natural waters, the influents and effluents from three types of sewage treatment plants and faeces of various animals. The results suggest that BFG organisms die off more rapidly than E. coli in water and that animal faeces are not a significant source of BFG. It is suggested that the ratio of BFG to E. coli in water may be used to indicate the proximity of a source of human faecal contamination.

  17. Highly selective and sensitive determination of several antioxidants in human breast milk using high-performance liquid chromatography based on Ag(III) complex chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Shi, Hongmei; Lian, Kaoqi; Diao, Yingfei; Chen, Yang; Ma, Chunling; Kang, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and glutathione (GSH) are the most important water-soluble antioxidants. The concentrations of GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and their molar ratio are the indicators of oxidative stress. Little is known about the contents of UA, GSH and GSSG in human milk; a reliable and sensitive method to monitor the concentrations of the four compounds simultaneously in human milk is of critical importance. A new method for separation and quantification of these water-soluble antioxidants by HPLC coupled with Ag(III) chemiluminescence detector has been developed in this work with better recoveries. The antioxidants contents were determined in different times of lactation utilizing this method. The results show that the levels of AA, UA, GSH and GSH/GSSG of human colostrum are significantly higher than those of mature milk (Pantioxidants than mature milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Terminal group effects on the fluorescence spectra of Eu(III) nitrate complexes with a family of amide-based 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Liang; Dou, Wei; Wang, Ya-Wen; Liu, Wei-Sheng

    2005-12-01

    Four ligands 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-bis( N, N-dibenzyl-1'-oxopropylamide) (L a) 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-bis( N-methyl-N-benzyl-1'-oxopropylamide) (L b) 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-bis(N-benzyl-1'-oxopropylamide) (L c) and 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-bis( N, N-diethyl-1'-oxopropylamide) (L d), and their lanthanide(III) (La and Eu) complexes were synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, fluorescence spectroscopy and conductivity. The lanthanide atoms are coordinated by O atoms from C=O, Ar-O -C and N atoms from phen With the difference of the ligands, the fluorescent intensities of the Eu(III) complexes vary regularly in the THF solution. Some factors that influence the fluorescent intensity were discussed.

  19. Gruppenrechte versus Frauen-/Menschenrechte? Group Rights vs. Women’s/Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Ergenzinger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Aus feministischer Sicht werden Konflikte zwischen Frauenrechten als Menschenrecht und Gruppenrechten der kulturellen Selbstbestimmung in mehrkulturellen Gesellschaften in Europa verhandelt. Sachverständige, Aktivistinnen und Wissenschaftler/-innen thematisieren die am häufigsten in der Öffentlichkeit diskutierten Spannungen: Genitalbeschneidung von Frauen, Zwangsverheiratungen, Ehrenmord, Frauenhandel und Kopftuchzwang werden als Reibungen zwischen Individual- und Gruppenrechten, zwischen Minderheits- und Mehrheitsgesellschaft diskursiv und empirisch gerahmt und an die Autonomie der betroffenen Frauen zurückgebunden.From a feminist perspective, conflicts between women’s rights as human rights and group rights dispute cultural self-determination in multicultural societies in Europe. Specialists, activists, and scholars thematize those tensions most often appearing in public discussions: Genital mutilation of women, forced marriages, honor killings, trafficking in women, and forced veiling are framed discursively and empirically as representing friction between individual and group rights, between minority and majority society. This is tied to the autonomy of the women concerned.

  20. Ovine prolactin and human growth hormone derivatives. Specific modification of their alpha-amino groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, J J; Nowicki, C; Santomé, J A; Wolfenstein-Todel, C

    1988-06-01

    The alpha-amino group of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and human growth hormone (hGH) was selectively modified by transamination with glyoxylic acid. No difference was found in the binding capacity of transaminated oPRL to rat liver lactogenic receptors with respect to its control, although both samples showed a decrease in its binding capacity with reference to the native hormone. This decrease was due to conformational changes caused by the reaction conditions and not by the transamination itself, as shown by the circular dichroism spectra. Transaminated hGH retained the full binding capacity of the hormone. These results suggest that the alpha-amino group is not relevant for the binding to lactogenic liver receptors in both lactogenic hormones.

  1. A Human-Centric Approach to Group-Based Context-Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Ghadiri, Nasser; Ghasem-Aghaee, Nasser; Nematbakhsh, Mohammad A; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3104

    2011-01-01

    The emerging need for qualitative approaches in context-aware information processing calls for proper modeling of context information and efficient handling of its inherent uncertainty resulted from human interpretation and usage. Many of the current approaches to context-awareness either lack a solid theoretical basis for modeling or ignore important requirements such as modularity, high-order uncertainty management and group-based context-awareness. Therefore, their real-world application and extendability remains limited. In this paper, we present f-Context as a service-based context-awareness framework, based on language-action perspective (LAP) theory for modeling. Then we identify some of the complex, informational parts of context which contain high-order uncertainties due to differences between members of the group in defining them. An agent-based perceptual computer architecture is proposed for implementing f-Context that uses computing with words (CWW) for handling uncertainty. The feasibility of f-...

  2. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  3. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time.

  4. Human action recognition with group lasso regularized-support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huiwu; Lu, Huanzhang; Wu, Yabei; Zhao, Fei

    2016-05-01

    The bag-of-visual-words (BOVW) and Fisher kernel are two popular models in human action recognition, and support vector machine (SVM) is the most commonly used classifier for the two models. We show two kinds of group structures in the feature representation constructed by BOVW and Fisher kernel, respectively, since the structural information of feature representation can be seen as a prior for the classifier and can improve the performance of the classifier, which has been verified in several areas. However, the standard SVM employs L2-norm regularization in its learning procedure, which penalizes each variable individually and cannot express the structural information of feature representation. We replace the L2-norm regularization with group lasso regularization in standard SVM, and a group lasso regularized-support vector machine (GLRSVM) is proposed. Then, we embed the group structural information of feature representation into GLRSVM. Finally, we introduce an algorithm to solve the optimization problem of GLRSVM by alternating directions method of multipliers. The experiments evaluated on KTH, YouTube, and Hollywood2 datasets show that our method achieves promising results and improves the state-of-the-art methods on KTH and YouTube datasets.

  5. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ermert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS, is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP and/or Factor H (FH, to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being unable to limit the infection. Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in three human complement inhibitor transgenic (tg mouse models that examined each inhibitor (human C4BP or FH alone, or the two inhibitors together (C4BPxFH or 'double' tg. GAS infection with strains that bound C4BP and FH resulted in enhanced mortality in each of the three transgenic mouse models compared to infection in wild type mice. In addition, GAS manifested increased virulence in C4BPxFH mice: higher organism burdens and greater elevations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and they died earlier than single transgenic or wt controls. The effects of hu-C4BP and hu-FH were specific for GAS strains that bound these inhibitors because strains that did not bind the inhibitors showed reduced virulence in the 'double' tg mice compared to strains that did bind; mortality was also similar in wild-type and C4BPxFH mice infected by non-binding GAS. Our findings emphasize the importance of binding of complement inhibitors to GAS that results in impaired opsonization and phagocytic killing, which translates to enhanced virulence in a humanized whole animal model. This novel hu-C4BPxFH tg model may prove invaluable in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy.

  6. Adsorption and transformation of selected human-used macrolide antibacterial agents with iron(III) and manganese(IV) oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa-Felizzola, Juliana [Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Aix-Marseille Universites-CNRS (UMR 6264), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy 1 (UMR 7564), 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Chiron, Serge [Laboratoire Chimie Provence, Aix-Marseille Universites-CNRS (UMR 6264), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: serge.chiron@univ-provence.fr

    2009-04-15

    The adsorption/transformation of two members (clarithromycin and roxithromycin) of the macrolide (ML) antibacterial agents on the surface of three environmental subsurface sorbents (clay, iron(III) and manganese(IV) oxy-hydroxides) was investigated. The adsorption fitted well to the Freundlich model with a high sorption capacity. Adsorption probably occurred through a surface complexation mechanism and was accompanied by slow degradation of the selected MLs. Transformation proceeded through two parallel pathways: a major pathway was the hydrolysis of the cladinose sugar, and to a lesser extent the hydrolysis of the lactone ring. A minor pathway was the N-dealkylation of the amino sugar. This study indicates that Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxy-hydroxides in aquatic sediments may play an important role in the natural attenuation of MLs. Such an attenuation route yields a range of intermediates that might retain some of their biological activity. - Iron(III) and manganese(IV) oxy-hydroxides in aquatic sediments may play an important role in the natural attenuation of macrolide antibacterial agents.

  7. Human monocyte elastolytic activity, the propeptides of types I and III procollagen, proteoglycans, and interleukin-6 in synovial fluid from patients with arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Jensen, L T; Saxne, T;

    1991-01-01

    elastolytic activity, using the levels of synovial fluid interleukin-6 and serum C reactive protein as additional markers of cell activation. Proteoglycan levels were measured as an indication of cartilage degradation and the types I and III procollagen propeptides as markers of synovial membrane turnover. We...... found that elastolysis by live M phi and the levels of interleukin-6 and C reactive protein correlated significantly with proteoglycan concentrations but not with the procollagen propeptides. These findings suggest that human M phi elastolytic activation is a biologically relevant factor in cartilage...

  8. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  9. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  10. Differences between Mice and Humans in Regulation and the Molecular Network of Collagen, Type III, Alpha-1 at the Gene Expression Level: Obstacles that Translational Research Must Overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collagen, type III, alpha-1 (COL3A1 is essential for normal collagen I fibrillogenesis in many organs. There are differences in phenotypes of mutations in the COL3A1 gene in humans and mutations in mice. In order to investigate whether the regulation and gene network of COL3A1 is the same in healthy populations of mice and humans, we compared the quantitative trait loci (QTL that regulate the expression level of COL3A1 and the gene network of COL3A1 pathways between humans and mice using whole genome expression profiles. Our results showed that, for the regulation of expression of Col3a1 in mice, an eQTL on chromosome (Chr 12 regulates the expression of Col3a1. However, expression of genes in the syntenic region on human Chr 7 has no association with the expression level of COL3A1. For the gene network comparison, we identified 44 top genes whose expression levels are strongly associated with that of Col3a1 in mice. We next identified 41 genes strongly associated with the expression level of COL3A1 in humans. There are a few but significant differences in the COL3A1 gene network between humans and mice. Several genes showed opposite association with expression of COL3A1. These genes are known to play important roles in development and function of the extracellular matrix of the lung. Difference in the molecular pathway of key genes in the COL3A1 gene network in humans and mice suggest caution should be used in extrapolating results from models of human lung diseases in mice to clinical lung diseases in humans. These differences may influence the efficacy of drugs in humans whose development employed mouse models.

  11. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Human Methyltransferase Based on a Dual Signal Amplification Strategy Coupling Gold Nanoparticle-DNA Complexes with Ru(III) Redox Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Huilei; Yang, Guoqing; Chen, Hongfei; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-11-15

    Effective detection of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity is significant for cancer research. Herein, we developed a sensitive electroanalytical method to detect human DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) from crude lysates of cancer cells. In this assay, capture DNA having a preferred DNMT1 methylation site was immobilized on a gold electrode and then hybridized with gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-DNA complexes. The modified electrodes were equilibrated with the lysate and then incubated with methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme. If the lysate was negative for DNMT1 activity, the Au NP-DNA complexes would be cut by the restriction enzyme and released from the electrode. Conversely, restriction enzyme cleavage would be blocked by the fully methylated duplexes, and the Au NP-DNA complexes would remain on the electrode. Electroactive Ru(NH3)6(3+) was used as the signal reporter, because of its electrostatic attraction to DNA, resulting in an electrochemical signal. Since the electrochemical signal reflects the amount of Ru(III) redox and the amount of Ru(III) redox is correlated with the activity of DNMT1, the activity of DNMT1 is proportional to the electrochemical signal. The signal could be amplified by the numerous DNAs on the Au NPs and further amplified by Ru(III) redox recycling. With this method, a detection limit down to 0.3 U/mL for pure DNMT1 and 8 MCF-7 cells was achieved. DNMT1 activities of different cell lines were also successfully evaluated.

  12. Behavior of exposed human lymphocytes to a neutron beam of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III; Comportamiento de linfocitos humanos expuestos a un haz de neutrones del Reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal R, M. I.; Arceo M, C.; Aguilar H, F.; Guerrero C, C., E-mail: citlali.guerrero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The living beings are permanently exposed to radiations of natural origin: cosmic and geologic, as well as the artificial radiations that come from sources elaborated by the man. The artificial sources have an important use in the medical area. Particularly has been increased the neutrons use due to the effectiveness that they have to damage the cells with regard to other radiation types. The biological indicator of exposition to ionizing radiation more reliable is the chromosomal aberrations study, specifically the dicentrics in human lymphocytes. This test allows, establishing the exposition dose in function of the damage quantity. The dicentrics have a behavior in function of the dose. The calibration curve that describes this behavior is specific for each type of ionizing radiation. In the year 2006 beginning was given to the expositions of human lymphocytes to a neutron beam generated in the reactor TRIGA Mark III of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico. Up to 2008 the response dose curve comprised an interval of exposition time of up to 30 minutes. Moreover, the interval between 10 an 20 minutes is included, since was observed that this last is indispensable for the adjustment waited in a lineal model. (Author)

  13. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical calculations of (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride complexes: in vitro cytotoxic evaluations against human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaroudi, Said S; Altaf, Muhammad; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Altuwaijri, Saleh; Ahmad, Saeed; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2015-10-01

    The gold(III) complexes of the type (1,2-diaminocyclohexane)(1,3-diaminopropane)gold(III) chloride, [(DACH)Au(pn)]Cl3, [where DACH = cis-, trans-1,2- and S,S-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and pn = 1,3-diaminopropane] have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic and analytical techniques including elemental analysis, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy; solution as well as solid-state NMR measurements. The solid-state (13)C NMR shows that 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (1,2-DACH) and 1,3-diaminopropane (pn) are strongly bound to the gold(III) center via N donor atoms. The stability of the mixed diamine ligand gold(III) was checked by UV-Vis spectroscopy and NMR measurements. The molecular structure of compound 1 (containing cis-1,2-DACH) was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of 1 consists of [(cis-DACH)Au(pn)](3+) complex ion and chloride counter ions. Each gold atom in the complex ion adopts a distorted square-planar geometry. The structural details and relative stabilities of the four possible isomers of the complexes were also estimated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theoretical calculations. The computational study demonstrates that trans- conformations are slightly more stable than the cis- conformations. The antiproliferative effects and cytotoxic properties of the mixed ligand gold(III) complexes were evaluated in vitro on human gastric SGC7901 and prostate PC3 cancer cells using MTT assay. The antiproliferative study of the gold(III) complexes on PC3 and SGC7901 cells indicate that complex 3 (containing 1S,2S-(+)-1,2-(DACH)) is the most effective antiproliferative agent. The IC50 data reveal that the in vitro cytotoxicity of complex 3 against SGC7901 cancer cells manifested similar and very pronounced cytotoxic effects with respect to cisplatin. Moreover, the electrochemical behavior, and the interaction of complex 3 with two well-known model proteins, namely, hen egg white lysozyme and bovine serum albumin is also reported.

  14. Barriers to acceptance of self-sampling for human papillomavirus across ethnolinguistic groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Lytwyn, Alice; Lohfeld, Lynne; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Fowler, Nancy; Karwalajtys, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Immigrant and low socio-economic (SES) women in North America underutilize Papanicolaou screening. Vaginal swab self-sampling for oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening participation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the perceptions of lower SES and immigrant women regarding self-sampling for HPV. Eleven focus-group interviews were conducted: one with Canadian-born English-speaking lower SES women, and two groups each with Arabic, Cantonese, Dari (Afghani), Somali and Spanish (Latino)-speaking women (one group conducted in English, the other in the native language) recently immigrated to Canada. Five to nine women aged 35 to 65 years and married with children participated in each group. Themes included 1) who might use self-sampling and why; 2) aversion to self-sampling and reasons to prefer physician; 3) ways to improve the appeal of self-sampling. Women generally perceived benefits of self-sampling and a small number felt they might use the method, but all groups had some reservations. Reasons included: uncertainty over performing the sampling correctly; fear of hurting themselves; concern about obtaining appropriate material; and concerns about test accuracy. Women preferred testing by a health care professional because they were accustomed to pelvic examinations, it was more convenient, or they trusted the results. Perceptions of self-sampling for HPV were similar across cultures and pertained to issues of confidence in self-sampling and need for physician involvement in care. These findings can inform programs and studies planning to employ self-sampling as a screening modality for cervical cancer.

  15. Genetic variants of human T-lymphotrophic virus type II in American Indian groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, R J; Taylor, M E; Neel, J V; Hjelle, B; Levine, P H; Black, F L; Shaw, G M; Sharp, P M; Hahn, B H

    1996-02-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is found in many New World Indian groups in North and South America and may have entered the New World from Asia with the earliest migration of ancestral Amerindians over 15,000 years ago. To characterize the phylogenetic relationships of HTLV-II strains infecting geographically diverse Indian populations, we used polymerase chain reaction to amplify HTLV-II sequences from lymphocytes of seropositive Amerindians from Brazil (Kraho, Kayapo, and Kaxuyana), Panama (Guaymi), and the United States (the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the southwestern states and the Seminoles of Florida). Sequence analysis of a 780-base pair fragment (located between the env gene and the second exons of tax/rex) revealed that Amerindian viruses clustered in the same two genetic subtypes (IIa and IIb) previously identified for viruses from intravenous drug users. Most infected North and Central American Indians had subtype IIb, while HTLV-II infected members of three remote Amazonian tribes clustered as a distinct group within subtype IIa. These findings suggest that the ancestral Amerindians migrating to the New World brought at least two genetic subtypes, IIa and IIb. Because HTLV-II strains from Amazonian Indians form a distinct group within subtype HTLV-IIa, these Brazilian tribes are unlikely to be the source of IIa viruses in North American drug users. Finally, the near identity of viral sequences from geographically diverse populations indicate that HTLV-II is a very ancient virus of man.

  16. The influence of pomegranate by-product and punicalagins on selected groups of human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Ramnani, Priya; Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Muntha, Kesava R; Gibson, Glenn R; Ferreira, Daneel

    2010-06-15

    We have examined the gut bacterial metabolism of pomegranate by-product (POMx) and major pomegranate polyphenols, punicalagins, using pH-controlled, stirred, batch culture fermentation systems reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of POMx or punicalagins with faecal bacteria resulted in formation of the dibenzopyranone-type urolithins. The time course profile confirmed the tetrahydroxylated urolithin D as the first product of microbial transformation, followed by compounds with decreasing number of phenolic hydroxy groups: the trihydroxy analogue urolithin C and dihydroxylated urolithin A. POMx exposure enhanced the growth of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., without influencing the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group and the C. histolyticum group. In addition, POMx increased concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) viz. acetate, propionate and butyrate in the fermentation medium. Punicalagins did not affect the growth of bacteria or production of SCFA. The results suggest that POMx oligomers, composed of gallic acid, ellagic acid and glucose units, may account for the enhanced growth of probiotic bacteria.

  17. Grafting of functionalized [Fe(III)(salten)] complexes to Au(111) surfaces via thiolate groups: surface spectroscopic characterization and comparison of different linker designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Hanne; Kathirvel, Ketheeswari; Petersen, Finn; Strunskus, Thomas; Bannwarth, Alexander; Meyer, Sven; Tuczek, Felix

    2013-07-01

    Functionalization of surfaces with spin crossover complexes is an intensively studied topic. Starting from dinuclear iron(III)-salten complexes [Fe(salten)(pyS)]2(BPh4)2 and [Fe(thiotolylsalten)(NCS)]2 with disulfide-containing bridging ligands, corresponding mononuclear complexes [Fe(salten)(pyS)](+) and [Fe(thiotolylsalten)(NCS)] are covalently attached to Au(111) surfaces (pySH, pyridinethiol; salten, bis(3-salicylidene-aminopropyl)amine). The adsorbed monolayers are investigated by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Comparison of the surface vibrational spectra with bulk data allows us to draw conclusions with respect to the geometry of the adsorbed complexes. An anomaly is observed in the spectra of the surface-adsorbed monolayer of [Fe(salten)(pyS)](+), which suggests that the salten ligand is partially decoordinated from the Fe(III) center and one of its phenolate arms binds to the Au(111) surface. For complex [Fe(thiotolylsalten)(NCS)] that is bound to the Au(111) surface via a thiolate-functionalized salten ligand, this anomaly is not observed, which indicates that the coordination sphere of the complex in the bulk is retained on the surface. The implications of these results with respect to the preparation of surface-adsorbed monolayers of functional transition-metal complexes are discussed.

  18. Human dimensions in bedside teaching: focus group discussions of teachers and learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Subha; Orlander, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this shift. Yet, essential clinical skills, professionalism, and humanistic patient interactions are best taught at the bedside. Clinical teaching has moved from the bedside to conference rooms; many reasons are described for this decline. This study explored perceptions of teachers and learners on the value of bedside teaching and the humanistic dimensions of bedside interactions that make it imperative to shift clinical teaching back to the bedside. Focus group methodology was used to explore teacher and learner opinions. Four teacher groups consisted of (a) Chief Residents, (b) Residency Program Directors, (c) skilled bedside teachers, and (d) a convenience group of other Department of Medicine faculty at Boston University School of Medicine. Six learner groups consisted 2 each of 3rd-year students, PGY1 medicine residents, and PGY2 medicine residents. Each discussion lasted 60 to 90 minutes. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Teachers and learners shared several opinions on bedside teaching, particularly around humanistic aspects of bedside interactions. The key themes that emerged included (a) patient involvement in discussions, (b) teachers as role models of humanism, (c) preserving learner autonomy, (d) direct observation and feedback of learners at the bedside, (e) interactions with challenging patients, and (e) admitting limitations. Within these themes, participants noted some behaviors best avoided at the bedside. Teachers and learners regard the bedside as a valuable venue in which to learn core values of medicine. They proposed many strategies to preserve these humanistic values and improve bedside teaching. These strategies are essential for true patient-centered care.

  19. Protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with a cytotoxic daunorubicin-GnRH-III derivative bioconjugate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Natalie Schreier

    Full Text Available Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a new approach for the treatment of cancer, which provides increased selectivity and decreased systemic toxicity. We have recently developed a promising drug delivery system, in which the anticancer drug daunorubicin (Dau was attached via oxime bond to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III derivative used as a targeting moiety (Glp-His-Trp-Lys(Ac-His-Asp-Trp-Lys(Da  = Aoa-Pro-Gly-NH2; Glp = pyroglutamic acid, Ac = acetyl; Aoa = aminooxyacetyl. This bioconjugate exerted in vitro cytostatic/cytotoxic effect on human breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, as well as significant in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effect on colon carcinoma bearing mice. In our previous studies, H-Lys(Dau = Aoa-OH was identified as the smallest metabolite produced in the presence of rat liver lysosomal homogenate, which was able to bind to DNA in vitro. To get a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of the bioconjugate, changes in the protein expression profile of HT-29 human colon cancer cells after treatment with the bioconjugate or free daunorubicin were investigated by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Our results indicate that several metabolism-related proteins, molecular chaperons and proteins involved in signaling are differently expressed after targeted chemotherapeutic treatment, leading to the conclusion that the bioconjugate exerts its cytotoxic action by interfering with multiple intracellular processes.

  20. Effects of leg muscle tendon vibration on group Ia and group II reflex responses to stance perturbation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Marco; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Stretching the soleus (Sol) muscle during sudden toe-up rotations of the supporting platform in a standing subject evokes a short-latency response (SLR) and a medium-latency response (MLR). The aim of the present investigation was to further explore the afferent and spinal pathways mediating the SLR and MLR in lower limb muscles by means of tendon vibration. In seven subjects, toe-up or toe-down rotations were performed under: (1) control, (2) continuous bilateral vibration at 90 Hz of Achilles' tendon or tibialis anterior (TA) tendon, and (3) post-vibration conditions. Sol and TA background EMG activity and reflex responses were bilaterally recorded and analysed. Toe-up rotations induced SLRs and MLRs in Sol at average latencies of 40 and 66 ms, respectively. During vibration, the latency of both responses increased by about 2 ms. The area of the SLR significantly decreased during vibration, regardless of the underlying background activity, and almost returned to control value post-vibration. The area of Sol MLR was less influenced by vibration than SLR, the reduction being negligible with relatively high background activity. However, contrary to SLR, MLR was even more reduced post-vibration. Toe-down rotations induced no SLR in the TA, while a MLR was evoked at about 81 ms. The area of TA MLR decreased slightly during vibration but much more post-vibration. SLRs and MLRs were differently affected by changing the vibration frequency to 30 Hz: vibration had a negligible effect on the SLR, but still produced a significant effect on the MLR. The independence from the background EMG of the inhibitory effect of vibration upon the SLR suggests that vibration removes a constant amount of the Ia afferent input. This can be accounted for by either presynaptic inhibition of group Ia fibres or a ‘busy-line' phenomenon. The differential effect of vibration on SLRs and MLRs is compatible with the notions that spindle primaries have a higher sensitivity to vibration than

  1. Effects of leg muscle tendon vibration on group Ia and group II reflex responses to stance perturbation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Marco; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco

    2003-07-15

    Stretching the soleus (Sol) muscle during sudden toe-up rotations of the supporting platform in a standing subject evokes a short-latency response (SLR) and a medium-latency response (MLR). The aim of the present investigation was to further explore the afferent and spinal pathways mediating the SLR and MLR in lower limb muscles by means of tendon vibration. In seven subjects, toe-up or toe-down rotations were performed under: (1) control, (2) continuous bilateral vibration at 90 Hz of Achilles' tendon or tibialis anterior (TA) tendon, and (3) post-vibration conditions. Sol and TA background EMG activity and reflex responses were bilaterally recorded and analysed. Toe-up rotations induced SLRs and MLRs in Sol at average latencies of 40 and 66 ms, respectively. During vibration, the latency of both responses increased by about 2 ms. The area of the SLR significantly decreased during vibration, regardless of the underlying background activity, and almost returned to control value post-vibration. The area of Sol MLR was less influenced by vibration than SLR, the reduction being negligible with relatively high background activity. However, contrary to SLR, MLR was even more reduced post-vibration. Toe-down rotations induced no SLR in the TA, while a MLR was evoked at about 81 ms. The area of TA MLR decreased slightly during vibration but much more post-vibration. SLRs and MLRs were differently affected by changing the vibration frequency to 30 Hz: vibration had a negligible effect on the SLR, but still produced a significant effect on the MLR. The independence from the background EMG of the inhibitory effect of vibration upon the SLR suggests that vibration removes a constant amount of the Ia afferent input. This can be accounted for by either presynaptic inhibition of group Ia fibres or a 'busy-line' phenomenon. The differential effect of vibration on SLRs and MLRs is compatible with the notions that spindle primaries have a higher sensitivity to vibration than

  2. Expression of group XIIA phospholipase A2 in human digestive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuravuori, Heikki; Kollanus, Sinikka; Nevalainen, Timo J

    2014-12-01

    Cellular distribution of group XIIA phospholipase A2 (GXIIA PLA2) was studied in human digestive organs by immunohistochemistry. GXIIA PLA2 protein was detected in epithelial cells of normal gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and pancreatic acinar cells. The GXIIA PLA2 protein was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in contrast to secretory granular distribution of GIB PLA2 and GIIA PLA2 in pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal Paneth cells respectively. Epithelial cells of intestinal glands in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis expressed abundant GXIIA PLA2 , whereas inflammatory cells were devoid of the enzyme protein. Tumour cells in colonic adenomas and carcinomas and pancreatic ductogenic carcinomas expressed GXIIA PLA2 protein at varying intensity levels. The putative functions of GXIIA PLA2 remain to be investigated and its role in healthy and diseased digestive organs can only be speculated on at present.

  3. The novel pterostilbene derivative ANK-199 induces autophagic cell death through regulating PI3 kinase class III/beclin 1/Atg‑related proteins in cisplatin‑resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2014-08-01

    Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).

  4. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  5. High-Throughput Analysis of Age-Dependent Protein Changes in Layer II/III of the Human Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Fenika

    Studies on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) during normal aging have shown a decline in cognitive functions, a loss of spines/synapses in layer III and gene expression changes related to neural communication. Biological changes during the course of normal aging are summarized into 9 hallmarks based on aging in peripheral tissue. Whether these hallmarks apply to non-dividing brain tissue is not known. Therefore, we opted to perform large-scale proteomic profiling of the OFC layer II/III during normal aging from 15 young and 18 old male subjects. MaxQuant was utilized for label-free quantification and statistical analysis by the Random Intercept Model (RIM) identified 118 differentially expressed (DE) age-related proteins. Altered neural communication was the most represented hallmark of aging (54% of DE proteins), highlighting the importance of communication in the brain. Functional analysis showed enrichment in GABA/glutamate signaling and pro-inflammatory responses. The former may contribute to alterations in excitation/inhibition, leading to cognitive decline during aging.

  6. Mitochondrial membrane potential in human neutrophils is maintained by complex III activity in the absence of supercomplex organisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram J van Raam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophils depend mainly on glycolysis for their energy provision. Their mitochondria maintain a membrane potential (Deltapsi(m, which is usually generated by the respiratory chain complexes. We investigated the source of Deltapsi(m in neutrophils, as compared to peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes and HL-60 cells, and whether neutrophils can still utilise this Deltapsi(m for the generation of ATP. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual activity of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes was significantly reduced in neutrophils, except for complex II and V, but Deltapsi(m was still decreased by inhibition of complex III, confirming the role of the respiratory chain in maintaining Deltapsi(m. Complex V did not maintain Deltapsi(m by consumption of ATP, as has previously been suggested for eosinophils. We show that complex III in neutrophil mitochondria can receive electrons from glycolysis via the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle. Furthermore, respiratory supercomplexes, which contribute to efficient coupling of the respiratory chain to ATP synthesis, were lacking in neutrophil mitochondria. When HL-60 cells were differentiated to neutrophil-like cells, they lost mitochondrial supercomplex organisation while gaining increased aerobic glycolysis, just like neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: We show that neutrophils can maintain Deltapsi(m via the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, whereby their mitochondria play an important role in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis, rather than producing energy themselves. This peculiar mitochondrial phenotype is acquired during differentiation from myeloid precursors.

  7. A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidbey, Christopher; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Burnside, Kellie; Ngo, Lisa; Becraft, Alexis K; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L; Hitti, Jane; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2013-06-03

    Microbial infection of the amniotic fluid is a significant cause of fetal injury, preterm birth, and newborn infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important human bacterial pathogen associated with preterm birth, fetal injury, and neonatal mortality. Although GBS has been isolated from amniotic fluid of women in preterm labor, mechanisms of in utero infection remain unknown. Previous studies indicated that GBS are unable to invade human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), which represent the last barrier to the amniotic cavity and fetus. We show that GBS invades hAECs and strains lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S accelerate amniotic barrier failure and penetrate chorioamniotic membranes in a hemolysin-dependent manner. Clinical GBS isolates obtained from women in preterm labor are hyperhemolytic and some are associated with covR/S mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that hemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnolipid pigment and not due to a pore-forming protein toxin. Our studies emphasize the importance of the hemolytic GBS pigment in ascending infection and fetal injury.

  8. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. PMID:26822058

  9. Anabolic Properties of High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1 is mainly recognized as a chemoattractant for macrophages in the initial phase of host response to pathogenic stimuli. However, recent findings provide evidence for anabolic properties in terms of enhanced proliferation, migration, and support of wound healing capacity of mesenchymal cells suggesting a dual role of the cytokine in the regulation of immune response and subsequent regenerative processes. Here, we examined potential anabolic effects of HMGB1 on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in the regulation of periodontal remodelling, for example, during orthodontic tooth movement. Preconfluent human PDL cells (hPDL were exposed to HMGB1 protein and the influence on proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and biomineralization was determined by MTS assay, real time PCR, immunofluorescence cytochemistry, ELISA, and von Kossa staining. HMGB1 protein increased hPDL cell proliferation, migration, osteoblastic marker gene expression, and protein production as well as mineralized nodule formation significantly. The present findings support the dual character of HMGB1 with anabolic therapeutic potential that might support the reestablishment of the structural and functional integrity of the periodontium following periodontal trauma such as orthodontic tooth movement.

  10. Generation and characterization of a polyclonal antibody against human high mobility group box 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Li, Runsheng; Hong, Aizhen; Duan, Fei; Li, Yuhua

    2013-11-01

    A human high mobility group box 4 (hHMGB4) expression construct (pET‑28a/hHMGB4) was generated by cloning the hHMGB4 full‑length cDNA in the expression vector pET‑28a(+). The hHMGB4 fusion protein with His6‑Tag was prepared using E.coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with pET‑28a/hHMGB4 and purified via preparative SDS‑PAGE plus electroelution. Immunization of rabbits with the purified hHMGB4 generated polyclonal antibodies. The titer of the antiserum was determined to be 1:102,400 by ELISA analysis. Western blotting analysis showed that the antibody specifically recognized the recombinant hHMGB4 protein and also the endogenous hHMGB4 protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, immunohistochemical staining analysis using the prepared antibody revealed marked hHMGB4 staining in the nuclei of the human prostate tissue. These data demonstrate that the anti‑hHMGB4 polyclonal antibody may be a useful reagent for the functional study of hHMGB4.

  11. Analysis of the Characteristics of Discussion Materials that Promote Group Discussion in the Medical Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hee; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the characteristics of discussion materials that promote student participation in discussions, satisfaction with student instruction, and tutor intervention in the medical humanities. We surveyed 117 premedical students and 7 tutors who attended 4-week group discussions in the medical humanities in 2010. We described the discussion materials using the following 4 characteristics as independent variables: material type, level of understanding, interest, and quantity. Dependent variables were: student participation in the discussion, student instruction satisfaction, and tutor intervention. Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and crosstab were performed using SPSS 15.0. The correlation between the characteristics of the discussion materials differed by grade. When the books were chosen as the discussion material in the instruction of first-year premedical students, the correlation between level of understanding, interest, and quantity was negative. Higher levels of understanding of the material and interest in the material led to an increase in discussion participation among both first- and second-year premedical students. Higher levels of understanding and interest of the discussion material also increased student satisfaction with the instruction, regardless of grade. Finally, levels of understanding of the material affected the degree of tutor intervention. Tutors intervened more often in discussions with first-year premedical students than with second-year premedical students. Differences in grades and the understanding of the discussion material should be considered when choosing discussion materials. Further study is required to continue the development of the discussion model and improve methods of facilitate discussion among students in the medical humanities.

  12. Human embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic cells maintain core epigenetic machinery of the polycomb group/Trithorax Group complexes distinctly from functional adult hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnerch, Angelique; Lee, Jung Bok; Graham, Monica; Guezguez, Borhane; Bhatia, Mickie

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have a number of potential utilities, including the modeling of hematological disorders in vitro, whereas the use for cell replacement therapies has proved to be a loftier goal. This is due to the failure of differentiated hematopoietic cells, derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), to functionally recapitulate the in vivo properties of bona fide adult hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). To better understand the limitations of differentiation programming at the molecular level, we have utilized differential gene expression analysis of highly purified cells that are enriched for hematopoietic repopulating activity across embryonic, fetal, and adult human samples, including in vivo explants of human HSPCs 8-weeks post-transplantation. We reveal that hESC-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (eHPCs) fail to express critical transcription factors which are known to govern self-renewal and myeloid/lymphoid development and instead retain the expression of Polycomb Group (PcG) and Trithorax Group (TrxG) factors which are more prevalent in embryonic cell types that include EZH1 and ASH1L, respectively. These molecular profiles indicate that the differential expression of the core epigenetic machinery comprising PcGs/TrxGs in eHPCs may serve as previously unexplored molecular targets that direct hematopoietic differentiation of PSCs toward functional HSPCs in humans.

  13. Terminal group effects on the fluorescence spectra of europium(III) nitrate complexes with a family of amide-based 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ke-Wei; Liu, Wei-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    Three ligands 2,2'-[2,3-naphthylenebis(oxy)]-bis( N, N-diethyl(acetamide)) (L a), 2,2'-[2,3-naphthylenebis(oxy)]-bis( N, N-diisopropyl(acetamide)) (L b) and 2,2'-[2,3-naphthylenebis(oxy)]-bis( N, N-dibutyl(acetamide)) (L c) and their europium(III) nitrate complexes were synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, fluorescence spectroscopy and conductivity. The europium atoms are coordinated by O-atoms from C dbnd O, Ar-O-C. With the difference of the ligands, the solid fluorescent intensities of the Eu complexes vary regularly. Some factors that influencing the fluorescent intensity were discussed.

  14. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  16. Evaluation of human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits A and B in various age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, R; Caglar, K; Aybay, C

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits in various age groups. Antibodies against the intact diphtheria toxin and the diphtheria toxin subunits A and B were evaluated in 1319 individuals using a double-antigen ELISA. Although high levels of protection (83.6%, 95% CI 79.2-87.4) were found in children and adolescents, the middle-aged adult population was less protected (28.8%, 95% CI 24.3-33.6). An increase in age was associated with a decrease in the frequency of protected individuals in the 0-39-year age group (p antibodies against the intact toxin. In children aged antibodies were observed were found to correlate with the ages at which booster doses are administered. Overall, males appeared to be more protected than females (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.08, p antibody levels of > or =0.1 IU/mL against the intact toxin, but did not have protective antibody against subunit B. Determination of anti-subunit B antibody levels should help in evaluating the effectiveness of diphtheria boosters and other aspects of diphtheria immunity.

  17. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program.

  18. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  19. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  20. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171(T) and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171(T) ( = CIP 110486(T) = CCUG 26390(T) = CCM 8555(T)).

  1. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in Le

  2. Southwest Oncology Group S0008: A Phase III Trial of High-Dose Interferon Alfa-2b Versus Cisplatin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine, Plus Interleukin-2 and Interferon in Patients With High-Risk Melanoma—An Intergroup Study of Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Children's Oncology Group, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, and Southwest Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Lawrence E.; Othus, Megan; Atkins, Michael B.; Tuthill, Ralph J.; Thompson, John A.; Vetto, John T.; Haluska, Frank G.; Pappo, Alberto S.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Redman, Bruce G.; Moon, James; Ribas, Antoni; Kirkwood, John M.; Sondak, Vernon K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High-dose interferon (IFN) for 1 year (HDI) is the US Food and Drug Administration–approved adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk melanoma. Efforts to modify IFN dose and schedule have not improved efficacy. We sought to determine whether a shorter course of biochemotherapy would be more effective. Patients and Methods S0008 (S0008: Chemotherapy Plus Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Melanoma) was an Intergroup phase III trial that enrolled high-risk patients (stage IIIA-N2a through IIIC-N3), randomly assigning them to receive either HDI or biochemotherapy consisting of dacarbazine, cisplatin, vinblastine, interleukin-2, IFN alfa-2b (IFN-α-2b) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor given every 21 days for three cycles. Coprimary end points were relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results In all, 432 patients were enrolled. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in 57% and 7% of HDI patients and 36% and 40% of biochemotherapy patients, respectively. At a median follow-up of 7.2 years, biochemotherapy improved RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.97; P = .015), with a median RFS of 4.0 years (95% CI, 1.9 years to not reached [NR]) versus 1.9 years for HDI (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.8 years) and a 5-year RFS of 48% versus 39%. Median OS was not different (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.31; P = .55), with a median OS of 9.9 years (95% CI, 4.62 years to NR) for biochemotherapy versus 6.7 years (95% CI, 4.5 years to NR) for HDI and a 5-year OS of 56% for both arms. Conclusion Biochemotherapy is a shorter, alternative adjuvant treatment for patients with high-risk melanoma that provides statistically significant improvement in RFS but no difference in OS and more toxicity compared with HDI. PMID:25332243

  3. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (16th, Durham, NH, August 6-11, 1992). Volumes I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeslin, William, Ed.; Graham, Karen, Ed.

    The Proceedings of PME-XVI has been published in three volumes because of the large number of papers presented at the conference. Volume 1 contains: (1) brief reports from each of the 11 standing Working Groups on their respective roles in organizing PME-XVI; (2) brief reports from 6 Discussion Groups; and (3) 35 research reports covering authors…

  4. EFFECT OF PLANT LECTINS ON HUMAN BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON PLANT FOODS AND JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkata Raman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different plant lectins have been studied for lectin binding activity on ABO blood group system individually to study their suitability for consumption. 45% of plants were found to show blood group agglutination activity against A, B, AB and O groups. These results showed more suitability for consumption of investigated plants and their products to entire human population. Data also alarming human to be more careful about the plant lectins reacting with blood groups as the similar reactions may possibly happen at mucosal surface of the gut. In fact, chemical composition on RBC may similar with mucosal cell surfaces of human gastrointestinal tract. In our investigation results reveal that 27 percent of plant extracts showed activity against A, 38 percent of plant extracts for B, 45 percent plant extracts on AB and 45 percent of plants on O group blood populations of human beings. Further, O blood group humans have shown more significant activity (10 different plants than A, B and AB. Hence, these double blind placebo studies are very promising and would give better results for suitability and digestibility of foods taking either as staple foods or juices, and also several health benefits for controlling the diet intake, based on the blood group type.

  5. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part III. Deleterious effects: infections of humans, animals and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Dutkiewicz; Barbara Mackiewicz; Marta Kinga Lemieszek; Marcin Golec; Janusz Milanowski

    2016-01-01

    [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a bacterium associated with plants, is not an obligate infectious agent in humans. However, it could be a cause of opportunistic human infections, mostly by wound infection with plant material, or as a hospital-acquired infection, mostly in immunocompromised individuals. Wound infection with [i]P. agglomerans[/i] usually follow piercing or laceration of skin with a plant thorn, wooden splinter or other plant material and subsequent inoculation of the plant-residing...

  6. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  7. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance and phylogenetic group patterns in human and porcine urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Krag, L.

    2009-01-01

    to relatively benign asymptomatic bacteriuria strains. Here we analyse a spectrum of porcine and human UTI E. coli strains with respect to their antibiotic resistance patterns and their phylogenetic groups, determined by multiplex PCR. The clonal profiles of the strains differed profoundly; whereas human...... strains predominantly belonged to clonal types B2 and D, these were not seen among the porcine strains, which all belonged to the E. coli clonal groups A and B1. Contrary to the human strains, the majority of the porcine strains were multidrug resistant. The distinct profiles of the porcine strains...... suggest selective pressure due to extensive antibiotic use....

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp(2)), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  10. The dynamics of polycomb group proteins in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Cao, Jing-Li; Hu, Yi; Yang, Ji-Gao; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Da-Guang; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2013-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcription regulatory proteins that control the expression of a variety of genes and the antero-posterior neural patterning from early embryogenesis. Although expression of PcG genes in the nervous system has been noticed, but the expression pattern of PcG proteins in early embryonic nervous system is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of PRC1 complex members (BMI-1 and RING1B) and PRC2 complex members (EED, SUZ12 and EZH2) in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human by Western blot and Immunohistochemistry. The results of Western blot showed that EED protein was significantly up-regulated with the increase of the day of pregnancy during the early embryogenesis in mouse. BMI-1 protein level was significantly increased from the day 10 of pregnancy, when compared with the day 9 of pregnancy. But the SUZ12, EZH2 and RING1B protein level did not change significantly. From the results of Immunohistochemistry, we found that the four PcG proteins were all expressed in the fetal brain and fetal spinal cord in mouse. In human, the expression of EED, SUZ12, and EZH2 was not significantly different in cerebral cortex and sacral spinal cord, but BMI-1 and RING1B expression was enhanced with the development of embryos in early pregnancy. Collectively, our findings showed that PRC1 and PRC2 were spatiotemporally expressed in brain and spinal cord of early embryos.

  11. A genome-wide analysis of small regulatory RNAs in the human pathogen group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Perez

    Full Text Available The coordinated regulation of gene expression is essential for pathogens to infect and cause disease. A recently appreciated mechanism of regulation is that afforded by small regulatory RNA (sRNA molecules. Here, we set out to assess the prevalence of sRNAs in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS. Genome-wide identification of candidate GAS sRNAs was performed through a tiling Affymetrix microarray approach and identified 40 candidate sRNAs within the M1T1 GAS strain MGAS2221. Together with a previous bioinformatic approach this brings the number of novel candidate sRNAs in GAS to 75, a number that approximates the number of GAS transcription factors. Transcripts were confirmed by Northern blot analysis for 16 of 32 candidate sRNAs tested, and the abundance of several of these sRNAs were shown to be temporally regulated. Six sRNAs were selected for further study and the promoter, transcriptional start site, and Rho-independent terminator identified for each. Significant variation was observed between the six sRNAs with respect to their stability during growth, and with respect to their inter- and/or intra-serotype-specific levels of abundance. To start to assess the contribution of sRNAs to gene regulation in M1T1 GAS we deleted the previously described sRNA PEL from four clinical isolates. Data from genome-wide expression microarray, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analyses are consistent with PEL having no regulatory function in M1T1 GAS. The finding that candidate sRNA molecules are prevalent throughout the GAS genome provides significant impetus to the study of this fundamental gene-regulatory mechanism in an important human pathogen.

  12. Group A Streptococcus gene expression in humans and cynomolgus macaques with acute pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtaneva, Kimmo; Graham, Morag R; Porcella, Stephen F; Hoe, Nancy P; Su, Hua; Graviss, Edward A; Gardner, Tracie J; Allison, James E; Lemon, William J; Bailey, John R; Parnell, Michael J; Musser, James M

    2003-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms used by group A Streptococcus (GAS) to survive on the host mucosal surface and cause acute pharyngitis are poorly understood. To provide new information about GAS host-pathogen interactions, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to analyze transcripts of 17 GAS genes in throat swab specimens taken from 18 pediatric patients with pharyngitis. The expression of known and putative virulence genes and regulatory genes (including genes in seven two-component regulatory systems) was studied. Several known and previously uncharacterized GAS virulence gene regulators were highly expressed compared to the constitutively expressed control gene proS. To examine in vivo gene transcription in a controlled setting, three cynomolgus macaques were infected with strain MGAS5005, an organism that is genetically representative of most serotype M1 strains recovered from pharyngitis and invasive disease episodes in North America and Western Europe. These three animals developed clinical signs and symptoms of GAS pharyngitis and seroconverted to several GAS extracellular proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of throat swab material collected at intervals throughout a 12-day infection protocol indicated that expression profiles of a subset of GAS genes accurately reflected the profiles observed in the human pediatric patients. The results of our study demonstrate that analysis of in vivo GAS gene expression is feasible in throat swab specimens obtained from infected human and nonhuman primates. In addition, we conclude that the cynomolgus macaque is a useful nonhuman primate model for the study of molecular events contributing to acute pharyngitis caused by GAS.

  13. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  14. [Sucrose gel for treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, parallel-group, phase III clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing-bing; Zhang, Dai; Chen, Rui; Shi, Hui-rong; Xin, Xiao-ran; Wang, Hui-lan; Pang, Yi-cun; Zhu, Sai-nan; Yao, Chen; Liao, Qin-ping

    2015-12-18

    To evaluate the cure effectiveness and safety of sucrose gel in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis through a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel controlled clinical study. A clinical research method of multi-center, randomly double-blind, and dose group parallel comparison was adopted. In the study, 533 patients with bacterial vaginosis were randomly divided into two groups, which included 214 cases in the control group (5.0 g metronidazole gel) and 319 cases in the trial group (5.0 g sucrose gel ). The patients were treated with different medication according to the group where they were. All the cases in these two groups were treated with drugs vaginally twice in a day, morning and evening separately, for 5 days. The curative effect and safety evaluation were assessed from 7 to 10 days and 21 to 30 days after treatment respectively. The efficacy of the comprehensive clinical treatment showed that the cure rate of metronidazole gel group and sucrose gel group were 70.53% and 80.83% respectively 7 to 10 days after treatment. The recovery rate of Nugent score for vaginal smear were 71.50% and 81.15% respectively. The differences in the efficacy between these two groups were significant statistically (P0.05) could be found in the cure rates of the two groups. The clinical comprehensive efficacy and recovery of vaginal bacteria of sucrose gel group in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis were obviously superior to those of metronidazole gel 7 to 10 days after treatment. The susucrose gel could improve the clinical efficacy index and laboratory index of bacterial vaginosis. Other effects included the release of clinical symptoms, and the recovery of the normal micro-environment in the vagina according to the Nugent score. The curative efficacy of sucrose gel was equal to that of metronidazole gel 21 to 30 days after treatment. In the future, sucrose gel treatment can be a new strategy for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Various advantages can be

  15. Real-time RT-PCR high-resolution melting curve analysis and multiplex RT-PCR to detect and differentiate grapevine leafroll-associated associated virus 3 variant groups I, II, III and VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bester Rachelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3 is the main contributing agent of leafroll disease worldwide. Four of the six GLRaV-3 variant groups known have been found in South Africa, but their individual contribution to leafroll disease is unknown. In order to study the pathogenesis of leafroll disease, a sensitive and accurate diagnostic assay is required that can detect different variant groups of GLRaV-3. Methods In this study, a one-step real-time RT-PCR, followed by high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis for the simultaneous detection and identification of GLRaV-3 variants of groups I, II, III and VI, was developed. A melting point confidence interval for each variant group was calculated to include at least 90% of all melting points observed. A multiplex RT-PCR protocol was developed to these four variant groups in order to assess the efficacy of the real-time RT-PCR HRM assay. Results A universal primer set for GLRaV-3 targeting the heat shock protein 70 homologue (Hsp70h gene of GLRaV-3 was designed that is able to detect GLRaV-3 variant groups I, II, III and VI and differentiate between them with high-resolution melting curve analysis. The real-time RT-PCR HRM and the multiplex RT-PCR were optimized using 121 GLRaV-3 positive samples. Due to a considerable variation in melting profile observed within each GLRaV-3 group, a confidence interval of above 90% was calculated for each variant group, based on the range and distribution of melting points. The intervals of groups I and II could not be distinguished and a 95% joint confidence interval was calculated for simultaneous detection of group I and II variants. An additional primer pair targeting GLRaV-3 ORF1a was developed that can be used in a subsequent real-time RT-PCR HRM to differentiate between variants of groups I and II. Additionally, the multiplex RT-PCR successfully validated 94.64% of the infections detected with the real-time RT-PCR HRM

  16. Mathematical model of uptake and metabolism of arsenic(III in human hepatocytes - Incorporation of cellular antioxidant response and threshold-dependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isukapalli Sastry S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is an environmental pollutant, potent human toxicant, and oxidative stress agent with a multiplicity of health effects associated with both acute and chronic exposures. A semi-mechanistic cellular-level toxicokinetic (TK model was developed in order to describe the uptake, biotransformation and clearance of arsenical species in human hepatocytes. Notable features of this model are the incorporation of arsenic-glutathione complex formation and a "switch-like" formulation to describe the antioxidant response of hepatocytes to arsenic exposure. Results The cellular-level TK model applies mass action kinetics in order to predict the concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent arsenicals in hepatocytes. The model simulates uptake of arsenite (iAsIII via aquaporin isozymes 9 (AQP9s, glutathione (GSH conjugation, methylation by arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT, efflux through multidrug resistant proteins (MRPs and the induced antioxidant response via thioredoxin reductase (TR activity. The model was parameterized by optimization of model estimates for arsenite (iAsIII, monomethylated (MMA and dimethylated (DMA arsenicals concentrations with time-course experimental data in human hepatocytes for a time span of 48 hours, and dose-response data at 24 hours for a range of arsenite concentrations from 0.1 to 10 μM. Global sensitivity analysis of the model showed that at low doses the transport parameters had a dominant role, whereas at higher doses the biotransformation parameters were the most significant. A parametric comparison of the TK model with an analogous model developed for rat hepatocytes from the literature demonstrated that the biotransformation of arsenite (e.g. GSH conjugation has a large role in explaining the variation in methylation between rats and humans. Conclusions The cellular-level TK model captures the temporal modes of arsenical accumulation in human hepatocytes. It highlighted the key biological

  17. Tuning intracellular homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ben Bdira, Fredj; González, Esperanza; Pluta, Paula; Laín, Ana; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Millet, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase enzyme (UROIIIS) activity that ultimately stems from deleterious mutations in the uroS gene. C73 is a hotspot for these mutations and a C73R substitution, which drastically reduces the enzyme activity and stability, is found in almost one-third of all reported CEP cases. Here, we have studied the structural basis, by which mutations in this hotspot lead to UROIIIS destabilization. First, a strong interdependency is observed between the volume of the side chain at position 73 and the folded protein. Moreover, there is a correlation between the in vitro half-life of the mutated proteins and their expression levels in eukaryotic cell lines. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the results, showing that the mutation site is coupled to the hinge region separating the two domains. Namely, mutations at position 73 modulate the inter-domain closure and ultimately affect protein stability. By incorporating residues capable of interacting with R73 to stabilize the hinge region, catalytic activity was fully restored and a moderate increase in the kinetic stability of the enzyme was observed. These results provide an unprecedented rationale for a destabilizing missense mutation and pave the way for the effective design of molecular chaperones as a therapy against CEP.

  18. Category-Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex Follows Cortical Topology: A Grouped icEEG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that category-selective regions in higher-order visual cortex are topologically organized around specific anatomical landmarks: the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC and lateral occipital sulcus (LOS in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC. To derive precise structure-function maps from direct neural signals, we collected intracranial EEG (icEEG recordings in a large human cohort (n = 26 undergoing implantation of subdural electrodes. A surface-based approach to grouped icEEG analysis was used to overcome challenges from sparse electrode coverage within subjects and variable cortical anatomy across subjects. The topology of category-selectivity in bilateral VTC and LOC was assessed for five classes of visual stimuli-faces, animate non-face (animals/body-parts, places, tools, and words-using correlational and linear mixed effects analyses. In the LOC, selectivity for living (faces and animate non-face and non-living (places and tools classes was arranged in a ventral-to-dorsal axis along the LOS. In the VTC, selectivity for living and non-living stimuli was arranged in a latero-medial axis along the MFS. Written word-selectivity was reliably localized to the intersection of the left MFS and the occipito-temporal sulcus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence for topological information structuring of functional representations within higher-order visual cortex.

  19. Biophysical characterization of G protein ectodomain of group B human respiratory syncytial virus from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wajihul Hasan; Srungaram, V L N Raghuram; Islam, Asimul; Beg, Ilyas; Haider, Md Shakir H; Ahmad, Faizan; Broor, Shobha; Parveen, Shama

    2016-07-03

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is an important pathogen of acute respiratory tract infection. The G protein of hRSV is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a neutralizing antigen and is thus a vaccine candidate. In this study, synthetic codon optimized ectodomain G protein [G(ΔTM)] of BA genotype of group B hRSV was cloned, expressed, and characterized using biophysical techniques. The molar absorption coefficient and mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm ([θ]222) of G (ΔTM) was found to be 7950 M(-1) cm(-1) and -19701.7 deg cm(2) dmol(-1) respectively. It was concluded that G(ΔTM) mainly consist of α-helix (74.9%) with some amount of β-sheet (4%). The protein was stable up to 85°C without any transition curve. However, heat-induced denaturation of G(ΔTM) resulted in total loss of β-sheet whereas not much change was observed in the α-helix part of the secondary structure. It was concluded that G(ΔTM) is an α-helical protein and it is highly stable at high temperature, but could be easily denatured using high concentrations of GdmCl/urea or acidic condition. This is the first investigation of cloning, expression, and characterization of G(ΔTM) of BA viruses from India. Structural characterization of G protein will assist in drug designing and vaccine development for hRSV.

  20. Inborn errors of the Krebs cycle: a group of unusual mitochondrial diseases in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, P; Bourgeron, T; Parfait, B; Chretien, D; Munnich, A; Rötig, A

    1997-08-22

    Krebs cycle disorders constitute a group of rare human diseases which present an amazing complexity considering our current knowledge on the Krebs cycle function and biogenesis. Acting as a turntable of cell metabolism, it is ubiquitously distributed in the organism and its enzyme components encoded by supposedly typical house-keeping genes. However, the investigation of patients presenting specific defects of Krebs cycle enzymes, resulting from deleterious mutations of the considered genes, leads to reconsider this simple envision by revealing organ-specific impairments, mostly affecting neuromuscular system. This often leaves aside organs the metabolism of which strongly depends on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well, such as heart, kidney or liver. Additionally, in some patients, a complex pattern of tissue-specific enzyme defect was also observed. The lack of functional additional copies of Krebs cycle genes suggests that the complex expression pattern should be ascribed to tissue-specific regulations of transcriptional and/or translational activities, together with a variable cell adaptability to Krebs cycle functional defects.

  1. Interaction of a human blood group Sd(a-) Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein with applied lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Watkins, W M; Chen, C P; Song, S C; Wu, A M

    1996-04-22

    Unlike the human blood group Sd(a+) Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THGP), the Sd(a-) one lacks terminal GalNAcbeta1--> residues at the nonreducing ends. The binding properties of this glycoprotein and its asialo product with lectins were characterized by quantitative precipitin (QPA) and precipitin inhibition assays. Among 20 lectins tested by QPA, both native and asialo Sd(a-) THGP reacted best with Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis and completely precipitated the lectin added. They also precipitated well Wistaria floribunda (WFA), Glycine max (SBA), Bauhinia purpurea alba, abrin-a and ricin, all of which recognize the Galbeta1--> 4GlcNAcbeta1--> sequence, although at different strength. The lectin-glycan interactions were inhibited by Galbeta1--> 4GlcNAc and Galbeta1--> 4Glc. When the precipitability of Sd(a-) THGP was compared with that of the Sd(a+) phenotype, the native Sd(a-) THGP exhibited a 40% lesser affinity for WFA, SBA, WGA and mistletoe lectin-I (ML-I). Mapping the precipitation and inhibition profiles of the present study and the results of THGP Sd(a+), it is concluded that Sd(a-) THGP showed a strongly diminished affinity for GalNAcbeta1--> active lectins (SBA and WFA) than the Sd(a+) phenotype.

  2. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  3. Group B strains of human respiratory syncytial virus in Saudi Arabia: molecular and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-04-01

    The genetic variability and circulation pattern of human respiratory syncytial virus group B (HRSV-B) strains, identified in Riyadh during the winters of 2008 and 2009, were evaluated by partial sequencing of the attachment (G) protein gene. The second hypervariable region (HVR-2) of G gene was amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to representatives of different HRSV-B genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Saudi strains belonged to the genotype BA, which is characterized by 60-nucleotide duplication at HVR-2. Only strains of 2008 were clustered with subgroup BA-IV, while those isolated at 2009 were clustered among the most recent subgroups (particularly BA-X and CB-B). Amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated 18 amino acid substitutions in Saudi HRSV-B strains; among which five are specific for individual strains. Furthermore, two potential N-glycosylation sites at residues 230 and 296 were identified for all Saudi strains, and an additional site at amino acid 273 was found only in Riyadh 28/2008 strain. O-glycosylation was predicted in 42-43 sites, where the majority (no = 38) are highly conserved among Saudi strains. The average ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous mutations (ω) implied stabilizing selection pressure on G protein, with evidences of positive selection on certain Saudi strains. This report provides preliminary data on the circulation pattern and molecular characteristics of HRSV-B strains circulating in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowcroft Natasha S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS, often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents

  5. Human papillomavirus genotyping and p16 expression as prognostic factors for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup-Hansen, Eva; Linnemann, Dorte; Skovrider-Ruminski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Carcinomas of the anal canal are strongly associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Expression of p16 is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection. In a retrospective study, we evaluated HPV genotyping and p16 expression as prognostic markers of overall survival (OS) and disease......-specific survival (DSS) in patients diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III carcinoma of the anal canal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HPV genotyping polymerase chain reaction (high-risk subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) and immunohistochemical expression of p16 were analyzed...... by using paraffin-embedded tumor biopsies from 143 anal carcinomas. The patients were treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. RESULTS: HPV16 was detected in 81.0% of the tumors, followed by HPV33 (5.1%), HPV18 (2.2%), and HPV58 (0.7%). p16 positivity was found in 92.9% of the tumors...

  6. The human red cell voltage-dependent cation channel. Part III: Distribution homogeneity and pH dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennekou, P.; Barksmann, T. L.; Christophersen, P.

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneity of the distribution of the non-selective voltage-dependent cation channel (the NSVDC channel) in the human erythrocyte, and the pH dependence was investigated. Activation of this channel caused a uniform cellular dehydration, which was characterized by the changes in the erythrocyte...

  7. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. III. Passive properties of pig detrusor and human a terme uterus cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); A.J. van Koeveringe (Bram)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractCells isolated from pig urinary bladders and pregnant full term human uteruses were attached longitudinally between a microforce transducer and a length displacement apparatus. Cells were stretched by applying a series of ramp-like length changes of 0.2 s duration and 10.0 microns amplit

  8. Risk factors for GI adverse events in a phase III randomized trial of bevacizumab in first-line therapy of advanced ovarian cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Robert A; Brady, Mark F; Bookman, Michael A; Monk, Bradley J; Walker, Joan L; Homesley, Howard D; Fowler, Jeffrey; Greer, Benjamin E; Boente, Matthew; Fleming, Gini F; Lim, Peter C; Rubin, Stephen C; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Liang, Sharon X

    2014-04-20

    To evaluate risk factors for GI adverse events (AEs) within a phase III trial of bevacizumab in first-line ovarian cancer therapy. Women with previously untreated advanced disease after surgery were randomly allocated to six cycles of platinum-taxane chemotherapy plus placebo cycles (C)2 to C22 (R1); chemotherapy plus bevacizumab C2 to C6 plus placebo C7 to C22 (R2); or chemotherapy plus bevacizumab C2 to C22 (R3). Patients were evaluated for history or on-study development of potential risk factors for GI AEs defined as grade ≥ 2 perforation, fistula, necrosis, or hemorrhage. Of 1,873 patients enrolled, 1,759 (94%) were evaluable, and 2.8% (50 of 1,759) experienced a GI AE: 10 of 587 (1.7%, R1), 20 of 587 (3.4%, R2), and 20 of 585 (3.4%, R3). Univariable analyses indicated that previous treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; P = .005) and small bowel resection (SBR; P = .032) or large bowel resection (LBR; P = .012) at primary surgery were significantly associated with a GI AE. The multivariable estimated relative odds of a GI AE were 13.4 (95% CI, 3.44 to 52.3; P GI AEs in patients receiving first-line platinum-taxane chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. After accounting for these risk factors, concurrent bevacizumab doubles the odds of a GI AE, but is not appreciably increased by continuation beyond chemotherapy.

  9. Human relations with soil are changing rapidly: SSSA's new Work Group on Soil Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanity has rapidly become Earth’s chief agent of soil change, and geologists have named the epoch in which we live the Anthropocene, due to the global scale of human impact on the environment, including soil. In response to the increasing influence of humans on soil processes, the disciplines of ...

  10. Synthesis, complexation and water exchange properties of Gd(III)-TTDA-mono and bis(amide) derivatives and their binding affinity to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ming-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chang, Ya-Hui; Lu, Wen-Kuei; Liu, Gin-Chung; Wang, Yun-Ming

    2007-07-14

    With the objective of tuning the lipophilicity of ligands and maintaining the neutrality and stability of Gd(III) chelate, we designed and synthesized two bis(amide) derivatives of TTDA, TTDA-BMA and TTDA-BBA, and a mono(amide) derivative, TTDA-N-MOBA. The ligand protonation constants and complex stability constants for various metal ions were determined in this study. The identification of the microscopic sites of protonation of the amide ligand by 1H NMR titrations show that the first protonation site occurs on the central nitrogen atom. The values of the stability constant of TTDA-mono and bis(amide) complex are significantly lower than those of TTDA and DTPA, but the selectivity constants of these ligands for Gd(III) over Zn(II) and Cu(II) are slightly higher than those of TTDA and DTPA. On the basis of the water-exchange rate values available for [Gd(TTDA-BMA)(H2O)], [Gd(TTDA-BBA)(H2O)] and [Gd(TTDA-N-MOBA)(H2O)]-, we can state that, in general, the replacement of one carboxylate group by an amide group decreases the water-exchange rate of the gadolinium(III) complexes by a factor of about three to five. The decrease in the exchange rate is explained in terms of a decreased steric crowding and charge effect around the metal ion when carboxylates are replaced by an amide group. In addition, to support the HSA protein binding studies of lipophilic [Gd(TTDA-N-MOBA)(H2O)]- and [Gd(TTDA-BBA)(H2O)] complexes, further protein-complex binding was studied by ultrafiltration and relaxivity studies. The binding constants (KA) of [Gd(TTDA-N-MOBA)(H2O)]- and [Gd(TTDA-BBA)(H2O)] are 8.6 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(4) dm3 mol(-1), respectively. The bound relaxivities (r1(b)) are 51.8 and 52 dm3 mmol(-1) s(-1), respectively. The KA value of [Gd(TTDA-BBA)(H2O)] is similar to that of MS-325 and indicates a stronger interaction of [Gd(TTDA-BBA)(H2O)] with HSA.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of bromelain in human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines (MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, and HT29-5M21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Afshin Amini, Anahid Ehteda, Samar Masoumi Moghaddam, Javed Akhter, Krishna Pillai, David Lawson Morris Department of Surgery, St George Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract with a variety of therapeutic benefits arising from interaction with a number of different biological processes. Several preclinical studies and anecdotal clinical observations have reported the anticancer properties of bromelain. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of bromelain in four human cancer cell lines of gastrointestinal origin and the mechanisms involved. Methods: The gastric carcinoma cell lines (KATO-III and MKN45 and two chemoresistant subpopulations of the HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29-5M21 and HT29-5F12 were treated with a range of concentrations of bromelain, as well as with cisplatin as a positive control. The effect of bromelain on the growth and proliferation of cancer cells was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay after 72 hours of treatment. Expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in MKN45 cells treated with bromelain was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: Data from our sulforhodamine B assay showed that bromelain inhibited proliferation of HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21, MKN45, and KATO-III cells, with respective half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 29, 34, 94, and 142 µg/mL. Analyzing the expression of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in bromelain-treated MKN45 cells, we observed activation of the caspase system, cleavage of PARP and p53, overexpression of cytochrome C, attenuation of phospho-Akt and Bcl2, and removal of MUC1. Apart from the caspase-dependent apoptosis observed, emergence of cleaved p53 supports a direct, extranuclear apoptotic function of p53. Moreover, interrupted Akt signaling and attenuation of Bcl2 and MUC1 oncoproteins suggest impaired survival of cancer cells. Conclusion: Our findings

  12. Phylogeny and ontogeny of the phosphoglycerate mutases - III. Inactivation of rabbit muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (type M isozyme) by the sulfhydryl group reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, J; Bosch, J; Mezquita, J

    1982-01-01

    1. The three phosphoglycerate mutase isozymes from mammals (types M, B and MB isozymes) differ in their sensitivity to the - SH group reagents. 2. Rabbit muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (type M isozyme) is reversibly inactivated by tetrathionate, rho-chloromercuribenzoate and Hg2+. 3. Titration with rho-chloromercuribenzoate shows the existence of two sulfhydryl groups per enzyme subunit, the modification of which produces a progressive decline in enzyme activity. 4. The apparent Km values for substrate and cofactor are not affected by tetrathionate treatment. 5. Phosphoglycerate mutase inactivated by tetrathionate and by rho-chloromercuribenzoate is unable to form the functionally active phosphorylenzyme when mixed with glycerate-2,3-P2, and is not protected by the cofactor against heating. 6. Glycerate-2,3-P2 protects against tetrathionate treatment, but fails to protect against Hg2+ and rho-chloromercuribenzoate inactivation.

  13. Human Polycomb group EED protein negatively affects HIV-1 assembly and release

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    Darlix Jean-Luc

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group (PcG proteins with WD-40 repeats, has been found to interact with three HIV-1 components, namely the structural Gag matrix protein (MA, the integrase enzyme (IN and the Nef protein. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible biological role of EED in HIV-1 replication, using the HIV-1-based vector HIV-Luc and EED protein expressed by DNA transfection of 293T cells. Results During the early phase of HIV-1 infection, a slight negative effect on virus infectivity occurred in EED-expressing cells, which appeared to be dependent on EED-MA interaction. At late times post infection, EED caused an important reduction of virus production, from 20- to 25-fold as determined by CAp24 immunoassay, to 10- to 80-fold based on genomic RNA levels, and this decrease was not due to a reduction of Gag protein synthesis. Coexpression of WTNef, or the non-N-myristoylated mutant NefG2A, restored virus yields to levels obtained in the absence of exogenous EED protein. This effect was not observed with mutant NefΔ57 mimicking the Nef core, or with the lipid raft-retargeted fusion protein LAT-Nef. LATAA-Nef, a mutant defective in the lipid raft addressing function, had the same anti-EED effect as WTNef. Cell fractionation and confocal imaging showed that, in the absence of Nef, EED mainly localized in membrane domains different from the lipid rafts. Upon co-expression with WTNef, NefG2A or LATAA-Nef, but not with NefΔ57 or LAT-Nef, EED was found to relocate into an insoluble fraction along with Nef protein. Electron microscopy of HIV-Luc producer cells overexpressing EED showed significant less virus budding at the cell surface compared to control cells, and ectopic assembly and clustering of nuclear pore complexes within the cytoplasm. Conclusion Our data suggested that EED exerted an antiviral activity at the late stage of HIV-1 replication, which included genomic

  14. Vinorelbine and gemcitabine vs vinorelbine and carboplatin as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. A phase III randomised controlled trial by the Norwegian Lung Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtten, Ø; Grønberg, B H; Bremnes, R;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but earlier studies have suggested that non-platinum combinations are equally effective and better tolerated. We conducted a national, randomised study to compare...... of radiotherapy did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: The two regimens yielded similar overall survival. The VG combination had only a slightly better toxicity profile....

  15. Influence of human cytomegalvirus on the expression of natural-killer group 2-members receptors on the natural killer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾绍庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of human cytomegalovirus(CMV)on the expressions of natural-killer group2-members(NKG2),including natural-killer group 2-member A(NKG2A),natural-killer group 2-member C(NKG2C)and natural-killer group 2-member D(NKG2D)receptors on the natural killer(NK)cells.Methods NK cells were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 20 healthy individuals using

  16. Mapping the interfacial binding surface of human secretory group IIa phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitko, Y; Koduri, R S; Han, S K; Othman, R; Baker, S F; Molini, B J; Wilton, D C; Gelb, M H; Cho, W

    1997-11-25

    Human secretory group IIa phospholipase A2 (hIIa-PLA2) contains a large number of prominent cationic patches on its molecular surface and has exceptionally high affinity for anionic surfaces, including anionic membranes. To identify the cationic amino acid residues that support binding of hIIa-PLA2 to anionic membranes, we have performed extensive site-directed mutagenesis of this protein and measured vesicle binding and interfacial kinetic properties of the mutants using polymerized liposomes and nonpolymerized anionic vesicles. Unlike other secretory PLA2s, which have a few cationic residues that support binding of enzyme to anionic membranes, interfacial binding of hIIa-PLA2 is driven in part by electrostatic interactions involving a number of cationic residues forming patches on the putative interfacial binding surface. Among these residues, the amino-terminal patch composed of Arg-7, Lys-10, and Lys-16 makes the most significant contribution to interfacial adsorption, and this is supplemented by contributions from other patches, most notably Lys-74/Lys-87/Arg-92 and Lys-124/Arg-127. For these mutants, complete vesicle binding occurs in the presence of high vesicle concentrations, and under these conditions the mutants display specific activities comparable to that of wild-type enzyme. These studies indicate that electrostatic interactions between surface lysine and arginine residues and the interface contribute to interfacial binding of hIIa-PLA2 to anionic vesicles and that cationic residues closest to the opening of the active-site slot make the most important interactions with the membrane. However, because the wild type binds extremely tightly to anionic vesicles, it was not possible to exactly determine what fraction of the total interfacial binding energy is due to electrostatics.

  17. Lineage specific expression of Polycomb Group Proteins in human embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, Prasad; Pursani, Varsha; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2015-05-01

    Human embryonic (hES) stem cells are an excellent model to study lineage specification and differentiation into various cell types. Differentiation necessitates repression of specific genes not required for a particular lineage. Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are key histone modifiers, whose primary function is gene repression. PcG proteins form complexes called Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs), which catalyze histone modifications such as H2AK119ub1, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3. PcG proteins play a crucial role during differentiation of stem cells. The expression of PcG transcripts during differentiation of hES cells into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineage is yet to be shown. In-house derived hES cell line KIND1 was differentiated into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages; followed by characterization using RT-PCR for HNF4A, CDX2, MEF2C, TBX5, SOX1, and MAP2. qRT-PCR and western blotting was performed to compare expression of PcG transcripts and proteins across all the three lineages. We observed that cells differentiated into endoderm showed upregulation of RING1B, BMI1, EZH2, and EED transcripts. Mesoderm differentiation was characterized by significant downregulation of all PcG transcripts during later stages. BMI1 and RING1B were upregulated while EZH2, SUZ12, and EED remained low during ectoderm differentiation. Western blotting also showed distinct expression of BMI1 and EZH2 during differentiation into three germ layers. Our study shows that hES cells differentiating into endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm lineages show distinct PcG expression profile at transcript and protein level.

  18. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Reed, Daniel M; Edin, Matthew L; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.

  19. Dexamethasone compared to prednisolone for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma: final results of the ALL-4 randomized, phase III trial of the EORTC Leukemia Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labar, Boris; Suciu, Stefan; Willemze, Roel; Muus, Petra; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Fillet, Georges; Berneman, Zwi; Jaksic, Branimir; Feremans, Walter; Bron, Dominique; Sinnige, Harm; Mistrik, Martin; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; De Bock, Robrecht; Nemet, Damir; Gilotay, Caroline; Amadori, Sergio; de Witte, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Background Corticosteroids are a standard component of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Our aim was to determine whether dexamethasone results in a better outcome than prednisolone. Design and Methods Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma were randomized to receive, as part of their induction therapy on days 1–8 and 15–22, either dexamethasone 8 mg/m2 or prednisolone 60 mg/m2. Those who reached complete remission were given two courses of consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone and methotrexate and asparaginase. Subsequently patients younger than 50 years, with a suitable donor, were to undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation, whereas the others were planned to receive either an autologous stem cell transplant or high-dose maintenance chemotherapy with prophylactic central nervous system irradiation. Randomization was done with a minimization technique. The primary endpoint was event-free survival and the analyses was conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Results Between August 1995 and October 2003, 325 patients between 15 to 72 years of age were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (163 patients) or prednisolone (162 patients). After induction and the course of first consolidation therapy, 131 (80.4%) patients in the dexamethasone group and 124 (76.5%) in the prednisolone group achieved complete remission. No significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups with regards to 6-year event-free survival rates (±SE) which were 25.9% (3.6%) and 28.7% (3.5%) in the dexamethasone and prednisolone groups, respectively (P=0.82, hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.75–1.25). Disease-free survival after complete remission was also similar in the dexamethasone and prednisolone groups, the 6-year rates being 32.3% and 37.5%, respectively (hazard ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval 0.76–1.40). The 6-year cumulative

  20. Type III methyltransferase M.NgoAX from Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 regulates biofilm formation and human cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eKwiatek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological factor of the sexually transmitted gonorrhea disease that may lead, under specific conditions, to systemic infections. The gonococcal genome encodes many Restriction Modification (RM systems, which main biological role is to defend the pathogen from potentially harmful foreign DNA. However, RM systems seem also to be involved in several other functions. In this study, we examined the effect of inactivation the N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 ngo0545 gene encoding M.NgoAX methyltransferase on the global gene expression, biofilm formation, interactions with human epithelial host cells and overall bacterial growth. Expression microarrays showed at least a two-fold deregulation of a total of 121 genes in the NgoAX knock-out mutant compared to the wt strain under standard grow conditions. As determined by the assay with crystal violet, the NgoAX knock-out strain formed a slightly larger biofilm biomass per cell than the wt strain (OD570/600 = 13.8  2.24 and 9.35  2.06, respectively. SCLM observations showed that the biofilm formed by the gonococcal ngo0545 gene mutant is more relaxed and dispersed than the one formed by the wt strain. Thickness of the biofilm formed by both strains was 48.3 (14.9 µm for the mutant and 28.6 (4.0 µm for the wt. This more relaxed feature of the biofilm in respect to adhesion and bacterial interactions seems advantageous for pathogenesis of the NgoAX-deficient gonococci at the stage of human epithelial cell invasion. Indeed, the overall adhesion of mutant bacterial cells to human cells was lower than adhesion of the wt gonococci (adhesion index = 0.672 ( 0.2 and 2.15 ( 1.53, respectively; yet, a higher number of mutant than wt bacteria were found inside the Hec-1-B epithelial cells (invasion index = 3.38 ( 0.93  105 for mutant and 4.67 ( 3.09  104 for the wt strain. These results indicate that NgoAX-deficient cells have lower ability to attach to human cells

  1. Epidemiological aspects of group B streptococci of bovine and human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1996-01-01

    restriction enzymes, HindIII and HhaI. All isolates could be typed by ribotyping and seven ribotypes were identified among the reference strains. The restriction enzymes used alone or in combination gave typing results that allowed discrimination between and within serotype. Combined use of serotype, Hind......Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding rRNA (ribotyping) was used in combination with conventional epidemiological markers to study phenotypic variations among Streptococcus agalactiae of bovine origin and the possible epidemiological interrelationship between the bovine...

  2. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in Lewis blood group-type epitopes, matching the maternal pattern. Previously, based on the Secretor and Lewis blood group system, four milk groups have been defined, i.e. Lewis-positive Secretors, Lewis-positive non-Secretors, Lewis-negative Secretors and Lewis-negative non-Secretors. Here, a rapid one-dimensional (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis method is presented that identifies the presence/absence of (α1-2)-, (α1-3)- and (α1-4)-linked fucose residues in HMO samples, affording the essential information to attribute different HMO samples to a specific milk group. The developed method is based on the NMR structural-reporter-group concept earlier established for glycoprotein glycans. Further evaluation of the data obtained from the analysis of 36 HMO samples shows that within each of the four milk groups the relative levels of the different fucosylation epitopes can greatly vary. The data also allow a separation of the Lewis-positive Secretor milk group into two sub-groups.

  3. The role of D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphisms in shaping human altruism and prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi eJiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human beings are an extraordinarily altruistic species often willing to help strangers at a considerable cost (sometimes life itself to themselves. But as Darwin noted …he who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature. Hence, this is the paradox of altruism. Twin studies have shown that altruism and other prosocial behavior show considerable heritability and more recently a number of candidate genes have been identified with this phenotype. Among these first provisional findings are genes encoding elements of dopaminergic transmission. In this article we will review the evidence for the involvement of one of these, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene, in shaping human prosocial behavior and consider the methodologies employed in measuring this trait, specific molecular genetic findings and finally, evidence from several Gene x Environment (GxE studies that imply differential susceptibility of this gene to environmental influences.

  4. Quantitative analysis of basal dendritic tree of layer III pyramidal neurons in different areas of adult human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeba, Martina; Jovanov-Milosević, Natasa; Petanjek, Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Large long projecting (cortico-cortical) layer IIIc pyramidal neurons were recently disclosed to be in the basis of cognitive processing in primates. Therefore, we quantitatively examined the basal dendritic morphology of these neurons by using rapid Golgi and Golgi Cox impregnation methods among three distinct Brodmann areas (BA) of an adult human frontal cortex: the primary motor BA4 and the associative magnopyramidal BA9 from left hemisphere and the Broca's speech BA45 from both hemispheres. There was no statistically significant difference in basal dendritic length or complexity, as dendritic spine number or their density between analyzed BA's. In addition, we analyzed each of these BA's immunocytochemically for distribution of SMI-32, a marker of largest long distance projecting neurons. Within layer IIIc, the highest density of SMI-32 immunopositive pyramidal neurons was observed in associative BA9, while in primary BA4 they were sparse. Taken together, these data suggest that an increase in the complexity of cortico-cortical network within human frontal areas of different functional order may be principally based on the increase in density of large, SMI-32 immunopositive layer IIIc neurons, rather than by further increase in complexity of their dendritic tree and synaptic network.

  5. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Tharavichitkul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig’s blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4% and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp+epf−sly− and only 12.9% were in mrp−epf−sly+ genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp+epf−sly− genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  6. Correlation between PFGE Groups and mrp/epf/sly Genotypes of Human Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Takenami, Naoki; Pruksakorn, Sumalee; Fongcom, Achara; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Khanthawa, Banyong; Supajatura, Volaluk; Takai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is a severe zoonotic disease commonly found in Northern Thailand where people often consume raw pork and/or pig's blood. The most frequent clinical presentations are meningitis, sepsis, and endocarditis with higher rate of mortality and hearing loss sequelae. To clarify the correlation between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of S. suis serotype 2, 62 patient and 4 healthy pig isolates from Northern Thailand were studied. By PFGE analysis, at 66% homology, most human isolates (69.4%) and 1 pig isolate were in group A, whereas 14.5% of human isolates and 3 out of 4 pig isolates were in group D. According to mrp/epf/sly genotypes, 80.6% of human isolates were identified in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) and only 12.9% were in mrp (-) epf (-) sly (+) genotypes; in contrast, 1 and 3 pig isolates were detected in these two genotypes, respectively. Interestingly, all isolates of S. suis serotype 2 classified in PFGE groups A, B, and E were set in mrp (+) epf (-) sly (-) genotypes. These data show a close correlation between PFGE groups and mrp/epf/sly genotypes of human S. suis serotype 2.

  7. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies III. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around M83

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2011-01-01

    We study the resolved stellar populations of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A/M83 group of galaxies. Our goal is to characterize their evolutionary history and to investigate eventual similarities or differences with the dwarf population in other group environments. This work presents the analysis of five late-type (irregular) dwarfs found in the vicinity of the giant spiral M83. Using archival HST/ACS data, we perform synthetic color-magnitude diagram modeling to derive the star formation histories of these late-type dwarfs. The target objects show heterogeneous star formation histories, with average star formation rates of 0.08 to 0.70x10^{-2} M_odot/yr. Some of them present prolonged, global bursts of star formation (~300-500 Myr). The studied galaxies are all metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~-1.4). We further investigate the spatial extent of different stellar populations, finding that the young stars show a clumpy distribution, as opposed to the smooth, broad extent of the old ones. The actively star forming ...

  8. Influence of human growth hormone on granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, and the aminoterminal propeptide of collagen type III in wound chambers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L H; Garbarsch, C; Schuppan, D; Moe, D; Hørslev-Pedersen, K; Gottrup, F; Steenfos, H

    1994-01-01

    The influence of growth hormone on granulation tissue formation was investigated in wire mesh cylinders implanted subcutaneously in rats. Two groups of 10 rats (study 1) and 1 group of 12 rats (study 2) were used for the investigation. Growth hormone, 0.02 and 0.2 IU (study 1), 0.05 and 0.2 IU (study 2), or vehicle only, was injected into the cylinders every third day for 16 days. In study 2, wound fluid was aspirated before injection of growth hormone and saved for later analysis of the aminoterminal propeptide of collagen type III. In both studies, growth hormone significantly increased the formation of granulation tissue and of total collagen content dose-dependently, whereas the relative amount of collagen was unaffected by growth hormone treatment. Wound fluid aminopropeptide increased significantly after implantation of the cylinders until day 7, before declining slightly, with no difference between the groups. We conclude that growth hormone stimulated granulation tissue formation and collagen deposition dose-dependently in the wound cylinders when injected every third day. The results suggest that growth hormone treatment does not cause excessive collagen deposition in newly formed granulation tissue.

  9. The active gene that encodes human High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1) contains introns and maps to chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, S. [Dipartimento di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microrganismi, Milan (Italy); Finelli, P.; Rocchi, M. [Istituto di Genetica, Bari (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    The human genome contains a large number of sequences related to the cDNA for High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1), which so far has hampered the cloning and mapping of the active HMG1 gene. We show that the human HMG1 gene contains introns, while the HMG1-related sequences do not and most likely are retrotransposed pseudogenes. We identified eight YACs from the ICI and CEPH libraries that contain the human HMG1 gene. The HMG1 gene is similar in structure to the previously characterized murine homologue and maps to human chromosome 13 and q12, as determined by in situ hybridization. The mouse Hmg1 gene maps to the telomeric region of murine Chromosome 5, which is syntenic to the human 13q12 band. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  10. A classification of HTLV-III infection based on 75 cases seen in a suburban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M H; Pahwa, S G; Popovic, M; Sarngadharan, M G; Gallo, R C

    1985-09-01

    Since 1981, 75 patients have been seen at our hospital with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. We have classified their clinical presentation into Groups 0 to 6. Groups 0 to 3 all have antibody to the Mr 41,000 protein of HTLV-III. Group 0 has no evident disease (9 patients), Group 1 has lymphadenopathy with or without exaggerated infection (16 patients), Group 2 has persistent lymphadenopathy with chronic hepatitis B surface antigenemia or profound hypergammaglobulinemia (7 patients), Group 3 has oral candidiasis with or without lymphadenopathy (7 patients). In Group 4 are acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adults or children (32 patients). Group 5 is a special classification for immunocompromised patients. Group 6 patients have lymphomas and Mr 41,000 protein antibody. Four children were classified separately. Three patients in Group 3 developed Group 4 disorders (AIDS). Four patients in Group 4 developed Group 6 disorders. HTLV-III infection spread in families (8 of 36), all from infected mothers to children. In 17 sexual partners, 6 were found to be infected. Five of 6 infected partners were homosexuals. We saw an inordinate number of transfusional AIDS (4 of 29) and 1 of 46 other disorders. Two infants also presented with severe intracranial defects, one with microcephaly and one with cranial calcifications and lucency. HTLV-III is spreading with alarming speed.

  11. Dentin sialophosphoprotein knockout mouse teeth display widened predentin zone and develop defective dentin mineralization similar to human dentinogenesis imperfecta type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, Taduru; Thyagarajan, Tamizchelvi; Hall, Bradford; Longenecker, Glenn; D'Souza, Rena; Hong, Sung; Wright, J Tim; MacDougall, Mary; Sauk, John; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2003-07-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is mainly expressed in teeth by the odontoblasts and preameloblasts. The Dspp mRNA is translated into a single protein, Dspp, and cleaved into two peptides, dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein, that are localized within the dentin matrix. Recently, mutations in this gene were identified in human dentinogenesis imperfecta II (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) accession number 125490) and in dentin dysplasia II (OMIM accession number 125420) syndromes. Herein, we report the generation of Dspp-null mice that develop tooth defects similar to human dentinogenesis imperfecta III with enlarged pulp chambers, increased width of predentin zone, hypomineralization, and pulp exposure. Electron microscopy revealed an irregular mineralization front and a lack of calcospherites coalescence in the dentin. Interestingly, the levels of biglycan and decorin, small leucine-rich proteoglycans, were increased in the widened predentin zone and in void spaces among the calcospherites in the dentin of null teeth. These enhanced levels correlate well with the defective regions in mineralization and further indicate that these molecules may adversely affect the dentin mineralization process by interfering with coalescence of calcospherites. Overall, our results identify a crucial role for Dspp in orchestrating the events essential during dentin mineralization, including potential regulation of proteoglycan levels.

  12. Transcriptional activation of the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene promoter III by dopamine signaling in NT2/N neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hung; Chartier, Joanne; Sodja, Caroline; Desbois, Angele; Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, Maria; Walker, P Roy; Sikorska, Marianna

    2003-07-18

    We have identified a functional cAMP-response element (CRE) in the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter III and established that it participated in the modulation of BDNF expression in NT2/N neurons via downstream signaling from the D1 class of dopamine (DA) receptors. The up-regulation of BDNF expression, in turn, produced neuroprotective signals through receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) and promoted cell survival under the conditions of oxygen and glucose deprivation. To our knowledge this is the first evidence showing the presence of a functional CRE in the human BDNF gene and the role of DA signaling in establishing transcriptional competence of CRE in post-mitotic NT2/N neurons. This ability of DA to regulate the expression of the BDNF survival factor has a profound significance for the nigrostriatal pathway, because it indicates the existence of a feedback loop between the neutrophin, which promotes both the maturation and survival of dopaminergic neurons, and the neurotransmitter, which the mature neurons ultimately produce and release.

  13. The tiger-beetles of “hybrida”-species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae. III. A taxonomic review of the Iberian Cicindela lagunensis Gautier, 1872 complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matalin, A. V.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available On the base of morphological as well as male’s and female’s genitalia peculiarities of four subspecies of the Iberian tiger beetle Cicindela lagunensis Gautier, 1872 (according to Gebert, 1995 their taxonomic status is discussed. There are three separate species which habitat in the Iberian Peninsula: C. lagunensis, C. iberica Mandl, 1935, stat. nov. and C. lusitanica Mandl, 1935, bona spec., stat. nov. C. lusitanica includes two subspecies: C. l. lusitanica Mandl, 1935 and C. l. silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937 comb. nov. The lectotypus and paralectotypus of Cicindela (s. str. hybrida silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937 were designated. Morphological characters and genitalia of both sexes are described. The geographic distribution is given. The results of phylogenetic analysis are discussed. The Iberian species of “lagunensis”-complex make a monophyletic group with C. hybrida Linnaeus, 1758, and this group has a sister group which was made up by C. sahlbergii Fischer von Waldheim, 1824 and other related species. A key for identify the Iberian species of “lagunensis”-complex is given.Se discute el estatus taxonómico de cuatro subespecies de Cicindela lagunensis Gautier, 1872 (sensu Gebert, 1995 sobre la base tanto de la morfología externa como de las características de las genitalias masculina y femenina. En la Península Ibérica viven tres especies de Cicindela: C. lagunensis, C. iberica Mandl, 1935, stat. nov. y C. lusitanica Mandl, 1935, bona spec., stat. nov. Cidindela lusitanica incluye dos subespecies: C. l. lusitanica Mandl, 1935 y C. l. silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937 comb. nov. Se designan lectotipo y paralectotipos de Cicindela (s. str. hybrida silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937; se describen los caracteres morfológicos y la genitalia de ambos sexos y se proporciona la distribución geográfica de la subespecie. El análisis filogenético muestra que las especies ibéricas del complejo “lagunensis” constituyen un grupo monofilético junto

  14. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate informatio

  15. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information c

  16. Distinct expression pattern of the full set of secreted phospholipases A2 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas: sPLA2-III as a biomarker candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, C M; Wendum, D; Greenspan, E; Fléjou, J-F; Rosenberg, D W; Lambeau, G

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) represent attractive potential tumour biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various cancers. As a first step to address this issue in human colorectal cancer, we examined the expression of the full set of sPLA2s in sporadic adenocarcinomas and normal matched mucosa from 21 patients by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. In normal colon, PLA2G2A and PLA2G12A were expressed at high levels, PLA2G2D, PLA2G5, PLA2G10 and PLA2G12B at moderate levels, and PLA2G1B, PLA2G2F and PLA2G3 at low levels. In adenocarcinomas from left and right colon, the expression of PLA2G3 was increased by up to 40-fold, while that of PLA2G2D and PLA2G5 was decreased by up to 23- and 14-fold. The variations of expression for sPLA2-IID, sPLA2-III and sPLA2-V were confirmed at the protein level. The expression pattern of these sPLA2s appeared to be linked respectively to the overexpression of interleukin-8, defensin α6, survivin and matrilysin, and downregulation of SFRP-1 and RLPA-1, all these genes being associated to colon cancer. This original sPLA2 profile observed in adenocarcinomas highlights the potential role of certain sPLA2s in colon cancer and suggests that sPLA2-III might be a good candidate as a novel biomarker for both left and right colon cancers. PMID:18212756

  17. Homo-trimeric Structure of the Type IVb Minor Pilin CofB Suggests Mechanism of CFA/III Pilus Assembly in Human Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuki; Oki, Hiroya; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Takuya; Imai, Tomoya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Motooka, Daisuke; Iida, Tetsuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nakamura, Shota

    2016-03-27

    In gram-negative bacteria, the assembly of type IV pilus (T4P) and the evolutionally related pseudopilus of type II secretion system involves specialized structural proteins called pilins and pseudopilins, respectively, and is dynamically regulated to promote bacterial pathogenesis. Previous studies have suggested that a structural "tip"-like hetero-complex formed through the interaction of at least three minor (pseudo) pilins plays an important role in this process, while some members of the pathogenic type IVb subfamily are known to have only one such minor pilin subunit whose function is still unknown. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the type IVb minor pilin CofB of colonization factor antigen/III from human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli at 1.88-Å resolution. The crystal structure, in conjunction with physicochemical analysis in solution, reveals a symmetrical homo-trimeric arrangement distinct from the hetero-complexes of minor (pseudo) pilins observed in other T4P and type II secretion systems. Each CofB monomer adopts a unique three-domain architecture, in which the C-terminal β-sheet-rich lectin domain can effectively initiate trimer association of its pilin-like N-terminal domain through extensive hydrophobic interactions followed by domain swapping at the central hinge-like domain. Deletion of cofB produces a phenotype with no detectable pili formation on the cell surface, while molecular modeling indicates that the characteristic homo-trimeric structure of CofB is well situated at the pilus tip of colonization factor antigen/III formed by the major pilin CofA, suggesting a role for the minor pilin in the efficient initiation of T4P assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Linkage mapping of the gene for Type III collagen (COL3A1) to human chromosome 2q using a VNTR polymorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A.; Summar, M.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1994-03-15

    The gene for the [alpha]1(III) chain of type III collagen, COL3A1, has been previously mapped to human chromosome 2q24.3-q31 by in situ hybridization. Physical mapping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has demonstrated that COL3A1 lies within 35 kb of COL5A2. The authors genotyped the CEPH families at the COL3A2 locus using a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism within intron 25. They demonstrated significant linkage to 18 anonymous markers as well as the gene for carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSI), which had been previously mapped to this region. No recombination was seen between COL3A1 and COL5A2 (Z = 9.93 at [theta] = 0) or D2S24 (Z = 10.55 at [theta] = 0). The locus order is (D2S32-D2S138-D2S148)-(D2S24-COL5A2-COL3A1)-(D2S118-D2S161), with odds of 1:2300 for the next most likely order. These relationships are consistent with the physical mapping of COL3A1 to the distal portion of 2q and place it proximal to CPSI by means of multipoint analysis. These linkage relationships should prove useful in further studies of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and carbamyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency and provide an additional framework for localizing other genes in this region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Human RBCs blood group conversion from A to O using a novel α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase of high specific activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU ChengYu; XU Hua; WANG LiSheng; ZHANG JianGeng; ZHANG YangPei

    2008-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (aNAGA) can convert group A human red blood cells (RBCs) to group O. One novel aNAGA gene was cloned by PCR from Elizabethkingia meningosepticum isolated from a domestic clinical sample. Pure recombinant aNAGA was obtained by genetic engineering and protein purification with a calculated molecule of 49.6 kD. aNAGA was selective for terminal a-N-acetylgalacto-samine residue with a high specific activity, aNAGA could completely remove A antigens of 1 U (about 100 mL) group A1 or A2 RBCs in 1 h at pH 6.8 and 25℃ with a consumption of 1.5 or 0.4 mg recombinant enzyme. Enzyme-converted group A RBCs did not agglutinate after being mixed with monoclonal anti-A or sera of groups A, B, AB and O. Other blood group antigens except ABO had no change. FCM analy-sis showed that A antigens and A1 antigens disappeared while H antigens increased. It indicated thataNAGA successfully converted human blood group A RBCs to universally transfusable group O RBCs without the risk of ABO-incompatible transfusion reactions. This aNAGA was suitable for producing universal RBCs to increase clinical transfusion safety, improve the RBCs supply, and to decrease transfusion cost and support transfusion service in case of emergency,

  20. Notes on seasonality and subsistence of west Cantabrian human groups about 1300 BP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateos Cachorro, Ana

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Final Pleistocene palaeocommunities developed some adaptative answers to alleviate their environmental constrictions. One of them using in hunting strategies was the differential selection of some individuals by age or sex. In this study the possible ages of death are estimated from mandibles and analysed along with their processing by the human groups that lived in Caldas Cave about 13000 BP. It will try to characterize mortality patterns from the ungulates in their diet, to define the stationary character of the site and to check if it is possible to consider a tactics of intentional and differential temporal planning as an answer to a subsistence strategy. These are part of a palaeoeconomic system that organized the life of these Final Upper Paleolithic societies in face of the ecological pressures and cultural limitations that were imposed them. This analysis may allow us to estimate modes of occupation and mobility in a territory as a strategic space of resource management.

    Las paleocomunidades del Pleistoceno final desarrollaron unas respuestas de adaptación al entorno para paliar alguna de sus constricciones ambientales. Una de ellas, en lo que a técnicas de caza se refiere, era la selección diferencial de algunos individuos bien por edad o sexo. En este estudio se analizan las posibles edades de muerte estimadas a partir de las mandíbulas y el procesado antrópico de las mismas por parte de los grupos humanos que habitaron la Cueva de Las Caldas en el 13000 BP. Con ello se trata de caracterizar los patrones de mortalidad de los ungulados que formaron parte de su dieta, definir el carácter estacionario del yacimiento y comprobar si se puede hablar de una táctica de planificación temporal intencionada y diferencial como respuesta a una estrategia de subsistencia. Estos planteamientos forman parte del sistema paleoeconómico responsable del funcionamiento de estas sociedades del Paleolítico Superior Final ante las presiones

  1. Group B Streptococcus interactions with human meningeal cells and astrocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Alkuwaity

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is a leading cause of life-threatening neonatal meningitis and survivors often suffer permanent neurological damage. How this organism interacts with the meninges and subsequently with astrocytes that constitute the underlying cortical glia limitans superficialis is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate dose-dependent adherence of GBS over time to human meningioma cells and fetal astrocytes in vitro, which was not influenced by expression of either β-haemolysin/cytolysin (β-h/c toxin, different capsule serotypes or by absence of capsule (p>0.05. Internalization of GBS by both cell types was, however, a slow and an infrequent event (only 0.02-0.4% of associated bacteria were internalised by 9 h. Expression of β-h/c toxin did not play a role in invasion (p>0.05, whereas capsule expression lead to a reduction (p<0.05 in the numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered. GBS strains induced cytotoxicity as demonstrated by the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH enzyme release by 9 h and by viable staining. Increasing levels of meningioma cell death correlated with bacterial growth and the phenotype of β-h/c toxin production, i.e. from weakly, to normo- to hyper-haemolytic. However, cytotoxicity was significantly greater (p<0.05 towards astrocytes, and infection with initial MOI≥0.003 induced 70-100% LDH release. By comparing wild-type (β-h/c(+ and mutant (ΔcylE β-h/c(- strains and β-h/c toxin extracts and by using the surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in cytotoxicity inhibition experiments, β-h/c toxin was demonstrated as principally responsible for cell death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has described key events in the interactions of GBS with meningeal cells and astrocytes in vitro and a major virulence role for β-h/c toxin. Understanding the mechanisms involved will help to identify potential therapies for improving

  2. Human methanogen diversity and incidence in healthy and diseased colonic groups using mcrA gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlan Pauline D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and diversity of human methanogens are insufficiently characterised in the gastrointestinal tract of both health and disease. A PCR and clone library methodology targeting the mcrA gene was adopted to facilitate the two-fold aim of surveying the relative incidence of methanogens in health and disease groups and also to provide an overview of methanogen diversity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Results DNA faecal extracts (207 in total from a group of healthy controls and five gastrointestinal disease groups were investigated. Colorectal cancer, polypectomised, irritable bowel syndrome and the control group had largely equivalent numbers of individuals positive for methanogens (range 45–50%. Methanogen incidence in the inflammatory bowel disease groups was reduced, 24% for ulcerative colitis and 30% for Crohn's disease. Four unique mcrA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identified and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the majority of all sequences (94% retrieved from libraries were 100% identical to Methanobrevibacter smithii mcrA gene. In addition, mcrA gene sequences most closely related to Methanobrevibacter oralis and members of the order Methanosarcinales were also recovered. Conclusion The mcrA gene serves as a useful biomarker for methanogen detection in the human gut and the varying trends of methanogen incidence in the human gut could serve as important indicators of intestinal function. Although Methanobrevibacter smithii is the dominant methanogen in both the distal colon of individuals in health and disease, the diversity of methanogens is greater than previously reported. In conclusion, the low incidence of methanogens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the functionality of the methanogens and impact of methane production in addition to competitive interactions between methanogens and other microbial groups in the human gastrointestinal tract warrants further

  3. Behavior of exposed human lymphocytes to a neutron beam of the reactor TRIGA Mark III; Comportamiento de linfocitos humanos expuestos a un haz de neutrones del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal R, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Excessive exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in people who require radiation treatment, also in those for work can come to receive doses above the permitted levels. A third possibility of exposure is the release of radioactive material in which the general population is affected. Most of the time the exhibition is partial and only rarely occurs throughout the body. For various reasons, situations arise where it is impossible to determine by conventional physical methods, the amount of radiation you were exposed to the affected person and in these cases where the option to follow is the Biological Dosimetry, where the analysis of chromosomes dicentrics is used to estimate the dose of ionizing radiation exposure. A calibration curve is generated from in vitro analysis of dicentric chromosome, which are found in human lymphocytes, treated with different types and doses of radiation. The dicentric is formed from two lesions, one on each chromosome and their union results in a structure having two centromeres, acentric fragment with her for the union of several chromosomes leads to more complex structures as tri-centric s, tetra or penta-centric s, which have the same origin. The dose-response curve is estimated by observing the frequency of dicentrics and extrapolated to a dose-effect curve previously established, for which it is necessary that each lab has its own calibration curves, taking into account that for a Let low radiation, dose-effect curve follows a linear-quadratic model Y=C + {alpha}D + {beta}D. The production of dicentric chromosomes with a high Let, was studied using a beam of neutrons generated in the reactor TRIGA Mark III with an average energy of 1 MeV, adjusting the linear model Y={alpha}D. The dose-response relationship is established in blood samples from the same donor, the coefficient {alpha} of the dose-response is Y = (0.3692 {+-} 0.011 * D), also shows that saturation is reached in system 4 Gy. (Author)

  4. Acidity and lipolysis by group V secreted phospholipase A(2) strongly increase the binding of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins to human aortic proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähdesmäki, Katariina; Öörni, Katariina; Alanne-Kinnunen, Mervi; Jauhiainen, Matti; Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Kovanen, Petri T

    2012-02-01

    Local acidic areas characterize diffuse intimal thickening (DIT) and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The role of acidity in the modification and extra- and intracellular accumulation of triglyceride-rich VLDL and IDL particles has not been studied before. Here, we examined the effects of acidic pH on the activity of recombinant human group V secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-V) toward small VLDL (sVLDL), IDL, and LDL, on the binding of these apoB-100-containing lipoproteins to human aortic proteoglycans, and on their uptake by human monocyte-derived macrophages. At acidic pH, the ability of sPLA(2)-V to lipolyze the apoB-100-containing lipoproteins was moderately, but significantly, increased while binding of the lipoproteins to proteoglycans increased >60-fold and sPLA(2)-V-modification further doubled the binding. Moreover, acidic pH more than doubled macrophage uptake of soluble complexes of sPLA(2)-V-LDL with aortic proteoglycans. Proteoglycan-affinity chromatography at pH 7.5 and 5.5 revealed that sVLDL, IDL, and LDL consisted of populations with different proteoglycan-binding affinities, and, surprisingly, the sVLDL fractions with the highest proteoglycan-affinity contained only low amounts of apolipoproteins E and C-III. Our results suggest that in atherosclerotic lesions with acidic extracellular pH, sPLA(2)-V is able to lipolyze sVLDL, IDL, and LDL, and increase their binding to proteoglycans. This is likely to provoke extracellular accumulation of lipids derived from these atherogenic lipoprotein particles and to increase the progression of the atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. The 1st Baltic Osseointegration Academy and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Consensus Conference 2016. Summary and Consensus Statements: Group III - Peri-Implantitis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria e Almeida, Ricardo; Cicciù, Marco; Daugela, Povilas; Ramanauskaite, Ausra; Saulacic, Nikola; Tervonen, Tellervo; Wang, Hom-Lay; Yu, Shan-Huey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The task of Group 3 was to review and update the existing data concerning non-surgical, surgical non-regenerative and surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis. Special interest was paid to the preventive and supporting therapy in case of peri-implantitis. Material and Methods The main areas of interest were as follows: effect of smoking and history of periodontitis, prosthetic treatment mistakes, excess cement, overloading, general diseases influence on peri-implantitis development. The systematic review and/or meta-analysis were registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic reviews: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/. The literature in the corresponding areas of interest was searched and reported using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) Statement: http://www.prisma-statement.org/. The method of preparation of systematic reviews of the literature based on comprehensive search strategies was discussed and standardized. The summary of the materials and methods employed by the authors in preparing the systematic review and/or meta-analysis is presented in Preface chapter. Results The results and conclusions of the review process are presented in the respective papers. The group′s general commentaries, consensus statements, clinical recommendations and implications for research are presented in this article. PMID:27833741

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Isolates Containing Incompatibility Group I1 Plasmids from Swine, Poultry, and Human Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldhone, Pravin R; Khajanchi, Bijay K; Han, Jing; Nayak, Rajesh; Ricke, Steven C; Foley, Steven L

    2017-09-28

    The draft genome sequences of eight Salmonella enterica isolates from various sources were evaluated for the influence of incompatibility group I1 (IncI1) plasmids on virulence. Strains SE142, SE143, SE144, and SE146 originated from swine, SE36N and SE89N from poultry-related sources, and SE991 and SE1148 from human patients.

  7. The Reasoned Arguments of a Group of Future Biotechnology Technicians on a Controversial Socio-Scientific Issue: Human Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Chouchane, Habib

    2011-01-01

    We tried to determine the reasoning behind the stances taken by a group of 19-21-year-old students on the controversial issue of the feasibility and acceptability of human gene therapy. The students were in training at a biotechnology institute. We organised classroom debates, punctuated by phases of epistemological "disturbances". We…

  8. The role of ventilation and HVAC systems for human health in nonindustrial indoor environments. A supplementary review by EUROVEN group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sundell, Jan; Bischof, W.;

    2002-01-01

    with increased productivity, and that air-conditioning systems may increase the risk of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms. Taking these findings into account, the group has elaborated 35 hypotheses on the role of ventilation ahd HVAC systems in nonindustrial indoor environments with regard to human health......A continuation of the earlier work of the multidisciplinary group of European scientists, EUROVEN, is presented. The group has previously concluded that increased ventilation rates in indoor nonindustrial environments are strongly associated with improved comfort and health and may be associated...... of ventilation and air-conditioning systems, as well as their intermittent operation, may be potential reasons for health problems of people staying indoors....

  9. Variable Stars in Local Group Galaxies. III. And VII, NGC 147, and NGC 185: Insight into the Building Blocks of the M31 Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Bernard, E. J.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Dall'Ora, M.; Stetson, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    We present the discovery of 1568 RR Lyrae stars in three of the most luminous M31 satellites: And VII (573), NGC 147 (177), and NGC 185 (818). We use their properties to study the formation history of Local Group spiral haloes, and in particular, to infer about the nature of their possible building blocks by comparison with available data for RR Lyrae stars in the halo and in a sample of satellites of M31 and the Milky Way. We find that the brightest satellites and the halos of both galaxies host a number of High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) RR Lyrae variable stars, which are missing in the faintest satellites. HASP variable stars have been shown by Fiorentino et al. to be tracers of a population of stars as metal-rich as [Fe/H] ≃ -1.5 and older than ≃ 10 {Gyr}. This suggests that the metal-rich M31 and MW halo component, which manifests through the HASP phenomenon, comes from massive dwarf galaxy building blocks, as the low-mass dwarfs did not chemically enrich fast enough to produce them. All detected variable stars are new discoveries; in particular, this work presents the first detections of RR Lyrae stars in And VII. Moreover, a number of candidate Anomalous Cepheids, and binary and long-period variable stars have been detected. We provide pulsation properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude), light curves, and time series photometry for all of the variable stars in the three galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #10430 and #11724.

  10. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    study was to identify human GIB (hGIB) in the normal human eye and investigate the pattern of expression in patients with eye diseases involving hGIB-rich cells. METHODS: Human GIB mRNA was identified in the human retina by means of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against...... hGIB were obtained and immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and pathological eyes. Donor eyes from patients with descemetization of the cornea, Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy, age-related macular degeneration, malignant choroidal melanoma......, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma were evaluated. RESULTS: Expression of hGIB was found in various cells of the eye. The most abundant expression was found in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the inner photoreceptor segments, ganglion cells and the corneal endothelium. We explored diseases involving...

  11. Cooperative Learning Groups and the Evolution of Human Adaptability : (Another Reason) Why Hermits Are Rare in Tonga and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hernandez, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge. We analyze these four qualities within the context of a small-scale agricultural society using data we collected in 2010 and 2012. Through an analysis of surveys, interviews, and observations in the Tongan islands, we describe the role CLGs likely plays in facilitating individuals' learning of adaptive information. Our analysis of group affiliation, membership, and topics of conversation suggest that the first three CLG qualities reflect conditions for adaptive learning in groups. We utilize ethnographic anecdotes to suggest the fourth quality is also conducive to adaptive group learning. Using an evolutionary model, we further explore the scope for CLGs outside the Tongan socioecological context. Model analysis shows that environmental volatility and migration rates among human groups mediate the scope for CLGs. We call for wider attention to how group structure facilitates learning in informal settings, which may be key to assessing the contribution of groups to the evolution of complex, adaptive culture.

  12. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakman, C; Francis, P A; Crown, J;

    2013-01-01

    Background In women with node-positive breast cancer, the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 tested the incorporation of docetaxel (Taxotere) into doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-based chemotherapy, and compared sequential and concurrent docetaxel. At 5 years, there was a trend for improved disease......-free survival (DFS) with docetaxel. We present results at 8-year median follow-up and exploratory analyses within biologically defined subtypes. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (i) sequential control: doxorubicin (A) (75 mg/m(2)) × 4 →classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate......, 5-fluorouracil (CMF); (ii) concurrent control: doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide (AC)(60/600 mg/m(2)) × 4 →CMF; (iii) sequential docetaxel: A (75 mg/m(2)) × 3 → docetaxel (T) (100 mg/m(2)) × 3 → CMF and (iv) concurrent docetaxel: AT(50/75 mg/m(2)) × 4 →CMF. The primary comparison evaluated docetaxel...

  13. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP.

  14. Tomo III

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad, hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Animal. Tomo III. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Primera Parte Prólogo Artículo 1°De los cuadrúpedos útiles al hombre a varios usos y a su sustento. Vaca Caballos Carneros de la tierra, especie de camellos Vicuña Guanacos Puercos monteses Artículo 2...

  15. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O strains isolated from Cameroonian patients living in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussert-Ajaka, I; Chaix, M L; Korber, B; Letourneur, F; Gomas, E; Allen, E; Ly, T D; Brun-Vézinet, F; Simon, F; Saragosti, S

    1995-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide sequences encoding p24Gag and the Env C2V3 region were obtained from seven patients who were selected on the basis of having paradoxical seronegativity on a subset of HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection kits and having atypical Western blot (immunoblot) reactivity. Sequence analyses showed that all of these strains were more closely related to the recently described Cameroonian HIV isolates of group O (HIV-1 outlier) than to group M (HIV-1 major). All seven patients had Cameroonian origins but were living in France at the time the blood samples were taken. Characterization of a large number of group M strains has to date revealed eight distinct genetic subtypes (A to H). Genetic distances between sequences from available group O isolates were generally comparable to those observed in M intersubtype sequence comparisons, showing that the group O viruses are genetically very diverse. Analysis of sequences from these seven new viral strains, combined with the three previously characterized group O strains, revealed few discernable phylogenetic clustering patterns among the 10 patients' viral sequences. The level of diversity among group O sequences suggests that they may have a comparable (or greater) age than the M group sequences, although for unknown reasons, the latter group dispersed first and is the dominant lineage in the pandemic.

  16. Unique case of oligoastrocytoma with recurrence and grade progression: Exhibiting differential expression of high mobility group-A1 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Puneet; Khare, Richa; Niraj, Kavita; Garg, Nitin; Sorte, Sandeep K; Gulwani, Hanni

    2016-09-16

    Mixed gliomas, primarily oligoastrocytomas, account for about 5%-10% of all gliomas. Distinguishing oligoastrocytoma based on histological features alone has limitations in predicting the exact biological behavior, necessitating ancillary markers for greater specificity. In this case report, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and high mobility group-A1 (HMGA1); markers of proliferation and stemness, have been quantitatively analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of a 34 years old patient with oligoastrocytoma. Customized florescence-based immunohistochemistry protocol with enhanced sensitivity and specificity is used in the study. The patient presented with a history of generalized seizures and his magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed infiltrative ill-defined mass lesion with calcified foci within the left frontal white matter, suggestive of glioma. He was surgically treated at our center for four consecutive clinical events. Histopathologically, the tumor was identified as oligoastrocytoma-grade II followed by two recurrence events and final progression to grade III. Overall survival of the patient without adjuvant therapy was more than 9 years. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, p53, Ki-67, nuclear atypia index, pre-operative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, are the other parameters assessed. Findings suggest that hTERT and HMGA1 are linked to tumor recurrence and progression. Established markers can assist in defining precise histopathological grade in conjuction with conventional markers in clinical setup.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and anticancer studies of metal-antibiotic chelations: Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) chloramphenicol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khodir, Fatima A. I.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2016-09-01

    Four Ca(II), Fe(III), Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes of chloramphenicol drug have been synthesized and well characterized using elemental analyses, (infrared, electronic, and 1H-NMR) spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, and thermal analyses. Infrared spectral data show that the chloramphenicol drug coordinated to Ca(II), Pd(II) and Au(III) metal ions through two hydroxyl groups with 1:1 or 1:2 M ratios, but Fe(III) ions chelated towards chloramphenicol drug via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of amide group with 1:2 ratio based on presence of keto↔enol form. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to identify the nano-size particles of both iron(III) and gold(III) chloramphenicol complexes. The antimicrobial assessments of the chloramphenicol complexes were scanned and collected the results against of some kind of bacteria and fungi. The cytotoxic activity of the gold(III) complex was tested against the human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) tumor cell lines.

  18. Persistent improved results after adding vincristine and bleomycin to a cyclophosphamide/hydroxorubicin/Vm-26/prednisone combination (CHVmP) in stage III-IV intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Bron, D; Noordijk, E M; Cosset, J M; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A

    1997-01-01

    CHOP has been and still is regarded by many as the 'standard' treatment of advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In 1980 the EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group started a study to evaluate the addition of vincristine and bleomycin to its standard four-drug combination chemotherapy, CHVmP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxorubicin, Vm-26, prednisone). Eligible patients were stage III or IV, intermediate- to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Working Formulation E-I). One-hundred-eighty-nine patients were entered, of whom 140 were eligible and evaluable. A previous report showed an improved response rate and failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival for the combination CHVmP-VB. At ten years, the outcome still favors the addition of vincristine and bleomycin. The FFS was 34% vs. 23% and the overall survival 34% vs 22%. This difference was mainly due to a difference in CR rate (74% vs. 49%), Relapse-free survival for patients reaching a CR was the same in both arms. When the patients were grouped according to the International Prognostic Factor Index, no statistically significant difference could be observed in favor of one treatment within either group. This trial clearly demonstrates the benefit gained by the addition of vincristine and bleomycin to 'standard' chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  19. Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments.

  20. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space.

  1. Core Concepts of Human Rights and Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups in the Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite a highly progressive legislation and clear governmental commitment, living conditions among persons with disabilities in Namibia are systematically lower than among persons without disabilities. This implies that persons with disabilities are denied equal opportunities to participate and contribute to society, and consequently are denied their human rights.Methods: EquiFrame, an innovative policy analysis framework, was used to analyse Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services. EquiFrame evaluates the degree of stated commitment of an existing health policy to 21 Core Concepts of human rights and to 12 Vulnerable Groups, guided by the ethos of universal, equitable and accessible health services.Results: A number of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups were found to be absent in the Namibian Policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services, and its Overall Summary Ranking was assessed as Moderate.Conclusion and Implications: The Namibian health sector faces significant challenges in addressing inequities with respect to its policy on Orthopaedic Technical Services. If policy content, or policy ‘on the books’, is not inclusive of vulnerable groups and observant of core concepts of human rights, then health practices are also unlikely to do so. This paper illustrates that EquiFrame can provide the strategic guidance for the reform of Namibian Orthopaedic Technical Services policy, leading to universal and equitable access to healthcare.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.132

  2. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with folfox-cetuximab in stage III oesophagus and cardia carcinomas: final results of the phase-II Erafox study of the Gercor group; Chimioradiotherapie concomitante par folfox-cetuximab dans les carcinomes du cardia et de l'oesophage de stade III: resultats definitifs de l'etude de phase II Erafox du groupe Gercor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lledo, G.; Mammar, V.; Michel, P. [Hopital Jean-Mermoz, Lyon (France); Dahan, L. [CHU Rouen, Rouen (France); Mineur, L.; Dupuis, O. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84000 Avignon (France); Galais, M.P. [CHU Timone, Marseille (France); Chibaudel, B. [InstitutJean-Godinot, Reims (France); Jovenin, N. [Gercor, Paris (France); Gramont, A. de [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report and discuss the results of a French national multicentre study which aimed at assessing the efficiency and tolerance of a folfox- and cetuximab-based chemotherapy concomitant with a radiotherapy for the treatment of stage-III cardia and oesophagus cancers. Patients (60 men and 19 women) have been selected according to the carcinoma type, performance index, age, weight loss over the last six months. Results are discussed in terms of response, steadiness, advancement, grade 3 and 4 toxicity, and side effects. The therapeutic efficiency corresponds to an objective response rate of 77 per cent, and tolerance profile seems to be acceptable for patients suffering from locally advanced cardia and oesophagus cancer. Short communication

  3. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  4. Duffy blood group system and the malaria adaptation process in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gledson Barbosa de Carvalho; Glauber Barbosa de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens a...

  5. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.

  6. Augmented Teams -- Assembling Smart Sensors, Intelligent Networks and Humans into Agile Task Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Rijn, M. van; Marck, J.W.; Keus, D.

    2009-01-01

    Safety and security environments are full of networked devices. Despite ample research on sensor networks and network technology, there is little practical comprehensive work on how to incorporate such technologies effectively into human-centered teams. This paper discusses the challenge of assembli

  7. Assessment of implantable infusion pumps for continuous infusion of human insulin in rats: potential for group housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Molck, Anne-Marie; Martensson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    compound in these studies, and a comparator model of persistent exposure by HI infusion from external pumps has recently been developed to support toxicological evaluation of long-acting insulin analogues. However, this model requires single housing of the animals. Developing an insulin-infusion model......Group housing is considered to be important for rats, which are highly sociable animals. Single housing may impact behaviour and levels of circulating stress hormones. Rats are typically used in the toxicological evaluation of insulin analogues. Human insulin (HI) is frequently used as a reference...... which allows group housing would therefore greatly improve animal welfare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of implantable infusion pumps for HI infusion in group-housed rats. Group housing of rats implanted with a battery-driven pump proved to be possible. Intravenous...

  8. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  9. Correlations between personality traits and specific groups of alpha waves in the human EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Different individuals have alpha waves with different wavelengths. The distribution of the wavelengths is assumed to be bell-shaped and smooth. Although this view is generally accepted, it is still just an assumption and has never been critically tested. When exploring the relationship between alpha waves and personality traits, it makes a huge difference if the distribution of the alpha waves is smooth or if specific groups of alpha waves can be demonstrated. Previous studies have not considered the possibility that specific groups of alpha waves may exist. Methods. Computerized EEGs have become standard, but wavelength measurements are problematic when based on averaging procedures using the Fourier transformation because such procedures cause a large systematic error. If the actual wavelength is of interest, it is necessary to go back to basic physiology and use raw EEG signals. In the present study, measurements were made directly from sequences of alpha waves where every wave could be identified. Personality dimensions were measured using an inventory derived from the International Personality Item Pool. Results. Recordings from 200 healthy individuals revealed that there are three main groups of alpha waves. These groups had frequencies around 8, 10, and 12 waves per second. The middle group had a bimodal distribution, and a subdivision gave a total of four alpha groups. In the center of each group, the degree of extraversion was high and the degree of neuroticism was low. Many small differences in personality traits were found when the centers were compared with one another. This gave four personality profiles that resemble the four classical temperaments. When people in the surrounding zones were compared with those in the centers, relatively large differences in personality traits were found. Conclusions. Specific groups of alpha waves exist, and these groups have to be taken into account when correlations are made to personality dimensions and

  10. Autolytic activity of human calpain 7 is enhanced by ESCRT-III-related protein IST1 through MIT-MIM interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Yohei; Maemoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Ryohei; Suzuki, Hironori; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2010-11-01

    Calpain 7, a mammalian ortholog of yeast Cpl1/Rim13 and fungal PalB, is an atypical calpain that lacks a penta-EF-hand domain. Previously, we reported that a region containing a tandem repeat of microtubule-interacting and transport (MIT) domains in calpain 7 interacts with a subset of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-related proteins, suggesting involvement of calpain 7 in the ESCRT system. Although yeast and fungal calpains are thought to be involved in alkaline adaptation via limited proteolysis of specific transcription factors, proteolytic activity of calpain 7 has not been demonstrated yet. In this study, we investigated the interaction between calpain 7 and a newly reported ESCRT-III family member, increased sodium tolerance-1 (IST1), which possesses two different types of MIT-interacting motifs (MIM1 and MIM2). We found that glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused tandem MIT domains of calpain 7 (calpain 7MIT) pulled down FLAG-tagged IST1 expressed in HEK293T cells. Coimmunoprecipitation assays with various deletion or point mutants of epitope-tagged calpain 7 and IST1 revealed that both repetitive MIT domains and MIMs are required for efficient interaction. Direct MIT-MIM binding was confirmed by a pulldown experiment with GST-fused IST1 MIM and purified recombinant calpain 7MIT. Furthermore, we found that the GST-MIM protein enhances the autolysis of purified Strep-tagged monomeric green fluorescent protein (mGFP)-fused calpain 7 (mGFP-calpain 7-Strep). The autolysis was almost completely abolished by 10 mmN-ethylmaleimide but only partially inhibited by 1 mm leupeptin or E-64. The putative catalytic Cys290-substituted mutant (mGFP-calpain 7(C290S)-Strep) showed no autolytic activity. These results demonstrate for the first time that human calpain 7 is proteolytically active, and imply that calpain 7 is activated in the ESCRT system. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  11. Human candidate polymorphisms in sympatric ethnic groups differing in malaria susceptibility in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakary Maiga

    Full Text Available Malaria still remains a major public health problem in Mali, although disease susceptibility varies between ethnic groups, particularly between the Fulani and Dogon. These two sympatric groups share similar socio-cultural factors and malaria transmission rates, but Fulani individuals tend to show significantly higher spleen enlargement scores, lower parasite prevalence, and seem less affected by the disease than their Dogon neighbours. We have used genetic polymorphisms from malaria-associated genes to investigate associations with various malaria metrics between the Fulanai and Dogon groups. Two cross sectional surveys (transmission season 2006, dry season 2007 were performed. Healthy volunteers from the both ethnic groups (n=939 were recruited in a rural setting. In each survey, clinical (spleen enlargement, axillary temperature, weight and parasitological data (malaria parasite densities and species were collected, as well as blood samples. One hundred and sixty six SNPs were genotyped and 5 immunoassays (AMA1, CSP, MSP1, MSP2, total IgE were performed on the DNA and serum samples respectively. The data confirm the reduced malaria susceptibility in the Fulani, with a higher level of the protective O-blood group, and increased circulating antibody levels to several malaria antigens (p<10(-15. We identified SNP allele frequency differences between the 2 ethnic groups in CD36, IL4, RTN3 and ADCY9. Moreover, polymorphisms in FCER1A, RAD50, TNF, SLC22A4, and IL13 genes were correlated with antibody production (p-value<0.003. Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underpinning these genetic factors.

  12. Human candidate polymorphisms in sympatric ethnic groups differing in malaria susceptibility in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Bakary; Dolo, Amagana; Touré, Ousmane; Dara, Victor; Tapily, Amadou; Campino, Susana; Sepulveda, Nuno; Risley, Paul; Silva, Nilupa; Silva, Nipula; Corran, Patrick; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Clark, Taane G; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2013-01-01

    Malaria still remains a major public health problem in Mali, although disease susceptibility varies between ethnic groups, particularly between the Fulani and Dogon. These two sympatric groups share similar socio-cultural factors and malaria transmission rates, but Fulani individuals tend to show significantly higher spleen enlargement scores, lower parasite prevalence, and seem less affected by the disease than their Dogon neighbours. We have used genetic polymorphisms from malaria-associated genes to investigate associations with various malaria metrics between the Fulanai and Dogon groups. Two cross sectional surveys (transmission season 2006, dry season 2007) were performed. Healthy volunteers from the both ethnic groups (n=939) were recruited in a rural setting. In each survey, clinical (spleen enlargement, axillary temperature, weight) and parasitological data (malaria parasite densities and species) were collected, as well as blood samples. One hundred and sixty six SNPs were genotyped and 5 immunoassays (AMA1, CSP, MSP1, MSP2, total IgE) were performed on the DNA and serum samples respectively. The data confirm the reduced malaria susceptibility in the Fulani, with a higher level of the protective O-blood group, and increased circulating antibody levels to several malaria antigens (p<10(-15)). We identified SNP allele frequency differences between the 2 ethnic groups in CD36, IL4, RTN3 and ADCY9. Moreover, polymorphisms in FCER1A, RAD50, TNF, SLC22A4, and IL13 genes were correlated with antibody production (p-value<0.003). Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underpinning these genetic factors.

  13. Improving High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches for Reconstructing the Evolutionary Dynamics of Upper Paleolithic Human Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    In the last 10 years, ancient DNA research has experienced not less than a true revolution. Researchers are no longer limited to the sole characterization of short fragments of mitochondrial DNA, but can target complete genomes starting from less than a gram of osseous material. This revolution h...... work on admixture events between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans and but also suggested that the latter were organized in small family units whose members avoided inbreeding....

  14. Improving High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches for Reconstructing the Evolutionary Dynamics of Upper Paleolithic Human Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    been mainly driven by the development of High-Throughput DNA Sequencing (HTS) technologies but also by the implementation of novel molecular tools tailored to the manipulation of ultra short and damaged DNA molecules. Our ability to retrieve traces of genetic material has tremendously improved, pushing...... work on admixture events between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans and but also suggested that the latter were organized in small family units whose members avoided inbreeding....

  15. Defense of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group Meeting Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Survivability ( Plaga ) • Wright, N; OSD and DSOC Helicopter Seating Studies Zehner, G; An Overview of USAF Anthropometry Plaga , J & Hill; SAFE Association...predictions. – 1230 - 1430 Standardization - 1472H (Poston) – 1230 - 1430 Human Factors in Extreme Environments & SS ( Plaga ) • Ganey, HCN...Classification (Personnel) LT Chris Foster Dr. Hector Acosta System Safety/Health Hazards/ Survivability (SS/HH/Sv) Mr. John Plaga Technical Society

  16. Clostridium celerecrescens, often misidentified as "Clostridium clostridioforme group," is involved in rare human infection cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Philippe; K'Ouas, Guylène; Le Coustumier, Alain; Popoff, Michel R

    2012-11-01

    Misidentification of rare Clostridium species often originated from the environment as clinically relevant species is problematic. A strain isolated from a traumatic leg wound first identified as C. clostridioforme was finally identified as the rare Clostridium celerecrescens. Two similar misidentifications are reported in the literature. In order to help the phenotypic differentiation of C. celerecrescens from the close species of the "C. clostridioforme group", an identification table and differential susceptibilities to 4 selected antibiotics are proposed. Once a clinical isolate is referred to this group, identification should be definitively confirmed by unambiguous methods such as 16s rDNA sequencing. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [The function of the group tutorial in training human resources in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Pizarro, L; Rodríguez-Roa, G

    1994-01-01

    Within the educational system, the method of group tutor was developed as a teaching strategy: the tutor goes along with a group of students to field training and works with them on the systematization and analysis of the study to obtain the final report. The purpose of this paper is to recuperate the work experience of the Department of Didactics of the School of Public Health of Mexico during 1991. A relevant conclusion is that this form of work needs to be studied and developed, since it demands a greater amount of independence from the students and requires a different participation from the teacher, both as coordinator and advisor.

  18. A group of type I keratin genes on human chromosome 17: Characterization and expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.; Chaudhury, A.R.; Shows, T.B.; LeBeau, M.M.; Fuchs, E.

    1988-02-01

    The human type I keratins K16 and K14 are coexpressed in a number of epithelial tissues, including esophagus, tongue, and hair follicles. The authors determined that two genes encoding K16 and three genes encoding K14 were clustered in two distinct segments of chromosome 17. The genes within each cluster were tightly linked, and large parts of the genome containing these genes have been recently duplicated. The sequences of the two K16 genes showed striking homology not only within the coding sequences, but also within the intron positions and sequences and extending at least 400 base pairs 5' upstream and 850 base pairs 3' downstream from these genes. Despite the strong homologies between these two genes, only one of the genes encoded a protein which assembled into keratin filaments when introduced into simple epithelial cells. While there were no obvious abnormalities in the sequence of the other gene, its promoter seemed to be significantly weaker, and even a hybrid gene with the other gene's promoter gave rise to a much reduced mRNA level after gene transfection. To demonstrate that the functional K16 gene that they identified was in fact responsible for the K16 expressed in human tissues, we made a polyclonal antiserum which recognized our functional K16 gene product in both denatured and filamentous form and which was specific for bona fide human K16.

  19. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in Amblyomma ticks likely to infest humans in rural areas from northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho Bottero, María N; Tarragona, Evelina L; Nava, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This work was performed to detect Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group in Amblyomma ticks likely to infest humans in rural areas from northwestern Argentina. Free-living ticks were collected and determined as Amblyomma tigrinum, Amblyomma neumanni and Amblyomma tonelliae. Rickettsia infection was determined by polymerase chain reactions which amplify fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. A high frequency (35/44, 79.5%) of Candidatus "Rickettsia andeanae" was observed in A. tigrinum ticks, and Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" was found in three out of 14 nymphs of A. neumanni. All 14 Amblyomma tonelliae ticks were negative for rikettsiae. The infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks aggressive for humans reveals the potential risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens of people inhabiting rural areas of northwestern Argentina.

  20. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an eve