WorldWideScience

Sample records for human group decisions

  1. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  2. Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Narraway, Claire; Hodgson, Lindsay; Weatherill, Aidan; Sommer, Volker; Sumner, Seirian

    2011-04-23

    Early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment, and modern humans encounter equivalent spatial-temporal coordination problems on a daily basis. A fundamental, but untested assumption is that our evolved capacity for communication is integral to our success in such tasks, allowing information exchange and consensus decisions based on mutual consideration of pooled information. Here we examine whether communication enhances group performance in humans, and test the prediction that consensus decision-making underlies group success. We used bespoke radio-tagging methodology to monitor the incremental performance of communicating and non-communicating human groups (small group sizes of two to seven individuals), during a social foraging experiment. We found that communicating groups (n = 22) foraged more effectively than non-communicating groups (n = 21) and were able to reach consensus decisions (an 'agreement' on the most profitable foraging resource) significantly more often than non-communicating groups. Our data additionally suggest that gesticulations among group members played a vital role in the achievement of consensus decisions, and therefore highlight the importance of non-verbal signalling of intentions and desires for successful human cooperative behaviour.

  3. Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Fangqiu; Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Gür, Izzeddin; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that affect human decision making and quantifying their influence remain essential and challenging tasks for the design and implementation of social and technological communication systems. We report results of a behavioral experiment involving decision making in the face of an impending natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, we characterize individual and group evacuation decision making influenced by several key factors, including the likelihood of the disaster, available shelter capacity, group size, and group decision protocol. Our results show that success in individual decision making is not a strong predictor of group performance. We use an artificial neural network trained on the collective behavior of subjects to predict individual and group outcomes. Overall model accuracy increases with the inclusion of a subject-specific performance parameter based on laboratory trials that captures individual differences. In parallel, we demonstrate that the social media activit...

  4. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, R.J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate informatio

  5. Information transmission via movement behaviour improves decision accuracy in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clément, Romain J.G.; Wolf, Max; Snijders, Lysanne; Krause, Jens; Kurvers, Ralf H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major advantage of group living is increased decision accuracy. In animal groups information is often transmitted via movement. For example, an individual quickly moving away from its group may indicate approaching predators. However, individuals also make mistakes which can initiate information c

  6. Group performance and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott

    2004-01-01

    Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future.

  7. Improving work group decision-making effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover-Shoffner, K

    1989-01-01

    Many of the decisions in complex health care organizations are made by small work groups. Nurse administrators often lead or are highly involved in these groups, where reaching quality decisions is a critical goal. This paper examines research and information from the communications field, presenting a model for making decisions in small groups. The author identifies common pitfalls of decision-making groups and presents strategies for problem solving and improved decision making.

  8. GROUPS DECISION MAKING WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Stan

    2008-01-01

    In a highly global market, organizations that have the ability to analyze and rapidly respond to the constantly changing marketplace will have the greatest chance of remaining competitive and profitable. Group decision making is the process of arriving at a judgment based upon the feedback of multiple individuals. Due to the importance of the group decision making process, decision making models can be used to establish a systematic means of developing effective group decision making. Once a ...

  9. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Lucian Curşeu

    Full Text Available Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group, and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.

  10. GROUPS DECISION MAKING WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a highly global market, organizations that have the ability to analyze and rapidly respond to the constantly changing marketplace will have the greatest chance of remaining competitive and profitable. Group decision making is the process of arriving at a judgment based upon the feedback of multiple individuals. Due to the importance of the group decision making process, decision making models can be used to establish a systematic means of developing effective group decision making. Once a decision has been made, the members of the group should be willing to accept it and support its implementations.

  11. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.

  12. Quality of decision making and group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Cihangir, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consen

  13. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  14. Group decision support using Toulmin argument structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering; Sage, A.P. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Information Technology and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the need for sound science, technology, and management assessment relative to environmental policy decision making through an approach that involves a logical structure for evidence, a framed decision-making process, and an environment that encourages group participation. Toulmin-based logic possesses these characteristics and is used as the basis for development of a group decision support system. This system can support several user groups, such as pesticide policy-making experts, who can use the support system to state arguments for or against an important policy issue, and pest management experts, who can use the system to assist in identifying and evaluating alternatives for controlling pests on agricultural commodities. The resulting decision support system assists in improving the clarity of the lines of reasoning used in specific situations; the warrants, grounds, and backings that are used to support claims and specific lines of reasoning; and the contradictions, rebuttals, and arguments surrounding each step in the reasoning process associated with evaluating a claim or counterclaim. Experts and decisions makers with differing views can better understand each other`s thought processes. The net effect is enhanced communications and understanding of the whole picture and, in many cases, consensus on decisions to be taken.

  15. Handbook of group decision and negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The growing field of Group Decision and Negotiation is best described as the empirical, formal, computational, and strategic analysis of group decision-making and negotiation, especially from the viewpoints of Management Science and Operations Research. The topic crosses many traditional disciplinary boundaries. It has connections to business administration and business strategy, management science, systems engineering, computer science, mathematics, and law, as well as economics, psychology, and other social sciences. This defining handbook provides an up-to-date reference on new approaches to the principles and practice of negotiation, group decision-making, and collaboration, including the origins, development, and prospects of electronic negotiation, as well as the associated development of on-line or computer-based arbitration systems. It also provides a current and comprehensive reference on how traditional issues in negotiation, such as knowledge, language, strategy, fairness and justice, have been tra...

  16. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vrana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.

  17. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-01-01

    Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participato...

  18. On Compatible Multi-issue Group Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandi, U.; Pigozzi, G.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial problem in the design of multi-issue group decisions is the definition of rules that select outputs that are consistent with existing correlations between multiple issues. A less known problem arises when the collective outcome is supported by none or by the fewest individuals, bringing in

  19. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  20. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  1. Can DSS Technology Improve Group Decision Performance for End Users?: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, David E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the benefits of Decision Support Systems (DSS) for end-user group decision making. An experiment was conducted which required groups to reach a consensus on human resource-related decisions. The results of the experiment provide implications for the use of group DDS in organizations and for future study. (Author/AEF)

  2. Group Decision Support Systems and Group Communication: A Comparison of Decision Making in Computer-Supported and Nonsupported Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marshall Scott; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores the effects of Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) on small group communication and decision-making processes. Finds that comparing GDSS, manual, and baseline conditions enables separation of effects resulting from procedural structures from those resulting from computerization. Results support some aspects of the research model and…

  3. Excluded-Mean-Variance Neural Decision Analyzer for Qualitative Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many qualitative group decisions in professional fields such as law, engineering, economics, psychology, and medicine that appear to be crisp and certain are in reality shrouded in fuzziness as a result of uncertain environments and the nature of human cognition within which the group decisions are made. In this paper we introduce an innovative approach to group decision making in uncertain situations by using a mean-variance neural approach. The key idea of this proposed approach is to compute the excluded mean of individual evaluations and weight it by applying a variance influence function (VIF; this process of weighting the excluded mean by VIF provides an improved result in the group decision making. In this paper, a case study with the proposed excluded-mean-variance approach is also presented. The results of this case study indicate that this proposed approach can improve the effectiveness of qualitative decision making by providing the decision maker with a new cognitive tool to assist in the reasoning process.

  4. Development of Copeland Score Methods for Determine Group Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermatita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting method requires to determine group decision of decision by each decision maker in group. Determination of decisions by group of decision maker requires voting methods. Copeland score is one of voting method that has been developed by previous researchers. This method does not accommodate the weight of the expertise and interests of each decision maker. This paper proposed the voting method using Copeland score with added weighting. The method has developed of considering the weight of the expertise and interests of the decision maker. The method accordance with the problems encountered of group decision making . Expertise and interests of decision makers are given weight based on their expertises of decision maker contribution of the problems faced by the group to determine the decision.

  5. Simulation of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Speed, Ann E.; Jordan, Sabina E.; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2008-05-06

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  6. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  7. From individual preference construction to group decisions: framing effects and group processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milch, K.F.; Weber, E.U.; Appelt, K.C.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Krantz, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Two choice tasks known to produce framing effects in individual decisions were used to test group sensitivity to framing, relative to that of individuals, and to examine the effect of prior, individual consideration of a decision on group choice. Written post-decision reasons and pre-decision group

  8. Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Jansen, R.J.G.; Chappin, M.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members’ cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of indivi

  9. A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-an; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs’ decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member’ decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs’ evaluations and selections. PMID:28234974

  10. Communication in Decision-Making Groups: In Search of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes typical phases through which decision-making groups pass. Explores communication dimensions of small-group deliberation, and presents suggestions to improve the quality of group problem solving. (Author/BH)

  11. A problem solving framework for group decision support system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓红; 周艳菊; 胡东滨

    2002-01-01

    A new problem solving framework for group decision support system using layer model approach is proposed. This kind of framework includes four basic layers, namely, application layer, task layer, logical layer and physical layer. Based on indicating the respective meanings of those layers a task skeleton of group decision support system and a logical structure of group decision support system generator are put forward and discussed in detail. The framework provides theoretical guidance for developing group decision support system to lower systematic development complexity and support reuse of software.

  12. Analytical group decision making in natural resources: Methodology and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Group decision making is becoming increasingly important in natural resource management and associated scientific applications, because multiple values are treated coincidentally in time and space, multiple resource specialists are needed, and multiple stakeholders must be included in the decision process. Decades of social science research on decision making in groups have provided insights into the impediments to effective group processes and on techniques that can be applied in a group context. Nevertheless, little integration and few applications of these results have occurred in resource management decision processes, where formal groups are integral, either directly or indirectly. A group decision-making methodology is introduced as an effective approach for temporary, formal groups (e.g., workshops). It combines the following three components: (1) brainstorming to generate ideas; (2) the analytic hierarchy process to produce judgments, manage conflict, enable consensus, and plan for implementation; and (3) a discussion template (straw document). Resulting numerical assessments of alternative decision priorities can be analyzed statistically to indicate where group member agreement occurs and where priority values are significantly different. An application of this group process to fire research program development in a workshop setting indicates that the process helps focus group deliberations; mitigates groupthink, nondecision, and social loafing pitfalls; encourages individual interaction; identifies irrational judgments; and provides a large amount of useful quantitative information about group preferences. This approach can help facilitate scientific assessments and other decision-making processes in resource management.

  13. Study on Concept of Centralization and Decentralization Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-sheng; XI You-min; WANG Ying-luo

    2002-01-01

    The paper extracts the concept of Centralization Group Decision Making (CGDM) and Decentralization Group Decision Making (DGDM) from management systems on bases of studies on Informational Centralization Process (ICP) and Informational Decentralization Process (IDP), then the similarities and differences between CGDM and DGDM are presented. Further, the taxonomy of CGDM and DGDM is researched.

  14. Leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, John R G; Johansson, Anders; Helbing, Dirk; Couzin, Iain D; Krause, Jens

    2009-03-27

    This paper reviews the literature on leadership in vertebrate groups, including recent work on human groups, before presenting the results of three new experiments looking at leadership and decision making in small and large human groups. In experiment 1, we find that both group size and the presence of uninformed individuals can affect the speed with which small human groups (eight people) decide between two opposing directional preferences and the likelihood of the group splitting. In experiment 2, we show that the spatial positioning of informed individuals within small human groups (10 people) can affect the speed and accuracy of group motion. We find that having a mixture of leaders positioned in the centre and on the edge of a group increases the speed and accuracy with which the group reaches their target. In experiment 3, we use large human crowds (100 and 200 people) to demonstrate that the trends observed from earlier work using small human groups can be applied to larger crowds. We find that only a small minority of informed individuals is needed to guide a large uninformed group. These studies build upon important theoretical and empirical work on leadership and decision making in animal groups.

  15. Human Factors Influencing Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Personality and Individual Differences , 21 (1996) pp. 959-969. Ajzen, I. Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. The Dorsey Press, Chicago...IL, 1988. Alexander, J. R. M. and S. Smales. "Intelligence, learning and long-term memory," Personality and Individual Differences , 23 (1997) pp. 815...intelligence: effects of spatial attention on decision time in high and low IQ subjects," Personality and Individual Differences , 23 (1997) pp.

  16. Leadership in moving human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Boos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group--on the basis of movement alone--a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement.

  17. Small Groups' Ecological Reasoning While Making an Environmental Management Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Explores the ideas and reasoning students use to make a collaborative environmental management decision. Compares students' discussions with scientists' guidelines for making environmental management decisions. Finds that whereas across groups students touched on all of the themes that scientists consider to be important for making environmental…

  18. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  19. Collective learning and optimal consensus decisions in social animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Albert B; Miller, Noam; Torney, Colin; Hartnett, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D

    2014-08-01

    Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the otherwise direct relationship between animals' preferences and their experiences (the outcomes of decisions). Instead, because an individual's learned preferences influence what others experience, and therefore learn about, collective decisions couple the learning processes between social organisms. This introduces a new, and previously unexplored, dynamical relationship between preference, action, experience and learning. Here we model collective learning within animal groups that make consensus decisions. We reveal how learning as part of a collective results in behavior that is fundamentally different from that learned in isolation, allowing grouping organisms to spontaneously (and indirectly) detect correlations between group members' observations of environmental cues, adjust strategy as a function of changing group size (even if that group size is not known to the individual), and achieve a decision accuracy that is very close to that which is provably optimal, regardless of environmental contingencies. Because these properties make minimal cognitive demands on individuals, collective learning, and the capabilities it affords, may be widespread among group-living organisms. Our work emphasizes the importance and need for theoretical and experimental work that considers the mechanism and consequences of learning in a social context.

  20. A Project in Small-Group Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Judith A.

    1999-01-01

    In small groups, business students choose and demonstrate a decision-making technique appropriate for an organizational situation they develop. Performance is evaluated by peers on the basis of situation choice, demonstration of technique, and quality of the solution. (SK)

  1. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals.

  2. Using Group Decision Support Systems in Teaching the Small Group Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Craig R.

    The nature of group decision support systems (GDSS), its key advantages, and the experience of using it with several classes help illustrate that this type of computer technology can serve an important function in supplementing instruction of the small group course. The primary purpose of a GDSS is to improve group decision-making and…

  3. Fuzzy group decision making in a competitive situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jiang; Harten, van Aart; Wegen, van der Leo

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a group decision making problem in a competitive situation with two opponents is considered. Uncertainty in the score assessment for both opponents of any individual of the group as well as between group members is taken into account by means of fuzzy sets. The individual scores can be

  4. Web-Based Group Decision Support System: an Economic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion ISTUDOR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSS form a specific class of computerized information systems that support business and managerial decision-making activities. Making the right decision in business primarily depends on the quality of data. It also depends on the ability to analyze the data with a view to identifying trends that can suggest solutions and strategies. A “cooperative” decision support system means the data are collected, analyzed and then provided to a human agent who can help the system to revise or refine the data. It means that both a human component and computer component work together to come up with the best solution. This paper describes the usage of a software product (Vanguard System to a specific economic application (evaluating the financial risk assuming that the rate of the economic profitability can be under the value of the interest rate.

  5. Research on the Group Decision in Manufacturing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shuangying; LI Biqiang

    2006-01-01

    The competition in 21st century will be the competition among different manufacturing chains. Manufacturing chain makes decision not only the core enterprise of the manufacturing chain but also a group of enterprises. Any significant decision in manufacturing chain will affect each enterprise in manufacturing chain, thus every significant decision should meet the desire and requests of each enterprise that be affected. Any significant decision should concentrate in the opinion of each member in the representative assembly or committee and obtain the authorization of the congress. Any vital question also should be discussed, made the decision and coordinated the moves by the representative assembly or the committee. With society's development and the technical progress, the knowledge and the information content is growing suddenly, the questions needs making the decision are more and complex, the single enterprise only depended on its own resources and the strength is unable to grasp all essential information, and hard to face all questions. The representative assembly formed by representatives from each enterprise in manufacturing chain can gather together experts of different knowledge structure and different experience, which make up the deficiency of single enterprise in resources, strength and experience with the aid of many enterprises' resources and the strength. This is not just increase several brains, but to establish an information complex to ensure the scientific of decision, which formed by different knowledge structure, applies scientific theory method and means, can mutually enlighten and has abundant knowledge. So it comes down to the group decision. Group decision questions have two types, one is the collectivity decision which pursue the holistic benefit of the group, the other is that the members in the group pursue its' own benefit and value against others, that means the game theory of interest conflict existed among the members. Currently, most

  6. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  7. Risky and Cautious Decision Shifts in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Timothy R.; Cline, Rebecca J.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies and compares the patterns of communication of groups making risky and cautious decision shifts. Risky- and cautious-shift group discussions displayed nonrandom and statistically different distributional and sequential structures. Findings are discussed in terms of two explanations of the risky- shift phenomenon. (JMF)

  8. Are groups more rational than individuals? A review of interactive decision making in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Tamar; Kausel, Edgar E; Kocher, Martin G

    2012-07-01

    Many decisions are interactive; the outcome of one party depends not only on its decisions or on acts of nature but also on the decisions of others. Standard game theory assumes that individuals are rational, self-interested decision makers-that is, decision makers are selfish, perfect calculators, and flawless executors of their strategies. A myriad of studies shows that these assumptions are problematic, at least when examining decisions made by individuals. In this article, we review the literature of the last 25 years on decision making by groups. Researchers have compared the strategic behavior of groups and individuals in many games: prisoner's dilemma, dictator, ultimatum, trust, centipede and principal-agent games, among others. Our review suggests that results are quite consistent in revealing that group decisions are closer to the game-theoretic assumption of rationality than individual decisions. Given that many real-world decisions are made by groups, it is possible to argue that standard game theory is a better descriptive model than previously believed by experimental researchers. We conclude by discussing future research avenues in this area. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:471-482. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1184 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Multidisciplinary Teams and Group Decision-Making Techniques: Possible Solutions to Decision-Making Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Steven M.; Woodman, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    In placement decisions necessitated by PL 94-142, the multidimensional team approach may be hindered by group problems. The more structured nominal group technique (NGT) is suggested. NGT has six steps: silent, written generation of ideas; round robin reporting; group discussion for clarification; preliminary priority vote; discussion; and final…

  10. Intelligent negotiation model for ubiquitous group decision scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo CARNEIRO; Diogo MARTINHO; Goreti MARREIROS; Paulo NOVAIS

    2016-01-01

    Supporting group decision-making in ubiquitous contexts is a complex task that must deal with a large amount of factors to succeed. Here we propose an approach for an intelligent negotiation model to support the group decision-making process specifically designed for ubiquitous contexts. Our approach can be used by researchers that intend to include arguments, complex algorithms, and agents’ modeling in a negotiation model. It uses a social networking logic due to the type of communication employed by the agents and it intends to support the ubiquitous group decision-making process in a similar way to the real process, which simultaneously preserves the amount and quality of intelligence generated in face-to-face meetings. We propose a new look into this problem by considering and defining strategies to deal with important points such as the type of attributes in the multi- criterion problems, agents’ reasoning, and intelligent dialogues.

  11. Universality in systems with group-outcome decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesi, Christian; Louf, Rémi; Caparros, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Elections constitute a paradigm of decision making problems that have puzzled experts of different disciplines for decades. We study two decision making problems, where groups make decisions that only impact themselves as a group. In both studied cases, participation to local elections and the number of democratic representatives at different scales (from local to national), we observe a universal scaling with the constituency size. These results may be interpreted as constituencies having a hierarchical structure, where each group of N agents, at each level of the hierarchy, is divided in N^{1/3} subgroups. Following this interpretation, a phenomenological model of vote participation, where abstention is related to the perceived link of an agent to the rest of the constituency, reproduces quantitatively the observed data.

  12. Power in group contexts: the influence of group status on promotion and prevention decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi; Sassenberg, Kai

    2013-06-01

    This research examines how group status affects the impact of individual power positions on promotion versus prevention choices in group decision making. We consider that high power not only implies control, but also indicates responsibility for the achievement of group goals. We argue that the nature of these goals depends on the current status of the group. In Experiment 1, individuals who were accorded high power showed more promotion-oriented decisions in the low group status condition while decisions were more prevention oriented under high group status. Experiment 2 replicated these effects, and further demonstrated that they only emerge when those in power are explicitly made accountable for the achievement of group goals. These results are discussed in relation to regulatory focus theory, power theories, and the role of social identities and group goals in group dynamics.

  13. Decision science a human-oriented perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mengov, George

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on human decision-making by comparing the established methods in decision science with innovative modelling at the level of neurons and neural interactions. The book presents a new generation of computer models, which can predict with astonishing accuracy individual economic choices when people make them by quick intuition rather than by effort. A vision for a new kind of social science is outlined, whereby neural models of emotion and cognition capture the dynamics of socioeconomic systems and virtual social networks. The exposition is approachable by experts as well as by advanced students. The author is an Associate Professor of Decision Science with a doctorate in Computational Neuroscience, and a former software consultant to banks in the City of London.  .

  14. Collective Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation: Modeling Tradeoffs and Optimal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Ali, Imtiaz; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainties in collective human behavior and decision making is crucial for ensuring public health and safety, enabling effective disaster response, informing the design of transportation and communication networks, and guiding the development of new technologies. However, modeling and predicting such behavior is notoriously difficult, due to the influence of a variety of complex factors such as the availability and uncertainty of information, the interaction and influence of social groups and networks, the degree of risk or time pressure involved in a situation, and differences in individual personalities and preferences. Here, we develop a stochastic model of human decision making to describe the empirical behavior of subjects in a controlled experiment simulating a natural disaster scenario. We compare the observed behavior to that of statistically optimal Bayesian decision makers, quantifying the extent to which human decisions are optimal and identifying the conditions in which sub-optimal ...

  15. Multi-criteria linguistic interval group decision-making approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang; Chen Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    For group decision-making problems with linguistic assessment information,a new method based on two-tuple and WC-OWA operator is proposed,in which the criteria's weights and the decision-makers' preference information might take the form of linguistic grade,or might be between two continuous linguistic grades,or might be linguistic interval,or might be default.In this method,all linguistic values are transformed into two-tuple,and an aggregative decision-making matrix is obtained by using interval operation.The group aggregative values of each criterion on alternatives are computed by using a WC-OWA operator,the aggregative values on alternatives are worked out,and transformed into two-tuple.And the rank of the alternatives is obtained by using the order property of two-tuple.An example shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Solution to multiple attribute group decision making problems with two decision makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangwei Zhang; Wei Wang; Xuedong Hua

    2015-01-01

    A kind of multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problem is discussed from the perspective of statistic decision-making. Firstly, on the basis of the stability theory, a new idea is proposed to solve this kind of problem. Secondly, a con-crete method corresponding to this kind of problem is proposed. The main tool of our research is the technique of the jackknife method. The main advantage of the new method is that it can identify and determine the reliability degree of the existed decision making information. Final y, a traffic engineering example is given to show the effectiveness of the new method.

  17. Decisions from Experience: How Groups and Individuals Adapt to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Experience: How Groups and Individuals Adapt to Change Every morning, Ferran Adrià receives fresh products from his suppliers on Spain‘s Costa Brava. High...involved in this decision? Perhaps. Only a few kilometers from El Bulli, Joan , Josep, and Jordi Roca manage El Celler de Can Roca, currently

  18. Two Methods for Deriving Members' Weights in Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ze-shui

    2001-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process is a powerful technique for group decision making. Both theWeighted Arithmetic Mean Method (WAMM) and Weighted Geometric Mean Method (WGMM) are themost common group preference aggregation methods in AHP. In order to use the WAMM and WGMM, onehas to find the weights to be assigned to the members of the group. This is often a difficult task, especiallyso if the group is large as in the case of public policy decisions. These situations need an objective method toderive members'weights. But a few studies are available in the literature. Based on judgement matrices anderror analyses, this paper presents two practical and efficient methods for addressing such situations. Somenumerical examples are also given.

  19. Analysis of a Group Decision-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of group decision and group thinking in the organization of a firm, taking as reference theoretical models and their practical applications. Organizational goals are often blocked by a pattern of thinking that develops within organizations. The article will also underline the importance oforganizations' focusing on sub-goals, in order to reach, finally, to the desired result in the main goals of the organization.

  20. Analysis of a Group Decision-Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of group decision and group thinking in the organization of a firm, taking as reference theoretical models and their practical applications. Organizational goals are often blocked by a pattern of thinking that develops within organizations. The article will also underline the importance of organizations' focusing on sub-goals, in order to reach, finally, to the desired result in the main goals of the organization.

  1. Evaluating Projects Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Daneshvar Rouyendegh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods regarding project selection in different fields. This paper deals with an actual application of construction project selection, using two aggregation operators. First, the opinion of experts is used in a model of group decision making called intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS (IFT. Secondly, project evaluation is formulated by dynamic intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (DIFWA. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers (DMs for rating the importance of criteria and alternatives. A numerical example for project selection is given to clarify the main developed result in this paper.

  2. Cognitive synergy in groups and group-to-individual transfer of decision-making competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru L; Meslec, Nicoleta; Pluut, Helen; Lucas, Gerardus J M

    2015-01-01

    In a field study (148 participants organized in 38 groups) we tested the effect of group synergy and one's position in relation to the collaborative zone of proximal development (CZPD) on the change of individual decision-making competencies. We used two parallel sets of decision tasks reported in previous research to test rationality and we evaluated individual decision-making competencies in the pre-group and post-group conditions as well as group rationality (as an emergent group level phenomenon). We used multilevel modeling to analyze the data and the results showed that members of synergetic groups had a higher cognitive gain as compared to members of non-synergetic groups, while highly rational members (members above the CZPD) had lower cognitive gains compared to less rational group members (members situated below the CZPD). These insights extend the literature on group-to-individual transfer of learning and have important practical implications as they show that group dynamics influence the development of individual decision-making competencies.

  3. Human-centric decision-making models for social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on  comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style. The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-mak...

  4. Risky Group Decision-Making Method for Distribution Grid Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.

  5. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  6. E-democracy a group decision and negotiation perspective

    CERN Document Server

    French, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Web-based interactions to support participation and deliberative democracy, called e-participation and e-democracy, are coming and coming fast. In some instances, the Internet is already permeating politics. However, it is far from clear if the processes involved in these interactions are meaningful and valid, and most of the research in the field has focused largely on the technologies to facilitate or automate the standard democratic instruments involved, such as e-voting or e-debating. This book, though, uses the point of view of the Group Decision and Negotiation approach to thoroughly discuss how web-based decision support tools can be used for public policy decision making. e-Democracy is structured into five main parts. The first part places democracy in context and reviews participatory instruments already in use in the physical world. The second part reviews methodologies that may be used to support groups in public policy decision making with a view on discussing how they may be used in the virtual ...

  7. Taking the easy way out : Preference diversity, decision strategies, and decision refusal in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.; Kaps, Silvia C.

    2008-01-01

    It has often been argued and found that preference diversity is beneficial for the quality of group decisions. However, this literature has neglected the fact that in many situations, it is also possible not to choose. Further, preference diversity can be based on attractions, aversions, or both. Th

  8. Fairness, intrinsic motivations and social identity in group decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three studies concerning behavioral economics in group decision contexts. Laboratory experiments are our main tool to maintain control over the specific settings that we want to analyze and they allow us to isolate the phenomena we are interested in. In the first chapter, we look at how fairness influences trust between two individuals. A relationship frequently begins with the act of splitting a common endowment. The fairness of this division may influence t...

  9. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  10. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  11. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  12. Adaptive awareness for personal and small group decision making.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perano, Kenneth J.; Tucker, Steve; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Berry, Nina M.; Kyker, Ronald D.

    2003-12-01

    Many situations call for the use of sensors monitoring physiological and environmental data. In order to use the large amounts of sensor data to affect decision making, we are coupling heterogeneous sensors with small, light-weight processors, other powerful computers, wireless communications, and embedded intelligent software. The result is an adaptive awareness and warning tool, which provides both situation awareness and personal awareness to individuals and teams. Central to this tool is a sensor-independent architecture, which combines both software agents and a reusable core software framework that manages the available hardware resources and provides services to the agents. Agents can recognize cues from the data, warn humans about situations, and act as decision-making aids. Within the agents, self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to process physiological data in order to provide personal awareness. We have employed a novel clustering algorithm to train the SOM to discern individual body states and activities. This awareness tool has broad applicability to emergency teams, military squads, military medics, individual exercise and fitness monitoring, health monitoring for sick and elderly persons, and environmental monitoring in public places. This report discusses our hardware decisions, software framework, and a pilot awareness tool, which has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Group decisions in biodiversity conservation: implications from game theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decision analysis and game theory have proved useful tools in various biodiversity conservation planning and modeling contexts. This paper shows how game theory may be used to inform group decisions in biodiversity conservation scenarios by modeling conflicts between stakeholders to identify Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria. These are cases in which each agent pursuing individual self-interest leads to a worse outcome for all, relative to other feasible outcomes. Three case studies from biodiversity conservation contexts showing this feature are modeled to demonstrate how game-theoretical representation can inform group decision-making. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mathematical theory of games is used to model three biodiversity conservation scenarios with Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria: (i a two-agent case involving wild dogs in South Africa; (ii a three-agent raptor and grouse conservation scenario from the United Kingdom; and (iii an n-agent fish and coral conservation scenario from the Philippines. In each case there is reason to believe that traditional mechanism-design solutions that appeal to material incentives may be inadequate, and the game-theoretical analysis recommends a resumption of further deliberation between agents and the initiation of trust--and confidence--building measures. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Game theory can and should be used as a normative tool in biodiversity conservation contexts: identifying scenarios with Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibria enables constructive action in order to achieve (closer to optimal conservation outcomes, whether by policy solutions based on mechanism design or otherwise. However, there is mounting evidence that formal mechanism-design solutions may backfire in certain cases. Such scenarios demand a return to group deliberation and the creation of reciprocal relationships of trust.

  14. The Cognitive Complexity in Modelling the Group Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates for some basic contextual factors (such
    us the problem complexity, the users' creativity and the problem space complexity the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the group decision processes (GDP in e-meetings. The analysis is done by conducting a socio-simulation experiment for an envisioned collaborative software tool that acts as a stigmergic environment for modelling the GDP. The simulation results revels some interesting design guidelines for engineering some contextual functionalities that minimize the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the GDP.

  15. Clustering Analysis of Black-start Decision-making with a Large Group of Decision-makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of black start decisiommaking plays an important role in the rapid restoration of a power system after a major failure/outage. With the introduction of the concept of smart grids and the development of real-time communication networks, the black-start decision-makers are no longer limited to only one or a few power system experts such as dispatchers, but rather a large group of professional people in practice. The overall behaviors of a large decision-making group of decision-makers/experts are more complicated and unpredictable. However, the existing methods for black-start decision-making cannot handle the situations with a large group of decision-makers. Given this background, a clustering algorithm is presented to optimize the black-start decision-making problem with a large group of decision-makers. Group decision-making preferences are obtained by clustering analysis, and the final black-start decisiommaking results are achieved by combining the weights of black-start indexes and the preferences of the decision-making group. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by a practical case. This work extends the black-start decision-making problem to situations with a large group of decision-makers.

  16. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  17. Multicriteria decision group model for the selection of suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have been studying group decision making over the years, which indicates how relevant it is. This paper presents a multicriteria group decision model based on ELECTRE IV and VIP Analysis methods, to those cases where there is great divergence among the decision makers. This model includes two stages. In the first, the ELECTRE IV method is applied and a collective criteria ranking is obtained. In the second, using criteria ranking, VIP Analysis is applied and the alternatives are selected. To illustrate the model, a numerical application in the context of the selection of suppliers in project management is used. The suppliers that form part of the project team have a crucial role in project management. They are involved in a network of connected activities that can jeopardize the success of the project, if they are not undertaken in an appropriate way. The question tackled is how to select service suppliers for a project on behalf of an enterprise that assists the multiple objectives of the decision-makers.Vários autores têm estudado decisão em grupo nos últimos anos, o que indica a relevância do assunto. Esse artigo apresenta um modelo multicritério de decisão em grupo baseado nos métodos ELECTRE IV e VIP Analysis, adequado aos casos em que se tem uma grande divergência entre os decisores. Esse modelo é composto por dois estágios. No primeiro, o método ELECTRE IV é aplicado e uma ordenação dos critérios é obtida. No próximo estágio, com a ordenação dos critérios, o método VIP Analysis é aplicado e as alternativas são selecionadas. Para ilustrar o modelo, uma aplicação numérica no contexto da seleção de fornecedores em projetos é realizada. Os fornecedores que fazem parte da equipe do projeto têm um papel fundamental no gerenciamento de projetos. Eles estão envolvidos em uma rede de atividades conectadas que, caso não sejam executadas de forma apropriada, podem colocar em risco o sucesso do

  18. Effects on Decision Quality of Supporting Multi-attribute Evaluation in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans; Vlek

    1996-11-01

    In this study the effectiveness of multi-attribute utility (MAU) decision support in groups is evaluated for personnel selection problems differing in complexity. Subjects were asked to make an initial individual decision with or without MAU decision support. Next individuals formed small groups and were asked to reach a decision about the same problem. Groups received either MAU support or no support. Results show that for relatively simple problems the most effective method is to provide subjects with both individual and group decision support. Here, decision support had a clear impact on subjects' preferences and the level of agreement between group members. In addition, satisfaction with the decision and the decision procedure was relatively high. Overall, decision support improved communication; subjects reported to find the problem easier, to have more influence on the group decision, and to find it easier to express their opinions. For more complex problems, however, decision making without group support (whether preceded by individual support or not) was evaluated most favorably. Individual decision support in this condition was sometimes better than no support; i.e., there was a lower reported problem difficulty, a higher satisfaction with the group decision, and a higher reported influence on the group decision. The effectiveness of group MAU decision support for complex problems was evaluated less favorably.

  19. Facilitating Group Decision-Making: Facilitator's Subjective Theories on Group Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kolbe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of group facilitation is motivating and coordinating people to perform their joint work. This paper focuses on group coordination which is a prerequisite to group effectiveness, especially in complex tasks. Decision-making in groups is a complex task that consequently needs to be coordinated by explicit rather than implicit coordination mechanisms. Based on the embedded definition that explicit coordination does not just happen but is purposely executed by individuals, we argue that individual coordination intentions and mechanisms should be taken into account. Thus far, the subjective perspective of coordination has been neglected in coordination theory, which is understandable given the difficulties in defining and measuring subjective aspects of group facilitation. We therefore conducted focused interviews with eight experts who either worked as senior managers or as experienced group facilitators and analysed their approaches to group coordination using methods of content analysis. Results show that these experts possess sophisticated mental representations of their coordination behaviour. These subjective coordination theories can be organised in terms of coordination schemes in which coordination-releasing situations are facilitated by special coordination mechanisms that, in turn, lead to the perception of specific consequences. We discuss the importance of these subjective coordination theories for effectively facilitating group decision-making and minimising process losses. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901287

  20. Model of human collective decision-making in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Giannoccaro, Ilaria

    2015-12-01

    A continuous-time Markov process is proposed to analyze how a group of humans solves a complex task, consisting in the search of the optimal set of decisions on a fitness landscape. Individuals change their opinions driven by two different forces: (i) the self-interest, which pushes them to increase their own fitness values, and (ii) the social interactions, which push individuals to reduce the diversity of their opinions in order to reach consensus. Results show that the performance of the group is strongly affected by the strength of social interactions and by the level of knowledge of the individuals. Increasing the strength of social interactions improves the performance of the team. However, too strong social interactions slow down the search of the optimal solution and worsen the performance of the group. In particular, we find that the threshold value of the social interaction strength, which leads to the emergence of a superior intelligence of the group, is just the critical threshold at which the consensus among the members sets in. We also prove that a moderate level of knowledge is already enough to guarantee high performance of the group in making decisions.

  1. A COPRAS-F base multi-criteria group decision making approach for site selection of wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Chandra Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today global warming is on the rise and the natural resources are getting consumed at a faster rate. Power consumption has increased many folds to cater the human need. Thus renewable energy resources are the only option available at this juncture. Wind energy is one of the renewable energy. Location selection for wind farm takes an important role on power generation. However, the location selection is a complex multicriteria problem due to the criteria factors which are conflicting in nature as well as uncertain. The process becomes more complex when a group of decision makers are involved in decision making. In the present study, a COPRAS (COmplex PRoportional ASsessment based multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methodology is done under fuzzy environment with the help of multiple decision makers. More specifically, this study is aimed to focus the applicability of COPRAS-F as a strategic decision making tools to handle the group decision-making problems.

  2. GROUP DECISIONS. Shared decision-making drives collective movement in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Farine, Damien R; Couzin, Iain D; Crofoot, Margaret C

    2015-06-19

    Conflicts of interest about where to go and what to do are a primary challenge of group living. However, it remains unclear how consensus is achieved in stable groups with stratified social relationships. Tracking wild baboons with a high-resolution global positioning system and analyzing their movements relative to one another reveals that a process of shared decision-making governs baboon movement. Rather than preferentially following dominant individuals, baboons are more likely to follow when multiple initiators agree. When conflicts arise over the direction of movement, baboons choose one direction over the other when the angle between them is large, but they compromise if it is not. These results are consistent with models of collective motion, suggesting that democratic collective action emerging from simple rules is widespread, even in complex, socially stratified societies.

  3. Groupthink: Effects of Cohesiveness and Problem-Solving Procedures on Group Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Michael R.; Esser, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Tested Janis' groupthink formulation with 126 students by manipulating group cohesiveness and adequacy of decision procedures in a factorial design. Results showed highest quality decisions were produced by groups of intermediate cohesiveness. Highly cohesive groups without adequate decision procedures (the groupthink condition) tended to make the…

  4. Assessment of human decision reliability - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyy, P

    1998-07-01

    In his discussion of this case study, the author indicates that human beings are not merely machines who use rules. Thus, more focus needs to be put on studying decision making situations and their contexts. Decision theory (both normative and descriptive) and contextual psychological approaches may offer tools to cope with operator decision making. Further an ideal decision space needs to be defined for operators. The case study specifically addressed a loss of feedwater scenario and the various operator decisions that were involved in that scenario. It was concluded from this particular study that there are significant differences in the crew decision behaviours that are not explained by process variables. Through use of evidence from simulator tests with expert judgement, an approach to estimate probabilities has been developed. The modelling approach presented in this discussion is an extension of current HRA paradigms, but a natural one since all human beings make decisions.

  5. Voice in political decision-making: the effect of group voice on perceived trustworthiness of decision makers and subsequent acceptance of decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwel, Bart W; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D L

    2010-06-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an opportunity to express their opinions in the decision-making process (i.e., group voice) affects acceptance of CCS policy decisions, with inferred trustworthiness of the decision maker mediating this effect. Decision-making procedures providing different interest groups with equal opportunities to voice their opinions instigate more trust in the decision maker and, in turn, lead to greater willingness to accept decisions compared to no-voice procedures (i.e., unilateral decision-making-Study 1) and unequal group-voice procedures (i.e., when one type of interest group receives voice, but another type of interest group does not-Study 2). Study 3 further shows that an individual's own level of knowledge about CCS moderates the desire for an opportunity for members of the general public to voice opinions in the decision-making process, inferred trustworthiness of decision makers, and policy acceptance. These results imply that people care about voice in decision-making even when they are not directly personally involved in the decision-making process. We conclude that people tend to use procedural information when deciding to accept or oppose policy decisions on political complex issues; hence, it is important that policymakers use fair group-voice procedures and that they communicate to the public how they arrive at their decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    would reduce the food N footprint by ~60%. Such a reduction would result in significant lessening of the impacts of societal use of food resources on both ecosystem and human health. The personal food nitrogen footprints will then be linked to environmental effects based on the N species of the nitrogen footprint. Environmental effects considered will include global warming, air quality, drinking water quality, eutrophication, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Each of the scenarios will be scaled up to represent the full population of the United States, and the total national nitrogen reductions and the impact on environmental effects will be reported. The results of this analysis will help us begin to solve the human dimension of the nitrogen challenge by showing how different personal choices impact nitrogen losses and the environment. This information can then educate and empower consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices.

  7. Exploring Effective Decision Making through Human-Centered and Computational Intelligence Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsik; Cook, Kristin A.; Shih, Patrick C.

    2016-06-13

    Decision-making has long been studied to understand a psychological, cognitive, and social process of selecting an effective choice from alternative options. Its studies have been extended from a personal level to a group and collaborative level, and many computer-aided decision-making systems have been developed to help people make right decisions. There has been significant research growth in computational aspects of decision-making systems, yet comparatively little effort has existed in identifying and articulating user needs and requirements in assessing system outputs and the extent to which human judgments could be utilized for making accurate and reliable decisions. Our research focus is decision-making through human-centered and computational intelligence methods in a collaborative environment, and the objectives of this position paper are to bring our research ideas to the workshop, and share and discuss ideas.

  8. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  9. Effects on decision quality of supporting multi-attribute evaluation in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.; Timmermans, D.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of multi-attribute utility (MAU) decision support in groups is evaluated for personnel selection problems differing in complexity. Subjects were asked to make an initial individual decision with or without MAU decision support. Next individuals formed small groups and

  10. A control theory model for human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  11. Effects of dominance on group decision making: toward a stress-reduction explanation of groupthink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, M R; Marriott, R G; Esser, J K

    1985-10-01

    Janis (1972) proposed that groupthink is essentially a stress-reduction process. Cohesive groups reduce the stress of decision making by suppressing critical inquiry. Theoretically, groupthink could be prevented in cohesive groups if the stress could be diffused by other factors. We investigated the effects of task structure (decision-making procedures) and an individual factor (dominance) on the quality of group decision making, anxiety, and symptoms of groupthink. Students (n = 112) participated in twenty-eight 4-person, mixed-sex groups. Groups composed of highly dominant members made higher quality decisions, exhibited lower state anxiety, and took more time to reach a decision. They also tended to make more statements of disagreement and agreement, and to report more group influence on the members. Decision-making procedures had little effect on the decision process.

  12. Simulation Models of Human Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina RIZUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is presentation of the new concept of human decision-making process modeling via using the analogy with Automatic Control Theory. From the author's point of view this concept allows to develop and improve the theory of decision-making in terms of the study and classification of specificity of the human intellectual processes in different conditions. It was proved that the main distinguishing feature between the Heuristic / Intuitive and Rational Decision-Making Models is the presence of so-called phenomenon of "enrichment" of the input information with human propensity, hobbies, tendencies, expectations, axioms and judgments, presumptions or bias and their justification. In order to obtain additional knowledge about the basic intellectual processes as well as the possibility of modeling the decision results in various parameters characterizing the decision-maker, the complex of the simulation models was developed. These models are based on the assumptions that:  basic intellectual processes of the Rational Decision-Making Model can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the proportional-integral-derivative controller; basic intellectual processes of the Bounded Rationality and Intuitive Models can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the nonlinear elements.The taxonomy of the most typical automatic control theory elements and their compliance with certain decision-making models with a point of view of decision-making process specificity and decision-maker behavior during a certain time of professional activity was obtained.

  13. Group decision making for a manufacturing organization considering intensity of preference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P S Chakraborty; B Sarkar; G Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper deals with a case study of strategic decision making for an organization with the help of Analytic hierarchy process based group decision making model considering preference intensity of individual voters...

  14. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.

    2014-01-01

    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and...

  15. Modelling Human Emotions for Tactical Decision-Making Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, Gillian C.; Lazonder, Ard W.; van der Hulst, Anja; Vink, Nathalie; Leemkuil, Henny

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studies were performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characters. Study 1 compared five versions of a virtual…

  16. Modelling human emotions for tactical decision-making games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, G.C.; Lazonder, A.W.; Hulst, A.H. van der; Vink, N.; Leemkuil, H.

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studieswere performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characte

  17. Modelling human emotions for tactical decision-making games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, G.C.; Lazonder, A.W.; Hulst, A.H. van der; Vink, N.; Leemkuil, H.

    2013-01-01

    The training of tactical decision making increasingly occurs through serious computer games. A challenging aspect of designing such games is the modelling of human emotions. Two studieswere performed to investigate the relation between fidelity and human emotion recognition in virtual human characte

  18. Group decision making with the analytic hierarchy process in benefit-risk assessment: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, J Marjan; Bridges, John F P; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria. This tutorial illustrates the procedural steps of the AHP in supporting group decision making about new healthcare technology, including (1) identifying the decision goal, decision criteria, and alternative healthcare technologies to compare, (2) structuring the decision criteria, (3) judging the value of the alternative technologies on each decision criterion, (4) judging the importance of the decision criteria, (5) calculating group judgments, (6) analyzing the inconsistency in judgments, (7) calculating the overall value of the technologies, and (8) conducting sensitivity analyses. The AHP is illustrated via a hypothetical example, adapted from an empirical AHP analysis on the benefits and risks of tissue regeneration to repair small cartilage lesions in the knee.

  19. Research on group expandable optimization decision-ms,king model for construction programme choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the decision-making problem of construction programme choice, this paper advanced a new group expandable optimization decision-making model. Various factors were comprehensively considered, and the new multi- attribute evaluation index system was established. Based on the assumption that decision-makers were rational, this pa- per formed a group of rational preferences through extracting the personal preferences pertinently, so the decision-makers position matrix was determined. The decision-makers position matrix integrated values given by group decision-makers to construction programme comprised a matrix, of which the entropy theory for data mining was adopted in this paper to determine the attribute weights. A decision was made by using the extension decision method. Eventually, the feasibility and practicability of the model were verified by the example.

  20. Modeling Mixed Groups of Humans and Robots with Reflexive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Sergey

    The Reflexive Game Theory is based on decision-making principles similar to the ones used by humans. This theory considers groups of subjects and allows to predict which action from the set each subject in the group will choose. It is possible to influence subject's decision in a way that he will make a particular choice. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how robots can refrain humans from risky actions. To determine the risky actions, the Asimov's Three Laws of robotics are employed. By fusing the RGT's power to convince humans on the mental level with Asimov's Laws' safety, we illustrate how robots in the mixed groups of humans and robots can influence on human subjects in order to refrain humans from risky actions. We suggest that this fusion has a potential to device human-like motor behaving and looking robots with the human-like decision-making algorithms.

  1. Following Human Footsteps: Proposal of a Decision Theory Based on Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior is a complex nature which depends on circumstances and decisions varying from time to time as well as place to place. The way a decision is made either directly or indirectly related to the availability of the options. These options though appear at random nature, have a solid directional way for decision making. In this paper, a decision theory is proposed which is based on human behavior. The theory is structured with model sets that will show the all possible combinations for making a decision, A virtual and simulated environment is considered to show the results of the proposed decision theory

  2. Studying Collective Human Decision Making and Creativity with Evolutionary Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D

    2015-01-01

    We report a summary of our interdisciplinary research project "Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making" that was conducted through close collaboration between computational, organizational, and social scientists at Binghamton University. We redefined collective human decision making and creativity as evolution of ecologies of ideas, where populations of ideas evolve via continual applications of evolutionary operators such as reproduction, recombination, mutation, selection, and migration of ideas, each conducted by participating humans. Based on this evolutionary perspective, we generated hypotheses about collective human decision making, using agent-based computer simulations. The hypotheses were then tested through several experiments with real human subjects. Throughout this project, we utilized evolutionary computation (EC) in non-traditional ways-(1) as a theoretical framework for reinterpreting the dynamics of idea generation and selection, (2) as a computational simulation model of collective human decision-making processes, and (3) as a research tool for collecting high-resolution experimental data on actual collaborative design and decision making from human subjects. We believe our work demonstrates untapped potential of EC for interdisciplinary research involving human and social dynamics.

  3. Problems on Solving Matrix Aggregation in Group Decision-Making by Glowworm Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yaping Li

    2016-01-01

    Judgment matrix aggregation, as an important part of group decision-making, has been widely and deeply studied due to the universality and importance of group decision-making in the management field. For the variety of judgment matrix in group decision-making, the matrix aggregation result can be obtained by using the mode of glowworm swarm optimization. First, this paper introduces the basic principle of the glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm and gives the improved GSO algorithm to ...

  4. Relation Entropy and Transferable Entropy Think of Aggregation on Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qi-yue; QIU Wan-hua; LIU Xiao-feng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, aggregation question based on group decision making and a single decision making is studied. The theory of entropy is applied to the sets pair analysis. The system of relation entropy and the transferable entropy notion are put. The character is studied. An potential by the relation entropy and transferable entropy are defined. It is the consistency measure on the group between a single decision making. We gained a new aggregation effective definition on the group misjudge.

  5. Distributed information and group decision-making : Effects of diversity and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij-de Bode, H.

    2007-01-01

    Organizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making shows that

  6. Distributed information and group decision-making : Effects of diversity and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij-de Bode, H.

    2007-01-01

    Organizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making shows that gr

  7. Distributed Information and Group Decision-Making: Effects of Diversity and Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kooij-de Bode (Hanneke)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations tend to rely on small groups rather than individuals when important decision have to be made, based on the assumption that groups possess a broader range of informational resources and more diversity of insights than individuals. However, research on group decision-making s

  8. Decision Development in Small Groups I: A Comparison of Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marshall Scott

    1981-01-01

    Studies the sequence of phases in group decision making. Compares the unitary sequence model, which assumes that all groups follow the same sequence of phases, and the multiple sequence model, which assumes that different groups follow different sequences. Results support the latter model and suggest revisions in current decision development. (PD)

  9. Developing a Software for Fuzzy Group Decision Support System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, A. Fevzi; Kuscu, Dincer; Han, Kerem

    2009-01-01

    The complex nature and uncertain information in social problems required the emergence of fuzzy decision support systems in social areas. In this paper, we developed user-friendly Fuzzy Group Decision Support Systems (FGDSS) software. The software can be used for multi-purpose decision making processes. It helps the users determine the main and…

  10. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  11. The influence of group decision making on indecisiveness-related decisional confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea L. Patalano; Zachary LeClair

    2011-01-01

    Indecisiveness is an individual difference measure of chronic difficulty and delay in decision making. Indecisiveness is associated with low decisional confidence and distinct patterns of pre-choice information search behavior. The present study explored whether the confidence levels and search behaviors associated with individual indecisiveness also emerge in group decision making contexts. In this study, 97 decisive and indecisive participants were assigned to make a decision individually o...

  12. Aiding human reliance decision making using computational models of trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Klos, T.; Dongen, C.J. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper involves a human-agent system in which there is an operator charged with a pattern recognition task, using an automated decision aid. The objective is to make this human-agent system operate as effectively as possible. Effectiveness is gained by an increase of appropriate reliance on the

  13. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R W; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-01-11

    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes.

  14. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R. W.; Ten Velden, Femke S.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2017-01-01

    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes. PMID:28074896

  15. AN APPROACH TO GROUP DECISION MAKING BASED ON INTERVAL FUZZY PREFERENCE RELATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliang JIANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate group decision making problems where the decision information given by decision makers takes the form of interval fuzzy preference relations.We first give an index to measure the similarity degree of two interval fuzzy preference relations,and utilize the similarity index to check the consistency degree of group opinion.Furthermore,we use the error-propagation principle to determine the priority vector of the aggregated matrix,and then develop an approach to group decision making based on interval fuzzy preference relations.Finally,we give an example to illustrate the developed approach.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Enterprise Knowledge Management based on Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-chi; GUO Hong-wei

    2009-01-01

    Given that the classical performance evaluation models can not deal with the group decision making problems since they simply average the index, we propose an enterprise knowledge management evaluation model based on multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM). Find the differences between Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) and meth- ods for uncertain decision making. Also, analyze the multiple attribute group decision making process and implement the al. gorithm. Finally, apply the method on performance evaluation of four enterprises and make sensitivity analysis towards the evaluation results.

  17. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that

  18. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    software interfaces. The major components of the reseach program included the Diaiogue Management System. (DMS) operating environment, the role of...specification; and new methods for modeling, designing, and developing human-computer interfaces based on syntactic and semantic specification. The DMS...achieving communication is language. Accordingly, the transaction model employs a linguistic model consisting of parts that relate computer responses

  19. The Role of Communication in Group Decision-Making Efficacy: A Task-Contingency Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.

    1990-01-01

    Argues importance of communication for group decision-making performance and its impact on such performance are function of three task characteristics: structure, information requirement, and evaluation demand. Identifies task circumstances in which group communication can be expected to play role in determining decision-making performance, as…

  20. 78 FR 53189 - Dorel Juvenile Group, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Dorel Juvenile Group, Denial of Petition for Decision of... petition. SUMMARY: Dorel Juvenile Group, Inc. (DJG) has determined that certain child restraint...

  1. 76 FR 30239 - Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Information Report is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety. Accordingly, Volkswagen's petition is granted... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. (Volkswagen),\\1\\ has determined...

  2. Integrating human and robot decision-making dynamics with feedback : Models and convergence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Stewart, Andrew; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2008-01-01

    Leveraging research by psychologists on human decision-making, we present a human-robot decision-making problem associated with a complex task and study the corresponding joint decision-making dynamics. The collaborative task is designed so that the human makes decisions just as human subjects make

  3. A Novel Multicriteria Group Decision Making Approach With Intuitionistic Fuzzy SIR Method

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Junyi

    2011-01-01

    The superiority and inferiority ranking (SIR) method is a generation of the well-known PROMETHEE method, which can be more efficient to deal with multi-criterion decision making (MCDM) problem. Intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs), as an important extension of fuzzy sets (IFs), include both membership functions and non-membership functions and can be used to, more precisely describe uncertain information. In real world, decision situations are usually under uncertain environment and involve multiple individuals who have their own points of view on handing of decision problems. In order to solve uncertainty group MCDM problem, we propose a novel intuitionistic fuzzy SIR method in this paper. This approach uses intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operators and SIR ranking methods to handle uncertain information; integrate individual opinions into group opinions; make decisions on multiple-criterion; and finally structure a specific decision map. The proposed approach is illustrated in a simulation of group decision ma...

  4. Consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui

    2016-08-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the decision environment and the lack of knowledge, decision-makers may use uncertain linguistic preference relations to express their preferences over alternatives and criteria. For group decision-making problems with preference relations, it is important to consider the individual consistency and the group consensus before aggregating the preference information. In this paper, consistency and consensus models for group decision-making with uncertain 2-tuple linguistic preference relations (U2TLPRs) are investigated. First of all, a formula which can construct a consistent U2TLPR from the original preference relation is presented. Based on the consistent preference relation, the individual consistency index for a U2TLPR is defined. An iterative algorithm is then developed to improve the individual consistency of a U2TLPR. To help decision-makers reach consensus in group decision-making under uncertain linguistic environment, the individual consensus and group consensus indices for group decision-making with U2TLPRs are defined. Based on the two indices, an algorithm for consensus reaching in group decision-making with U2TLPRs is also developed. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  6. How Are Distributed Groups Affected by an Imposed Structuring of their Decision-Making Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Anders Lorentz; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Groups often suffer from ineffective communication and decision making. This experimental study compares distributed groups solving a preference task with support from either a communication system or a system providing both communication and a structuring of the decision-making process. Results...... as its outcome. Notably, the task solutions arrived at by the groups using the system that imposes a structuring of the decision-making process show limited correlation with the task solutions suggested by the system on the basis of the groups’ explicitly stated criteria. We find no differences in group...

  7. Signal Detection Analysis of Computer Enhanced Group Decision Making Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    intentionally left blank. Sorkin and his colleagues (Sorkin, Kantowitz , & Kantowitz , 1988; Elvers & Sorkin, 1989; Sorkin, Mabry, Weldon, & Elvers...203. Sorkin, R. D., Kantowitz , B. H., & Kantowitz , S. C. (1988). Human Factors, 30, 445-459. Sorkin, R. D., Luan, S., & Itzkowitz, J. (2004

  8. A new web-based framework development for fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanine, Mohamed; Boutkhoum, Omar; Tikniouine, Abdessadek; Agouti, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making (FMCGDM) process is usually used when a group of decision-makers faces imprecise data or linguistic variables to solve the problems. However, this process contains many methods that require many time-consuming calculations depending on the number of criteria, alternatives and decision-makers in order to reach the optimal solution. In this study, a web-based FMCGDM framework that offers decision-makers a fast and reliable response service is proposed. The proposed framework includes commonly used tools for multi-criteria decision-making problems such as fuzzy Delphi, fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods. The integration of these methods enables taking advantages of the strengths and complements each method's weakness. Finally, a case study of location selection for landfill waste in Morocco is performed to demonstrate how this framework can facilitate decision-making process. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully accomplish the goal of this study.

  9. Norm Development, Decision Making, and Structuration in CMC Group Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    The use of new and advanced technologies has a significant potential to impact the way students communicate in a number of contexts and settings. Many students will find themselves in both academic and career situations where computer-mediated communication (CMC) group interaction will be necessary. As a result, it is important to integrate…

  10. Ambiguity and Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that the literature of group studies is controversial and confusing on the effect of communicative variables on small-group decision making. Postulates that two classes of variables (homogeneity and task) moderate the relationship between group communication and group performance. Advances the ambiguity model to reconcile the contradictory…

  11. The Human Group Optimizer (HGO): Mimicking the collective intelligence of human groups as an optimization tool for combinatorial problems

    CERN Document Server

    De Vincenzo, Ilario; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A large number of optimization algorithms have been developed by researchers to solve a variety of complex problems in operations management area. We present a novel optimization algorithm belonging to the class of swarm intelligence optimization methods. The algorithm mimics the decision making process of human groups and exploits the dynamics of this process as an optimization tool for combinatorial problems. In order to achieve this aim, a continuous-time Markov process is proposed to describe the behavior of a population of socially interacting agents, modelling how humans in a group modify their opinions driven by self-interest and consensus seeking. As in the case of a collection of spins, the dynamics of such a system is characterized by a phase transition from low to high values of the overall consenus (magnetization). We recognize this phase transition as being associated with the emergence of a collective superior intelligence of the population. While this state being active, a cooling schedule is a...

  12. Realpolitik versus fair process: moderating effects of group identification on acceptance of political decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kwok; Tong, Kwok-Kit; Lind, E Allan

    2007-03-01

    Three studies examined the effects of perceived procedural justice and the favorability of a group-level outcome on the endorsement of a group-level decision and the evaluation of the authority responsible for the decision. Results showed that, contrary to findings usually seen with individual-level decisions, collective outcome favorability was more important than procedural justice in influencing the endorsement of the decision. Furthermore, increased identification with the group reduced the importance of procedural justice but accentuated the importance of collective outcome favorability. With regard to the evaluation of the authority, the results were similar to those obtained in individual-level decisions: Procedural fairness mattered more than collective outcome favorability.

  13. The influence of social comparison and peer group size on risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.

  14. Adoption of Web-based Group Decision Support Systems: Conditions for Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillegersberg, van Jos; Koenen, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    While organizations have massively adopted enterprise information systems to support business processes, business meetings in which key decisions are made about products, services and processes are usually held without much support of information systems. This is remarkable as group decision support

  15. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Adamczyk, M.A.P.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in gr

  16. Group & Intergroup Relations in Living Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    investigations summarized in Table 2-1 include analyses of a broad range of system properties (cf. Adorno et al, 1950, MacKinnon, 1965; Beavers, 1977, Goffman...also characteristic of the authoritarian personality ( Adorno , et al., 1950). The balance of feeling within an underbounded system is typically less...groups being studied. 2 - 45 REFERENCES Adam R.N. and Preiss, J.J. (eds.) Human Organization Research. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey, 1960. Adorno , T.W

  17. Structure learning in human sequential decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Daniel E; Schrater, Paul

    2010-12-02

    Studies of sequential decision-making in humans frequently find suboptimal performance relative to an ideal actor that has perfect knowledge of the model of how rewards and events are generated in the environment. Rather than being suboptimal, we argue that the learning problem humans face is more complex, in that it also involves learning the structure of reward generation in the environment. We formulate the problem of structure learning in sequential decision tasks using Bayesian reinforcement learning, and show that learning the generative model for rewards qualitatively changes the behavior of an optimal learning agent. To test whether people exhibit structure learning, we performed experiments involving a mixture of one-armed and two-armed bandit reward models, where structure learning produces many of the qualitative behaviors deemed suboptimal in previous studies. Our results demonstrate humans can perform structure learning in a near-optimal manner.

  18. Structure learning in human sequential decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Acuña

    Full Text Available Studies of sequential decision-making in humans frequently find suboptimal performance relative to an ideal actor that has perfect knowledge of the model of how rewards and events are generated in the environment. Rather than being suboptimal, we argue that the learning problem humans face is more complex, in that it also involves learning the structure of reward generation in the environment. We formulate the problem of structure learning in sequential decision tasks using Bayesian reinforcement learning, and show that learning the generative model for rewards qualitatively changes the behavior of an optimal learning agent. To test whether people exhibit structure learning, we performed experiments involving a mixture of one-armed and two-armed bandit reward models, where structure learning produces many of the qualitative behaviors deemed suboptimal in previous studies. Our results demonstrate humans can perform structure learning in a near-optimal manner.

  19. The influence of group decision making on indecisiveness-related decisional confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Patalano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indecisiveness is an individual difference measure of chronic difficulty and delay in decision making. Indecisiveness is associated with low decisional confidence and distinct patterns of pre-choice information search behavior. The present study explored whether the confidence levels and search behaviors associated with individual indecisiveness also emerge in group decision making contexts. In this study, 97 decisive and indecisive participants were assigned to make a decision individually or in a homogenous three-person group. Indecisiveness score was found to predict participant decisional confidence in the individual condition but not in the group condition, with group participants being overall more confident than individuals. Similar results were obtained for other related measures of participants' perceptions of the decision task. Surprisingly, no indecisiveness-related differences in information search were found, suggesting that other aspects of the group process contribute to increased confidence. The results provide initial evidence that indecisiveness does not influence group decision making and that, especially for indecisive individuals, working in groups may be a way to boost decisional confidence.

  20. Fusion of Heterogeneous Incomplete Hesitant Preference Relations in Group Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Zhen; Guo, Chonghui

    2016-01-01

    ...) under group decision making settings. First, some simple formulae are developed to derive a priority weight vector from an incomplete hesitant fuzzy preference relation or an incomplete hesitant multiplicative preference relation based...

  1. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seongmin A Park; Sidney Goïame; Jean-Claude Dreher

    2017-01-01

    ... (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal...

  2. Decision-Making Models with Sets of Strategies for Applications to Individuals and Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wanda E.

    Three decision-making models that have applications for college presidents and administrators are reviewed. While both individual and group decision-making are addressed, emphasis is placed on the importance of group decisions on institutional policy planning. The model of Edmund M. Burke (1979) presents specific decision-making strategies in…

  3. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  4. 77 FR 2776 - Dorel Juvenile Group, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Dorel Juvenile Group, Receipt of Petition for Decision of... Petition. SUMMARY: Dorel Juvenile Group, Inc.\\1\\ (DJG) has determined that certain child restraint systems..., 2011). \\1\\ Dorel Juvenile Group, Inc., a division of Dorel Industries, Inc., is an Indiana company...

  5. The Effect of Conflict Theory Based Decision-Making Skill Training Psycho-Educational Group Experience on Decision Making Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Gucray, S. Sonay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of conflict theory based decision making skill training group applications on decision making styles of adolescents was investigated. A total of 36 students, including 18 students in experimental group and 18 students in control group, participated in the research. When assigning students to experimental group or control…

  6. Selection and inhibition mechanisms for human voluntary action decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hughes, Laura E; Rowe, James B

    2012-10-15

    One can choose between action alternatives that have no apparent difference in their outcomes. Such voluntary action decisions are associated with widespread frontal-parietal activation, and a tendency to inhibit the repetition of a previous action. However, the mechanism of initiating voluntary actions and the functions of different brain regions during this process remains largely unknown. Here, we combine computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the selection and inhibition mechanisms that mediate trial-to-trial voluntary action decisions. We fitted an optimized accumulator model to behavioral responses in a finger-tapping task in which participants were instructed to make chosen actions or specified actions. Model parameters derived from each individual were then applied to estimate the expected accumulated metabolic activity (EAA) engaged in every single trial. The EAA was associated with blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in a decision work that was maximal in the supplementary motor area and the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with a competitive accumulation-to-threshold mechanism for action decision by these regions. Furthermore, specific inhibition of the previous action's accumulator was related to the suppression of response repetition. This action-specific inhibition correlated with the activity of the right inferior frontal gyrus, when the option to repeat existed. Our findings suggest that human voluntary action decisions are mediated by complementary processes of intentional selection and inhibition.

  7. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  8. Modelling human decision-making in coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, G.

    2012-12-01

    A solid understanding of human decision-making is essential to analyze the complexity of coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and inform policies to promote resilience in the face of environmental change. Human decisions drive and/or mediate the interactions and feedbacks, and contribute to the heterogeneity and non-linearity that characterize CHANS. However, human decision-making is usually over-simplistically modeled, whereby human agents are represented deterministically either as dumb or clairvoyant decision-makers. Decision-making models fall short in the integration of both environmental and human behavioral drivers, and concerning the latter, tend to focus on only one category, e.g. economic, cultural, or psychological. Furthermore, these models render a linear decision-making process and therefore fail to account for the recursive co-evolutionary dynamics in CHANS. As a result, these models constitute only a weak basis for policy-making. There is therefore scope and an urgent need for better approaches to human decision-making, to produce the knowledge that can inform vulnerability reduction policies in the face of environmental change. This presentation synthesizes the current state-of-the-art of modelling human decision-making in CHANS, with particular reference to agricultural systems, and delineates how the above mentioned shortcomings can be overcome. Through examples from research on pesticide use and adaptation to climate change, both based on the integrative agent-centered framework (Feola and Binder, 2010), the approach for an improved understanding of human agents in CHANS are illustrated. This entails: integrative approach, focus on behavioral dynamics more than states, feedbacks between individual and system levels, and openness to heterogeneity.

  9. Young children's inclusion decisions in moral and social-conventional group norm contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2017-06-20

    Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Method for Risky Multiobjective Group Decision-Making and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于义彬; 王本德

    2003-01-01

    The multiobjective group decision-making problem under risk is common in reality. This paper focuses on the study about risky multiobjective group decision-making problem where the index value is not certain. We give indexes classifying method and index normalizing formula of this type problem. By building objective function that minimizes general weighted distance from every alternative to the relatively best and worst alternative, the optimal membership degree of every decision-maker to every alternative can be obtained, and by building another objective function that minimizes general weighted distance from the optimal membership degree of every decision-maker to every alternative to the group optimal alternative and the group inferior alternative, the optimal membership degree of every decision-maker to every alternative can be obtained, which are both based on probability theory and fuzzy theory. Aftermost a model is established which collects group pREFERENCES. This method provides a new idea and approach for solving multiobjective decision-making problem among uncertain system, which is applicable for practical problem. Finally a case study shows a satisfactory result.

  11. An entropy-based multi-criterion group decision analysis method of selecting the optimum weak-subgrade treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jun-jun; ZHENG Jun-jie; SUN Ling; ZHANG Shi-biao

    2008-01-01

    Proper treatment of weak subgrade soil is very important to building a highway of good quality. We proposed an entropy-based multi-criterion group decision analysis method for a group of experts to evaluate alternatives of weak subgrade treatment, with an aim to select the optimum technique which is technically, economically and socially viable. We used fuzzy theory to analyze multiple experts' evaluation on various factors of each alterative treatment. Different experts' evaluations are integrated by the group eigenvalue method. An entropy weight is introduced to minimize the negative influences of subjective human factors of experts. The optimum alternative is identified with ideal point discriminant analysis to calculate the distance of each alternative to the ideal point and prioritize all alternatives according to their distances. A case study on a section of the Shiman Expressway verified that the proposed method can give a rational decision on the optimum method of weak subgrade treatment.

  12. Core competencies for shared decision making training programs: insights from an international, interdisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Moumjid-Ferdjaoui, Nora; Drolet, Renée; Stacey, Dawn; Härter, Martin; Bastian, Hilda; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Borduas, Francine; Charles, Cathy; Coulter, Angela; Desroches, Sophie; Friedrich, Gwendolyn; Gafni, Amiram; Graham, Ian D; Labrecque, Michel; LeBlanc, Annie; Légaré, Jean; Politi, Mary; Sargeant, Joan; Thomson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Shared decision making is now making inroads in health care professionals' continuing education curriculum, but there is no consensus on what core competencies are required by clinicians for effectively involving patients in health-related decisions. Ready-made programs for training clinicians in shared decision making are in high demand, but existing programs vary widely in their theoretical foundations, length, and content. An international, interdisciplinary group of 25 individuals met in 2012 to discuss theoretical approaches to making health-related decisions, compare notes on existing programs, take stock of stakeholders concerns, and deliberate on core competencies. This article summarizes the results of those discussions. Some participants believed that existing models already provide a sufficient conceptual basis for developing and implementing shared decision making competency-based training programs on a wide scale. Others argued that this would be premature as there is still no consensus on the definition of shared decision making or sufficient evidence to recommend specific competencies for implementing shared decision making. However, all participants agreed that there were 2 broad types of competencies that clinicians need for implementing shared decision making: relational competencies and risk communication competencies. Further multidisciplinary research could broaden and deepen our understanding of core competencies for shared decision making training.

  13. Optimization-based Analysis and Training of Human Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the research domain Complex Problem Solving (CPS) in psychology, computer-supported tests are used to analyze complex human decision making and problem solving. The approach is to use computer-based microworlds and to evaluate the performance of participants in such test-scenarios and correlate it to certain characteristics. However, these test-scenarios have usually been defined on a trial-and-error basis, until certain characteristics became apparent. The more complex models ...

  14. More heads choose better than one: Group decision making can eliminate probability matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2016-06-01

    Probability matching is a robust and common failure to adhere to normative predictions in sequential decision making. We show that this choice anomaly is nearly eradicated by gathering individual decision makers into small groups and asking the groups to decide. The group choice advantage emerged both when participants generated responses for an entire sequence of choices without outcome feedback (Exp. 1a) and when participants made trial-by-trial predictions with outcome feedback after each decision (Exp. 1b). We show that the dramatic improvement observed in group settings stands in stark contrast to a complete lack of effective solitary deliberation. These findings suggest a crucial role of group discussion in alleviating the impact of hasty intuitive responses in tasks better suited to careful deliberation.

  15. Modeling human decision making behavior in supervisory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, M. K.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision control model was developed, which is based primarily on a dynamic programming algorithm which looks at all the available task possibilities, charts an optimal trajectory, and commits itself to do the first step (i.e., follow the optimal trajectory during the next time period), and then iterates the calculation. A Bayesian estimator was included which estimates the tasks which might occur in the immediate future and provides this information to the dynamic programming routine. Preliminary trials comparing the human subject's performance to that of the optimal model show a great similarity, but indicate that the human skips certain movements which require quick change in strategy.

  16. COMPARISON OF FUZZY TOPSIS METHODS USED GROUP DECISION MAKING AND AN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATİH ECER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy TOPSIS method used group decision making in fuzzy environment is one of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods.  It is needed to decision makers (DM, alternatives and decision criteria in order to apply this method. Foundation of the method is the ideal solution is the shortest distance from Fuzzy Positive Ideal Solution (FPIS and the farthest distance from Fuzzy Negative Ideal Solution (FNIS. Using FPIS and FNIS, closeness coefficients of alternatives are evaluated. Closeness coefficients express scores of the alternatives. According to closeness coefficients, alternatives are ranked from the best to the worst. In this study, two fuzzy TOPSIS methods having different algorithms are compared. To this purpose, firstly assessments of decision makers are converted to triangular fuzzy numbers. It is seen at the end of the study that ranking orders of alternatives don’t change.

  17. Making a good group decision (low risk) in Singapore under an environment that has time and cost constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, Sok Hiang Candy

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Organizations in Singapore operate in a highly competitive and fast-paced work environment that presents decision-making challenges at the individual, group, and organization levels. A key problem is achieving good decision fitness within time and cost constraints. While many decision-making theories and processes address the fundamental decision-making process, there is limited research on improving the group decision-making framework...

  18. Systematic biases in group decision-making: implications for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Russell; Thompson, Carl

    2014-12-01

    Key decisions in modern health care systems are often made by groups of people rather than lone individuals. However, group decision-making can be imperfect and result in organizational and clinical errors which may harm patients-a fact highlighted graphically in recent (and historical) health scandals and inquiries such as the recent report by Sir Robert Francis into the serious failures in patient care and safety at Mid Staffordshire Hospitals NHS Trust in the English NHS. In this article, we draw on theories from organization studies and decision science to explore the ways in which patient safety may be undermined or threatened in health care contexts as a result of four systematic biases arising from group decision-making: 'groupthink', 'social loafing', 'group polarization' and 'escalation of commitment'. For each group bias, we describe its antecedents, illustrate how it can impair group decisions with regard to patient safety, outline a range of possible remedial organizational strategies that can be used to attenuate the potential for adverse consequences and look forward at the emerging research agenda in this important but hitherto neglected area of patient safety research.

  19. A Group Decision Framework with Intuitionistic Preference Relations and Its Application to Low Carbon Supplier Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiayu; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2016-09-19

    This article develops a group decision framework with intuitionistic preference relations. An approach is first devised to rectify an inconsistent intuitionistic preference relation to derive an additive consistent one. A new aggregation operator, the so-called induced intuitionistic ordered weighted averaging (IIOWA) operator, is proposed to aggregate individual intuitionistic fuzzy judgments. By using the mean absolute deviation between the original and rectified intuitionistic preference relations as an order inducing variable, the rectified consistent intuitionistic preference relations are aggregated into a collective preference relation. This treatment is presumably able to assign different weights to different decision-makers' judgments based on the quality of their inputs (in terms of consistency of their original judgments). A solution procedure is then developed for tackling group decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. A low carbon supplier selection case study is developed to illustrate how to apply the proposed decision model in practice.

  20. A Group Decision Framework with Intuitionistic Preference Relations and Its Application to Low Carbon Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiayu Tong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a group decision framework with intuitionistic preference relations. An approach is first devised to rectify an inconsistent intuitionistic preference relation to derive an additive consistent one. A new aggregation operator, the so-called induced intuitionistic ordered weighted averaging (IIOWA operator, is proposed to aggregate individual intuitionistic fuzzy judgments. By using the mean absolute deviation between the original and rectified intuitionistic preference relations as an order inducing variable, the rectified consistent intuitionistic preference relations are aggregated into a collective preference relation. This treatment is presumably able to assign different weights to different decision-makers’ judgments based on the quality of their inputs (in terms of consistency of their original judgments. A solution procedure is then developed for tackling group decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. A low carbon supplier selection case study is developed to illustrate how to apply the proposed decision model in practice.

  1. Why do Participation in Decision Making Enhance Creativity in Work Groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Thomas; Jønsson, Thomas

    It seems to be an established fact in the organizational psychological literature that participation in decision making leads to creativity and innovation in work groups and organizations. A quite extensive amount of research has claimed that the link exists, although only a somewhat smaller amount...... of research has established that there is a link between the two constructs of participation in decision making and creativity. But although this link has been clearly documented theories with clearly stated causal explanations of why participation in decision making (pdm) would lead to creativity...

  2. Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-11-01

    Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science.

  3. Does group cohesion matter to decision quality in information systems development teams?

    OpenAIRE

    Lohan, Garry; Acton, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Newer information systems development approaches such as agile methods, which emphasize a sense-and-respond approach, increase the number of operating decisions made regularly within the development team. These methods are being used by an increasing number of organizations as a means of improving the agility of the development process. Development teams are required to make regular group decisions and team members work closely with each other to develop software in time-boxe...

  4. A model of human collective decision-making in complex environments

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    A continuous-time Markov process is proposed to analyze how a group of humans solves a complex task, consisting in the search of the optimal set of decisions on a fitness landscape. Individuals change their opinions driven by two different forces: (i) the rational behavior which pushes them to change their opinions as to increase their own fitness values, and (ii) the social interactions which push individuals to reduce the diversity of their opinions in order to reach consensus. Results show that the performance of the group is strongly affected by the strength of social interactions and by the level of knowledge of the individuals. Increasing the strength of social interactions improves the performance of the team. However, too strong social interactions slow down the search of the optimal solution and worsen the performance of the group. We prove that a moderate level of knowledge is already enough to guarantee high performance of the group in making decisions.

  5. Multigranular Uncertain Linguistic Prioritized Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hong Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate multiple criteria group decision-making problems in which there are priority relationships between the decision elements (criteria and experts, and decision information provided by decision makers takes the form of multigranular uncertain linguistic information. Firstly, some operational laws and possibility degree of multi-granular uncertain linguistic variables are introduced. Then, some new linguistic aggregation operators based on the prioritized aggregation operator, such as the multigranular uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted average (MULPWA operator and the multigranular uncertain linguistic prioritized ordered weighted average (MULPOWA operator, are developed and their desirable properties are studied. The prominent characteristics of these proposed operators are that they can aggregate directly the uncertain linguistic variables whose values form the linguistic term sets with different granularities and convey the prioritization phenomenon among the aggregated arguments. Furthermore, based on the MULPWA and MULPOWA operators, an approach to deal with multiple criteria group decision-making problems under multi-granular uncertain linguistic environments is developed. Finally, a practical example is provided to illustrate the multiple criteria group decision-making process.

  6. Group Decision Support System Determination Of Best Employee Using Topsis And Borda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Arya Budhi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Determining the best employee at Lombok Garden inteded to stimulate the performance of the hotel employees Lombok Garden. Improved performance of employees it will have a direct effect on the quality of hotel services. Employee performance appraisement are conducted by six assessors, namely the head of each department and consists of several criteria. Assessments will be difficult if done manually considering each appraiser has its own preferences in assessment. To solve that problem, we need a computer system that helps decision-making is a group decision support system (GDSS determination of the best employees in the hotel Lombok Garden.Group decision support system developed in this study using TOPSIS (Technique For Order Preference By Similiarity To Ideal Solution and Borda to assist decision-making group. TOPSIS method is used for decision-making in each appraiser, while the Borda method used to combine the results of each assessor's decision so as to obtain the final result of the best employees in Lombok Garden.Based on the final result of the system of determination of the best employees in the form of a ranking of the final value of each employee. The highest value will be used as a recommendation as the best employee at Lombok Garden.

  7. Merger acquisition or independence--small group decision--large group impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erins, D C

    1995-01-01

    As this group practice looked to the future, two alternatives were considered--remain independent or merge with another entity. Remaining independent, although desirable, would be extremely difficult, so this group looked for a mutually beneficial affiliation. This case study details the beginning-to-end affiliation process--from seeking potential partners to signing the papers: the keys to success and potential dealbreakers.

  8. Application and evaluation research on group decision-making model in English teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the issues of English teaching by the use of the group decision-making hierarchical structural assessment model, which aims at clearly resolving the problems in the examination of the current English teaching, and quickly provides effective solutions. The group decision-making hierarchical structural assessment model can ultimately construct a quantitative index assessment system based on the weight analysis and combined with the multi-index quantification mode, thus flexibly and effectively solving fuzzy and complex problems. This paper will build a group decision-making hierarchical structural assessment model for English teaching in China, establish factors affecting level and measures scheme level, make a detailed quantita-tive weight evaluation analysis and find out an educational method that can effectively enhance the practicability of English in China.

  9. Supplier Selection Group Decision Making in Logistics Service Value Cocreation Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic fuzzy information aggregation plays an important role in intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and is widely used in group decision making. In this paper, an induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator (I-IFEHA is investigated for supplier selection group decision making in logistics service value cocreation based on fuzzy measures. We first introduce some aggregation operators and Einstein operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and develop a new induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator to accommodate the environment in which the given arguments are intuitionistic fuzzy values. Then, we study the supplier selection group decision model in logistics service value cocreation based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets with the I-IFEHA operator. Finally, an example of 3PL supplier selection in logistics service value cocreation environment is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

  10. Multi-criteria group decision making with fuzzy data:an extension of the VIKOR method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenqi Jiang; Jennifer Shang

    2015-01-01

    The VIKOR method is a multi-criteria decision making aid, which employs linear normalization to offer compromise solu-tions and has been successful y applied to various group decision making problems. However, the conventional VIKOR techniques used to integrate group judgments and the information loss arising from defuzzification are problematic and distort final outcomes. An improved integration method, which is optimization-based, is proposed. And it can handle fuzzy criteria values and weights. The precondition for accurately defuzzifying triangular fuzzy num-bers is identified. Several effective defuzzification procedures are proposed to improve the extant VIKOR, and a comprehensive evaluation framework is offered to aid multi-criteria group decision making. Final y, a numerical example is provided to il ustrate the practicability of the proposed method.

  11. Adolescents in Peer Groups Make More Prudent Decisions When a Slightly Older Adult Is Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karol; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents make more reckless decisions when with peers than when alone, which poses a challenge for organizations that place adolescents in situations in which risky and myopic decision making is problematic. We asked whether the effect of peers on adolescents' decision making is mitigated by the presence of a slightly older adult. We examined whether target subjects' risk taking was greater when they were in groups of 4 late-adolescent males (ages 18-22) than when they were in groups that mixed 3 late-adolescent males with 1 slightly older adult (age 25-30); risk taking in both of these conditions was compared with that of adolescents tested alone. We found that adolescents took more risks and expressed stronger preference for immediate rewards when they were grouped with 3 same-age peers than when they were alone. When 1 adolescent was replaced by someone slightly older, however, adolescents' decision making and reward processing resembled that seen when adolescents were tested alone. Adding a young adult to a work team of adolescents may improve group decision making.

  12. Hybrid Multicriteria Group Decision Making Method for Information System Project Selection Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information system (IS project selection is of critical importance to every organization in dynamic competing environment. The aim of this paper is to develop a hybrid multicriteria group decision making approach based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory for IS project selection. The decision makers’ assessment information can be expressed in the form of real numbers, interval-valued numbers, linguistic variables, and intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. All these evaluation pieces of information can be transformed to the form of IFNs. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is used to obtain the entropy weights of the criteria. TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed to select appropriate IS project in group decision making environment. Finally, a numerical example for information system projects selection is given to illustrate application of hybrid multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM method based on intuitionistic fuzzy theory and TOPSIS method.

  13. D-Side: A Facility and Workforce Planning Group Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2005-01-01

    "To understand and protect our home planet, to explore the universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers" is NASA's mission. The Systems Management Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is searching for methods to effectively manage the Center's resources to meet NASA's mission. D-Side is a group multi-criteria decision support system (GMDSS) developed to support facility decisions at JSC. D-Side uses a series of sequential and structured processes to plot facilities in a three-dimensional (3-D) graph on the basis of each facility alignment with NASA's mission and goals, the extent to which other facilities are dependent on the facility, and the dollar value of capital investments that have been postponed at the facility relative to the facility replacement value. A similarity factor rank orders facilities based on their Euclidean distance from Ideal and Nadir points. These similarity factors are then used to allocate capital improvement resources across facilities. We also present a parallel model that can be used to support decisions concerning allocation of human resources investments across workforce units. Finally, we present results from a pilot study where 12 experienced facility managers from NASA used D-Side and the organization's current approach to rank order and allocate funds for capital improvement across 20 facilities. Users evaluated D-Side favorably in terms of ease of use, the quality of the decision-making process, decision quality, and overall value-added. Their evaluations of D-Side were significantly more favorable than their evaluations of the current approach. Keywords: NASA, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Decision Support System, AHP, Euclidean Distance, 3-D Modeling, Facility Planning, Workforce Planning.

  14. Evaluation of Cloud Services: A Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Wibowo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method for evaluating the performance of Cloud services in an uncertain environment. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used to better model the subjectivity and imprecision in the performance evaluation process. An effective algorithm is developed based on the technique for order preference by similarity to the ideal solution and the Choquet integral operator for adequately solving the performance evaluation problem. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method for solving the multi-criteria group decision making problem in real situations.

  15. Partner Selection in a Virtual Enterprise: A Group Multiattribute Decision Model with Weighted Possibilistic Mean Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an extended technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS for partner selection in a virtual enterprise (VE. The imprecise and fuzzy information of the partner candidate and the risk preferences of decision makers are both considered in the group multiattribute decision-making model. The weighted possibilistic mean values are used to handle triangular fuzzy numbers in the fuzzy environment. A ranking procedure for partner candidates is developed to help decision makers with varying risk preferences select the most suitable partners. Numerical examples are presented to reflect the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed TOPSIS. Results show that the varying risk preferences of decision makers play a significant role in the partner selection process in VE under a fuzzy environment.

  16. Do children trust based on group membership or prior accuracy? The role of novel group membership in children's trust decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashi, Fadwa B; Mills, Candice M

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments examined how an informant's group membership can influence children's trust decisions. Participants (3- to 7-year-olds, N=162) were assigned to either the red or blue group based on their selection of a red or blue apron and watched an in-group and out-group informant provide conflicting names for a set of novel objects. When asked which informant they would prefer to rely on for new information, nearly all age groups trusted the in-group informant. Children then watched as each informant varied in accuracy by labeling either all or none of four familiar items accurately and were then asked which informant's labels they preferred for learning new information. When the in-group informant had previously demonstrated accuracy, children continued to trust the in-group informant for new information. In contrast, when the in-group informant had previously demonstrated inaccuracy, children were unsure who to trust, with only 6- and 7-year-olds showing a decrease in their trust for the inaccurate in-group informant. These findings demonstrate that group membership can skew how children encode new information and can make children uncertain about whom to trust for information.

  17. Breakthrough in the Human Decision Making Based on an Unconscious Origin of Free Will

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a breakthrough in the concept of free will in the human decision making. It is assumed that the consciousness and unconsciousness show the same mind processes in the human brain. The decision making initiates unconsciously in the human brain, and, eventually, becomes a conscious decision. So the free will is unconsciously prepared in the human brain. Then I conjecture that what is called the conscious human brain is just the enlightening of some parts of the unconscious ...

  18. A Framework of a Computerized Decision Aid to Improve Group Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Bose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In organizations, groups of decision makers often meet to make judgments as a group on issues and tasks such as, hiring a person who best fits an open position. In such tasks called cognitive conflict tasks, where there is no conflict of interest, group members attempting to reach a common solution often differ on their perspectives to the problem. Cognitive conflicts have been studied in the context of Social Judgment Theory, which posits that persons or judges make a set of judgments about a set of events based on observation of a set of cues related to the events. Disagreement arises because the judges fail to understand each other’s judgment making policies. In order to reduce disagreement and move the group towards a group judgment policy that has the consensus of the group members and is applied consistently, a computerized decision aid is proposed that can be built around a Group Support System using cognitive mapping as a method of providing cognitive feedback and the Analytic Hierarchy Process to process the conflicting criteria and help an individual formulate a judgment policy, as well as aggregate the individual policies into a group judgment policy. It is argued that such as decision aid by supporting every decision maker in the group to effectively use information about the task so that they have a good understanding of the judgment policy they form, to communicate their evaluation policies accurately to other members, and by providing an iterative mechanism through which members can arrive at a compromise solution to the task, is expected to improve the quality of group judgments.

  19. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time.

  20. Novel combinatorial algorithm for the problems of fuzzy grey multi-attribute group decision making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Congjun; Xiao Xinping; Peng Jin

    2007-01-01

    To study the fuzzy and grey information in the problems of multi-attribute group decision making, the basic concepts of both fuzzy grey numbers and grey interval numbers are given firstly, then a new model of fuzzy grey multi-attribute group decision making based on the theories of fuzzy mathematics and grey system is presented. Furthermore, the grey interval relative degree and deviation degree is defined, and both the optimistic algorithm of the grey interval relational degree and the algorithm of deviation degree minimization for solving this new model are also given. Finally, a decision making example to demonstrate the feasibility and rationality of this new method is given, and the results by using these two algorithms are uniform.

  1. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  2. Bayesian decision making in human collectives with binary choices

    CERN Document Server

    Eguíluz, Víctor M; Fernández-Gracia, J

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on the description of the mechanisms behind the process of information aggregation and decision making, a basic step to understand emergent phenomena in society, such as trends, information spreading or the wisdom of crowds. In many situations, agents choose between discrete options. We analyze experimental data on binary opinion choices in humans. The data consists of two separate experiments in which humans answer questions with a binary response, where one is correct and the other is incorrect. The questions are answered without and with information on the answers of some previous participants. We find that a Bayesian approach captures the probability of choosing one of the answers. The influence of peers is uncorrelated with the difficulty of the question. The data is inconsistent with Weber's law, which states that the probability of choosing an option depends on the proportion of previous answers choosing that option and not on the total number of those answers. Last, the present Bayesian ...

  3. Chaotic Feedback Loops within Decision Making Groups: Towards an Integration of Chaos Theory and Cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaten, James A.

    This paper offers a model that integrates chaos theory and cybernetics, which can be used to describe the structure of decision making within small groups. The paper begins with an overview of cybernetics and chaos. Definitional characteristics of cybernetics are reviewed along with salient constructs, such as goal-seeking, feedback, feedback…

  4. Why does Participation in Decision Making Enhance Creativity in Work Groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Jønsson, Thomas S.

    It seems to be an established fact in the organizational psychological literature that participation in decision making leads to creativity and innovation in work groups and organizations. A quite extensive amount of research has claimed that the link exists, although only a somewhat smaller amount...

  5. Group differences in fairness perceptions and decision making in voting rights cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Angela P; Thomas, Ewart A C

    2006-10-01

    Participants recruited from one Historically Black University (HBU) and two predominantly White higher-education institutions evaluated and decided simulated voting rights case summaries in which the plaintiff was either a racially-defined (African American) or a nonracially-defined (farmers) minority group. Contrary to social identity and social justice findings of an in-group bias, the present study showed greater support at all institutions for the voting rights of the African Americans than for the rural farmers, and the greatest support for both minority groups was found at the HBU. Perceived evidence strength was a better predictor of decisions than perceived unfairness, and both of these predictor variables completely mediated the effects of institution-type and involvement of a racially-defined group on decisions.

  6. The Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy MULTIMOORA Method for Group Decision Making in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple criteria decision making methods have received different extensions under the uncertain environment in recent years. The aim of the current research is to extend the application of the MULTIMOORA method (Multiobjective Optimization by Ratio Analysis plus Full Multiplicative Form for group decision making in the uncertain environment. Taking into account the advantages of IVIFS (interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets in handling the problem of uncertainty, the development of the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy MULTIMOORA (IVIF-MULTIMOORA method for group decision making is considered in the paper. Two numerical examples of real-world civil engineering problems are presented, and ranking of the alternatives based on the suggested method is described. The results are then compared to the rankings yielded by some other methods of decision making with IVIF information. The comparison has shown the conformity of the proposed IVIF-MULTIMOORA method with other approaches. The proposed algorithm is favorable because of the abilities of IVIFS to be used for imagination of uncertainty and the MULTIMOORA method to consider three different viewpoints in analyzing engineering decision alternatives.

  7. Three decision-making aids: brainstorming, nominal group, and Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, A R

    1994-01-01

    The methods of brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique, and the Delphi technique can be important resources for nursing staff development educators who wish to expand their decision-making skills. Staff development educators may find opportunities to use these methods for such tasks as developing courses, setting departmental goals, and forecasting trends for planning purposes. Brainstorming, Nominal Group Technique, and the Delphi technique provide a structured format that helps increase the quantity and quality of participant responses.

  8. A decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Hadi, Mackenzie; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-03-15

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 'Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) that consists of 3 tiers to assign nanomaterials to 4 main groups, to perform sub-grouping within the main groups and to determine and refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways, i.e. intrinsic material and system-dependent properties, biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, cellular and apical toxic effects. Use (including manufacture), release and route of exposure are applied as 'qualifiers' within the DF4nanoGrouping to determine if, e.g. nanomaterials cannot be released from a product matrix, which may justify the waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble nanomaterials, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio nanomaterials, (3) passive nanomaterials, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping aims to group nanomaterials by their specific mode-of-action that results in an apical toxic effect. This is eventually directed by a nanomaterial's intrinsic properties. However, since the exact correlation of intrinsic material properties and apical toxic effect is not yet established, the DF4nanoGrouping uses the 'functionality' of nanomaterials for grouping rather than relying on intrinsic material properties alone. Such functionalities include system-dependent material properties (such as dissolution rate in biologically relevant media), bio-physical interactions, in vitro effects and release and exposure. The DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard and risk assessment tool that applies modern toxicology and contributes to the sustainable development of nanotechnological products. It ensures that no studies are performed that do not provide crucial data and therefore saves animals and resources.

  9. Support System Model for Value based Group Decision on Roof System Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A group decision support system is required on a value-based decision because there are different concern caused by differing preferences, experiences, and background. It is to enable each decision-maker to evaluate and rank the solution alternatives before engaging into negotiation with other decision-makers. Stakeholder of multi-criteria decision making problems usually evaluates the alternative solution from different perspective, making it possible to have a dominant solution among the alternatives. Each stakeholder needs to identify the goals that can be optimized and those that can be compromised in order to reach an agreement with other stakeholders. This paper presents group decision model involving three decision-makers on the selection of suitable system for a building’s roof. The objective of the research is to find an agreement options model and coalition algorithms for multi person decision with two main preferences of value which are function and cost. The methodology combines value analysis method using Function Analysis System Technique (FAST; Life Cycle Cost analysis, group decision analysis method based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in a satisfying options, and Game theory-based agent system to develop agreement option and coalition formation for the support system. The support system bridges theoretical gap between automated design in construction domain and automated negotiation in information technology domain by providing a structured methodology which can lead to systematic support system and automated negotiation. It will contribute to value management body of knowledge as an advanced method for creativity and analysis phase, since the practice of this knowledge is teamwork based. In the case of roof system selection, it reveals the start of the first negotiation round. Some of the solutions are not an option because no individual stakeholder or coalition of stakeholders desires to select it. The result indicates

  10. A model for selecting project team members using multicriteria group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a project team is a complex multi-criteria decision-making problem. For this reason, one appropriate way to tackle such problems involves the use of multi-criteria decision aid methods. However, most of the decisions taken regarding the selection of project teams are made by a group of people. It is this which changes the focus of the problem by moving from one decision-maker (DM to a group of DMs. Analysis needs to be extended in order to consider the preference structure of each individual group member. In this paper, we present a group decision model for project team selection based on a multi-criteria evaluation of the preferences of a client's representatives. It could be applied to any decision problem since it involves a group of decision makers whose preferences diverge little. An application of the model in order to select consultants for a construction project is presented.A seleção da equipe em um projeto é um problema de decisão multicritério. Uma forma apropriada de tratar tais problemas envolve o uso de métodos de apoio multicritério a decisão. Grande parte desses problemas envolve um grupo de decisores. Dessa forma, há uma mudança no foco da decisão de um decisor para um grupo de decisores. A análise deve ser ampliada no intuito de considerar a estrutura de preferência de cada membro do grupo. Nesse artigo, apresentamos um modelo aplicado à seleção de equipe de um projeto baseado na avaliação multicritério das preferências dos representantes do cliente do projeto. Pode ser aplicado a qualquer problema de decisão desde que envolva um grupo de decisores que tenham pequena divergência em relação às suas preferências. Uma aplicação para seleção de parte da equipe de um projeto de construção é apresentada.

  11. A modified interactive procedure to solve multi-objective group decision making problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Izadikhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective optimization and multiple criteria decision making problems are the process of designing the best alternative by considering the incommensurable and conflicting objectives simultaneously. One of the first interactive procedures to solve multiple criteria decision making problems is STEM method. In this paper we propose a modified interactive procedure based on STEM method by calculating the weight vector of objectives which emphasize that more important objectives be closer to ideal one. We use the AHP and TOPSIS method to find these weights and develop a multi-objective group decision making procedure. Therefore the presented method tries to increase the rate of satisfactoriness of the obtained solution. Finally, a numerical example for illustration of the new method is given to clarify the main results developed in this paper.

  12. Event-related potentials can reveal differences between two decision-making groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, T R; Muckert, T D

    1998-02-01

    Previous research has shown that a complex decision is dependent on an underlying utility metric that is used by decision making processes to accumulate preference for one alternative. This study postulated that a state of indecision may arise if this underlying metric is poorly organized. The underlying metric was examined with a paired comparison task while measuring event-related potentials (ERP) for subjects classified as 'career decided' and 'career undecided'. Stimuli for comparison were presented either sequentially or simultaneously. The simultaneous condition produced results consistent with the hypothesis that undecided subjects have a poorly organized value metric as revealed in both the behavioral data and the P3 component. A relationship between P3 amplitude and word distance on the underlying metric was found only for the decided group. This was interpreted in terms of the previously documented relationship between P3 and the constructs of decision confidence and task difficulty.

  13. Designing Human-Centered Systems for Reflective Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommeranz, A.

    2012-01-01

    Taking major life decisions, e.g. what career to follow, is difficult and sometimes emotional. One has to find out what exactly one wants, consider the long-term consequences of the decisions and be empathetic for loved ones affected by the decisions. Decision making also deals with establishing and

  14. Designing Human-Centered Systems for Reflective Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommeranz, A.

    2012-01-01

    Taking major life decisions, e.g. what career to follow, is difficult and sometimes emotional. One has to find out what exactly one wants, consider the long-term consequences of the decisions and be empathetic for loved ones affected by the decisions. Decision making also deals with establishing and

  15. Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural…

  16. Using the Model of Rationalization and Approaching Group Decision within the SMEs in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Elena Tureac

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic-mathematic modeling is used by the manager as an alternative to the experiment used in the exact sciences. The experiment is not possible or it is non-rational when it comes to economic issues, systems that cannot be subject to experiencing. In industry for example, a company cannot afford the implementation of all investment alternatives in order to choose the best one. The model used within the research methodology involves identifying interdependencies between certain elements of the decision-making process within the SMEs in Romania (it may be about set objectives, decision criteria, prioritizing the decision problems. It will be presented the formalization of this decision model for decision problem identification. The group aims at identifying the basic problem, which can cause most of the other problems and determine others. In conclusion after calculating matrices, the resulting situation is not simple, but the first issue that must be addressed is P4: poorly qualified staff. The next issue to address is P3: used production equipment. Once P3 and P4 are solved, it conditions P5: poorer quality products, we can therefore address P5 and P2: decreased market share; as a result of solving these problems it will be also solved P1: decrease of turnover.

  17. A Novel Group Decision-Making Method Based on Sensor Data and Fuzzy Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Bai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal bloom is a typical phenomenon of the eutrophication of rivers and lakes and makes the water dirty and smelly. It is a serious threat to water security and public health. Most scholars studying solutions for this pollution have studied the principles of remediation approaches, but few have studied the decision-making and selection of the approaches. Existing research uses simplex decision-making information which is highly subjective and uses little of the data from water quality sensors. To utilize these data and solve the rational decision-making problem, a novel group decision-making method is proposed using the sensor data with fuzzy evaluation information. Firstly, the optimal similarity aggregation model of group opinions is built based on the modified similarity measurement of Vague values. Secondly, the approaches’ ability to improve the water quality indexes is expressed using Vague evaluation methods. Thirdly, the water quality sensor data are analyzed to match the features of the alternative approaches with grey relational degrees. This allows the best remediation approach to be selected to meet the current water status. Finally, the selection model is applied to the remediation of algal bloom in lakes. The results show this method’s rationality and feasibility when using different data from different sources.

  18. Group decision-making approach for flood vulnerability identification using the fuzzy VIKOR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Jun, K. S.; Chung, E.-S.

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes an improved group decision making (GDM) framework that combines the VIKOR method with data fuzzification to quantify the spatial flood vulnerability including multiple criteria. In general, GDM method is an effective tool for formulating a compromise solution that involves various decision makers since various stakeholders may have different perspectives on their flood risk/vulnerability management responses. The GDM approach is designed to achieve consensus building that reflects the viewpoints of each participant. The fuzzy VIKOR method was developed to solve multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems with conflicting and noncommensurable criteria. This comprising method can be used to obtain a nearly ideal solution according to all established criteria. This approach effectively can propose some compromising decisions by combining the GDM method and fuzzy VIKOR method. The spatial flood vulnerability of the southern Han River using the GDM approach combined with the fuzzy VIKOR method was compared with the spatial flood vulnerability using general MCDM methods, such as the fuzzy TOPSIS and classical GDM methods (i.e., Borda, Condorcet, and Copeland). As a result, the proposed fuzzy GDM approach can reduce the uncertainty in the data confidence and weight derivation techniques. Thus, the combination of the GDM approach with the fuzzy VIKOR method can provide robust prioritization because it actively reflects the opinions of various groups and considers uncertainty in the input data.

  19. Peer Group Effects on Moslem Consumer’s Decision To Purchase Halal Labeled Cosmetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to analyze peer group effects on Moslem consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics directly and indirectly which is mediated by consumers’ religious behavior. This research applies Structural Equation Model and convenience random sampling with 215 samples who have bought halal-labeled cosmeticsand live in Southern Tangerang. The findings show that: first, peer groupdirectly affect consumers’ decisionto purchase halal-labeled cosmetics; second, hablumminannas behavior mediates peer group and consumers’decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmeticsindirectly, third, hablumminallah behavior has the most dominant effect on Moslem consumers’ decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics. Based on the findings, it could be concluded that the reason of consumers’ decision to purchase halal-labeled cosmetics is because their religious behavior are high. Therefore, it is suggested that government and related institutions need to implement the Security Act of Halal Products immediately in order to protect the consumer from consuming non-halal productsDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1682

  20. A method for studying decision-making by guideline development groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michie Susan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary guideline development groups (GDGs have considerable influence on UK healthcare policy and practice, but previous research suggests that research evidence is a variable influence on GDG recommendations. The Evidence into Recommendations (EiR study has been set up to document social-psychological influences on GDG decision-making. In this paper we aim to evaluate the relevance of existing qualitative methodologies to the EiR study, and to develop a method best-suited to capturing influences on GDG decision-making. Methods A research team comprised of three postdoctoral research fellows and a multidisciplinary steering group assessed the utility of extant qualitative methodologies for coding verbatim GDG meeting transcripts and semi-structured interviews with GDG members. A unique configuration of techniques was developed to permit data reduction and analysis. Results Our method incorporates techniques from thematic analysis, grounded theory analysis, content analysis, and framework analysis. Thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted with group members at the start and end of the GDG process defines discrete problem areas to guide data extraction from GDG meeting transcripts. Data excerpts are coded both inductively and deductively, using concepts taken from theories of decision-making, social influence and group processes. These codes inform a framework analysis to describe and explain incidents within GDG meetings. We illustrate the application of the method by discussing some preliminary findings of a study of a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE acute physical health GDG. Conclusion This method is currently being applied to study the meetings of three of NICE GDGs. These cover topics in acute physical health, mental health and public health, and comprise a total of 45 full-day meetings. The method offers potential for application to other health care and decision

  1. When none of us perform better than all of us together: the role of analogical decision rules in groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Meslec

    Full Text Available During social interactions, groups develop collective competencies that (ideally should assist groups to outperform average standalone individual members (weak cognitive synergy or the best performing member in the group (strong cognitive synergy. In two experimental studies we manipulate the type of decision rule used in group decision-making (identify the best vs. collaborative, and the way in which the decision rules are induced (direct vs. analogical and we test the effect of these two manipulations on the emergence of strong and weak cognitive synergy. Our most important results indicate that an analogically induced decision rule (imitate-the-successful heuristic in which groups have to identify the best member and build on his/her performance (take-the-best heuristic is the most conducive for strong cognitive synergy. Our studies bring evidence for the role of analogy-making in groups as well as the role of fast-and-frugal heuristics for group decision-making.

  2. An Integrated Approach with Group Decision-Making for Strategy Selection in SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yüksel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to improve the analytical dimension of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis with group decision-making, which underlines the analysis of internal and external environments that in turn, will improve the definition of corporate strategy within the strategic planning process. The main issue of the study was how to select the most appropriate strategy by taking into consideration different effects of each factor of SWOT analysis on strategy selection. The proposed model addresses strengths and opportunities as benefits and weaknesses and threats as costs. The model was solved with analytic network process (ANP and fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS technique with group decision-making. The integrated ANP and Fuzzy TOPSIS model proposed at the end of the present study has been shown to be applicable to SWOT analysis and strategy selection.

  3. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  4. Decision support system for monitoring environmental-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari-Edalat, Farideh; Abdi, M Reza

    2009-06-01

    The specific aim of this study is to investigate popular attitudes toward trees. The paper is involved the understanding of biophilia tendencies with respect to people's views in an urban area. Biophilia is considered as the idea insisting on the dependency of human identity on his relationship with nature. The biophilia fundamental tendencies were explored to establish a biological framework for valuing and affiliating the natural world. Accordingly, the nine tendencies i.e. utilitarian, naturalistic, ecologistic-scientific, aesthetic, symbolic, humanistic, moralistic, dominionistic, and negativistic were investigate to find out how people relate to the nature especially trees. The investigation was based on a quantitative interview which was applied to the public population in the Liverpool urban parks. Data collected from the designed questionnaire was followed by analysis of the data to identify people's attitudes towards trees. The results indicated how important the physical appeal and beauty of trees was for the people and also showed the people's emotional attachments to trees. Furthermore, a decision support model was proposed to evaluate human instincts and preferences in relation to their surrounding areas using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The proposed model composed the environmental factors and the biophilia tendencies as the criteria of evaluating environmental-human interactions. A case study was then conducted in Liverpool parks to examine theses interactions. The data gathered was used as the input to the AHP model for the attribute analysis. The AHP model would enable environment managers to compose the relevant information via a link between human feelings about urban trees, and environmental factors for monitoring purposes and performance analysis.

  5. An Integrated Approach with Group Decision-Making for Strategy Selection in SWOT Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    İhsan Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the analytical dimension of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis with group decision-making, which underlines the analysis of internal and external environments that in turn, will improve the definition of corporate strategy within the strategic planning process. The main issue of the study was how to select the most appropriate strategy by taking into consideration different effects of each factor of SWOT analysis on strat...

  6. Problems on Solving Matrix Aggregation in Group Decision-Making by Glowworm Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Judgment matrix aggregation, as an important part of group decision-making, has been widely and deeply studied due to the universality and importance of group decision-making in the management field. For the variety of judgment matrix in group decision-making, the matrix aggregation result can be obtained by using the mode of glowworm swarm optimization. First, this paper introduces the basic principle of the glowworm swarm optimization (GSO algorithm and gives the improved GSO algorithm to solve the matrix aggregation problems. In this approach, the consistency ratio is introduced to the objective function of the glowworm swarm optimization, thus reducing the subjectivity and information loss in the aggregation process. Then, the improved GSO algorithm is applied to the solution of the deterministic matrix and the fuzzy matrix. The method optimization can provide an effective and relatively uniform aggregation method for matrix aggregation. Finally, through comparative analysis, it is shown that the method of this paper has certain advantages in terms of adaptability, accuracy, and stability to solving the matrix aggregation problems.

  7. Improving decision speed, accuracy and group cohesion through early information gathering in house-hunting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Stroeymeyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful collective decision-making depends on groups of animals being able to make accurate choices while maintaining group cohesion. However, increasing accuracy and/or cohesion usually decreases decision speed and vice-versa. Such trade-offs are widespread in animal decision-making and result in various decision-making strategies that emphasize either speed or accuracy, depending on the context. Speed-accuracy trade-offs have been the object of many theoretical investigations, but these studies did not consider the possible effects of previous experience and/or knowledge of individuals on such trade-offs. In this study, we investigated how previous knowledge of their environment may affect emigration speed, nest choice and colony cohesion in emigrations of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis, a collective decision-making process subject to a classical speed-accuracy trade-off. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonies allowed to explore a high quality nest site for one week before they were forced to emigrate found that nest and accepted it faster than emigrating naïve colonies. This resulted in increased speed in single choice emigrations and higher colony cohesion in binary choice emigrations. Additionally, colonies allowed to explore both high and low quality nest sites for one week prior to emigration remained more cohesive, made more accurate decisions and emigrated faster than emigrating naïve colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that colonies gather and store information about available nest sites while their nest is still intact, and later retrieve and use this information when they need to emigrate. This improves colony performance. Early gathering of information for later use is therefore an effective strategy allowing T. albipennis colonies to improve simultaneously all aspects of the decision-making process--i.e. speed, accuracy and cohesion--and partly circumvent the speed-accuracy trade

  8. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  9. An Alternative Sorting Procedure for Interactive Group Decision Support Based on the Pseudo-criterion Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bregar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available An original interactive procedure is proposed, which aims at overcoming some of the major weaknesses of existing pseudocriterion based methods for group decision analysis. It refers to absolute judgements of feasible alternatives and is focused on complementary activities of opinion elicitation and robustness analysis. As a foundation, four interdependent principles are introduced – problem localization, interactivity on the basis of progressiveness approach, semiautomatic derivation of criteria weights according to selective effects of veto thresholds, and group consensus seeking. The principles are grounded and realized by appropriate methodological solutions.

  10. Democracy under Uncertainty: The Wisdom of Crowds and the Free-Rider Problem in Group Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tatsuya; Tsukasaki, Takafumi; Hastie, Reid; Berg, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a game theory model of individual decisions to cooperate by contributing personal resources to group decisions versus by free riding on the contributions of other members. In contrast to most public-goods games that assume group returns are linear in individual contributions, the present model assumes decreasing marginal group…

  11. Critical Factors Influencing Decision to Adopt Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Beh, Loo-See; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore factors influencing the management decisions to adopt human resource information system (HRIS) in the hospital industry of Bangladesh-an emerging developing country. To understand this issue, this paper integrates two prominent adoption theories-Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit) model and Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework. Thirteen factors under four dimensions were investigated to explore their influence on HRIS adoption decisions in hospitals. Employing non-probability sampling method, a total of 550 copies of structured questionnaires were distributed among HR executives of 92 private hospitals in Bangladesh. Among the respondents, usable questionnaires were 383 that suggesting a valid response rate of 69.63%. We classify the sample into 3 core groups based on the HRIS initial implementation, namely adopters, prospectors, and laggards. The obtained results specify 5 most critical factors i.e. IT infrastructure, top management support, IT capabilities of staff, perceived cost, and competitive pressure. Moreover, the most significant dimension is technological dimension followed by organisational, human, and environmental among the proposed 4 dimensions. Lastly, the study found existence of significant differences in all factors across different adopting groups. The study results also expose constructive proposals to researchers, hospitals, and the government to enhance the likelihood of adopting HRIS. The present study has important implications in understanding HRIS implementation in developing countries.

  12. Interval Generalized Ordered Weighted Utility Multiple Averaging Operators and Their Applications to Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of aggregation operator based on utility function and apply them to group decision-making problem. First of all, based on an optimal deviation model, a new operator called the interval generalized ordered weighted utility multiple averaging (IGOWUMA operator is proposed, it incorporates the risk attitude of decision-makers (DMs in the aggregation process. Some desirable properties of the IGOWUMA operator are studied afterward. Subsequently, under the hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA utility function, another new operator named as interval generalized ordered weighted hyperbolic absolute risk aversion utility multiple averaging-HARA (IGOWUMA-HARA operator is also defined. Then, we discuss its families and find that it includes a wide range of aggregation operators. To determine the weights of the IGOWUMA-HARA operator, a preemptive nonlinear objective programming model is constructed, which can determine a uniform weighting vector to guarantee the uniform standard comparison between the alternatives and measure their fair competition under the condition of valid comparison between various alternatives. Moreover, a new approach for group decision-making is developed based on the IGOWUMA-HARA operator. Finally, a comparison analysis is carried out to illustrate the superiority of the proposed method and the result implies that our operator is superior to the existing operator.

  13. Mothers of young children cluster into 4 groups based on psychographic food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-08-01

    This study explored how mothers grouped into clusters according to multiple psychographic food decision influencers and how the clusters differed in nutrient intake and nutrient content of their household food supply. Mothers (n = 201) completed a survey assessing basic demographic characteristics, food shopping and meal preparation activities, self and spouse employment, exposure to formal food or nutrition education, education level and occupation, weight status, nutrition and food preparation knowledge and skill, family member health and nutrition status, food decision influencer constructs, and dietary intake. In addition, an in-home inventory of 100 participants' household food supplies was conducted. Four distinct clusters presented when 26 psychographic food choice influencers were evaluated. These clusters appear to be valid and robust classifications of mothers in that they discriminated well on the psychographic variables used to construct the clusters as well as numerous other variables not used in the cluster analysis. In addition, the clusters appear to transcend demographic variables that often segment audiences (eg, race, mother's age, socioeconomic status), thereby adding a new dimension to the way in which this audience can be characterized. Furthermore, psychographically defined clusters predicted dietary quality. This study demonstrates that mothers are not a homogenous group and need to have their unique characteristics taken into consideration when designing strategies to promote health. These results can help health practitioners better understand factors affecting food decisions and tailor interventions to better meet the needs of mothers.

  14. Placement Decisions and Disparities among Aboriginal Groups: An Application of the Decision Making Ecology through Multi-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, John D.; Chabot, Martin; Fallon, Barbara; MacLaurin, Bruce; Blackstock, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relative influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place a child in out-of-home care at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. It tested the hypothesis that extraneous factors, specifically, organizational characteristics, impact the decision to place a child in…

  15. How do small groups make decisions? : A theoretical framework to inform the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Cristancho, Sayra; Padgett, Jessica; Lingard, Lorelei

    2017-06-01

    In the competency-based medical education (CBME) approach, clinical competency committees are responsible for making decisions about trainees' competence. However, we currently lack a theoretical model for group decision-making to inform this emerging assessment phenomenon. This paper proposes an organizing framework to study and guide the decision-making processes of clinical competency committees.This is an explanatory, non-exhaustive review, tailored to identify relevant theoretical and evidence-based papers related to small group decision-making. The search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsycINFO for relevant literature. Using a thematic analysis, two researchers (SC & JP) met four times between April-June 2016 to consolidate the literature included in this review.Three theoretical orientations towards group decision-making emerged from the review: schema, constructivist, and social influence. Schema orientations focus on how groups use algorithms for decision-making. Constructivist orientations focus on how groups construct their shared understanding. Social influence orientations focus on how individual members influence the group's perspective on a decision. Moderators of decision-making relevant to all orientations include: guidelines, stressors, authority, and leadership.Clinical competency committees are the mechanisms by which groups of clinicians will be in charge of interpreting multiple assessment data points and coming to a shared decision about trainee competence. The way in which these committees make decisions can have huge implications for trainee progression and, ultimately, patient care. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build the science of how such group decision-making works in practice. This synthesis suggests a preliminary organizing framework that can be used in the implementation and study of clinical competency committees.

  16. Stability analysis of group decision-making under weighted scoring rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Yang

    2016-12-01

    The result of group decision-making is always unstable, influenced by some uncertain factors. It is necessary to measure and analyse the stability of the result. A measurement based on the inclined angle of two vectors is proposed in this paper, in order to measure the stabilities of the results of weighted scoring rules. The concepts of stability degree and stability angle are given, whose geometric interpretations are displayed in the case of three candidates. Then an extended measurement called the relative stability degree is discussed to analyse the comparability of stability measurements for different numbers of candidates. Furthermore, this measurement and its extension are used to aid the decision-making of new project development in a software company.

  17. Group Decision-making Models on Determining the Importance Ratings of Technical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qian; PU Yun; ZHANG Jing

    2011-01-01

    Determining the importance ratings of technical characteristics is a typical group decision-making process. The linguistic-based approach can effectively manage the imprecise and multi-granularity information i;n quality function deployment and facilitate decision-making in deriving the importance ratings. Based on the linguistic weighted averaging (LWA) operator and the linguistic hybrid averaging (LHA) operator, a practical approach is proposed to first aggregate the individual judgments into a collective value for each technical characteristic under linguistic environment, and then measure the deviation degree of linguistic variables to obtain the importance ratings of technical characteristics. A case study shows the application of the proposed method.

  18. Group decisions and individual differences: route fidelity predicts flight leadership in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robin; Mann, Richard; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2011-02-23

    How social-living animals make collective decisions is currently the subject of intense scientific interest, with increasing focus on the role of individual variation within the group. Previously, we demonstrated that during paired flight in homing pigeons, a fully transitive leadership hierarchy emerges as birds are forced to choose between their own and their partner's habitual routes. This stable hierarchy suggests a role for individual differences mediating leadership decisions within homing pigeon pairs. What these differences are, however, has remained elusive. Using novel quantitative techniques to analyse habitual route structure, we show here that leadership can be predicted from prior route-following fidelity. Birds that are more faithful to their own route when homing alone are more likely to emerge as leaders when homing socially. We discuss how this fidelity may relate to the leadership phenomenon, and propose that leadership may emerge from the interplay between individual route confidence and the dynamics of paired flight.

  19. Posterior Probability Matching and Human Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F Murray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models' performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods

  20. Posterior Probability Matching and Human Perceptual Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Richard F.; Patel, Khushbu; Yee, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Probability matching is a classic theory of decision making that was first developed in models of cognition. Posterior probability matching, a variant in which observers match their response probabilities to the posterior probability of each response being correct, is being used increasingly often in models of perception. However, little is known about whether posterior probability matching is consistent with the vast literature on vision and hearing that has developed within signal detection theory. Here we test posterior probability matching models using two tools from detection theory. First, we examine the models’ performance in a two-pass experiment, where each block of trials is presented twice, and we measure the proportion of times that the model gives the same response twice to repeated stimuli. We show that at low performance levels, posterior probability matching models give highly inconsistent responses across repeated presentations of identical trials. We find that practised human observers are more consistent across repeated trials than these models predict, and we find some evidence that less practised observers more consistent as well. Second, we compare the performance of posterior probability matching models on a discrimination task to the performance of a theoretical ideal observer that achieves the best possible performance. We find that posterior probability matching is very inefficient at low-to-moderate performance levels, and that human observers can be more efficient than is ever possible according to posterior probability matching models. These findings support classic signal detection models, and rule out a broad class of posterior probability matching models for expert performance on perceptual tasks that range in complexity from contrast discrimination to symmetry detection. However, our findings leave open the possibility that inexperienced observers may show posterior probability matching behaviour, and our methods provide new tools

  1. Group personality during collective decision-making: a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Sitjà, Isaac; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Gibon, Céline; Sempo, Grégory

    2015-03-01

    Collective decision-making processes emerge from social feedback networks within a group. Many studies on collective behaviour underestimate the role of individual personality and, as a result, personality is rarely analysed in the context of collective dynamics. Here, we show evidence of sheltering behaviour personality in a gregarious insect (Periplaneta americana), which is characterized by a collective personality at the group level. We also highlight that the individuals within groups exhibited consistent personality traits in their probability of sheltering and total time sheltered during the three trials over one week. Moreover, the group personality, which arises from the synergy between the distribution of behaviour profiles in the group and social amplifications, affected the sheltering dynamics. However, owing to its robustness, personality did not affect the group probability of reaching a consensus. Finally, to prove social interactions, we developed a new statistical method that will be helpful for future research on personality traits and group behaviour. This approach will help to identify the circumstances under which particular group compositions may improve the fitness of individuals in gregarious species.

  2. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  3. A dataset of human decision-making in teamwork management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Shen, Zhiqi; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lin, Jun; Cui, Lizhen; Pan, Zhengxiang; Yang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Today, most endeavours require teamwork by people with diverse skills and characteristics. In managing teamwork, decisions are often made under uncertainty and resource constraints. The strategies and the effectiveness of the strategies different people adopt to manage teamwork under different situations have not yet been fully explored, partially due to a lack of detailed large-scale data. In this paper, we describe a multi-faceted large-scale dataset to bridge this gap. It is derived from a game simulating complex project management processes. It presents the participants with different conditions in terms of team members' capabilities and task characteristics for them to exhibit their decision-making strategies. The dataset contains detailed data reflecting the decision situations, decision strategies, decision outcomes, and the emotional responses of 1,144 participants from diverse backgrounds. To our knowledge, this is the first dataset simultaneously covering these four facets of decision-making. With repeated measurements, the dataset may help establish baseline variability of decision-making in teamwork management, leading to more realistic decision theoretic models and more effective decision support approaches.

  4. A Development of Group Decision Support System for Strategic Item Classification using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Tae, Jae Woong; Yang, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea has carried out export controls on nuclear items that reflect the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) guidelines (Notice on Trade of Strategic Item of Foreign Trade Act) since joining the NSG in 1995. Nuclear export control starts with classifications that determine whether export items are relevant to nuclear proliferation or not according to NSG guidelines. However, due to qualitative characteristics of nuclear item definition in the guidelines, classification spends a lot of time and effort to make a consensus. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of an experts' group decision support system (GDSS) based on an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for the classification of strategic items. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that a GDSS based on an AHP proved positive, systematically providing relative weight among the planning variables and objectives. By using an AHP we can quantify the subjective judgements of reviewers. An order of priority is derived from a numerical value. The verbal and fuzzy measurement of an AHP enables us reach a consensus among reviewers in a GDSS. An AHP sets common weight factors which are a priority of each attribute that represent the views of an entire group. It makes a consistency in decision-making that is important for classification.

  5. A consensus model for group decision making under interval type-2 fuzzy environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xiong ZHANG; Bing-feng GE; Yue-jin TAN

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new consensus model for group decision making (GDM) problems, using an interval type-2 fuzzy environment. In our model, experts are asked to express their preferences using linguistic terms characterized by interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FSs), because these can provide decision makers with greater freedom to express the vagueness in real-life situa-tions. Consensus and proximity measures based on the arithmetic operations of IT2 FSs are used simultaneously to guide the decision-making process. The majority of previous studies have taken into account only the importance of the experts in the aggregation process, which may give unreasonable results. Thus, we propose a new feedback mechanism that generates different advice strategies for experts according to their levels of importance. In general, experts with a lower level of importance require a larger number of suggestions to change their initial preferences. Finally, we investigate a numerical example and execute com-parable models and ours, to demonstrate the performance of our proposed model. The results indicate that the proposed model provides greater insight into the GDM process.

  6. Extended IOWG Operator and its Use in Group Decision Making Based on Multiplicative Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshui Xu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In [1], Xu and Da introduced the Induced Ordered Weighted Geometric (IOWG operator, which takes as its argument pairs, called OWG pairs, in which one component is used to induce an ordering over the second components which are exact numerical values and then aggregated. In this study, we develop an extended IOWG (EIOWG operator, in which the second components are linguistic variables. We study some desirable properties of the EIOWG operator, and then apply the EIOWG operator to group decision making based on multiplicative linguistic preference relations.

  7. Development of a prototype clinical decision support tool for osteoporosis disease management: a qualitative study of focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Monika; Li, Jamy; Lottridge, Danielle; Marquez, Christine; Newton, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2010-07-22

    Osteoporosis affects over 200 million people worldwide, and represents a significant cost burden. Although guidelines are available for best practice in osteoporosis, evidence indicates that patients are not receiving appropriate diagnostic testing or treatment according to guidelines. The use of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) may be one solution because they can facilitate knowledge translation by providing high-quality evidence at the point of care. Findings from a systematic review of osteoporosis interventions and consultation with clinical and human factors engineering experts were used to develop a conceptual model of an osteoporosis tool. We conducted a qualitative study of focus groups to better understand physicians' perceptions of CDSSs and to transform the conceptual osteoporosis tool into a functional prototype that can support clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management at the point of care. The conceptual design of the osteoporosis tool was tested in 4 progressive focus groups with family physicians and general internists. An iterative strategy was used to qualitatively explore the experiences of physicians with CDSSs; and to find out what features, functions, and evidence should be included in a working prototype. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide using an iterative process where results of the first focus group informed changes to the questions for subsequent focus groups and to the conceptual tool design. Transcripts were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Of the 3 broad categories of themes that were identified, major barriers related to the accuracy and feasibility of extracting bone mineral density test results and medications from the risk assessment questionnaire; using an electronic input device such as a Tablet PC in the waiting room; and the importance of including well-balanced information in the patient education component of the osteoporosis

  8. Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making: Homogeneity and Task as Moderators of the Communication-Performance Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates circumstances under which communication variables contribute significantly to the constitution of group decisions. Postulates two variables, homogeneity of task-relevant information possessed by group members and task demonstrability, to moderate the impact of communication and group member ability on quality of group outcomes.…

  9. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  10. Group Decision-Making Information Security Risk Assessment Based on AHP and Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuowen Tan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of over-reliance on subjective assignment is a challenging task in the information security risk assessment process. This study deals with this problem. We have presented a group decisionmaking information security risk assessment method by combining Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with Information entropy. When AHP is used to assess the security risk of information systems, the elements of the Criteria level are the risk probability, impact and uncontrollability. The priorities of the Alternatives as risk factors with respect to the Criteria level are determined by applying the group decision-making approach. And the experts’ weights are obtained through information entropy. The experts’ judgments are aggregated into a consensus matrix. The consensus matrix reduces the subjectivity of judgments due to the experts’ preferences.

  11. Application of Mixed Group Decision Making to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In view of the gravity of issues concerning safety of agricultural products and urgency of resolving these issues,after analyzing the problems existing in safety of agricultural products,this article offers a method for evaluating safety of agricultural products on the basis of mixed group decision making.First of all,it introduces the factors influencing safety evaluation of agricultural products;subsequently,given that the judgment matrices offered by the group of experts contain both reciprocal and complementary judgment matrices in the process of jointly participating in evaluation arising from personal preference,it proposes to assemble expert information in order to obtain indicator weight using the OWA operator;finally,the process of evaluating safety of agricultural products is given.

  12. A Primer of Social Decision Scheme Theory: Models of Group Influence, Competitive Model-Testing, and Prospective Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasser

    1999-10-01

    The basic elements of social decision scheme (SDS) theory are individual preferences, group preference compositions (distinguishable distributions), patterns of group influence (decision schemes, social combination rules), and collective responses (group decisions, judgments, solutions, and the like). The theory provides a framework for addressing two fundamental questions in the study of group performance: How are individual resources combined to yield a group response (the individual-into-group problem)? What are the implications of empirical observations under one set of circumstances for other conditions where data do not exist (the sparse data problem)? Several prescriptions for how to conduct fruitful group research are contained in the SDS tradition: make precise theoretical statements, provide strong and competitive tests of theories, and interpret empirical findings in the context of robust process models. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Balancing selfishness and prosociality can enhance the resilience of human groups

    CERN Document Server

    Realpe-Gómez, John; Nardin, Gustavo; Montoya, Javier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation among humans is crucial for overcoming some of the most pressing social challenges of our time like climate change, financial crises, and over exploitation of natural resources. While several mechanisms of self-governance for supporting cooperation, such as peer punishment, reciprocity, and social norms have been extensively explored, the impact of cooperation on the ability of human groups to absorb changes and still persist, their resilience, has received less attention. Here we develop an analytically-tractable model that incorporates both selfish and prosocial aspects as constituents of cooperative decision making, which quantitatively reproduce findings from recent large scale experiments on cooperation with humans. The model parameters inferred from experimental data are near a line of critical points, which suggests a way in which cooperation can be sustained and impact the resilience of human groups to external variability.

  14. Using web-based group support systems to enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors are investigating whether Web-based Group Support System (GSS) tools can support and enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa. They report here on work that emanates from a masters dissertation...

  15. Laboratory blood group examination of proteolysis degradation human blood

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Ahlam Gizela, Beta Ahlam Gizela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood group examination has many purposes and one of them is identification. In several forensic cases there is incompatibility of blood group in corpse and in other evidences usually used blood group examination is serum agglutination method. From the previous study, it was found that there was increasing osmotic fragility of red cell. For that reason, we need to know how the result of blood group tests in degradation human blood.Objective: The purpose of this study is to know bl...

  16. When does diversity trump ability (and vice versa in group decision making? A simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Luan

    Full Text Available It is often unclear which factor plays a more critical role in determining a group's performance: the diversity among members of the group or their individual abilities. In this study, we addressed this "diversity vs. ability" issue in a decision-making task. We conducted three simulation studies in which we manipulated agents' individual ability (or accuracy, in the context of our investigation and group diversity by varying (1 the heuristics agents used to search task-relevant information (i.e., cues; (2 the size of their groups; (3 how much they had learned about a good cue search order; and (4 the magnitude of errors in the information they searched. In each study, we found that a manipulation reducing agents' individual accuracy simultaneously increased their group's diversity, leading to a conflict between the two. These conflicts enabled us to identify certain conditions under which diversity trumps individual accuracy, and vice versa. Specifically, we found that individual accuracy is more important in task environments in which cues differ greatly in the quality of their information, and diversity matters more when such differences are relatively small. Changing the size of a group and the amount of learning by an agent had a limited impact on this general effect of task environment. Furthermore, we found that a group achieves its highest accuracy when there is an intermediate amount of errors in the cue information, regardless of the environment and the heuristic used, an effect that we believe has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation.

  17. A grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of hydrogen technologiess in Life Cycle Sustainability perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....

  18. Developing a Virtual Group Decision Support System Based on Fuzzy Hybrid MCDM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Izadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational decisions involve with unusually vague and conflicting criteria. This controversy increases empirical uncertainties, disputes, and the resulting consequences of these decisions. One possible method in subduing this problem is to apply quantitative approaches to provide a transparent process for resolute conclusions which enables decision makers to formulate accurate and decisive on time decisions. Although numerous methods are presented in the literature, the majority of them aim to develop theoretical models. However, this article aims to develop and implement an integrated fuzzy virtual MCDM model based on fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS as a decision support system (DDS. Preventing disadvantageous face-to-face decision-making by achieving positive benefit from virtual decision making causes the proposed DDS to be suitable for making crucial decisions such as supplier selection, employee selection, employee appraisal, R&D project selection, etc. The proposed DDS has been implemented in an optical company in Iran.

  19. Adoption of web-based group decision support systems: experiences from the field and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos van Hillegersberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While organizations have massively adopted enterprise information systems to support business processes, business meetings in which key decisions are made about products, services and processes, are usually held without much support of information systems. This is remarkable as group decision support systems (GDSS seems to fit for this purpose. They have existed for decades and modern versions benefit of web-based technologies, enabling low cost any-place, any time and device independent meeting support. In this exploratory case research, we study nine organizations in four different adoption categories to learn more about the reasons for the relatively slow adoption of web-based GDSS. Using the Fit-Viability adoption framework we conduct interviews with organizations that have experience with using GDSS. We conclude that adopting GDSS requires considerable and carefully planned change of processes that are deeply grounded in the organization. Existing meeting routines need to be adapted. Introduction needs to be carefully planned and room for face-to-face meetings and creativity sessions away from the keyboard need to be built in depending on the type of meeting. Not all companies find the cost level affordable. Clear and convincing business cases are lacking. Still the added value is ranked highly and there are frequent and enthusiastic user organizations that may lead the way for others. Their success stories show others how to mitigate problems.

  20. Dynamic Task Performance, Cohesion, and Communications in Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.

  1. Hesitant fuzzy soft sets with application in multicriteria group decision making problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-qiang; Li, Xin-E; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    Soft sets have been regarded as a useful mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty. In recent years, many scholars have shown an intense interest in soft sets and extended standard soft sets to intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, interval-valued fuzzy soft sets, and generalized fuzzy soft sets. In this paper, hesitant fuzzy soft sets are defined by combining fuzzy soft sets with hesitant fuzzy sets. And some operations on hesitant fuzzy soft sets based on Archimedean t-norm and Archimedean t-conorm are defined. Besides, four aggregation operations, such as the HFSWA, HFSWG, GHFSWA, and GHFSWG operators, are given. Based on these operators, a multicriteria group decision making approach with hesitant fuzzy soft sets is also proposed. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability, this approach is finally employed to calculate a numerical example.

  2. Simplified neutrosophic sets and their applications in multi-criteria group decision-making problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan-juan; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2016-07-01

    As a variation of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information that exists in the real world. Simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) have been proposed for the main purpose of addressing issues with a set of specific numbers. However, there are certain problems regarding the existing operations of SNSs, as well as their aggregation operators and the comparison methods. Therefore, this paper defines the novel operations of simplified neutrosophic numbers (SNNs) and develops a comparison method based on the related research of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. On the basis of these operations and the comparison method, some SNN aggregation operators are proposed. Additionally, an approach for multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems is explored by applying these aggregation operators. Finally, an example to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method is provided and a comparison with some other methods is made.

  3. Evaluation of cabin design based on the method of multiple attribute group decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Lv, Linlin; Li, Ping

    2013-07-01

    New century, cabin design has become an important factor affecting the compact capability of modern naval vessels. Traditional cabin design, based on naval rules and designer's subjective feeling and experience, holds that weapons and equipments are more important than habitability. So crew's satisfaction is not high to ships designed by traditional methods. In order to solve this problem, the method of multiple attribute group decision-making was proposed to evaluate the cabin design projects. This method considered many factors affecting cabin design, established a target system, quantified fuzzy factors in cabin design, analyzed the need of crews and gave a reasonable evaluation on cabin design projects. Finally, an illustrative example analysis validates the effectiveness and reliability of this method.

  4. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2013-01-01

    laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may......Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so...... large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one...

  5. A Multi Criteria Group Decision-Making Model for Teacher Evaluation in Higher Education Based on Cloud Model and Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Cheng; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cloud multi-criteria group decision-making model for teacher evaluation in higher education which is involving subjectivity, imprecision and fuzziness. First, selecting the appropriate evaluation index depending on the evaluation objectives, indicating a clear structural relationship between the evaluation index and…

  6. Multi-criteria group decision making for evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Santoso; Deng, Hepu

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a multi-criteria group decision making approach for effectively evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs under uncertainty in an organization. Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used for adequately representing the subjective and imprecise assessments of the decision makers in evaluating the relative importance of evaluation criteria and the performance of individual e-waste recycling programs with respect to individual criteria in a given situation. An interactive fuzzy multi-criteria decision making algorithm is developed for facilitating consensus building in a group decision making environment to ensure that all the interest of individual decision makers have been appropriately considered in evaluating alternative e-waste recycling programs with respect to their corporate sustainability performance. The developed algorithm is then incorporated into a multi-criteria decision support system for making the overall performance evaluation process effectively and simple to use. Such a multi-criteria decision making system adequately provides organizations with a proactive mechanism for incorporating the concept of corporate sustainability into their regular planning decisions and business practices. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed approach in evaluating the performance of e-waste recycling programs in organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Democracy under uncertainty: the wisdom of crowds and the free-rider problem in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tatsuya; Tsukasaki, Takafumi; Hastie, Reid; Berg, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a game theory model of individual decisions to cooperate by contributing personal resources to group decisions versus by free riding on the contributions of other members. In contrast to most public-goods games that assume group returns are linear in individual contributions, the present model assumes decreasing marginal group production as a function of aggregate individual contributions. This diminishing marginal returns assumption is more realistic and generates starkly different predictions compared to the linear model. One important implication is that, under most conditions, there exist equilibria where some, but not all, members of a group contribute, even with completely self-interested motives. An agent-based simulation confirmed the individual and group advantages of the equilibria in which behavioral asymmetry emerges from a game structure that is a priori perfectly symmetric for all agents (all agents have the same payoff function and action space but take different actions in equilibria). A behavioral experiment demonstrated that cooperators and free riders coexist in a stable manner in groups performing with the nonlinear production function. A collateral result demonstrated that, compared to a dictatorial decision scheme guided by the best member in a group, the majority/plurality decision rules can pool information effectively and produce greater individual net welfare at equilibrium, even if free riding is not sanctioned. This is an original proof that cooperation in ad hoc decision-making groups can be understood in terms of self-interested motivations and that, despite the free-rider problem, majority/plurality decision rules can function robustly as simple, efficient social decision heuristics.

  8. Managing wildfire events: risk-based decision making among a group of federal fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn S. Wilson; Patricia L. Winter; Lynn A. Maguire; Timothy. Ascher

    2011-01-01

    Managing wildfire events to achieve multiple management objectives involves a high degree of decision complexity and uncertainty, increasing the likelihood that decisions will be informed by experience-based heuristics triggered by available cues at the time of the decision. The research reported here tests the prevalence of three risk-based biases among 206...

  9. Ability Grouping and Differentiated Instruction in an Era of Data-Driven Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Vicki; Datnow, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Despite data-driven decision making being a ubiquitous part of policy and school reform efforts, little is known about how teachers use data for instructional decision making. Drawing on data from a qualitative case study of four elementary schools, we examine the logic and patterns of teacher decision making about differentiation and ability…

  10. Group Decision Making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Benefit-Risk Assessment: A Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; Bridges, John F.P.; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria. T

  11. Multinational Parent Companies' Influence over Human Resource Decisions of Affiliates: U.S. Firms in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida L. Martinez; David A Ricks

    1989-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for the relationship between the degree of influence U.S. parent companies have over the human resource decisions of their Mexican affiliates and the affiliates' resource dependencies on the parent company. Both wholly-owned and Joint venture affiliates are examined. Resource dependence was the factor most closely related to parent influence over affiliate human resource decisions. The importance of an affiliate to a parent company, the nationality of af...

  12. The Insertion of Human Factors Concerns into NextGen Programmatic Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Bettina L.; Holbrook, Jon Brian; Seely, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Since the costs of proposed improvements in air traffic management exceed available funding, FAA decision makers must select and prioritize what actually gets implemented. We discuss a set of methods to help forecast operational and human performance issues and benefits before new automation is introduced. This strategy could minimize the impact of politics, assist decision makers in selecting and prioritizing potential improvements, make the process more transparent and strengthen the link between the engineering and human factors domains.

  13. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  14. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  15. "Taking the human out of human rights" human rights or group rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What interest me are the reasons why “human” or “human rights” could be important or possibly most important in constituting a group (hence the introduction of the complicated word “group” and “group right(s” in the subtitle. If I had to justify the existence of the latest debates on nature, justification and universality of human rights, on their distinction from other normative standards, on the philosophy and (legal foundation of human rights, on “Human Rights without (or with Foundations” (Raz, Tasioulas, Besson, then I would immediately conclude that this “process of grandiose concretization” of a complete fabrication is far from over. Despite the innumerable pacts and international conventions established after World War II, the slew of obligations to which states have agreed in the last few decades, the establishment of rights to secession or humanitarian intervention it is as if the constitution of classification of basic human rights and their universality is far from over. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  16. Gambling for Gatorade: risk-sensitive decision making for fluid rewards in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Determining how both humans and animals make decisions in risky situations is a central problem in economics, experimental psychology, behavioral economics, and neurobiology. Typically, humans are risk seeking for gains and risk averse for losses, while animals may display a variety of preferences under risk depending on, amongst other factors, internal state. Such differences in behavior may reflect major cognitive and cultural differences or they may reflect differences in the way risk sensitivity is probed in humans and animals. Notably, in most studies humans make one or a few choices amongst hypothetical or real monetary options, while animals make dozens of repeated choices amongst options offering primary rewards like food or drink. To address this issue, we probed risk-sensitive decision making in human participants using a paradigm modeled on animal studies, in which rewards were either small squirts of Gatorade or small amounts of real money. Possible outcomes and their probabilities were not made explicit in either case. We found that individual patterns of decision making were strikingly similar for both juice and for money, both in overall risk preferences and in trial-to-trial effects of reward outcome on choice. Comparison with decisions made by monkeys for juice in a similar task revealed highly similar gambling styles. These results unite known patterns of risk-sensitive decision making in human and nonhuman primates and suggest that factors such as the way a decision is framed or internal state may underlie observed variation in risk preferences between and within species.

  17. Human Information Processing Guidelines for Decision-Aiding Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    5 4. Pachella, R. G. "The Interpretation of Reaction Time in Information Processing Research." In B. Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Pro- cessing... Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Proces- sing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974. 65...Finite Number of Inputs." In B. Kantowitz (Ed.). Human Information Processing: Tutorials in Performance and Cognition, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence

  18. Time to decide: Diurnal variations on the speed and quality of human decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, María Juliana; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Golombek, Diego; Sigman, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior and physiology exhibit diurnal fluctuations. These rhythms are entrained by light and social cues, with vast individual differences in the phase of entrainment - referred as an individual's chronotype - ranging in a continuum between early larks and late owls. Understanding whether decision-making in real-life situations depends on the relation between time of the day and an individual's diurnal preferences has both practical and theoretical implications. However, answering this question has remained elusive because of the difficulty of measuring precisely the quality of a decision in real-life scenarios. Here we investigate diurnal variations in decision-making as a function of an individual's chronotype capitalizing on a vast repository of human decisions: online chess servers. In a chess game, every player has to make around 40 decisions using a finite time budget and both the time and quality of each decision can be accurately determined. We found reliable diurnal rhythms in activity and decision-making policy. During the morning, players adopt a prevention focus policy (slower and more accurate decisions) which is later modified to a promotion focus (faster but less accurate decisions), without daily changes in performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance Comparison of Gender and Age Group Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on performance comparison of gender and age group recognition to perform robot’s application services for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI. HRI is a core technology that can naturally interact between human and robot. Among various HRI components, we concentrate audio-based techniques such as gender and age group recognition from multichannel microphones and sound board equipped withrobots. For comparative purposes, we perform the performancecomparison of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC andLinear Prediction Coding Coefficients (LPCC in the feature extraction step, Support Vector Machine (SVM and C4.5 Decision Tree (DT in the classification step. Finally, we deal with the usefulness of gender and age group recognition for humanrobot interaction in home service robot environments.

  20. Group choice: the ideal free distribution of human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J R; Baum, W M

    2001-07-01

    Group choice refers to the distribution of group members between two choice alternatives over time. The ideal free distribution (IFD), an optimal foraging model from behavioral ecology, predicts that the ratio of foragers at two resource sites should equal the ratio of obtained resources, a prediction that is formally analogous to the matching law of individual choice, except that group choice is a social phenomenon. Two experiments investigated the usefulness of IFD analyses of human group choice and individual-based explanations that might account for the group-level events. Instead of nonhuman animals foraging at two sites for resources, a group of humans chose blue and red cards to receive points that could earn cash prizes. The groups chose blue and red cards in ratios in positive relation to the ratios of points associated with the cards. When group choice ratios and point ratios were plotted on logarithmic coordinates and fitted with regression lines, the slopes (i.e., sensitivity measures) approached 1.0 but tended to fall short of it (i.e., undermatching), with little bias and little unaccounted for variance. These experiments demonstrate that an IFD analysis of group choice is possible and useful, and suggest that group choice may be explained by the individual members' tendency to optimize reinforcement.

  1. Children's Roles and Use of Evidence in Science: An Analysis of Decision-Making in Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research project concerned with children engaging in scientific argumentation. Discussion activities were designed to enable groups of children to use evidence when making decisions. The findings show a variation in the success with which children construct scientific arguments; some groups debate most of the…

  2. The effects of team expert choice on group decision-making in collaborative new product development: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J.M.; Rossum, van W.; Verkerke, G.J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of Team Expert Choice on group decision-making in collaborative new product development. We applied Team Expert Choice to support a product evaluation conducted by a new product development group composed of professionally diverse members. The evaluation resulted in v

  3. Effect of bird density on the decision to join a group in the Sicalis flaveola pelzeni (Passeriformes, Emberizidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi Celia M.; Charbuki Marcela

    2002-01-01

    A change in bird density within a captive flock of Sicalis flaveola pelzeni (Sclater, 1872) affected the decision to join a group. Ruling out inter-individual differences and maintaining constant the size of a food patch, birds were found to fly more often to the food source and spend a longer time in its environs when kept in greater groups.

  4. Effect of bird density on the decision to join a group in the Sicalis flaveola pelzeni (Passeriformes, Emberizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi Celia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A change in bird density within a captive flock of Sicalis flaveola pelzeni (Sclater, 1872 affected the decision to join a group. Ruling out inter-individual differences and maintaining constant the size of a food patch, birds were found to fly more often to the food source and spend a longer time in its environs when kept in greater groups.

  5. Safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise based on the relative entropy aggregation in group decision making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Chengbing; Huo, Yueying

    2014-01-01

    Safety of dangerous goods transport is directly related to the operation safety of dangerous goods transport enterprise. Aiming at the problem of the high accident rate and large harm in dangerous goods logistics transportation, this paper took the group decision making problem based on integration and coordination thought into a multiagent multiobjective group decision making problem; a secondary decision model was established and applied to the safety assessment of dangerous goods transport enterprise. First of all, we used dynamic multivalue background and entropy theory building the first level multiobjective decision model. Secondly, experts were to empower according to the principle of clustering analysis, and combining with the relative entropy theory to establish a secondary rally optimization model based on relative entropy in group decision making, and discuss the solution of the model. Then, after investigation and analysis, we establish the dangerous goods transport enterprise safety evaluation index system. Finally, case analysis to five dangerous goods transport enterprises in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region validates the feasibility and effectiveness of this model for dangerous goods transport enterprise recognition, which provides vital decision making basis for recognizing the dangerous goods transport enterprises.

  6. Competition over personal resources favors contribution to shared resources in human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Barker

    Full Text Available Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic "tug-of-war" model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

  7. Decision and action planning signals in human posterior parietal cortex during delayed perceptual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Annalisa; Corbetta, Maurizio; Calluso, Cinzia; Committeri, Giorgia; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Romani, G L; Galati, Gaspare

    2014-04-01

    During simple perceptual decisions, sensorimotor neurons in monkey fronto-parietal cortex represent a decision variable that guides the transformation of sensory evidence into a motor response, supporting the view that mechanisms for decision-making are closely embedded within sensorimotor structures. Within these structures, however, decision signals can be dissociated from motor signals, thus indicating that sensorimotor neurons can play multiple and independent roles in decision-making and action selection/planning. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether response-selective human brain areas encode signals for decision-making or action planning during a task requiring an arbitrary association between face pictures (male vs. female) and specific actions (saccadic eye vs. hand pointing movements). The stimuli were gradually unmasked to stretch the time necessary for decision, thus maximising the temporal separation between decision and action planning. Decision-related signals were measured in parietal and motor/premotor regions showing a preference for the planning/execution of saccadic or pointing movements. In a parietal reach region, decision-related signals were specific for the stimulus category associated with its preferred pointing response. By contrast, a saccade-selective posterior intraparietal sulcus region carried decision-related signals even when the task required a pointing response. Consistent signals were observed in the motor/premotor cortex. Whole-brain analyses indicated that, in our task, the most reliable decision signals were found in the same neural regions involved in response selection. However, decision- and action-related signals within these regions can be dissociated. Differences between the parietal reach region and posterior intraparietal sulcus plausibly depend on their functional specificity rather than on the task structure. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons

  8. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Sun, Quanbin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009) on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1) the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2) the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3) the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4) the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  9. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009 on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1 the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2 the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3 the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4 the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  10. Work-life Balance Decision-making of Norwegian Students: Implications for Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims at identifying and assessing the significance of work-life balance determinants between the Youth of highly developed societies and its implications for human resources management on the example of Norway. Research Design & Methods: The research target group consists of 236 respondents recruited among Norwegian tertiary education students. It employed literature analysis, two-stage exploratory research: direct individual in-depth interviews, survey based on a self-administered, web-based questionnaire with single-answer, limited choice qualitative & quantitative, as well as explanatory research (informal moderated group discussions. Findings: The research on perceptions of determinants of quality of life and attractiveness of life strategies shows that in a country with relatively high socio-economic development level, such as Norway, differences in rankings do exist. They can be observed in relevance to both material and non-material QoL determinants. Implications & Recommendations: The study revealed a need for deeper research on individually driven early decision-making of future employees and entrepreneurs. This will result in closer modelling of socio-economic phenomena, including more accurate adaptation to trends on the labour market and creation of new business models. Contribution & Value Added: Research value added comes from the comparison of perceptions of quality of life determinants between countries at various stages of socio-economic development and its implications for human resource management.

  11. A dynamic new group within Human Resources Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Since 1st May CERN's training and development and personnel management teams have been fused into a new group called Personnel Management and Development. The new Personnel Management and Development Group is responsible for career advancement and management, recruitment, remuneration and for language, communication, management, academic and technical training, keys to a sense of greater well-being and to career progression. The new group was born on 1st May out of the fusion of the "Personnel Management" and "Training and Development" Groups within CERN's Human Resources Division. Its aim is to offer a practical and easily accessible service to assist the members of the personnel and supervisors to manage careers more harmoniously, to make progress and to continue to learn on the job. With Sue Foffano as its Group Leader, the Group comprises four sections: Academic and Technical Training under the guiding hand of Mick Storr; Management, Communication and Language Training headed by Sudeshna Datta-Cockeril...

  12. Family group conferencing in youth care : characteristics of the decision making model, implementation and effectiveness of the Family Group (FG) plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; Dijkstra, Sharon; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Creemers, Hanneke E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The model of Family group-conferencing (FG-c) for decision making in child welfare has rapidly spread over the world during the past decades. Its popularity is likely to be caused by its philosophy, emphasizing participation and autonomy of families, rather than based on positive researc

  13. Uncertain Quality Function Deployment Using a Hybrid Group Decision Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Ling Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD is a widely used quality system tool for translating customer requirements (CRs into the engineering design requirements (DRs of products or services. The conventional QFD analysis, however, has been criticized as having some limitations such as in the assessment of relationships between CRs and DRs, the determination of CR weights and the prioritization of DRs. This paper aims to develop a new hybrid group decision-making model based on hesitant 2-tuple linguistic term sets and an extended QUALIFLEX (qualitative flexible multiple criteria method approach for handling QFD problems with incomplete weight information. First, hesitant linguistic term sets are combined with interval 2-tuple linguistic variables to express various uncertainties in the assessment information of QFD team members. Borrowing the idea of grey relational analysis (GRA, a multiple objective optimization model is constructed to determine the relative weights of CRs. Then, an extended QUALIFLEX approach with an inclusion comparison method is suggested to determine the ranking of the DRs identified in QFD. Finally, an analysis of a market segment selection problem is conducted to demonstrate and validate the proposed QFD approach.

  14. Neural mechanisms of perceptual grouping in human visual cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Lihua; HAN Shihui; GUO Chunyan; JIANG Yi

    2004-01-01

    The current work examined neural substrates of perceptual grouping in human visual cortex using event-related potential (ERP) recording. Stimulus arrays consisted of local elements that were either evenly spaced (uniform stimuli) or grouped into columns or rows by proximity or color similarity (grouping stimuli). High-density ERPs were recorded while subjects identified orientations of perceptual groups in stimulus arrays that were presented randomly in one of the four quadrants of the visual field. Both uniform and grouping stimulus arrays elicited an early ERP component (C1), which peaked at about 70 ms after stimulus onset and changed its polarity as a function of stimulated elevations. Dipole modeling based on realistic- head boundary-element models revealed generators of the C1 component in the calcarine cortex. The C1 was modulated by perceptual grouping of local elements based on proximity, and this grouping effect was stronger in the upper than in the lower visual field. The findings provide ERP evidence for the engagement of human primary visual cortex in the early stage of perceptual grouping.

  15. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to describe a Framework for conducting human health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision‐making processes in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  16. Graphical and technical options in Expert Choice for group decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decision support systems (DSS) are widely applied to assist decision-makers with the difficult task of identifying the best solution to a given problem. The most common methodology applied so far to the evaluation of transport systems has been conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which...... transport infrastructure projects in many cases will depend on other aspects besides the monetary ones assessed in a socio-economic analysis. A coherent, well-structured, flexible, straight forward evaluation method, taking into account all the requirements of a transport infrastructure project...... is for this reason required. An appropriate ex-ante evaluation method for such projects can be based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The use of MCDA in a decision process usually provides some oral l of the following features: • Improvement of the satisfaction with the decision process • Improvement...

  17. Better decision making in complex, dynamic tasks training with human-facilitated interactive learning environments

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...

  18. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  19. Evaluating the link between human resource management decisions and patient satisfaction with quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Eva-Maria; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    Patient satisfaction with quality of care is becoming increasingly important in the competitive hospital market. Simultaneously, the growing shortage of clinical staff poses a considerable challenge to ensuring a high quality of care. In this context, a question emerges regarding whether and how human resource management (HRM) might serve as a means to reduce staff shortage problems and to increase patient satisfaction. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the concepts of patient satisfaction and HRM, little is known about the interrelationships between these concepts or about the link between staff shortage problems and patients' satisfaction with quality of care. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between strategic human resource management (SHRM), staff shortage problems, and patients' satisfaction with care. Furthermore, we analyze how the HRM decision to fill short-term vacancies through temporary staffing affects patient satisfaction. We differentiate between physicians and nurses. We develop and empirically test a theoretical model. The data (n = 165) are derived from a survey on SHRM that was sent to 732 German hospitals and from a survey on patient satisfaction that comprises 436,848 patient satisfaction ratings. We use a structural equation modeling approach to test the model. The results indicate that SHRM significantly reduces staff shortage problems for both occupational groups. Having fewer physician shortage problems is significantly associated with higher levels of patient satisfaction, whereas this effect is not significant for nurses. Furthermore, the use of temporary staffing considerably reduces patients' satisfaction with care. Hospital managers are advised to consider the effects of HRM decisions on patients' satisfaction with care. In particular, investments in SHRM targeted at physicians have significantly positive effects on patient satisfaction, whereas the temporary staffing of physicians

  20. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  1. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, H.; Guido, B.; Heekeren, H.R.; Philiastides, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punis...

  2. Risks identification and ranking using AHP and group decision making technique: Presenting “R index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Fazli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in project development is to detect all sorts of risks associated with a particular project. The main objective of this article is to identify the risks in the construction project and to grade them based on their importance on the project. The designed indicator in this paper is the combinational model of the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP method and the group decision – making applied for risks measurement and ranking. This indicator is called "R" which includes three main steps: creating the risks broken structure (RBS, obtaining each risk weight and efficacy, and finally performing the model to rank the risks. A questionnaire is used for gathering data. Based on the results of this survey, there are important risks associated with construction projects. There we need to use some guidelines to reduce the inherent risks including recognition of the common risks beside the political risks; suggestion of a simple, understandable, and practical model; and using plenty of the experts and specialists' opinions through applying step. After analyzing data, the final result from applying R index showed that the risk “economic changes / currency rate and inflation change" has the most importance for the analysis. In the other words, if these risks occur, the project may face with the more threats and it is suggested that an organization should centralize its equipment, personnel, cost, and time on the risk more than ever. The most obvious issue in this paper is a tremendous difference between an importance of the financial risks and the other risks.

  3. Study on group air to ground attack-defends hierarchical dynamic decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As to oppositional,multi-objective and hierarchical characteristic of air formation to ground attack-defends campaign,and using dynamic space state model of military campaign,this article establishes a principal and subordinate hierarchical interactive decision-making way,the Nash-Stackelberg-Nash model,to solve the problems in military operation,and find out the associated best strategy in hierarchical dynamic decision-making.The simulating result indicate that when applying the model to air formation to ground attack-defends decision-making system,it can solve the problems of two hierarchies'dynamic oppositional decision-making favorably,and reach preferable effect in battle.It proves that the model can provide an effective way for analyzing a battle.

  4. LANL Institutional Decision Support By Process Modeling and Analysis Group (AET-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-04

    AET-2 has expertise in process modeling, economics, business case analysis, risk assessment, Lean/Six Sigma tools, and decision analysis to provide timely decision support to LANS leading to continuous improvement. This capability is critical during the current tight budgetary environment as LANS pushes to identify potential areas of cost savings and efficiencies. An important arena is business systems and operations, where processes can impact most or all laboratory employees. Lab-wide efforts are needed to identify and eliminate inefficiencies to accomplish Director McMillan’s charge of “doing more with less.” LANS faces many critical and potentially expensive choices that require sound decision support to ensure success. AET-2 is available to provide this analysis support to expedite the decisions at hand.

  5. The potential for social contextual and group biases in team decision-making: biases, conditions and psychological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P E; Roelofsma, P H

    2000-08-01

    This paper provides a critical review of social contextual and group biases that are relevant to team decision-making in command and control situations. Motivated by the insufficient level of attention this area has received, the purpose of the paper is to provide an insight into the potential that these types of biases have to affect the decision-making of such teams. The biases considered are: false consensus, groupthink, group polarization and group escalation of commitment. For each bias the following four questions are addressed. What is the descriptive nature of the bias? What factors induce the bias? What psychological mechanisms underlie the bias? What is the relevance of the bias to command and control teams? The analysis suggests that these biases have a strong potential to affect team decisions. Consistent with the nature of team decision-making in command and control situations, all of the biases considered tend to be associated with those decisions that are important or novel and are promoted by time pressure and high levels of uncertainty. A concept unifying these biases is that of the shared mental model, but whereas false consensus emanates from social projection tendencies, the rest emanate from social influence factors. The authors also discuss the 'tricky' distinction between teams and groups and propose a revised definition for command and control team. Finally, the authors emphasize the need for future empirical research in this area to pay additional attention to the social side of cognition and the potential that social biases have to affect team decision-making.

  6. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  7. A modified interactive procedure to solve multi-objective group decision making problem

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Izadikhah

    2014-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization and multiple criteria decision making problems are the process of designing the best alternative by considering the incommensurable and conflicting objectives simultaneously. One of the first interactive procedures to solve multiple criteria decision making problems is STEM method. In this paper we propose a modified interactive procedure based on STEM method by calculating the weight vector of objectives which emphasize that more important objectives be closer to...

  8. A Comparative Study of GDSS (Group Decision Support System) Use: Empirical Evidence and Model Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    decision process was not a decision process so much as a process of elimination, until only one 4canuidate) was elt . 3ased an -he poor information...French. Portuguese Employment: Management Trainee , Uranium Unlimited - 1970-72 Geology Officer, Anaconda Copper Co.. Montanta area - 1973-80 Manager...1970 Languages: English. Portuguese Emnpioyment: Management Trainee . United Kingdom Mining Board - 1970-72 Assistant Manager. N.D.B. Cheshire Plant

  9. What are parents' perspectives on psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision? A focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Carraro, Valter; Peter J Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most developed countries do not have compulsory immunisation requirements, but instead issue recommendations. Although parents are expected to make an informed, autonomous (ie, empowered) decision regarding their children's vaccinations, there is no evidence about how parents' interpret this demand nor on the latitude of their decision-making. The goal of this study is to gain insights from parents residing in a low measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) uptake area on what constitutes feelin...

  10. Reasoning, learning, and creativity: frontal lobe function and human decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne; Koechlin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The frontal lobes subserve decision-making and executive control--that is, the selection and coordination of goal-directed behaviors. Current models of frontal executive function, however, do not explain human decision-making in everyday environments featuring uncertain, changing, and especially open-ended situations. Here, we propose a computational model of human executive function that clarifies this issue. Using behavioral experiments, we show that unlike others, the proposed model predicts human decisions and their variations across individuals in naturalistic situations. The model reveals that for driving action, the human frontal function monitors up to three/four concurrent behavioral strategies and infers online their ability to predict action outcomes: whenever one appears more reliable than unreliable, this strategy is chosen to guide the selection and learning of actions that maximize rewards. Otherwise, a new behavioral strategy is tentatively formed, partly from those stored in long-term memory, then probed, and if competitive confirmed to subsequently drive action. Thus, the human executive function has a monitoring capacity limited to three or four behavioral strategies. This limitation is compensated by the binary structure of executive control that in ambiguous and unknown situations promotes the exploration and creation of new behavioral strategies. The results support a model of human frontal function that integrates reasoning, learning, and creative abilities in the service of decision-making and adaptive behavior.

  11. Reasoning, learning, and creativity: frontal lobe function and human decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Collins

    Full Text Available The frontal lobes subserve decision-making and executive control--that is, the selection and coordination of goal-directed behaviors. Current models of frontal executive function, however, do not explain human decision-making in everyday environments featuring uncertain, changing, and especially open-ended situations. Here, we propose a computational model of human executive function that clarifies this issue. Using behavioral experiments, we show that unlike others, the proposed model predicts human decisions and their variations across individuals in naturalistic situations. The model reveals that for driving action, the human frontal function monitors up to three/four concurrent behavioral strategies and infers online their ability to predict action outcomes: whenever one appears more reliable than unreliable, this strategy is chosen to guide the selection and learning of actions that maximize rewards. Otherwise, a new behavioral strategy is tentatively formed, partly from those stored in long-term memory, then probed, and if competitive confirmed to subsequently drive action. Thus, the human executive function has a monitoring capacity limited to three or four behavioral strategies. This limitation is compensated by the binary structure of executive control that in ambiguous and unknown situations promotes the exploration and creation of new behavioral strategies. The results support a model of human frontal function that integrates reasoning, learning, and creative abilities in the service of decision-making and adaptive behavior.

  12. Reasoning, Learning, and Creativity: Frontal Lobe Function and Human Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne; Koechlin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The frontal lobes subserve decision-making and executive control—that is, the selection and coordination of goal-directed behaviors. Current models of frontal executive function, however, do not explain human decision-making in everyday environments featuring uncertain, changing, and especially open-ended situations. Here, we propose a computational model of human executive function that clarifies this issue. Using behavioral experiments, we show that unlike others, the proposed model predicts human decisions and their variations across individuals in naturalistic situations. The model reveals that for driving action, the human frontal function monitors up to three/four concurrent behavioral strategies and infers online their ability to predict action outcomes: whenever one appears more reliable than unreliable, this strategy is chosen to guide the selection and learning of actions that maximize rewards. Otherwise, a new behavioral strategy is tentatively formed, partly from those stored in long-term memory, then probed, and if competitive confirmed to subsequently drive action. Thus, the human executive function has a monitoring capacity limited to three or four behavioral strategies. This limitation is compensated by the binary structure of executive control that in ambiguous and unknown situations promotes the exploration and creation of new behavioral strategies. The results support a model of human frontal function that integrates reasoning, learning, and creative abilities in the service of decision-making and adaptive behavior. PMID:22479152

  13. Competition in human groups-Impact on group cohesion, perceived stress and outcome satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Margarete; Franiel, Xaver; Belz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness.

  14. Assessment of distance-based multi-attribute group decision-making methods from a maintenance strategy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Siew-Hong; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2015-07-01

    Maintenance has been acknowledged by industrial management as a significant influencing factor of plant performance. Effective plant maintenance can be realized by developing a proper maintenance strategy. However, selecting an appropriate maintenance strategy is difficult because maintenance is a non-repetitive task such as production activity. Maintenance also does not leave a consistent traceable record that can be referred to during the decision-making process. The involvement of tangible and intangible factors in the assessment process further increases the complexity of the decision-making process. The technique of preference order by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is one of the most well-known decision-making methods and has been widely used by organizations to conduct effective decisions regarding maintenance issues. TOPSIS has also evolved by integrating different approaches such as the fuzzy concept. Although numerous TOPSIS applications for maintenance decision making have been published, the effectiveness of crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS needs to be investigated further. This paper attempts to present a comparison between conventional crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS from a group maintenance decision-making perspective by an empirical illustration. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to demonstrate further the resilience of crisp TOPSIS and fuzzy TOPSIS.

  15. Making a Good Group Decision (Low Risk) in Singapore Under an Environment That Has Time and Cost Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    knowing what level of trust to impart to that information, applying the appropriate framework for evaluating the information, incorporating the ethical ... utilitarian framework for making group decisions applies the previously discussed principles to explain the empirical phenomena that predict new...information, incorporating the ethical and legal aspects with each alternative solution, understanding the risks involved with each alternative before

  16. Factors Influencing the Decision To Return to Graduate School in One Professional Group, Physical Therapy. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Judith L.

    The factors influencing the decision to return to graduate school in an emerging professional group, physical therapy, are described, and a causal model incorporating the principal constructs of the status attainment and college impact model is proposed. The five variable sets included are background characteristics, college characteristics,…

  17. Influence of Biases in Numerical Magnitude allocation on Human Pro-Social Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Qadeer; Nigmatullina, Yuliya; Siddiqui, Shuaib; Franka, Mustafa; Mediratta, Saniya; Ramachandaran, Sanjeev; Lobo, Rhannon; Malhotra, Paresh; Roberts, R Edward; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2017-09-13

    Over the past decade neuroscientific research has attempted to probe the neurobiological underpinnings of human pro-social decision-making. Such research has almost ubiquitously employed tasks such as the dictator game or similar variations (i.e. ultimatum game). Considering the explicit numerical nature of such tasks, it is surprising that the influence of numerical cognition upon decision-making during task performance remains unknown. Whilst performing these tasks, participants typically tend to anchor upon a 50:50 split that necessitates an explicit numerical judgement (i.e. number-pair bisection). Accordingly, we hypothesise that the decision-making process during the dictator game recruits overlapping cognitive processes to those known to be engaged during number-pair bisection. We observed that biases in numerical magnitude allocation correlated with the formulation of decisions during the dictator game. That is, intrinsic biases towards smaller numerical magnitudes were associated with the formulation of less favourable decisions, whereas biases towards larger magnitudes were associated with more favourable choices. We proceeded to corroborate this relationship by subliminally and systematically inducing biases in numerical magnitude towards either higher or lower numbers using a visuo-vestibular stimulation paradigm. Such subliminal alterations in numerical magnitude allocation led to proportional and corresponding changes to an individual's decision-making during the dictator game. Critically, no relationship was observed between neither intrinsic nor induced biases in numerical magnitude on decision-making when assessed using a non-numerical based pro-social questionnaire. Our findings demonstrate numerical influences upon decisions formulated during the dictator game and highlight the necessity to control for confounds associated with numerical cognition in human decision-making paradigms. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  18. How do general practitioners implement decision-making regarding COPD patients with exacerbations? An international focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Johanna; Melbye, Hasse; Halvorsen, Peder A; Andreeva, Elena A; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wollny, Anja; Francis, Nick A; Spigt, Mark; Kung, Kenny; Risør, Mette Bech

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the decision-making of general practitioners (GPs) concerning treatment with antibiotics and/or oral corticosteroids and hospitalization for COPD patients with exacerbations. Methods Thematic analysis of seven focus groups with 53 GPs from urban and rural areas in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong. Results Four main themes were identified. 1) Dealing with medical uncertainty: the GPs aimed to make clear medical decisions and avoid unnecessary prescriptions and hospitalizations, yet this was challenged by uncertainty regarding the severity of the exacerbations and concerns about overlooking comorbidities. 2) Knowing the patient: contextual knowledge about the individual patient provided a supplementary framework to biomedical knowledge, allowing for more differentiated decision-making. 3) Balancing the patients’ perspective: the GPs considered patients’ experiential knowledge about their own body and illness as valuable in assisting their decision-making, yet felt that dealing with disagreements between their own and their patients’ perceptions concerning the need for treatment or hospitalization could be difficult. 4) Outpatient support and collaboration: both formal and informal caregivers and organizational aspects of the health systems influenced the decision-making, particularly in terms of mitigating potentially severe consequences of “wrong decisions” and concerning the negotiation of responsibilities. Conclusion Fear of overlooking severe comorbidity and of further deteriorating symptoms emerged as a main driver of GPs’ management decisions. GPs consider a holistic understanding of illness and the patients’ own judgment crucial to making reasonable decisions under medical uncertainty. Moreover, GPs’ decisions depend on the availability and reliability of other formal and informal carers, and the health care systems’ organizational and cultural code of conduct. Strengthening the

  19. Towards a conceptual multi-agent-based framework to simulate the spatial group decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Seyed Morsal; Taleai, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Most spatial problems are multi-actor, multi-issue and multi-phase in nature. In addition to their intrinsic complexity, spatial problems usually involve groups of actors from different organizational and cognitive backgrounds, all of whom participate in a social structure to resolve or reduce the complexity of a given problem. Hence, it is important to study and evaluate what different aspects influence the spatial problem resolution process. Recently, multi-agent systems consisting of groups of separate agent entities all interacting with each other have been put forward as appropriate tools to use to study and resolve such problems. In this study, then in order to generate a better level of understanding regarding the spatial problem group decision-making process, a conceptual multi-agent-based framework is used that represents and specifies all the necessary concepts and entities needed to aid group decision making, based on a simulation of the group decision-making process as well as the relationships that exist among the different concepts involved. The study uses five main influencing entities as concepts in the simulation process: spatial influence, individual-level influence, group-level influence, negotiation influence and group performance measures. Further, it explains the relationship among different concepts in a descriptive rather than explanatory manner. To illustrate the proposed framework, the approval process for an urban land use master plan in Zanjan—a provincial capital in Iran—is simulated using MAS, the results highlighting the effectiveness of applying an MAS-based framework when wishing to study the group decision-making process used to resolve spatial problems.

  20. Demographic and psycbosocial factors regarding the decision to continue or interrupt a pregnancy in a group of low socioeconomic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Heraud, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the demographic and psycho-social characteristics of a sample of 60 adolescents divided in two groups of 30 subjects each one (pregnant adolescents and adolescents with an induced abortion) and compare them. The results indicated the existence of some differences between both groups that may be relevant in the decision to have an abortion, for example the adolescent's age and occupation, her desire to become pregnant, the number of past pregnanci...

  1. Towards a conceptual multi-agent-based framework to simulate the spatial group decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Seyed Morsal; Taleai, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Most spatial problems are multi-actor, multi-issue and multi-phase in nature. In addition to their intrinsic complexity, spatial problems usually involve groups of actors from different organizational and cognitive backgrounds, all of whom participate in a social structure to resolve or reduce the complexity of a given problem. Hence, it is important to study and evaluate what different aspects influence the spatial problem resolution process. Recently, multi-agent systems consisting of groups of separate agent entities all interacting with each other have been put forward as appropriate tools to use to study and resolve such problems. In this study, then in order to generate a better level of understanding regarding the spatial problem group decision-making process, a conceptual multi-agent-based framework is used that represents and specifies all the necessary concepts and entities needed to aid group decision making, based on a simulation of the group decision-making process as well as the relationships that exist among the different concepts involved. The study uses five main influencing entities as concepts in the simulation process: spatial influence, individual-level influence, group-level influence, negotiation influence and group performance measures. Further, it explains the relationship among different concepts in a descriptive rather than explanatory manner. To illustrate the proposed framework, the approval process for an urban land use master plan in Zanjan—a provincial capital in Iran—is simulated using MAS, the results highlighting the effectiveness of applying an MAS-based framework when wishing to study the group decision-making process used to resolve spatial problems.

  2. Conflicting Ideologies: Simulating Significant Historical Human Decision Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    A formative small-group (n12) evaluation of a pair of opposed computer simulations modeling the thinking of historical ideologies (communist insurgency and counter-insurgency) suggests simulations had value in stimulating and modifying assessments of roles within real-world settings. Explores basic objective of having the simulation user develop a…

  3. Evolutionary aspects of ABO blood group in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2015-04-15

    The antigens of the ABO blood group system (A, B and H determinants) are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on red blood cells and on a variety of other cell lines and tissues. Growing evidence is accumulating that ABO antigens, beyond their key role in transfusion medicine, may interplay with the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including infectious, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this narrative review, after succinct description of the current knowledge on the association between ABO blood groups and the most severe diseases, we aim to elucidate the particularly intriguing issue of the possible role of ABO system in successful aging. In particular, focus will be placed on studies evaluating the ABO phenotype in centenarians, the best human model of longevity.

  4. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Group E and Its Involvement in Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Le Dantec

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retrovirus group E (HERV-E elements are stably integrated into the human genome, transmitted vertically in a Mendelian manner, and are endowed with transcriptional activity as alternative promoters or enhancers. Such effects are under the control of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTR that are organized into three HERV-E phylogenetic subgroups, namely LTR2, LTR2B, and LTR2C. Moreover, HERV-E expression is tissue-specific, and silenced by epigenetic constraints that may be disrupted in cancer, autoimmunity, and human placentation. Interest in HERV-E with regard to these conditions has been stimulated further by concerns regarding the capacity of HERV-E elements to modify the expression of neighboring genes and/or to produce retroviral proteins, including immunosuppressive env peptides, which in turn may induce (auto-antibody (Ab production. Finally, better understanding of HERV-E elements may have clinical applications for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

  5. The evolution of altruistic social preferences in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; House, Bailey R

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we consider three hypotheses to account for the evolution of the extraordinary capacity for large-scale cooperation and altruistic social preferences within human societies. One hypothesis is that human cooperation is built on the same evolutionary foundations as cooperation in other animal societies, and that fundamental elements of the social preferences that shape our species' cooperative behaviour are also shared with other closely related primates. Another hypothesis is that selective pressures favouring cooperative breeding have shaped the capacity for cooperation and the development of social preferences, and produced a common set of behavioural dispositions and social preferences in cooperatively breeding primates and humans. The third hypothesis is that humans have evolved derived capacities for collaboration, group-level cooperation and altruistic social preferences that are linked to our capacity for culture. We draw on naturalistic data to assess differences in the form, scope and scale of cooperation between humans and other primates, experimental data to evaluate the nature of social preferences across primate species, and comparative analyses to evaluate the evolutionary origins of cooperative breeding and related forms of behaviour.

  6. Personal experience and reputation interact in human decisions to help reciprocally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Broek, Eva; Egas, Martijn

    2013-04-22

    There is ample evidence that human cooperative behaviour towards other individuals is often conditioned on information about previous interactions. This information derives both from personal experience (direct reciprocity) and from experience of others (i.e. reputation; indirect reciprocity). Direct and indirect reciprocity have been studied separately, but humans often have access to both types of information. Here, we experimentally investigate information use in a repeated helping game. When acting as donor, subjects can condition their decisions to help recipients with both types of information at a small cost to access such information. We find that information from direct interactions weighs more heavily in decisions to help, and participants tend to react less forgivingly to negative personal experience than to negative reputation. Moreover, effects of personal experience and reputation interact in decisions to help. If a recipient's reputation is positive, the personal experience of the donor has a weak effect on the decision to help, and vice versa. Yet if the two types of information indicate conflicting signatures of helpfulness, most decisions to help follow personal experience. To understand the roles of direct and indirect reciprocity in human cooperation, they should be studied in concert, not in isolation.

  7. A conceptual and computational model of moral decision making in human and artificial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Wendell; Franklin, Stan; Allen, Colin

    2010-07-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational models of this kind has created the field of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Moral decision making is arguably one of the most challenging tasks for computational approaches to higher-order cognition. The need for increasingly autonomous artificial agents to factor moral considerations into their choices and actions has given rise to another new field of inquiry variously known as Machine Morality, Machine Ethics, Roboethics, or Friendly AI. In this study, we discuss how LIDA, an AGI model of human cognition, can be adapted to model both affective and rational features of moral decision making. Using the LIDA model, we will demonstrate how moral decisions can be made in many domains using the same mechanisms that enable general decision making. Comprehensive models of human cognition typically aim for compatibility with recent research in the cognitive and neural sciences. Global workspace theory, proposed by the neuropsychologist Bernard Baars (1988), is a highly regarded model of human cognition that is currently being computationally instantiated in several software implementations. LIDA (Franklin, Baars, Ramamurthy, & Ventura, 2005) is one such computational implementation. LIDA is both a set of computational tools and an underlying model of human cognition, which provides mechanisms that are capable of explaining how an agent's selection of its next action arises from bottom-up collection of sensory data and top-down processes for making sense of its current situation. We will describe how the LIDA model helps integrate emotions into the human decision-making process, and we

  8. Vaccination decision-making of immigrant parents in the Netherlands; a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, I.A.; Bos, H.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Paulussen, T.G.W.; Kok, G.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the vaccination coverage in most high income countries is high, variations in coverage rates on the national level among different ethnic backgrounds are reported. A qualitative study was performed to explore factors that influence decision-making among parents with different eth

  9. Intensive care staff, the donation request and relatives' satisfaction with the decision: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Vries, A. de; Hoedemaekers, C.W.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of the donation request is generally measured by consent rates, rather than by relatives' satisfaction with their decision. Our aim was to elicit Dutch ICU staffs' views and experiences with the donation request, to investigate their awareness of (dis)satisfaction with dona

  10. Perceptual grouping does not affect multi-attribute decision making if no processing costs are involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlin, Florence; Bröder, Arndt

    2015-05-01

    Adaptive strategy selection implies that a decision strategy is chosen based on its fit to the task and situation. However, other aspects, such as the way information is presented, can determine information search behavior; especially when the application of certain strategies over others is facilitated. But are such display effects on multi-attribute decisions also at work when the manipulation does not entail differential costs for different decision strategies? Three Mouselab experiments with hidden information and one eye tracking experiment with an open information board revealed that decision behavior is unaffected by purely perceptual manipulations of the display based on Gestalt principles; that is, based on manipulations that induce no noteworthy processing costs for different information search patterns. We discuss our results in the context of previous findings on display effects; specifically, how the combination of these findings and our results reveal the crucial role of differential processing costs for different strategies for the emergence of display effects. This finding describes a boundary condition of the commonly acknowledged influence of information displays and is in line with the ideas of adaptive strategy selection and cost-benefit tradeoffs.

  11. A Prototype Graphical User Interface for Co-op: A Group Decision Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Decision Support System by P. Steven Posey Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., University of Arkansas, 1985 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the...Design..................16 a. Color....................17 iv b. Screen Layout .... ............. .. 18 c. Typography ..... ............... .. 19 C. GUI...achieve their potential to communicate. Information-oriented, systematic graphic design is the use of typography , symbols, color, and other static and

  12. The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Rural Parents' Health Decision Making and Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami; Blumling, Amy; Delaney, Augustina

    2015-01-01

    General health implications of religiosity and spirituality on health have been associated with health promotion, so the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of religiosity and spirituality on rural parents' decision making to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV). The associations of religiosity and spirituality with parental HPV vaccine decisions were examined in a sample of parents residing in small rural communities (N = 37). Parents of children aged 9 to 13 years participated in focus groups held in rural community contexts. Religiosity (i.e., participation in religious social structures) was a recurring and important theme when discussing HPV vaccination. Spirituality (i.e., subjective commitment to spiritual or religious beliefs) was found to influence the ways in which parents perceived their control over and coping with health issues potentially related to HPV vaccination. Together, religiosity and spirituality were found to play integral roles in these parents' lives and influenced their attitudes toward HPV vaccination uptake for their children.

  13. The roles of dopamine and serotonin in decision making: evidence from pharmacological experiments in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological experiments in primates, alongside neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance investigations in humans, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the neural architecture of decision making. In this review, I consider the more limited database of experiments that have investigated how dopamine and serotonin activity influences the choices of human adults. These include those experiments that have involved the administration of drugs to healthy controls, experiments that have tested genotypic influences upon dopamine and serotonin function, and, finally, some of those experiments that have examined the effects of drugs on the decision making of clinical samples. Pharmacological experiments in humans are few in number and face considerable methodological challenges in terms of drug specificity, uncertainties about pre- vs post-synaptic modes of action, and interactions with baseline cognitive performance. However, the available data are broadly consistent with current computational models of dopamine function in decision making and highlight the dissociable roles of dopamine receptor systems in the learning about outcomes that underpins value-based decision making. Moreover, genotypic influences on (interacting) prefrontal and striatal dopamine activity are associated with changes in choice behavior that might be relevant to understanding exploratory behaviors and vulnerability to addictive disorders. Manipulations of serotonin in laboratory tests of decision making in human participants have provided less consistent results, but the information gathered to date indicates a role for serotonin in learning about bad decision outcomes, non-normative aspects of risk-seeking behavior, and social choices involving affiliation and notions of fairness. Finally, I suggest that the role played by serotonin in the regulation of cognitive biases, and representation of context in learning, point toward a role in the cortically mediated cognitive

  14. Educational Pluralism and Freedom of Religion: Recent Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relano, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the sensitive issue of the teaching of religions and beliefs in schools by analysing two recent decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. In these cases, the Court asserts that students should be exempted from compulsory courses on religion or from courses that are not conveyed in an objective, critical and pluralist…

  15. Educational Pluralism and Freedom of Religion: Recent Decisions of the European Court of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relano, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the sensitive issue of the teaching of religions and beliefs in schools by analysing two recent decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. In these cases, the Court asserts that students should be exempted from compulsory courses on religion or from courses that are not conveyed in an objective, critical and pluralist…

  16. Computer-Aided Decisions in Human Services: Expert Systems and Multivariate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoly, Fiore

    1989-01-01

    This comparison of two approaches to the development of computerized supports for decision making--expert systems and multivariate models--focuses on computerized systems that assist professionals with tasks related to diagnosis or classification in human services. Validation of both expert systems and statistical models is emphasized. (39…

  17. Human Rights and Decision-Making in Child Protection through Explicit Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joe; Taylor, Brian; Mc Call, Susannah

    2006-01-01

    A recent judgement in February 2005 by the Lord Chief Justice in Northern Ireland that a Health and Social Services Trust had breached a parent's Article 8 Right to Family Life in the process used to take a young child into care has stimulated major debate about the interface between the Human Rights Act (1998) and professional decision-making in…

  18. Does social capital affect investment in human capital? Family ties and schooling decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Bulte, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-rider’

  19. Does social capital affect investment in human capital? Family ties and schooling decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, Di Salvatore; Bulte, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    We analyse whether traditional sharing norms within kinship networks affect education decisions of poor black households in KwaZulu-Natal. Theory predicts that the size of the kinship network ambiguously impacts on the incentive to invest in human capital (due to opposing ‘empathy’ and ‘free-ride

  20. A decision-directed approach for prioritizing research into the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew E.; Canis, Laure J.; Seager, Thomas P.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology has coincided with an increased recognition of the need for new approaches to understand and manage the impact of emerging technologies on the environment and human health. Important elements in these new approaches include life-cycle thinking, public participation and adaptive management of the risks associated with emerging technologies and new materials. However, there is a clear need to develop a framework for linking research on the risks associated with nanotechnology to the decision-making needs of manufacturers, regulators, consumers and other stakeholder groups. Given the very high uncertainties associated with nanomaterials and their impact on the environment and human health, research resources should be directed towards creating the knowledge that is most meaningful to these groups. Here, we present a model (based on multi-criteria decision analysis and a value of information approach) for prioritizing research strategies in a way that is responsive to the recommendations of recent reports on the management of the risk and impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health.

  1. A decision-directed approach for prioritizing research into the impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew E; Canis, Laure J; Seager, Thomas P; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2011-10-02

    The emergence of nanotechnology has coincided with an increased recognition of the need for new approaches to understand and manage the impact of emerging technologies on the environment and human health. Important elements in these new approaches include life-cycle thinking, public participation and adaptive management of the risks associated with emerging technologies and new materials. However, there is a clear need to develop a framework for linking research on the risks associated with nanotechnology to the decision-making needs of manufacturers, regulators, consumers and other stakeholder groups. Given the very high uncertainties associated with nanomaterials and their impact on the environment and human health, research resources should be directed towards creating the knowledge that is most meaningful to these groups. Here, we present a model (based on multi-criteria decision analysis and a value of information approach) for prioritizing research strategies in a way that is responsive to the recommendations of recent reports on the management of the risk and impact of nanomaterials on the environment and human health.

  2. Multi-criteria Group Decision Making Approach for Teacher Recruitment in Higher Education under Simplified Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision, and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets. Neutrosophic set, a generalization of fuzzy sets is characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity-membership function and an indeterminacy-membership function. These functions are real standard or non-standard subsets of ] 0-, 1+[ .There is no restriction on the sum of the functions, so the sum lies between ]0-, 3+[. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information, when compared to a fuzzy set. The purpose of this study is to develop a neutrosophic multi-criteria group decision-making model based on hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for teacher recruitment in higher education. Eight criteria obtained from expert opinions are considered for recruitment process. The criteria are namely academic performance index, teaching aptitude, subject knowledge, research experience, leadership quality, personality, management capacity, and personal values. In this paper we use the score and accuracy functions and the hybrid score-accuracy functions of single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs and ranking method for SVNNs. Then, multi-criteria group decision-making method with unknown weights for attributes and incompletely known weights for decision makers is used based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions under single valued neutrosophic environments. We use weight model for attributes based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions to derive the weights of decision makers and attributes from the decision matrices represented by the form of SVNNs to decrease the effect of some unreasonable evaluations. Moreover, we use the overall evaluation formulae of the weighted hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for each alternative to rank the alternatives and recruit the most desirable teachers. Finally, an educational problem for teacher selection is

  3. The importance of imagination (or lack thereof) in artificial, human and quantum decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Karl

    2016-01-13

    Enlarging upon experiments and analysis that I did jointly some years ago, in which artificial (symbolic, neural-net and pattern) learning and generalization were compared with that of humans, I will emphasize the role of imagination (or lack thereof) in artificial, human and quantum cognition and decision-making processes. Then I will look in more detail at some of the 'engineering details' of its implementation (or lack thereof) in each of these settings. In other words, the question posed is: What is actually happening? For example, we previously found that humans overwhelmingly seek, create or imagine context in order to provide meaning when presented with abstract, apparently incomplete, contradictory or otherwise untenable decision-making situations. Humans are intolerant of contradiction and will greatly simplify to avoid it. They can partially correlate but do not average. Human learning is not Boolean. These and other human reasoning properties will then be taken to critique how well artificial intelligence methods and quantum mechanical modelling might compete with them in decision-making tasks within psychology and economics.

  4. The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2017-01-01

    One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have objected to using intuition to make these decisions because intuition is unreliable and biased and lacks transparency. In this article, I examine the role of intuition in IRB risk/benefit decision-making and argue that there are practical and philosophical limits to our ability to reduce our reliance on intuition in this process. The fact that IRB risk/benefit decision-making involves intuition need not imply that it is hopelessly subjective or biased, however, since there are strategies that IRBs can employ to improve their decisions, such as using empirical data to estimate the probability of potential harms and benefits, developing classification systems to guide the evaluation of harms and benefits, and engaging in moral reasoning concerning the acceptability of risks.

  5. The Spanish human papillomavirus vaccine consensus group: a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Bordoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2010-08-01

    Successful implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in each country can only be achieved from a complementary and synergistic perspective, integrating all the different points of view of the diverse related professionals. It is this context where the Spanish HPV Vaccine Consensus Group (Grupo Español de Consenso sobre la Vacuna VPH, GEC-VPH) was created. GEC-VPH philosophy, objectives and experience are reported in this article, with particular attention to the management of negative publicity and anti-vaccine groups. Initiatives as GEC-VPH--adapted to each country's particular idiosyncrasies--might help to overcome the existing barriers and to achieve wide and early implementation of HPV vaccination.

  6. Reduced sensitivity to sooner reward during intertemporal decision-making following insula damage in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eSellitto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During intertemporal choice, humans tend to prefer small-sooner rewards over larger-delayed rewards, reflecting temporal discounting (TD of delayed outcomes. Functional neuroimaging evidence has implicated the insular cortex in time-sensitive decisions, yet it is not clear whether activity in this brain region is crucial for, or merely associated with, TD behaviour. Here, patients with damage to the insula (Insular patients, control patients with lesions outside the insula, and healthy individuals chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Insular patients were less sensitive to sooner rewards than were the control groups, exhibiting reduced TD. A Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM analysis confirmed a statistically significant association between insular damage and reduced TD. These results indicate that the insular cortex is crucial for intertemporal choice. We suggest that he insula may be necessary to anticipate the bodily/emotional effects of receiving rewards at different delays, influencing the computation of their incentive value. Devoid of such input, insular patients’ choices would be governed by a heuristic of quantity, allowing patients to wait for larger options.

  7. Microscopic study of human spleen in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizamma Alex

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microscopic structure of spleen is variable depending on the developmental stage of the organ, and the age and immune status of the individual. The aim of the investigation was to study the microscopic structure of human spleen in different age groups, starting from a six month old foetus up to the eighth decade of life. Methods: Seventy formalin fixed human spleens obtained postmortem, were included in the study. They were classified into different age groups, in both sexes, for a detailed study of the microscopic details. Results: The white pulp of spleen showed peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS and lymphatic follicles. The corona or mantle zone and the germinal centre were discernible in many of the Malpighian bodies. The marginal zone separating the red pulp from the white pulp also could be clearly demarcated. The marginal sinus and peri-follicular zone could be seen in some sections only. The capsule thickness, trabecular network, cellularity of white pulp and red pulp, the connective tissue framework seen in the red pulp etc., showed variations in the different age groups. Conclusion: The microscopic structure of spleen varies in different age groups, with the PALS and the white pulp showing scanty cellularity in the six month foetus, and almost uniform cellularity in all areas of spleen at full term. Thereafter the follicles showed increase in its cellularity up to the third decade, and then seemed becoming progressively atrophic. Further studies are required on age related changes in the cellular architecture of this organ correlating with its functions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1701-1706

  8. The neural processes underlying perceptual decision making in humans: recent progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, animal neurophysiology research has made great strides towards explaining how the brain can enable adaptive action in the face of noisy sensory information. In particular, this work has identified neural signals that perform the role of a 'decision variable' which integrates sensory information in favor of a particular outcome up to an action-triggering threshold, consistent with long-standing predictions from mathematical psychology. This has provoked an intensive search for similar neural processes at work in the human brain. In this paper we review the progress that has been made in tracing the dynamics of perceptual decision formation in humans using functional imaging and electrophysiology. We highlight some of the limitations that non-invasive recording techniques place on our ability to make definitive judgments regarding the role that specific signals play in decision making. Finally, we provide an overview of our own work in this area which has focussed on two perceptual tasks - intensity change detection and motion discrimination - performed under continuous-monitoring conditions, and highlight the insights gained thus far. We show that through simple paradigm design features such as avoiding sudden intensity transients at evidence onset, a neural instantiation of the theoretical decision variable can be directly traced in the form of a centro-parietal positivity (CPP) in the standard event-related potential (ERP). We recapitulate evidence for the domain-general nature of the CPP process, being divorced from the sensory and motor requirements of the task, and re-plot data of both tasks highlighting this aspect as well as its relationship to decision outcome and reaction time. We discuss the implications of these findings for mechanistically principled research on normal and abnormal decision making in humans.

  9. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Family Group Decision Making (FGDM) with Lakota families in two tribal communities: tools to facilitate FGDM implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcynyszyn, Lyscha A; Bear, Pete Small; Geary, Erin; Conti, Russ; Pecora, Peter J; Day, Priscilla A; Wilson, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an adapted Family Group Decision Making (FGDM) practice model for Native American communities, the FGDM family and community engagement process, and FGDM evaluation tools as one example for other native communities. Challenges and successes associated with the implementation and evaluation of these meetings are also described in the context of key historical and cultural factors, such as intergenerational grief and trauma, as well as past misuse of data in native communities.

  11. Extension of Axiomatic Design Method for Fuzzy Linguistic Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making with Incomplete Weight Information

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Axiomatic design (AD) provides a framework to describe design objects and a set of axioms to evaluate relations between intended functions and means by which they are achieved. It has been extended to evaluate alternatives in engineering under fuzzy environment. With respect to multiple criteria group decision making (MCDM) with incomplete weight information under fuzzy linguistic environment, a new method is proposed. In the method, the fuzzy axiomatic design based on triangle representation...

  12. Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L S; Hines, M; Shryne, J E; Gorski, R A

    1989-02-01

    A quantitative analysis of the volume of 4 cell groups in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (PO-AHA) and of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the human brain was performed in 22 age-matched male and female individuals. We suggest the term Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH 1-4) to identify these 4 previously undescribed cell groups in the PO-AHA. While 2 INAH and the SON were not sexually dimorphic, gender-related differences were found in the other 2 cell groups. One nucleus (INAH-3) was 2.8 times larger in the male brain than in the female brain irrespective of age. The other cell group (INAH-2) was twice as large in the male brain, but also appeared to be related in women to circulating steroid hormone levels. Since the PO-AHA influences gonadotropin secretion, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in several mammalian species, these results suggest that functional sex differences in the hypothalamus may be related to sex differences in neural structure.

  13. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-05

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contrasting Effects of Medial and Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Lesions on Credit Assignment and Decision-Making in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, MaryAnn P; Chau, Bolton K H; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Fellows, Lesley K

    2017-07-19

    The orbitofrontal cortex is critical for goal-directed behavior. Recent work in macaques has suggested the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) is relatively more concerned with assignment of credit for rewards to particular choices during value-guided learning, whereas the medial orbitofrontal cortex (often referred to as ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans; vmPFC/mOFC) is involved in constraining the decision to the relevant options. We examined whether people with damage restricted to subregions of prefrontal cortex showed the patterns of impairment observed in prior investigations of the effects of lesions to homologous regions in macaques. Groups of patients with either lOFC (predominantly right hemisphere), mOFC/vmPFC, or dorsomedial prefrontal (DMF), and a comparison group of healthy age- and education-matched controls performed a probabilistic 3-choice decision-making task. We report anatomically specific patterns of impairment. We found that credit assignment, as indexed by the normal influence of contingent relationships between choice and reward, is reduced in lOFC patients compared with Controls and mOFC/vmPFC patients. Moreover, the effects of reward contingency on choice were similar for patients with lesions in DMF or mOFC/vmPFC, compared with Controls. By contrast, mOFC/vmPFC-lesioned patients made more stochastic choices than Controls when the decision was framed by valuable distracting alternatives, suggesting that value comparisons were no longer independent of irrelevant options. Once again, there was evidence of regional specialization: patients with lOFC lesions were unimpaired relative to Controls. As in macaques, human lOFC and mOFC/vmPFC are necessary for contingent learning and value-guided decision-making, respectively.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral and medial regions of the orbitofrontal cortex are cytoarchitectonically distinct and have different anatomical connections. Previous investigations in macaques have shown these

  15. Group-living herbivores weigh up food availability and dominance status when making patch-joining decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan Stears

    Full Text Available Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus. When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits. However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual's patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions.

  16. Standardizing Benchmark Dose Calculations to Improve Science-Based Decisions in Human Health Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Jessica A.; Shapiro, Andrew J.; Wright, Fred A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling computes the dose associated with a prespecified response level. While offering advantages over traditional points of departure (PODs), such as no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs), BMD methods have lacked consistency and transparency in application, interpretation, and reporting in human health assessments of chemicals. Objectives: We aimed to apply a standardized process for conducting BMD modeling to reduce inconsistencies in model fitting and selection. Methods: We evaluated 880 dose–response data sets for 352 environmental chemicals with existing human health assessments. We calculated benchmark doses and their lower limits [10% extra risk, or change in the mean equal to 1 SD (BMD/L10/1SD)] for each chemical in a standardized way with prespecified criteria for model fit acceptance. We identified study design features associated with acceptable model fits. Results: We derived values for 255 (72%) of the chemicals. Batch-calculated BMD/L10/1SD values were significantly and highly correlated (R2 of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively, n = 42) with PODs previously used in human health assessments, with values similar to reported NOAELs. Specifically, the median ratio of BMDs10/1SD:NOAELs was 1.96, and the median ratio of BMDLs10/1SD:NOAELs was 0.89. We also observed a significant trend of increasing model viability with increasing number of dose groups. Conclusions: BMD/L10/1SD values can be calculated in a standardized way for use in health assessments on a large number of chemicals and critical effects. This facilitates the exploration of health effects across multiple studies of a given chemical or, when chemicals need to be compared, providing greater transparency and efficiency than current approaches. Citation: Wignall JA, Shapiro AJ, Wright FA, Woodruff TJ, Chiu WA, Guyton KZ, Rusyn I. 2014. Standardizing benchmark dose calculations to improve science-based decisions in human health assessments. Environ Health

  17. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  18. Distribution of Blood Groups(ABO between Symptomatic & Asymptomatic Human Leishmania Infantum Infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: According to the hypothesis that leishmania parasites can be escaped from immune system covered by blood group antigens (ABO to prevent its recognition by the immune system. The aim of this study was to show the associated blood groups with symptomatic or asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in human. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the population was divided into two groups. The first group included 54 patients with kala-azar (antibody against Leishmania titers ≥1:3200 by TDA with clinical specificity and the second group consisted of 45 subjects infected with Leishmania infantum (Leishmania antibody titers of1: 800 and 1:1600 by DAT method and non-specific symptoms. The distribution of the 4 main blood groups ABO type, sex, age, presence or absence of symptoms, clinical signs, and response to Glucantim therapy and DAT results were evaluated. Data were analyzed by chi-square test. Results: Most of the patients in group 1 were blood group A (37% and the lowest number of blood group were B (12.8%. In the second group, most of the ABO blood group A (42.2% and lowest in the ABO blood group AB (8.9%.There was no significant association between blood groups and clinical symptoms (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no association between blood group and incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic kala-azar. Key words: Leishmania Infantum, Kala-azar, Blood Group, Human

  19. Prioritize Improvement Opportunities Identified In Self-Assessment Using Multi-Criteria Fuzzy Group Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Ghassem Faraj Pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efforts to improve the quality are one of the prerequisites for the success of individual companies and for the competitiveness of all whole companies. In the field of improvement and excellence business excellence models answer to the question that what the better organization is what goals and concepts they follow and according to what standards they behave. The EFQM excellence model can be transition from multiplicity to unity of different existing models. The most important approaches of these models are self-assessment and identifying improvement areas in an organization. On the other side organizations which are at lower level of total quality management will encounter so many areas to improve when using this model and implementing of self-improvement. Choosing the most important key problems are always the main challenges and because of resource constraints and strategic goals organizations have to prioritize identified improvement opportunities. This paper introduces a model for prioritizing and choosing the most significant improvement opportunities using the organization Business Excellence team members and because the analysis and decision making atmosphere for excellence team members is not generally complete with accurate information it seems using of fuzzy decision can be very helpful.

  20. Ethical issues in health care institutions. Lesson 2: Ethical considerations in group decision making and groupthink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alie, R E

    1991-01-01

    In this second lesson of a five-part WMU/AHRA magazine course on ethics, Dr. Alie tackles an interesting concept--group-think. According to the author, this tendency occurs when cohesive groups lose their ability to critically evaluate alternatives in problem solving. Since groups such as committees or task forces frequently resolve issues and make policy in health care organizations, warning signs of this phenomenon are detailed as well as suggestions to help avoid the problem.

  1. Disagreeing on whether agreement is persuasive: perceptions of expert group decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Ashley M; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2015-01-01

    While expert groups often make recommendations on a range of non-controversial as well as controversial issues, little is known about how the level of expert consensus-the level of expert agreement-influences perceptions of the recommendations. This research illustrates that for non-controversial issues expert groups that exhibit high levels of agreement are more persuasive than expert groups that exhibit low levels of agreement. This effect is mediated by the perceived entitativity-the perceived cohesiveness or unification of the group-of the expert group. But for controversial issues, this effect is moderated by the perceivers' implicit assumptions about the group composition. When perceivers are provided no information about a group supporting the Affordable Care Act-a highly controversial piece of U.S. legislation that is divided by political party throughout the country-higher levels of agreement are less persuasive than lower levels of agreement because participants assume there were more democrats and fewer republicans in the group. But when explicitly told that the group was half republicans and half democrats, higher levels of agreement are more persuasive.

  2. Disagreeing on whether agreement is persuasive: perceptions of expert group decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M Votruba

    Full Text Available While expert groups often make recommendations on a range of non-controversial as well as controversial issues, little is known about how the level of expert consensus-the level of expert agreement-influences perceptions of the recommendations. This research illustrates that for non-controversial issues expert groups that exhibit high levels of agreement are more persuasive than expert groups that exhibit low levels of agreement. This effect is mediated by the perceived entitativity-the perceived cohesiveness or unification of the group-of the expert group. But for controversial issues, this effect is moderated by the perceivers' implicit assumptions about the group composition. When perceivers are provided no information about a group supporting the Affordable Care Act-a highly controversial piece of U.S. legislation that is divided by political party throughout the country-higher levels of agreement are less persuasive than lower levels of agreement because participants assume there were more democrats and fewer republicans in the group. But when explicitly told that the group was half republicans and half democrats, higher levels of agreement are more persuasive.

  3. Cortical Network Dynamics of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eSiegel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed behavior requires the flexible transformation of sensory evidence about our environment into motor actions. Studies of perceptual decision-making have shown that this transformation is distributed across several widely separated brain regions. Yet, little is known about how decision-making emerges from the dynamic interactions among these regions. Here, we review a series of studies, in which we characterized the cortical network interactions underlying a perceptual decision process in the human brain. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure the large-scale cortical population dynamics underlying each of the sub-processes involved in this decision: the encoding of sensory evidence and action plan, the mapping between the two, and the attentional selection of task-relevant evidence. We found that these sub-processes are mediated by neuronal oscillations within specific frequency ranges. Localized gamma-band oscillations in sensory and motor cortices reflect the encoding of the sensory evidence and motor plan. Large-scale oscillations across widespread cortical networks mediate the integrative processes connecting these local networks: Gamma- and beta-band oscillations across frontal, parietal and sensory cortices serve the selection of relevant sensory evidence and its flexible mapping onto action plans. In sum, our results suggest that perceptual decisions are mediated by oscillatory interactions within overlapping local and large-scale cortical networks.

  4. Evidence-based decision-making for vaccine introductions: Overview of the ProVac International Working Group's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Barbara; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Bess Janusz, Cara; Blau, Julia; Munier, Aline; Atherly, Deborah; Mvundura, Mercy; Hajjeh, Rana; Lopman, Benjamin; Clark, Andrew David; Baxter, Louise; Hutubessy, Raymond; de Quadros, Ciro; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-05-07

    Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) ProVac Initiative aims to strengthen countries' technical capacity to make evidence-based immunization policy. With financial support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PAHO established the ProVac International Working Group (IWG), a platform created for two years to transfer the ProVac Initiative's tools and methods to support decisions in non-PAHO regions. In 2011, WHO Regional Offices and partner agencies established the IWG to transfer the ProVac framework for new vaccine decision support, including tools and trainings to other regions of the world. During the two year period, PAHO served as the coordinating secretariat and partner agencies played implementing or advisory roles. Fifty nine national professionals from 17 countries received training on the use of economic evaluations to aid vaccine policy making through regional workshops. The IWG provided direct technical support to nine countries to develop cost-effectiveness analyses to inform decisions. All nine countries introduced the new vaccine evaluated or their NITAGs have made a recommendation to the Ministry of Health to introduce the new vaccine. Developing countries around the world are increasingly interested in weighing the potential health impact due to new vaccine introduction against the investments required. During the two years, the ProVac approach proved valuable and timely to aid the national decision making processes, even despite the different challenges and idiosyncrasies encountered in each region. The results of this work suggest that: (1) there is great need and demand for technical support and for capacity building around economic evaluations; and (2) the ProVac method of supporting country-owned analyses is as effective in other regions as it has been in the PAHO region. Decision support for new vaccine introduction in low- and middle-income countries is critical to guiding the efficient use of resources and prioritizing high impact

  5. 人情压力对决策的影响%The Effects of Human Relationship Pressure on Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世敏; 蒋京川

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of human relationship pressure on the decision making from the perspective of rational choice theory, and carried out two experiments on situational decision.In experiment1 , we used the mindset priming method to arise the human relationship pressure in the experimental group.The results showed that participants in both experimental and control group were more inclined to say “yes”, there is no obvious difference in their decision making.In experiment 2, we controlled the degree of close-ness between interpersonal and given feedback information to make the participants arise high, medium, and low human relationship pressure levels.The results also showed that there is no obvious difference among participants in the three levels.But the results have sig-nificant gender difference, girls scored higher than boys.Our results of the two experiments showed that this study did not find the influ-ence of human relationship pressure on the decision making by the experimental method.%研究从理性选择理论的角度出发,设计了两个情境决策的实验考察人情压力对决策的影响。实验1用定势启动的方法对人情压力进行启动,结果发现,启动组与控制组被试在决策结果上并未存在显著的差异。实验2通过控制人际亲疏程度并给予反馈信息使被试产生高、中、低不同人情压力程度,结果发现不同人情压力下被试的决策也不存在显著的差异,但是发现了人情压力下不同性别被试存在决策差异。两个实验的结果表明,本研究并未以实证的手段发现人情压力对于决策的影响。

  6. Leveraging human decision making through the optimal management of centralized resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Paul; McGrath, Richard G.

    2016-05-01

    Combining results from mixed integer optimization, stochastic modeling and queuing theory, we will advance the interdisciplinary problem of efficiently and effectively allocating centrally managed resources. Academia currently fails to address this, as the esoteric demands of each of these large research areas limits work across traditional boundaries. The commercial space does not currently address these challenges due to the absence of a profit metric. By constructing algorithms that explicitly use inputs across boundaries, we are able to incorporate the advantages of using human decision makers. Key improvements in the underlying algorithms are made possible by aligning decision maker goals with the feedback loops introduced between the core optimization step and the modeling of the overall stochastic process of supply and demand. A key observation is that human decision-makers must be explicitly included in the analysis for these approaches to be ultimately successful. Transformative access gives warfighters and mission owners greater understanding of global needs and allows for relationships to guide optimal resource allocation decisions. Mastery of demand processes and optimization bottlenecks reveals long term maximum marginal utility gaps in capabilities.

  7. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  8. Application technology on human general function as a group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki; Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Niwa, Yasuyuki; Ando, Hirotomo [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    An operation assistant system for two operators as an object of plant model simulated on PWR was made experimentally, effectiveness on applying 3D-VR spatial indication and repulsive feedback input apparatus to plant operation assistance was investigated. By adopting a transmission type HMD, combination use with the conventional type operation monitoring system was made possible, and then it could be thought to become possible that human error was found by oneself by adding intuitive indication and feedback to judgement and operation used by a system assisting with logic understanding. And, by sharing these informations in a group, it was also found that correction of not only selfish but also other operator's error was made possible. (G.K.)

  9. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Group Decision-Making Based on Prospect Choquet Integral Operator and Grey Projection Pursuit Dynamic Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the interaction among attributes and the influence of decision makers’ risk attitude, this paper proposes an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy aggregation operator based on Choquet integral and prospect theory. With respect to a multiattribute group decision-making problem, the prospect value functions of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are aggregated by the proposed operator; then a grey relation-projection pursuit dynamic cluster method is developed to obtain the ranking of alternatives; the firefly algorithm is used to optimize the objective function of projection for obtaining the best projection direction of grey correlation projection values, and the grey correlation projection values are evaluated, which are applied to classify, rank, and prefer the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is taken in the present study to make the proposed method comprehensible.

  10. 77 FR 6856 - Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Responsibility and Reports (dated June 7, 2011). \\1\\ Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. (Volkswagen) is a motor... psi. Volkswagen argues that this noncompliance is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety because the... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for...

  11. 78 FR 28287 - Volkswagen Group of America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Responsibility and Reports (dated June 7, 2011). \\1\\ Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. is a motor vehicle... inconsequential to motor vehicle safety. Accordingly, Volkswagen's petition is granted and the petitioner is... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Volkswagen Group of America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition...

  12. Decision making at the end of life: a model using an ethical grid and principles of group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, D R; Wilensky, P

    1999-01-01

    Those who provide care for the dying seek to address issues of pain and suffering in the context of the psychological, spiritual, mental, and physical complexities of the individual experiencing a terminal illness. People who are dying are still living. They have the right to be in control of their lives. The staff (caregivers) also have an integrity which must be preserved. They too must be connected to the decision-making process. The reality of palliative care brings up unresolved psychological issues, often turbulent personal issues, for all involved in the process. This can cause extra unnecessary pain and suffering for all concerned. It is essential that a real (unflinching) and an ethical relationship between the patient and the staff be maintained and valued as these issues are confronted and resolved. This relationship will be subject to group process influences, which must be recognized and embraced. Avoidance of these issues can lead to unfairness, misunderstanding, shame, and lasting resentment among the caregivers, as well as to tragic consequences for the patient and the family. The purpose of this article is to describe a decision-making process in palliative care that includes the use of ethical principles as well as features of group process. The ethical grid was adapted and developed from the work of Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. The features of group process are based on theories of group work as defined by Trotzer; Johnson and Johnson; Gladding; Bion; Yalom; and Amundson, Borgen, Westwood and Pallard.

  13. Adaptation of group A Streptococcus to human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease.

  14. MoCog1: A computer simulation of recognition-primed human decision making, considering emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1992-01-01

    The successful results of the first stage of a research effort to develop a versatile computer model of motivated human cognitive behavior are reported. Most human decision making appears to be an experience-based, relatively straightforward, largely automatic response to situations, utilizing cues and opportunities perceived from the current environment. The development, considering emotions, of the architecture and computer program associated with such 'recognition-primed' decision-making is described. The resultant computer program (MoCog1) was successfully utilized as a vehicle to simulate earlier findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient the individual toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior in response to their environment.

  15. Human Factors Effecting Forensic Decision Making: Workplace Stress and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguenat, Amy M; Dror, Itiel E

    2017-05-02

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors". Thus, stress is an important human factor to mitigate for overall error management, productivity and decision quality (not to mention the well-being of the examiners themselves). Techniques such as mindfulness can become powerful tools to enhance work and decision quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. The Value of Human Capital Signals for Investment Decision Making under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Jurowetzki, Roman

    In this paper, we analyze the interaction between human capital signals of entrepreneurial founding teams with the contextual experience of potential investors, aiming to explain investment decision making. We use the case of cross-border venture capital (VC) investments in volatile and uncertain...... experience, investors improve their heuristics and develop more sophisticated and contextual decision making procedures. Previous research in the context of VC investments particularly points at human capital signals of the founding team as an important criteria considered by venture capitalists. Among those...... their less experienced peers. We do so by contrasting cross-border VC investments by the same investors in a selection of sub-Saharan African countries with their investments in European economies. Using a propensity score matching procedure, we match every observed investor-company investment pair...

  17. MEDICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES OF THE DECISIONS RENDERED BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhvadze, B; Chakhvadze, G

    2017-01-01

    The European Convention on Human rights is a document that protects human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, and the European Court of Human Rights and its case-law makes a convention a powerful instrument to meet the new challenges of modernity and protect the principles of rule of law and democracy. This is important, particularly for young democracies, including Georgia. The more that Georgia is a party to this convention. Article 3 of the convention deals with torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, while article 8 deals with private life, home and correspondence. At the same time, the international practice of the European court of human rights shows that these articles are often used with regard to medical rights. The paper highlights the most recent and interesting cases from the case-law of the ECHR, in which the courts conclusions are based solely on the European Convention on Human Rights. In most instances, the European Court of Human Rights uses the principle of democracy with regard to medical rights. The European court of human rights considers medical rights as moral underpinning rights. Particularly in every occasion, the European Court of Human Rights acknowledges an ethical dimension of these rights. In most instances, it does not matter whether a plaintiff is a free person or prisoner, the European court of human rights make decisions based on fundamental human rights and freedoms of individuals.

  18. The Power of Religious Organizations in Human Decision Processes: Analyzing Voting Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stadelmann, David; Portmann, Marco; TORGLER, Benno

    2013-01-01

    In Switzerland, two key church institutions - the Conference of Swiss Bishops (CSB) and the Federation of Protestant Churches (FPC) - make public recommendations on how to vote for certain referenda. We leverage this unique situation to directly measure religious organizations' power to shape human decision making. We employ an objective measure of voters' commitment to their religious organization to determine whether they are more likely to vote in line with this organization's recommendati...

  19. A decision model for the sustainable protection of human rights in Italian Prison System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maturo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work starts from an analysis of the critical problems of the prison system in Italy. It aims to develop a decision-making model to address the issue of sustainable protection of human rights in prisons. It shows how, using the Saaty AHP procedure, it is possible to have an analytical reasoning guideline for the understanding of the validity of the various alternative choices, in order to facilitate the situation of the prisoners and their reintegration into society.

  20. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    IN FRACTAL PHYSIOLOGY       OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING   Bruce J West Journal Name: Frontiers in...2:76. doi:10.3389/fphys.2011.00076 Article URL: http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/Abstract.aspx?s=454& name= fractal %20physiology&ART_DOI=10.3389...functions: transportation, electrical power, food distribution, finance , and health care to name a few. The 1 2 interoperability of these networks

  1. Driving decisions when leaving electronic music dance events: driver, passenger, and group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B; Miller, Brenda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article was to identify characteristics of drivers and passengers that predicted peer groups whose drivers exit dance clubs with alcohol levels indicative of impairment (blood alcohol content [BAC] ≥ 0.05 g/dL). We used the portal survey methodology to randomly sample groups of electronic music dance event (EMDE) patrons as they entered and exited a club. From May through November 2010, data were collected from 38 EMDEs hosted by 8 clubs in the San Francisco Bay area. Data included in these analyses are results from breath samples for measuring BAC and self-report data on demographics, recent drinking history drinking, drinking intentions, travel to and from the clubs, and the familiarity/experience with other group members. These data were collected from a subset of 175 drivers and 272 passengers. Although drivers drank less than passengers, one driver in 5 groups had a BAC indicative of elevated crash risk (BAC ≥ 0.05 g/dL). Groups of drivers and/or passengers with a recent history of binge drinking were more likely to have drivers with BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dL. One unanticipated finding was that drivers who knew more group members relatively well were more likely to exit the club with a BAC ≥ 0.05 g/dL. Additionally, we found that groups with all female passengers were at greater risk for having a driver whose BAC was ≥ 0.05 g/dL. Some group characteristics predicted drivers who exit clubs with BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dL. One intervention strategy to promote safety might be to encourage group members to reconsider who is sober enough to drive away from the club; for some groups, a change of drivers would be a safer choice, because a passenger may have a relatively safe BAC. Groups of females appear to have a particularly elevated risk of having a driver whose BAC exceeds 0.05 g/dL, and new intervention efforts should be particularly directed to these at-risk groups.

  2. Overview 2010 of ARL Program on Network Science for Human Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2011-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the principle of complexity management as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model developed within the project.

  3. OVERVIEW 2010 OF ARL PROGRAM ON NETWORK SCIENCE FOR HUMAN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J West

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Army Research Laboratory program on the Network Science of Human Decision Making brings together researchers from a variety of disciplines to work on a complex research problem that defies confinement within any single discipline. Consequently, new and rewarding solutions have been obtained for a problem of importance to society and the Army, that being, the human dimension of complex networks. This program investigates the basic research foundation of a science of networks supporting the linkage between the cognitive and social domains as they relate to human decision making. The research strategy extends recent methods of non-equilibrium statistical physics to non-stationary, renewal stochastic processes characteristic of the interactions among nodes in complex networks. The theoretical analyses of complex networks, although mathematically rigorous, often elude analytic solutions and require simulation and computation to analyze the underlying dynamic process. The information transfer between two complex networks is calculated using the Principle of Complexity Management (PCM as well as direct numerical calculation of the decision making model (DMM developed within the project.

  4. Parent-son decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Andreia B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Licensed for use in males in 2009, Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates in adolescent males are extremely low. Literature on HPV vaccination focuses on females, adult males, or parents of adolescent males, without including adolescent males or the dynamics of the parent-son interaction that may influence vaccine decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision-making process of parent-son dyads when deciding whether or not to get vaccinated against HPV. Methods Twenty-one adolescent males (ages 13–17, with no previous HPV vaccination, and their parents/guardians were recruited from adolescent primary care clinics serving low to middle income families in a large Midwestern city. Dyad members participated in separate semi-structured interviews assessing the relative role of the parent and son in the decision regarding HPV vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive content analysis. Results Parents and sons focused on protection as a reason for vaccination; parents felt a need to protect their child, while sons wanted to protect their own health. Parents and sons commonly misinterpreted the information about the vaccine. Sons were concerned about an injection in the penis, while some parents and sons thought the vaccine would protect them against other sexually transmitted infections including Herpes, Gonorrhea, and HIV. Parents and sons recalled that the vaccine prevented genital warts rather than cancer. The vaccine decision-making process was rapid and dynamic, including an initial reaction to the recommendation for HPV vaccine, discussion between parent and son, and the final vaccine decision. Provider input was weighed in instances of initial disagreement. Many boys felt that this was the first health care decision that they had been involved in. Dyads which reported shared decision-making were more likely to openly communicate about sexual issues than those

  5. STUDENTS’ DECISION STEPS IN META-COGNITIVE LEARNING IN FREE ONLINE GROUPS (METAL-FROG: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsley Ng SEN FA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG discussion. It presents a part of a research project by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups. The research setting was online learner community on the platform of Free Online Group web intended for post-graduate students enrolled for the paper Psychology of Learning in Faculty of Education, University Malaya, Malaysia. Preliminary study revealed three factors contributed to MetaL-FrOG success: Motivation, Cognitive Resources and Pro-learning Behaviors. This paper only presents a part of the findings under the Pro-Learning Behaviors Sub-theory. We found striking similarities between the model proposed by Latane & Darley (1971, Five Essential Steps to a Pro-social Response in an Emergency, and our research subject. The model which explains the course of a pro-social decision was borrowed and modified as surrogate theory to explain the online discussion response of the students. The insights help educators to better understand what holds students back from fruitful online peer diologic discussion.

  6. Trends in control and decision-making for human-robot collaboration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Fumin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent research developments in the automation and control of robotic systems that collaborate with humans. A measure of human collaboration being necessary for the optimal operation of any robotic system, the contributors exploit a broad selection of such systems to demonstrate the importance of the subject, particularly where the environment is prone to uncertainty or complexity. They show how such human strengths as high-level decision-making, flexibility, and dexterity can be combined with robotic precision, and ability to perform task repetitively or in a dangerous environment. The book focuses on quantitative methods and control design for guaranteed robot performance and balanced human experience. Its contributions develop and expand upon material presented at various international conferences. They are organized into three parts covering: one-human–one-robot collaboration; one-human–multiple-robot collaboration; and human–swarm collaboration. Individual topic ar...

  7. Exploring the Iran-Hezbollah Relationship: A Case Study of how State Sponsorship affects Terrorist Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. DeVore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of state sponsorship on the decision-making of violent non-state actors is among the more important issues to scholars of security studies. This article addresses the issue by examining the relationship between Iran and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. To preview its conclusions, there are two main perspectives to consider with regard to the terrorist group – state sponsor relationship. First, state support has a powerful, yet indirect effect on violent non-state actor decision-making by shaping the options available to groups’ leaders.  Second, state sponsors can also directly leverage their aid to shape the strategic decisions of armed non-state actors, forcing their clients to either expand or restrict their activities. Because of inevitable lacunae and contradictions amongst published accounts, this study relies heavily upon primary sources and data collected during field research in Lebanon, including interviews with leaders from Hezbollah, the Lebanese Army, the United Nations' Peacekeeping Mission in Southern Lebanon (UNIFIL and the rival Shia organization, Amal.

  8. Research on the influence of parking charging strategy based on multi-level extension theory of group decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fen; Hu, Wanxin

    2017-05-01

    Based on analysis of the impact of the experience of parking policy at home and abroad, design the impact analysis process of parking strategy. First, using group decision theory to create a parking strategy index system and calculate its weight. Index system includes government, parking operators and travelers. Then, use a multi-level extension theory to analyze the CBD parking strategy. Assess the parking strategy by calculating the correlation of each indicator. Finally, assess the strategy of parking charges through a case. Provide a scientific and reasonable basis for assessing parking strategy. The results showed that the model can effectively analyze multi-target, multi-property parking policy evaluation.

  9. Decision Analysis Methods Used to Make Appropriate Investments in Human Exploration Capabilities and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Hay, Jason; Reeves, John D.; Craig, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Prudent investments in capability and technology developments, based on mission need, are critical for enabling a campaign of human exploration missions. There are a wide variety of capabilities and technologies that could enable these missions, so it is a major challenge for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to make knowledgeable portfolio decisions. It is critical for this pioneering initiative that these investment decisions are informed with a prioritization process that is robust and defensible. It is NASA's role to invest in targeted technologies and capabilities that would enable exploration missions even though specific requirements have not been identified. To inform these investments decisions, NASA's HEOMD has supported a variety of analysis activities that prioritize capabilities and technologies. These activities are often based on input from subject matter experts within the NASA community who understand the technical challenges of enabling human exploration missions. This paper will review a variety of processes and methods that NASA has used to prioritize and rank capabilities and technologies applicable to human space exploration. The paper will show the similarities in the various processes and showcase instances were customer specified priorities force modifications to the process. Specifically

  10. The Impact of Closure on Satisfaction with Group Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ruth V.; Venkatesh, Murali

    Satisfaction is a construct that is important to the development of intrinsic motivation and the continuing effort to learn. Research that helps to identify those factors that contribute to satisfaction is useful in the design of electronic support systems for individuals and groups. This paper investigates the impact of "need for…

  11. Group Counseling for Individual Decision-Making: Maximizing the Effectiveness of the College Placement Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Robert H., Jr.; And Others

    This report is the result of a demonstration project the purposes of which were to demonstrate the feasibility of providing career counseling by specially trained graduate assistants as part of the college placement service, and to demonstrate that such counseling can be provided as effectively and more efficiently in a group setting than in the…

  12. Combat Air Forces Campaign Level Modernization Planning: A Study in Group Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    problems of influence from dominant individuals, irrelevant conversation, and pressure for conformity . Individuals can influence and dominate the...to counteract 52 the negative effects of dominant personalities, conversation not pursuant to the problem, and open group pressure for conformity ...discussion and debates. However, during the observed process, there was no blatant evidence of pressure for conformity or the exertion of influence

  13. Quantity of Hydrophobic Functional CH-Groups - Decisive for Soil Water Repellency Caused by Digestate Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkner, Amrei; Holthusen, Dörthe; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Horn, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestates are used as organic fertilizers; however, they are suspected to interfere negatively with soils. To investigate the relevance of the anaerobic digestates composition on potential wettability and contact angle of the soil, we mixed in a laboratory experiment 30 m³ ha-1 of anaerobic digestates derived from mechanically pre-treated substrates from maize and sugar beet with a homogenized Cambic Luvisol. Fourier transform infrared-spectra and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform-spectra of particle intact and finely ground soilanaerobic digestates-mixtures were analyzed to determine the quantities of hydrophobic functional groups in the soil-anaerobic digestates-mixtures that are used here as an indicator for the potential hydrophobicity. The anaerobic digestates application increased the amount of hydrophobic functional groups of the mixtures and reduced the wettability of the soil. However, for intact particle samples an up to threefold higher amount of hydrophobic groups was found as compared to the finely ground ones, indicating a dilution effect of mechanical grinding on the effectivity of the organic matter that is presumably located as a coating on mineral soil particles. For the particle intact samples, the intensity of hydrophobic functional groups bands denoting hydrophobic brickstones in organic matter is indicative for the actual wettability of the soil-anaerobic digestates-mixtures.

  14. 75 FR 48740 - Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 138, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. Volkswagen has... malfunctions. Volkswagen argues that this noncompliance is inconsequential to motor vehicle safety for the... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for...

  15. Safety assessment of nanomaterials using an advanced decision-making framework, the DF4nanoGrouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, Robert; Ma-Hock, Lan; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Sauer, Ursula G.

    2017-05-01

    As presented at the 2016 TechConnect World Innovation Conference on 22-25 May 2016 in Washington DC, USA, the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) `Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) consisting of three tiers to assign nanomaterials to four main groups with possible further subgrouping to refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways: intrinsic material properties and system-dependent properties (that depend upon the nanomaterial's respective surroundings), biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, and cellular and apical toxic effects. Use, release, and exposure route may be applied as `qualifiers' to determine if, e.g., nanomaterials cannot be released from products, which may justify waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio, (3) passive, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping foresees a stepwise evaluation of nanomaterial properties and effects with increasing biological complexity. In case studies covering carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide, and metal sulfate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments (all nanomaterials having primary particle sizes below 100 nm), the usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment was confirmed. The DF4nanoGrouping facilitates grouping and targeted testing of nanomaterials. It ensures that sufficient data for the risk assessment of a nanomaterial are available, and it fosters the use of non-animal methods. No studies are performed that do not provide crucial data. Thereby, the DF4nanoGrouping serves to save both animals and resources.

  16. High-frequency oscillations in distributed neural networks reveal the dynamics of human decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G Guggisberg

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relative timing of numerous brain regions involved in human decisions that are based on external criteria, learned information, personal preferences, or unconstrained internal considerations. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG and advanced signal analysis techniques, we were able to non-invasively reconstruct oscillations of distributed neural networks in the high-gamma frequency band (60–150 Hz. The time course of the observed neural activity suggested that two-alternative forced choice tasks are processed in four overlapping stages: processing of sensory input, option evaluation, intention formation, and action execution. Visual areas are activated fi rst, and show recurring activations throughout the entire decision process. The temporo-occipital junction and the intraparietal sulcus are active during evaluation of external values of the options, 250–500 ms after stimulus presentation. Simultaneously, personal preference is mediated by cortical midline structures. Subsequently, the posterior parietal and superior occipital cortices appear to encode intention, with different subregions being responsible for different types of choice. The cerebellum and inferior parietal cortex are recruited for internal generation of decisions and actions, when all options have the same value. Action execution was accompanied by activation peaks in the contralateral motor cortex. These results suggest that high-gamma oscillations as recorded by MEG allow a reliable reconstruction of decision processes with excellent spatiotemporal resolution.

  17. Temporal characteristics of the influence of punishment on perceptual decision making in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Helen; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R; Philiastides, Marios G

    2013-02-27

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which information from sensory systems is combined and used to influence our behavior. In addition to the sensory input, this process can be affected by other factors, such as reward and punishment for correct and incorrect responses. To investigate the temporal dynamics of how monetary punishment influences perceptual decision making in humans, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data during a perceptual categorization task whereby the punishment level for incorrect responses was parametrically manipulated across blocks of trials. Behaviorally, we observed improved accuracy for high relative to low punishment levels. Using multivariate linear discriminant analysis of the EEG, we identified multiple punishment-induced discriminating components with spatially distinct scalp topographies. Compared with components related to sensory evidence, components discriminating punishment levels appeared later in the trial, suggesting that punishment affects primarily late postsensory, decision-related processing. Crucially, the amplitude of these punishment components across participants was predictive of the size of the behavioral improvements induced by punishment. Finally, trial-by-trial changes in prestimulus oscillatory activity in the alpha and gamma bands were good predictors of the amplitude of these components. We discuss these findings in the context of increased motivation/attention, resulting from increases in punishment, which in turn yields improved decision-related processing.

  18. A cortical network model of cognitive and emotional influences in human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Azadeh Hassannejad; Liljenström, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction. In our model, the neurodynamic activity of amygdala and OFC represents the neural correlates of secondary emotion, while the activity of certain neural populations in OFC alone represents the outcome expectancy of different options. The cognitive/rational aspect of DM is associated with LPFC. Our model is intended to give insights on the emotional and cognitive processes involved in DM under various internal and external contexts. Different options for actions are represented by the oscillatory activity of cell assemblies, which may change due to experience and learning. Knowledge and experience of the outcome of our decisions and actions can eventually result in changes in our neural structures, attitudes and behaviors. Simulation results may have implications for how we make decisions for our individual actions, as well as for societal choices, where we take examples from transport and its impact on CO2 emissions and climate change.

  19. How to Teach Small Group Decision-Making in a Basic Business Communication Class. 1981 American Business Communication Association National Committee Report. Unit III. Research and Methodology. Teaching Methodology and Concepts Committee--Subcommittee--3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Business Communication Association, Urbana, IL.

    College business communication courses should assist students to learn both how small groups make decisions and how to facilitate small group discussions. Through a unit on small group decision making, the student should be able to understand the role of small groups in organizations, the process of decision making in groups, and the importance of…

  20. From Performance to Decision Processes in 33 Years: A History of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes under James C. Naylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber

    1998-12-01

    For the past 33 years, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes has thrived under a single editor. That editor, James C. Naylor, is retiring from his long stewardship. This article chronicles the course of the journal under Jim's direction and marks some of the accomplishments and changes over the past three decades that go to his credit. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. AGGREGATION OF FUZZY OPINIONS UNDER GROUP DECISION-MAKING BASED ON SIMILARITY AND DISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengguo LU; Jibin LAN; Zhongxing WANG

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a new method for aggregating fuzzy individual opinions into a group consensus opinion is proposed. To obtain the aggregation weights of each individual opinion, a consistency index of each expert with the other experts is introduced based on similarity and distance. The importance of each expert is also taken into consideration in the process of aggregation. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the procedure.

  2. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers: A Focus Group Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers’ situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients’ personal autonomy. The case managers’ reasoning emphasised situational...

  3. EEG-fMRI based information theoretic characterization of the human perceptual decision system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Ostwald

    Full Text Available The modern metaphor of the brain is that of a dynamic information processing device. In the current study we investigate how a core cognitive network of the human brain, the perceptual decision system, can be characterized regarding its spatiotemporal representation of task-relevant information. We capitalize on a recently developed information theoretic framework for the analysis of simultaneously acquired electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging data (fMRI (Ostwald et al. (2010, NeuroImage 49: 498-516. We show how this framework naturally extends from previous validations in the sensory to the cognitive domain and how it enables the economic description of neural spatiotemporal information encoding. Specifically, based on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data features from n = 13 observers performing a visual perceptual decision task, we demonstrate how the information theoretic framework is able to reproduce earlier findings on the neurobiological underpinnings of perceptual decisions from the response signal features' marginal distributions. Furthermore, using the joint EEG-fMRI feature distribution, we provide novel evidence for a highly distributed and dynamic encoding of task-relevant information in the human brain.

  4. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  5. Factors that influence vaccination decision-making by parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Irene A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Paulussen, Theo G W; Mollema, Liesbeth; Kok, Gerjo; de Melker, Hester E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parents have become more disparaging towards childhood vaccination. One group that is critical about the National Immunization Program (NIP) and participates less comprises parents with an anthroposophical worldview. Despite the fact that various studies have identified anthroposophists as critical parents with lower vaccination coverage, no research has been done to explore the beliefs underlying their childhood vaccination decision-making. We conducted a qualitative study using three focus groups (n = 16) of parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center. Our findings show that participants did not refuse all vaccinations within the Dutch NIP, but mostly refused the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccination decisions are influenced by participants' lifestyle, perception of health, beliefs about childhood diseases, perceptions about the risks of diseases, perceptions about vaccine effectiveness and vaccine components, and trust in institutions. Parents indicated that they felt a need for more information. Sufficient references should be provided to sources containing more information about childhood vaccination, especially about the effectiveness of vaccines and vaccine components and the risks, such as possible side effects and benefits of vaccination. This may satisfy parents' information needs and enable them to make a sufficiently informed choice whether or not to vaccinate their child.

  6. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  7. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.M. Lopes

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  8. Nosocomial infections in brazilian pediatric patients: using a decision tree to identify high mortality groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M.M. Lopes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections (NI are frequent events with potentially lethal outcomes. We identified predictive factors for mortality related to NI and developed an algorithm for predicting that risk in order to improve hospital epidemiology and healthcare quality programs. We made a prospective cohort NI surveillance of all acute-care patients according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System guidelines since 1992, applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1988 definitions adapted to a Brazilian pediatric hospital. Thirty-eight deaths considered to be related to NI were analyzed as the outcome variable for 754 patients with NI, whose survival time was taken into consideration. The predictive factors for mortality related to NI (p < 0.05 in the Cox regression model were: invasive procedures and use of two or more antibiotics. The mean survival time was significantly shorter (p < 0.05 with the Kaplan-Meier method for patients who suffered invasive procedures and for those who received two or more antibiotics. Applying a tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA, two groups with high mortality rates were identified: one group with time from admission to the first NI less than 11 days, received two or more antibiotics and suffered invasive procedures; the other group had the first NI between 12 and 22 days after admission and was subjected to invasive procedures. The possible modifiable factors to prevent mortality involve invasive devices and antibiotics. The TSSA approach is helpful to identify combinations of predictors and to guide protective actions to be taken in continuous-quality-improvement programs.

  9. Teachers’ informed decision-making in evaluation: Corollary of ELT curriculum as a human lived experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Hernán Quintero Polo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes informed decision-making as one important activity of evaluation in the English Language Teaching (ELT curriculum. I emphasize on a distinction between human and technical approaches to evaluation. This emphasis is consequence of my reflection upon my and some in-service teachers’ perceptions about literature and small-scale research projects related to the area of evaluation. In this article, I also intend to contribute to an understanding of why educational processes need to be seen as a lived experience for which informed decision-making can be used as a sound practice in a process of evaluation. A practical academic experience illustrates the discussions in this article. I led the practical experience as a professor of a seminar on testing and evaluation in English language teaching (ELT, in the Master’s Program in Applied Linguistics to the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language at the Distrital University in Bogotá, Colombia.

  10. Collective decision-making and behavioral polymorphism in group living organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, S C; Despland, E; Dussutour, A

    2008-10-01

    Collective foraging in group living animal populations displaying behavioral polymorphism is considered. Using mathematical modeling it is shown that symmetric, spatially homogeneous (food sources are used equally) and asymmetric, spatially inhomogeneous (only one food source is used) regimes can coexist, as a result of differential amplification of choice depending on behavioral type. The model accounts for recent experimental results on social caterpillars not only confirming this coexistence, but also showing the relationship between the two types of regime and the ratio of active to inactive individuals.

  11. 基于指挥决策层次结构的决策团队形成方法%Method for Decision-making Group Formation Based on Command Decision-making Hiberarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 姚佩阳; 周翔翔; 王稳平

    2013-01-01

    The reasonable decision-making group is the guarantee of the effective allocation action to command decision -making tasks. Based on agent technology and command decision -making hiberarchy, a method of decision-making group formation is proposed. The capability-task judgment rule, capability updating mechanism, task decomposition and allocation strategy and task adjustment strategy are designed. The decision tasks are decomposed and allocated level by level. The initiative and collaboration of command decision-making Agent are played fully. The effective of command decision-making group formation is improved.%合理的决策团队是指挥决策任务有效分配实施的保证.运用Agent技术,提出了一种决策团队形成方法,该方法基于指挥决策层次结构,通过设计能力-任务判断准则、能力更新机制、任务分解分配策略以及任务调整策略,实现了决策任务的逐级分解分配,充分发挥了指挥决策Agent的主动性和协作性.

  12. Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment for Hospital Buildings Using a Gis-Based Group Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach: a Case Study of Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavar, M. R.; Moradi, M.; Moshiri, B.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, urban areas are threatened by a number of natural hazards such as flood, landslide and earthquake. They can cause huge damages to buildings and human beings which necessitates disaster mitigation and preparation. One of the most important steps in disaster management is to understand all impacts and effects of disaster on urban facilities. Given that hospitals take care of vulnerable people reaction of hospital buildings against earthquake is vital. In this research, the vulnerability of hospital buildings against earthquake is analysed. The vulnerability of buildings is related to a number of criteria including age of building, number of floors, the quality of materials and intensity of the earthquake. Therefore, the problem of seismic vulnerability assessment is a multi-criteria assessment problem and multi criteria decision making methods can be used to address the problem. In this paper a group multi criteria decision making model is applied because using only one expert's judgments can cause biased vulnerability maps. Sugeno integral which is able to take into account the interaction among criteria is employed to assess the vulnerability degree of buildings. Fuzzy capacities which are similar to layer weights in weighted linear averaging operator are calculated using particle swarm optimization. Then, calculated fuzzy capacities are included into the model to compute a vulnerability degree for each hospital.

  13. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  14. Towards Human-Robot Teams : Model-Based Analysis of Human Decision Making in Two-Alternative Choice Tasks With Social Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, Andrew; Cao, Ming; Nedic, Andrea; Tomlin, Damon; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich

    2012-01-01

    With a principled methodology for systematic design of human-robot decision-making teams as a motivating goal, we seek an analytic, model-based description of the influence of team and network design parameters on decision-making performance. Given that there are few reliably predictive models of hu

  15. Group Decision Support System Research Based on Fuzzy Evaluation for Investment%投资中基于模糊评价的群决策支持系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢璞; 黎敬涛

    2011-01-01

    Expert assessment is one of the means to make investment decisions, but it used fuzzy evaluation often, that difficult to form a standardized system to achieve this decision-making process. The decision-making produced large quantities of data to calculate, and the human can not guarantee its accuracy and its time consuming. Therefore, this paper proposed the establishment of group decision support system research based on fuzzy evaluation, fuzzy mathematical method, consistency analysis, and principal component analysis will be used to build this computer-aided decision making system to implement the decision making process. The results show that the proposed design of the system can quickly and accurately to help decision-makers to decision analysis, could provid decision-makers with strong support.%专家评估是进行投资决策的手段之一,但由于多采用模糊评价,很难形成规范的系统来实现这一决策过程.而决策过程中产生的大量数据,以人力来计算既无法保证其正确性,又相当费时.因此,提出建立基于模糊评价的群决策支持系统,将采用模糊数学的方法、一致性分析以及主成分分析来构建一个计算机辅助决策系统来实现这个决策过程.结果 表明,设计的系统能够迅速并准确帮助决策者进行决策分析,对决策者的决策提供有力的支持.

  16. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  17. An Approach to Multicriteria Group Decision-Making with Unknown Weight Information Based on Pythagorean Fuzzy Uncertain Linguistic Aggregation Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to multicriteria group decision-making (MCGDM problems in which the experts have different priority levels, the criteria values are in the form of Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic variables (PFULVs, and the information about weights of experts and criteria is completely unknown, a novel decision-making method is developed. Firstly, the concept of PFULV is defined, and some operational laws, score function, accuracy function, and normalized Hamming distance of PFULVs are presented. Then, to aggregate information given by all experts, the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted averaging aggregation (PFULPWAA operator and the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic prioritized weighted geometric aggregation (PFULPWGA operator are proposed. Furthermore, in order to get a comprehensive evaluation value for each alternative, the Pythagorean fuzzy uncertain linguistic Maclaurin symmetric mean aggregation (PFULMSMA operator and the weighted PFULMSMA (WPFULMSMA operator are proposed. Moreover, to obtain the information about the weights of criteria, the model based on grey relational analysis (GRA method is established. Finally, a method of MCGDM with PFULVs is developed, and an application example is given to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the provided procedure.

  18. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in the TFT-LCD Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need for environmental protection is increasing throughout the world. The focuses of green supplier selection are on considering environmental criteria and strengthening the competitiveness of the entire supply chain. The purpose of this study is to develop a green supplier selection procedure for the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD industry using polarizer suppliers as an example. First, a decision framework for green supplier selection is developed based on literatures and the supplier audit forms provided by an anonymous flat panel display manufacturer in Taiwan. Then, a hybrid multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method is proposed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP, entropy, elimination and choice expressing the reality III (ELECTRE III, and the linear assignment method to assist the manufacturer in choosing among four polarizer suppliers. The final ranking results for green supplier selection and different opinions from each department are provided. An improvement report is suggested to enhance suppliers’ performance. For the evaluation procedure, most managers emphasize the importance of current capability and the capability of research and development. Furthermore, we found that the subsidiary supplier should improve quality control competence immediately to be considered as the potential candidate of primary supplier.

  19. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eGonzalez-Kristeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10% have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs.

  20. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity. The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  1. Value-directed human behavior analysis from video using partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Jesse; Little, James J

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a method for learning decision theoretic models of human behaviors from video data. Our system learns relationships between the movements of a person, the context in which they are acting, and a utility function. This learning makes explicit that the meaning of a behavior to an observer is contained in its relationship to actions and outcomes. An agent wishing to capitalize on these relationships must learn to distinguish the behaviors according to how they help the agent to maximize utility. The model we use is a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP. The video observations are integrated into the POMDP using a dynamic Bayesian network that creates spatial and temporal abstractions amenable to decision making at the high level. The parameters of the model are learned from training data using an a posteriori constrained optimization technique based on the expectation-maximization algorithm. The system automatically discovers classes of behaviors and determines which are important for choosing actions that optimize over the utility of possible outcomes. This type of learning obviates the need for labeled data from expert knowledge about which behaviors are significant and removes bias about what behaviors may be useful to recognize in a particular situation. We show results in three interactions: a single player imitation game, a gestural robotic control problem, and a card game played by two people.

  2. Signal detection theory and methods for evaluating human performance in decision tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Kevin; Feldman, Evan M.

    1993-01-01

    Signal Detection Theory (SDT) can be used to assess decision making performance in tasks that are not commonly thought of as perceptual. SDT takes into account both the sensitivity and biases in responding when explaining the detection of external events. In the standard SDT tasks, stimuli are selected in order to reveal the sensory capabilities of the observer. SDT can also be used to describe performance when decisions must be made as to the classification of easily and reliably sensed stimuli. Numbers are stimuli that are minimally affected by sensory processing and can belong to meaningful categories that overlap. Multiple studies have shown that the task of categorizing numbers from overlapping normal distributions produces performance predictable by SDT. These findings are particularly interesting in view of the similarity between the task of the categorizing numbers and that of determining the status of a mechanical system based on numerical values that represent sensor readings. Examples of the use of SDT to evaluate performance in decision tasks are reviewed. The methods and assumptions of SDT are shown to be effective in the measurement, evaluation, and prediction of human performance in such tasks.

  3. Bayesian decision-theoretic group sequential clinical trial design based on a quadratic loss function: a frequentist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Roger J; Lipsky, Ari M; Berry, Donald A

    2007-01-01

    The decision to terminate a controlled clinical trial at the time of an interim analysis is perhaps best made by weighing the value of the likely additional information to be gained if further subjects are enrolled against the various costs of that further enrollment. The most commonly used statistical plans for interim analysis (eg, O'Brien-Fleming), however, are based on a frequentist approach that makes no such comparison. A two-armed Bayesian decision-theoretic clinical trial design is developed for a disease with two possible outcomes, incorporating a quadratic decision loss function and using backward induction to quantify the cost of future enrollment. Monte Carlo simulation is used to compare frequentist error rates and mean required sample sizes for these Bayesian designs with the two-tailed frequentist group-sequential designs of, O'Brien-Fleming and Pocock. When the terminal decision loss function is chosen to yield typical frequentist error rates, the mean sample sizes required by the Bayesian designs are smaller than those of the corresponding O'Brien-Fleming frequentist designs, largely due to the more frequent interim analyses typically used with the Bayesian designs and the ability of the Bayesian designs to terminate early and conclude equivalence. Adding stochastic curtailment to the frequentist designs and using the same number of interim analyses results in largely equivalent trials. An example of a Bayesian design for the data safety monitoring of a clinical trial is given. Our design assumes independence of the probabilities of success in the two trial arms. Additionally, we have chosen non-informative priors and selected loss functions to produce trials with appealing frequentist error rates, rather than choosing priors that reflect realistic prior information and loss functions that reflect true costs. Our Bayesian designs allow interpretation of the final results along either Bayesian or frequentist lines. For the Bayesian, they minimize

  4. Frank Aggregation Operators for Triangular Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set and Its Application in Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an approach to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM problems, in which the individual assessments are in the form of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy numbers (TIT2FNs. Firstly, some Frank operation laws of triangle interval type-2 fuzzy set (TIT2FS are defined. Secondly, some Frank aggregation operators such as the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted averaging (TIT2FFWA operator and the triangle interval type-2 fuzzy Frank weighted geometric (TIT2FFWG operator are developed for aggregation TIT2FNs. Furthermore, some desirable properties of the two aggregation operators are analyzed in detail. Finally, an approach based on TIT2FFWA (or TIT2FFWG operator to solve MAGDM is developed. An illustrative example about supplier selection is provided to illustrate the developed procedures. The results demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of our new method.

  5. Simulation of human behavior elements in a virtual world using decision trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mercado Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior refers to the way an individual responds to certain events or occurrences, naturally cannot predict how an individual can act, for it the computer simulation is used. This paper presents the development of the simulation of five possible human reactions within a virtual world, as well as the steps needed to create a decision tree that supports the selection of any of any of these reactions. For that creation it proposes three types of attributes, those are the personality, the environment and the level of reaction. The virtual world Second Life was selected because of its internal programming language LSL (Linden Scripting Language which allows the execution of predefined animation sequences or creates your own.

  6. A consensus reaching model for 2-tuple linguistic multiple attribute group decision making with incomplete weight information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wancheng; Xu, Yejun; Wang, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to put forward a consensus reaching method for multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with linguistic information, in which the weight information of experts and attributes is unknown. First, some basic concepts and operational laws of 2-tuple linguistic label are introduced. Then, a grey relational analysis method and a maximising deviation method are proposed to calculate the incomplete weight information of experts and attributes respectively. To eliminate the conflict in the group, a weight-updating model is employed to derive the weights of experts based on their contribution to the consensus reaching process. After conflict elimination, the final group preference can be obtained which will give the ranking of the alternatives. The model can effectively avoid information distortion which is occurred regularly in the linguistic information processing. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method and comparative analysis with the existing methods are offered to show the advantages of the proposed method.

  7. On the Theory of Human Decisions in the Age of “beneficial globalization”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation is a complex phenomenon with many advantageous and disadvantageous consequences. In this paper we investigate the linkage between globalised market economy and the happiness through the ethical implications of the greatest happiness principle in a system approach. We also investigate the terms of the beneficial globalisation. Our proposition is that: the main condition of the good globalisation should be Bentham’s principle: the greatest happiness for the greatest number and the United States Declaration of Independence’s famous phrase pursuit of happiness.We face the following problem: the globalization assures – due to its Nature – the growth of Z, which is the marketed part of the globalization, but not the total happiness.The main question in political philosophy is: What do we need to do in order to live together well? In complex approach, based on the wealth increase law we take into account the parameters, which will be changed by the human decisions (i as well as the long-term expectations, which are motivating the decisions themselves (ii. Factors (i are the followings: material goods, money, parameters of human physiology (e.g. health, psychology (knowledge, sociology (e.g. friends, power. These quantities are measurable in principle, i.e. they can be mapped into the set of real numbers. The changes are exchanges between two agents or with the nature, and there is production/consumption inside the agent.

  8. Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods and Their Applications for Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, M. G.; Masi, D.

    2015-05-01

    Both within the formation field and the labor market Multi-Criteria Decision Methods (MCDM) provide a significant support to the management of human resources in which the best choice among several alternatives can be very complex. This contribution addresses fuzzy logic in multi-criteria decision techniques since they have several applications in the management of human resources with the advantage of ruling out mistakes due to the subjectivity of the person in charge of making a choice. Evaluating educational achievements as well as the professional profile of a technician more suitable for a job in a firm, industry or a professional office are valuable examples of fuzzy logic. For all of the previous issues subjectivity is a fundamental aspect so that fuzzy logic, due to the very meaning of the word fuzzy, should be the preferred choice. However, this is not sufficient to justify its use; fuzzy technique has to make the system of evaluation and choice more effective and objective. The methodological structure of the multi-criteria fuzzy criterion is hierarchic and allows one to select the best alternatives in all those cases in which several alternatives are possible; thus, the optimal choice can be achieved by analyzing the different scopes of each criterion and sub-criterion as well as the relevant weights.

  9. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S; Böttiger, B; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children......One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children...

  10. Biocides Steering Group on human exposure assessment: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    In a project granted by DG XI of the European Commission, it is attempted to collate experimental and theoretical data on human (workers and consumers) exposure assessment to biocidal products, and to outline the methodology for sampling and measurement. On the basis of the available evidence, appro

  11. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  12. Predicting decisions in human social interactions using real-time fMRI and pattern classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Hollmann

    Full Text Available Negotiation and trade typically require a mutual interaction while simultaneously resting in uncertainty which decision the partner ultimately will make at the end of the process. Assessing already during the negotiation in which direction one's counterpart tends would provide a tremendous advantage. Recently, neuroimaging techniques combined with multivariate pattern classification of the acquired data have made it possible to discriminate subjective states of mind on the basis of their neuronal activation signature. However, to enable an online-assessment of the participant's mind state both approaches need to be extended to a real-time technique. By combining real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and online pattern classification techniques, we show that it is possible to predict human behavior during social interaction before the interacting partner communicates a specific decision. Average accuracy reached approximately 70% when we predicted online the decisions of volunteers playing the ultimatum game, a well-known paradigm in economic game theory. Our results demonstrate the successful online analysis of complex emotional and cognitive states using real-time fMRI, which will enable a major breakthrough for social fMRI by providing information about mental states of partners already during the mutual interaction. Interestingly, an additional whole brain classification across subjects confirmed the online results: anterior insula, ventral striatum, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, known to act in emotional self-regulation and reward processing for adjustment of behavior, appeared to be strong determinants of later overt behavior in the ultimatum game. Using whole brain classification we were also able to discriminate between brain processes related to subjective emotional and motivational states and brain processes related to the evaluation of objective financial incentives.

  13. From aggregation to dispersion: how habitat fragmentation prevents the emergence of consensual decision making in a group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempo, Grégory; Canonge, Stéphane; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    In fragmented landscape, individuals have to cope with the fragmentation level in order to aggregate in the same patch and take advantage of group-living. Aggregation results from responses to environmental heterogeneities and/or positive influence of the presence of congeners. In this context, the fragmentation of resting sites highlights how individuals make a compromise between two individual preferences: (1) being aggregated with conspecifics and (2) having access to these resting sites. As in previous studies, when the carrying capacity of available resting sites is large enough to contain the entire group, a single aggregation site is collectively selected. In this study, we have uncoupled fragmentation and habitat loss: the population size and total surface of the resting sites are maintained at a constant value, an increase in fragmentation implies a decrease in the carrying capacity of each shelter. For our model organism, Blattella germanica, our experimental and theoretical approach shows that, for low fragmentation level, a single resting site is collectively selected. However, for higher level of fragmentation, individuals are randomly distributed between fragments and the total sheltered population decreases. In the latter case, social amplification process is not activated and consequently, consensual decision making cannot emerge and the distribution of individuals among sites is only driven by their individual propensity to find a site. This intimate relation between aggregation pattern and landscape patchiness described in our theoretical model is generic for several gregarious species. We expect that any group-living species showing the same structure of interactions should present the same type of dispersion-aggregation response to fragmentation regardless of their level of social complexity.

  14. Fuzzy Decision-Making Fuser (FDMF for Integrating Human-Machine Autonomous (HMA Systems with Adaptive Evidence Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI creates a direct communication pathway between the human brain and an external device or system. In contrast to patient-oriented BCIs, which are intended to restore inoperative or malfunctioning aspects of the nervous system, a growing number of BCI studies focus on designing auxiliary systems that are intended for everyday use. The goal of building these BCIs is to provide capabilities that augment existing intact physical and mental capabilities. However, a key challenge to BCI research is human variability; factors such as fatigue, inattention, and stress vary both across different individuals and for the same individual over time. If these issues are addressed, autonomous systems may provide additional benefits that enhance system performance and prevent problems introduced by individual human variability. This study proposes a human-machine autonomous (HMA system that simultaneously aggregates human and machine knowledge to recognize targets in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. The HMA focuses on integrating an RSVP BCI with computer vision techniques in an image-labeling domain. A fuzzy decision-making fuser (FDMF is then applied in the HMA system to provide a natural adaptive framework for evidence-based inference by incorporating an integrated summary of the available evidence (i.e., human and machine decisions and associated uncertainty. Consequently, the HMA system dynamically aggregates decisions involving uncertainties from both human and autonomous agents. The collaborative decisions made by an HMA system can achieve and maintain superior performance more efficiently than either the human or autonomous agents can achieve independently. The experimental results shown in this study suggest that the proposed HMA system with the FDMF can effectively fuse decisions from human brain activities and the computer vision techniques to improve overall performance on the RSVP recognition task. This

  15. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  16. A Simple Decision Rule for Recognition of Poly(A) Tail Signal Motifs in Human Genome

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-05-12

    Background is the numerous attempts were made to predict motifs in genomic sequences that correspond to poly (A) tail signals. Vast portion of this effort has been directed to a plethora of nonlinear classification methods. Even when such approaches yield good discriminant results, identifying dominant features of regulatory mechanisms nevertheless remains a challenge. In this work, we look at decision rules that may help identifying such features. Findings are we present a simple decision rule for classification of candidate poly (A) tail signal motifs in human genomic sequence obtained by evaluating features during the construction of gradient boosted trees. We found that values of a single feature based on the frequency of adenine in the genomic sequence surrounding candidate signal and the number of consecutive adenine molecules in a well-defined region immediately following the motif displays good discriminative potential in classification of poly (A) tail motifs for samples covered by the rule. Conclusions is the resulting simple rule can be used as an efficient filter in construction of more complex poly(A) tail motifs classification algorithms.

  17. Modelling Interactions between forest pest invasions and human decisions regarding firewood transport restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Barlow

    Full Text Available The invasion of nonnative, wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis and the emerald ash borer (A. planipennis is a serious ecological and economic threat to Canadian deciduous and mixed-wood forests. Humans act as a major vector for the spread of these pests via firewood transport, although existing models do not explicitly capture human decision-making regarding firewood transport. In this paper we present a two-patch coupled human-environment system model that includes social influence and long-distance firewood transport and examines potential strategies for mitigating pest spread. We found that increasing concern regarding infestations (f significantly reduced infestation. Additionally it resulted in multiple thresholds at which the intensity of infestation in a patch was decreased. It was also found that a decrease in the cost of firewood purchased in the area where it is supposed to be burned (Cl resulted in an increased proportion of local-firewood strategists, and a 67% decrease in Cl from $6.75 to $4.50 was sufficient to eliminate crosspatch infestation. These effects are synergistic: increasing concern through awareness and education campaigns acts together with reduced firewood costs, thereby reducing the required threshold of both awareness and economic incentives. Our results indicate that the best management strategy includes a combination of public education paired with firewood subsidization.

  18. 建设项目风险评价的群体决策矩阵方法%Construction Project Risk Assessment of Group Decision Matrix Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继光

    2013-01-01

    建设项目在政治、环境、经济、施工、安全等方面的风险评估的群决策过程中,各利益相关群体对于候选方案的每个属性都可以提出自己的个体决策信息,采用乘性加权集结算子构造群体决策矩阵,并判断群体决策矩阵与个体决策矩阵之间的相似度差异值,指导个体决策矩阵的修正,完成个体意见的一致化,得到最终确定评价方案的风险顺序.实例分析的结果表明,采用计算方法有利于提高多利益主体对建设项目风险评价的群决策过程中的综合满意度.%Construction projects in political,environmental,planning,market,the economy,financing risk assessment of group decision making process,each stakeholder groups for each candidate scheme attributes can be put forward its own individual decision information,adopt multiplicative weighted rally operator tectonic group decision matrix,and judging group decision matrix and individual decision matrix the similarity among the difference degree,guiding the individual decision matrix of individual opinion,complete correction of,get consistent final determination evaluation scheme of risk sequence.The example analysis of results show that the calculated by using the method to improve more benefit main body of the project risk assessment of group decision making process of comprehensive satisfaction.

  19. Human decision making in future ATC systems comparative studies in distributed traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    Seven different human-centered alternatives for distributing traffic management responsibility between air and ground in the terminal area were simulated and evaluated at NASA-Ames Research Center in the man-machine integration branch. The alternatives differed in three divisions of decision-making responsibility ranging from completely ground-centered to completely air-centered and in the amount of information presented to the pilots via traffic situation displays (TSD). Objective, verbal and subjective measures of system performance, workloads, preferences, etc., were obtained. Based on the task and corresponding measures, the ground-centered (vectoring) alternative was the least favorable. Best overall performance was achieved and preferred with a moderate division of responsibility in which controllers issued sequence order only and pilots used a TSD with 30 sec path predictors on their own aircraft. Speculations on the use of the results in context of a ground-centralized system failure and for future ATC systems are presented.

  20. Human decision making in future ATC systems comparative studies in distributed traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    Seven different human-centered alternatives for distributing traffic management responsibility between air and ground in the terminal area were simulated and evaluated at NASA-Ames Research Center in the man-machine integration branch. The alternatives differed in three divisions of decision-making responsibility ranging from completely ground-centered to completely air-centered and in the amount of information presented to the pilots via traffic situation displays (TSD). Objective, verbal and subjective measures of system performance, workloads, preferences, etc., were obtained. Based on the task and corresponding measures, the ground-centered (vectoring) alternative was the least favorable. Best overall performance was achieved and preferred with a moderate division of responsibility in which controllers issued sequence order only and pilots used a TSD with 30 sec path predictors on their own aircraft. Speculations on the use of the results in context of a ground-centralized system failure and for future ATC systems are presented.

  1. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-01-01

    existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology......A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other...... being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published...

  2. The influence of sex, race, and age on pain assessment and treatment decisions using virtual human technology: a cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calia A Torres,1 Emily J Bartley,1 Laura D Wandner,1 Ashraf F Alqudah,2 Adam T Hirsh,3 Michael E Robinson11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Psychology, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: Studies in the United States have found that patients' sex, race, and age influence the pain assessment and treatment decisions of laypeople and medical professionals. However, there is limited research as to whether people of other nationalities make pain management decisions differently based on demographic characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the following study was to compare pain assessment and treatment decisions of undergraduate students in Jordan and the United States as a preliminary examination of nationality as a potential proxy for cultural differences in pain decisions.Methods: Virtual human (VH technology was used to examine the influences of patients' sex (male or female, race (light-skinned or dark-skinned, and age (younger or older on students' pain management decisions. Seventy-five American and 104 Jordanian undergraduate students participated in this web-based study.Results: American and Jordanian students rated pain intensity higher in females and older adults and were more likely to recommend medical help to these groups, relative to males and younger adults. Furthermore, Jordanian participants rated pain intensity higher and were more likely to recommend medical help for all patient demographic groups (ie, sex, race, age than American participants.Conclusion: This is the first cross-national study that compares pain decisions between undergraduate students. The results suggest that sex, race, and age cues are used in pain assessment and treatment by both Americans and Jordanians, with Jordanians more likely to rate pain higher and recommend medical help to

  3. Effect of time pressure and human judgment on decision making in three public sector organizations of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Saleem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to widen the effect of time pressure and human judgment on decision making. A census of three organizations named Project Management Organization (PMO, Accountant General Pakistan Revenues (AGPR and Controller General of Accountant (CGA was occupied. To demeanor this study a questionnaire tagged Decision Making, Time Pressure and Human Judgment was used for the assortment of data. The questionnaire was predominantly designed to accomplish the objectives of the study. The total number of observations was eighty two and the Arithmetic Mean Score of decision making, time pressure and human judgment were 2.532, 2.527 and 2.395 respectively. The significance level of the model was 0.000 which illustrates maximum significant level. As p-value is less than .05 so it can be assumed that the variables elected for the study are decidedly significant.

  4. A critical meta-analysis of lens model studies in human judgment and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Esther; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wittmann, Werner W

    2013-01-01

    Achieving accurate judgment ('judgmental achievement') is of utmost importance in daily life across multiple domains. The lens model and the lens model equation provide useful frameworks for modeling components of judgmental achievement and for creating tools to help decision makers (e.g., physicians, teachers) reach better judgments (e.g., a correct diagnosis, an accurate estimation of intelligence). Previous meta-analyses of judgment and decision-making studies have attempted to evaluate overall judgmental achievement and have provided the basis for evaluating the success of bootstrapping (i.e., replacing judges by linear models that guide decision making). However, previous meta-analyses have failed to appropriately correct for a number of study design artifacts (e.g., measurement error, dichotomization), which may have potentially biased estimations (e.g., of the variability between studies) and led to erroneous interpretations (e.g., with regards to moderator variables). In the current study we therefore conduct the first psychometric meta-analysis of judgmental achievement studies that corrects for a number of study design artifacts. We identified 31 lens model studies (N = 1,151, k = 49) that met our inclusion criteria. We evaluated overall judgmental achievement as well as whether judgmental achievement depended on decision domain (e.g., medicine, education) and/or the level of expertise (expert vs. novice). We also evaluated whether using corrected estimates affected conclusions with regards to the success of bootstrapping with psychometrically-corrected models. Further, we introduce a new psychometric trim-and-fill method to estimate the effect sizes of potentially missing studies correct psychometric meta-analyses for effects of publication bias. Comparison of the results of the psychometric meta-analysis with the results of a traditional meta-analysis (which only corrected for sampling error) indicated that artifact correction leads to a) an

  5. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  6. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They have progressively dominated their environment by the strength and creativity provided by and within their grouping. It is well recognised that human groups are highly structured, and the anthropological literature has loosely classified them according to their size and function, such as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups and so on. Recently, combining data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study, Zhou et al. identified a quantitative discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to $3$, which was later confirmed for hunter-gatherer groups and for other mammalian societies. Using high precision large scale Internet-based social network data, we extend these early findings on a very large data set. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of a massive m...

  7. A Direct Approach Based on C2-IULOWA Operator for Group Decision Making with Uncertain Additive Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hong Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to group decision making (GDM problem with uncertain additive linguistic preference relations (UALPRs, we investigate the efficient aggregation of the uncertain additive linguistic preference information. First, we introduce two measures to assess the consistency level and the consensus level of uncertain additive linguistic preference information, respectively, and study some of their desirable properties. Then, based on both the two measures, we propose a coinduced uncertain linguistic ordered weighted averaging (IULOWA operator, called the consistency and consensus coinduced uncertain linguistic ordered weighted averaging (C2-IULOWA operator, to aggregate individual uncertain additive linguistic preference information, in which the consistency level and the consensus level synergistically serve as inducing variables and then guide the determination of the associated weights. We have proved the collective uncertain linguistic preference information aggregated by the C2-IULOWA operator that can maintain the fundamental properties of preference relation, such as indifference, reciprocity, and transitivity. By using the C2-IULOWA operator, we develop a direct GDM approach with UALPRs. Finally, an illustrative example on the selection of chief quality officer is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and rationalitly of the developed approach.

  8. Some Induced Correlated Aggregating Operators with Interval Grey Uncertain Linguistic Information and Their Application to Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Jun Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (IGULCOA operator and the induced interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (I-IGULCOA operator based on the correlation properties of the Choquet integral and the interval grey uncertain linguistic variables to investigate the multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM problems, in which both the attribute weights and the expert weights are correlative. Firstly, the relative concepts of interval grey uncertain linguistic variables are defined and the operation rules between the two interval grey uncertain linguistic variables are established. Then, two new aggregation operators: the interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (IGULCOA operator and the induced interval grey uncertain linguistic correlated ordered arithmetic averaging (I-IGULCOA operator are developed and some desirable properties of the I-IGULCOA operator are studied, such as commutativity, idempotency, monotonicity, and boundness. Furthermore, the IGULCOA and I-IGULCOA operators based approach is developed to solve the MAGDM problems, in which both the attribute weights and the expert weights are correlative and the attribute values take the form of the interval grey uncertain linguistic variables. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  9. Extension of Axiomatic Design Method for Fuzzy Linguistic Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making with Incomplete Weight Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatic design (AD provides a framework to describe design objects and a set of axioms to evaluate relations between intended functions and means by which they are achieved. It has been extended to evaluate alternatives in engineering under fuzzy environment. With respect to multiple criteria group decision making (MCDM with incomplete weight information under fuzzy linguistic environment, a new method is proposed. In the method, the fuzzy axiomatic design based on triangle representation model is used to aggregate the linguistic evaluating information. In order to get the weight vector of the criteria, we establish a nonlinear optimization model based on the basic ideal of fuzzy axiomatic design (FAD, by which the criteria weights can be determined. It is based on the concept that the optimal alternative should have the least weighted information content. Then, the weighted information content is derived by summing weighted information content for each criterion. The alternative that has the least total weighted information content is the best. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the availability of the proposed method.

  10. A group decision-making tool for the application of membrane technologies in different water reuse scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, S M K; Saroj, D P; Kouchaki, S; Ilemobade, A A; Ouki, S K

    2015-06-01

    A global challenge of increasing concern is diminishing fresh water resources. A growing practice in many communities to supplement diminishing fresh water availability has been the reuse of water. Novel methods of treating polluted waters, such as membrane assisted technologies, have recently been developed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of membrane assisted technologies available, the current challenge is how to select a reliable alternative among numerous technologies for appropriate water reuse. In this research, a fuzzy logic based multi-criteria, group decision making tool has been developed. This tool has been employed in the selection of appropriate membrane treatment technologies for several non-potable and potable reuse scenarios. Robust criteria, covering technical, environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects, were selected, while 10 different membrane assisted technologies were assessed in the tool. The results show this approach capable of facilitating systematic and rigorous analysis in the comparison and selection of membrane assisted technologies for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse.

  11. Developing a decision-making model based on an interdisciplinary oncological care group for the management of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Domenico; Mazzilli, Lorenzo; Trignani, Marianna; DI Tommaso, Monica; Nuzzo, Antonio; Biondi, Edoardo; Tinari, Nicola; Martino, Maria Teresa; Innocenti, Paolo; DI Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Mazzola, Lorenzo; Lanci, Carmine; Neri, Matteo; Laterza, Francesco; Marino, Maria; Ferrini, Giovanni; Spadaccini, Antonio; Filippone, Antonella; DI Giandomenico, Enzo; Marulli, Antonio; Palombo, Giuseppe; Sparvieri, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Pizzicannella, Giuseppe; Petrini, Flavia; DI Felice, Maria; Ottaviani, Floriana; Monteodorisio, Antonio; DI Nicola, Marta; Cefaro, Giampiero Ausili

    2014-05-01

    To report our experience on implementation and preliminary results of a decision-making model based on the recommendations of an Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group developed for the management of colorectal cancer. The multidisciplinary team identified a reference guideline using appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) tool based on a sequential assessment of the guideline quality. Thereafter, internal guidelines with diagnostic and therapeutic management for early, locally advanced and metastatic colonic and rectal cancer were drafted; organizational aspects, responsibility matrices, protocol actions for each area of specialty involved and indicators for performing audits were also defined. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK guideline was the reference for drafting the internal guideline document; from February to November 2013, 125 patients with colorectal cancer were discussed by and taken under the care of the Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group. The first audit performed in December 2013 revealed optimal adherence to the internal guideline, mainly in terms of uniformity and accuracy of perioperative staging, coordination and timing of multi-modal therapies. To date, all patients under observation are within the diagnostic and therapeutic course, no patient came out from the multidisciplinary "path" and only in 14% of cases have the first recommendations proposed been changed. The selected indicators appear effective and reliable, while at the moment, it is not yet possible to assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team on clinical outcome. Although having a short observation period, our model seems capable of determining optimal uniformity of diagnostic and therapeutic management, to a high degree of patient satisfaction. A longer observation period is necessary in order to confirm these observations and for assessing the impact on clinical outcome.

  12. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  13. Ensuring Resident Competence: A Narrative Review of the Literature on Group Decision Making to Inform the Work of Clinical Competency Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; Cate, Olle Ten; Boscardin, Christy K; Iobst, William; Holmboe, Eric S; Chesluk, Benjamin; Baron, Robert B; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-05-01

    Background The expectation for graduate medical education programs to ensure that trainees are progressing toward competence for unsupervised practice prompted requirements for a committee to make decisions regarding residents' progress, termed a clinical competency committee (CCC). The literature on the composition of these committees and how they share information and render decisions can inform the work of CCCs by highlighting vulnerabilities and best practices. Objective We conducted a narrative review of the literature on group decision making that can help characterize the work of CCCs, including how they are populated and how they use information. Methods English language studies of group decision making in medical education, psychology, and organizational behavior were used. Results The results highlighted 2 major themes. Group member composition showcased the value placed on the complementarity of members' experience and lessons they had learned about performance review through their teaching and committee work. Group processes revealed strengths and limitations in groups' understanding of their work, leader role, and information-sharing procedures. Time pressure was a threat to the quality of group work. Conclusions Implications of the findings include the risks for committees that arise with homogeneous membership, limitations to available resident performance information, and processes that arise through experience rather than deriving from a well-articulated purpose of their work. Recommendations are presented to maximize the effectiveness of CCC processes, including their membership and access to, and interpretation of, information to yield evidence-based, well-reasoned judgments.

  14. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization

  15. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care: a focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, J.W.; Weijden, T. van der; Westert, G.P.; Kool, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected smal

  16. Implementation of multiple-domain covering computerized decision support systems in primary care : A focus group study on perceived barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, M.; Weenink, Jan-Willem; van der Weijden, Trudy; Westert, G.P.; Kool, Rudolf B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread availability of computerized decision support systems (CDSSs) in various healthcare settings, evidence on their uptake and effectiveness is still limited. Most barrier studies focus on CDSSs that are aimed at a limited number of decision points within selected small

  17. The Group Decision Support System to Evaluate the ICT Project Performance Using the Hybrid Method of AHP, TOPSIS and Copeland Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri Setiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a concept of the Group Decision Support System (GDSS to evaluate the performance of Information and Communications Technology (ICT Projects in Indonesian regional government agencies to overcome any possible inconsistencies which may occur in a decision-making process. By considering the aspect of the applicable legislation, decision makers involved to provide an assessment and evaluation of the ICT project implementation in regional government agencies consisted of Executing Parties of Government Institutions, ICT Management Work Units, Business Process Owner Units, and Society, represented by DPRD (Regional People’s Representative Assembly. The contributions of those decision makers in the said model were in the form of preferences to evaluate the ICT project-related alternatives based on the predetermined criteria for the method of Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM. This research presented a GDSS framework integrating the Methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and Copeland Score. The AHP method was used to generate values for the criteria used as input in the calculation process of the TOPSIS method. Results of the TOPSIS calculation generated a project rank indicated by each decision maker, and to combine the different preferences of these decision makers, the Copeland Score method was used as one of the voting methods to determine the best project rank of all the ranks indicated by the desicion makers.

  18. 应用团体伦理决策培养急诊科护士的伦理决策能力%To Cultivate the Ethical Decision -making Capacity of Nurses of Emergency Department by Group Ethical Decision- making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2011-01-01

    目的 提高急诊科护士的伦理决策能力.方法 通过伦理决策过程,由护理团体对以往在急诊救治中的护理困境作出最佳伦理决策.结果使护士知晓伦理相关的理论,掌握应对护理实践中的护理伦理困惑的方法,提高护理伦理决策能力.结论 通过应用团体伦理决策法,培养和提高急诊科护士的伦理决策能力,有效地减少了护患医疗纠纷.%Objective: To increase the ethical decision - making capacity of nurses of emergency department. Method: Optimal ethical decisions are made by nursing group s discussion of the experience gathered from past ethical predicaments in emergency nursing. Result; Nurses are equipped with relevant ethical theories, measures of coping with possible ethical predicaments in future nursing practice, and increased capacity of nursing ethical decision - making. Conclusion: The ethical decision - making capacity of nurses of emergency department has been cultivated and increased by the approach of group ethical decision - making, resulting in a decrease in medical disputes between nurses and doctors.

  19. Lack of adaptation to human tetherin in HIV-1 Group O and P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haworth Kevin G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 viruses are categorized into four distinct groups: M, N, O and P. Despite the same genomic organization, only the group M viruses are responsible for the world-wide pandemic of AIDS, suggesting better adaptation to human hosts. Previously, it has been reported that the group M Vpu protein is capable of both down-modulating CD4 and counteracting BST-2/tetherin restriction, while the group O Vpu cannot antagonize tetherin. This led us to investigate if group O, and the related group P viruses, possess functional anti-tetherin activities in Vpu or another viral protein, and to further map the residues required for group M Vpu to counteract human tetherin. Results We found a lack of activity against human tetherin for both the Vpu and Nef proteins from group O and P viruses. Furthermore, we found no evidence of anti-human tetherin activity in a fully infectious group O proviral clone, ruling out the possibility of an alternative anti-tetherin factor in this virus. Interestingly, an activity against primate tetherins was retained in the Nef proteins from both a group O and a group P virus. By making chimeras between a functional group M and non-functional group O Vpu protein, we were able to map the first 18 amino acids of group M Vpu as playing an essential role in the ability of the protein to antagonize human tetherin. We further demonstrated the importance of residue alanine-18 for the group M Vpu activity. This residue lies on a diagonal face of conserved alanines in the TM domain of the protein, and is necessary for specific Vpu-tetherin interactions. Conclusions The absence of human specific anti-tetherin activities in HIV-1 group O and P suggests a failure of these viruses to adapt to human hosts, which may have limited their spread.

  20. A robot safety experiment varying robot speed and contrast with human decision cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, J; Sneckenberger, J E

    1990-09-01

    An industrial robot safety experiment was performed to find out how quickly subjects responded to an unexpected robot motion at different speeds of the robot arm, and how frequently they failed to detect a motion that should have been detected. Robotics technicians risk being fatally injured if a robot should trap them against a fixed object. The value of the experimentation lies in its ability to show that this risk can be reduced by a design change. If the robot is moving at a slow speed, during programming and troubleshooting tasks, then the worker has sufficient time to actuate an emergency stop device before the robot can reach the person. The dependent variable in the experiment was the overrun distance (beyond an expected stopping point) that a robot arm travelled before a person actuated a stop pushbutton. Results of this experiment demonstrated that the speed of the robot arm and the implied decision cost for hitting an emergency stop button had a significant effect on human reaction time. At a fairly high level of ambient lighting (560 lux), fixed-level changes in the luminance contrast between the robot arm and its background did not significantly affect human reaction time.

  1. Communication and US-Somali Immigrant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Phokeng M; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-09-01

    The current study uses a multiple goal theoretical perspective to explore how Somali immigrant families living in Ohio, USA, make decisions regarding whether to vaccinate their children against human papillomavirus (HPV)-a leading cause of cervical cancer. A focus was placed on the communication goals of parents in HPV vaccine discussions with their child and health care provider. Semi-structured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Key themes are the implications of the vaccine for early sexual activity, confusion between HPV and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the perception that the HPV vaccine is unnecessary, uncertainty about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects, avoidance of parent-child communication about the vaccine, and a preference for framing the vaccine as a health promotion behavior. Framing the threat of HPV in the context of initiation of sexual activity, uncertainty regarding vaccine efficacy, and anticipated regret account for the inconsistency in HPV vaccine uptake among Somali parents. Clinicians should consider talking about HPV as a distal versus an immediate threat and HPV vaccine uptake as a health-promotion behavior rather than a sexually transmitted infection prevention behavior.

  2. A Research of the Major Administrative Decision-making Group Discussion and Decision System%重大行政决策的集体讨论决定制度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 方卫华

    2014-01-01

    重大行政决策集体讨论决定制度是指对于重大行政问题,必须充分讨论,集体决定,坚决反对个人说了算或少数人专断。重大行政决策是否科学化、民主化,直接影响到政府行政管理活动的效能。重大行政决策集体讨论决定是民主集中制的直接体现,能够避免在重大行政问题决策上的失误。通过分析和研究重大行政决策集体讨论决定制度的发展现状及其运行的规则和程序,发现中国重大行政决策缺乏统一的集体讨论决定程序,行政机关缺乏民主决策意识,社会公众缺乏民主参政意识及行政决策监督滞后等一系列局限性,指出惟有建立统一高效的重大行政决策集体讨论决定程序、提高行政机关的民主决策意识、提高社会公众的民主参政意识和加强对行政决策的监督才能更好的完善中国重大行政决策的集体讨论决定制度。%The major administrative decision-making group discussion and decision system means that major adminis-trative problems must be conducted through full discussion and collective decision .Meanwhile , individual or a minor-ity of people's arbitrariness must be firmly opposed .Whether the major administrative decision-making is scientific and democratic , directly affects the effectiveness of government administrative management activities .Because the major administrative decision-making group discussion directly embodies the democratic centralism , major administra-tive decision-making errors can be avoided .In this paper , we study and analyze the development of the system of the status major administrative decision-making group discussion and decision system operation rules , procedures and lack of the unified collective discussion and decision procedure , administrative departments lack of democratic conscious-ness, the social public lack of democratic politics consciousness , administrative decision-making supervision

  3. How we learn to make decisions: rapid propagation of reinforcement learning prediction errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olav E; Hassall, Cameron D; Handy, Todd C

    2014-03-01

    Our ability to make decisions is predicated upon our knowledge of the outcomes of the actions available to us. Reinforcement learning theory posits that actions followed by a reward or punishment acquire value through the computation of prediction errors-discrepancies between the predicted and the actual reward. A multitude of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that rewards and punishments evoke neural responses that appear to reflect reinforcement learning prediction errors [e.g., Krigolson, O. E., Pierce, L. J., Holroyd, C. B., & Tanaka, J. W. Learning to become an expert: Reinforcement learning and the acquisition of perceptual expertise. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1833-1840, 2009; Bayer, H. M., & Glimcher, P. W. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron, 47, 129-141, 2005; O'Doherty, J. P. Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 769-776, 2004; Holroyd, C. B., & Coles, M. G. H. The neural basis of human error processing: Reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychological Review, 109, 679-709, 2002]. Here, we used the brain ERP technique to demonstrate that not only do rewards elicit a neural response akin to a prediction error but also that this signal rapidly diminished and propagated to the time of choice presentation with learning. Specifically, in a simple, learnable gambling task, we show that novel rewards elicited a feedback error-related negativity that rapidly decreased in amplitude with learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of a reward positivity at choice presentation, a previously unreported ERP component that has a similar timing and topography as the feedback error-related negativity that increased in amplitude with learning. The pattern of results we observed mirrored the output of a computational model that we implemented to compute reward

  4. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  5. Assessment of the Influence of Demographic and Professional Characteristics on Health Care Providers' Pain Management Decisions Using Virtual Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Mundt, Jennifer M; Bartley, Emily J; Wandner, Laura D; Hirsh, Adam T; Robinson, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    Disparities in health care associated with patients' gender, race, and age are well documented. Previous studies using virtual human (VH) technology have demonstrated that provider characteristics may play an important role in pain management decisions. However, these studies have largely emphasized group differences. The aims of this study were to examine dentists' and physicians' use of VH characteristics when making clinical judgments (i.e., cue use) and to identify provider characteristics associated with the magnitude of the impact of these cues (β-weights). Providers (N=152; 76 physicians, 76 dentists) viewed video vignettes of VH patients varying in gender (male/female), race (white/black), and age (younger/older). Participants rated VH patients' pain intensity and unpleasantness and then rated their own likelihood of administering non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Compared to physicians, dentists had significantly lower β-weights associated with VH age cues for all ratings (p0.69). These effects varied by provider race and gender. For pain intensity, professional differences were present only among non-white providers. White providers had greater β-weights than non-white providers for pain unpleasantness but only among men. Provider differences regarding the use of VH age cues in non-opioid analgesic administration were present among all providers except non-white males. These findings highlight the interaction of patient and provider factors in driving clinical decision making. Although profession was related to use of VH age cues in pain-related clinical judgments, this relationship was modified by providers' personal characteristics. Additional research is needed to understand what aspects of professional training or practice may account for differences between physicians and dentists and what forms of continuing education may help to mitigate the disparities.

  6. Mathematical Decision Models Applied for Qualifying and Planning Areas Considering Natural Hazards and Human Dealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional

  7. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Joeris, Thorsten;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and c...... in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy.......Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement...

  8. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication.

  9. The Nature of Belief-Directed Exploratory Choice in Human Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bradley Knox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In non-stationary environments, there is a conflict between exploiting currently favored options and gaining information by exploring lesser-known options that in the past have proven less rewarding. Optimal decision making in such tasks requires considering future states of the environment (i.e., planning and properly updating beliefs about the state of environment after observing outcomes associated with choices. Optimal belief-updating is reflective in that beliefs can change without directly observing environmental change. For example, after ten seconds elapse, one might correctly believe that a traffic light last observed to be red is now more likely to be green. To understand human decision-making when rewards associated with choice options change over time, we develop a variant of the classic bandit task that is both rich enough to encompass relevant phenomena and sufficiently tractable to allow for ideal actor analysis of sequential choice behavior. We evaluate whether people update beliefs about the state of environment in a reflexive (i.e., only in response to observed changes in reward structure or reflective manner. In contrast to purely "random" accounts of exploratory behavior, model-based analyses of the subjects’ choices and latencies indicate that people are reflective belief-updaters. However, unlike the Ideal Actor model, our analyses indicate that people's choice behavior does not reflect consideration of future environmental states. Thus, although people update beliefs in a reflective manner consistent with the ideal actor, they do not engage in optimal long-term planning, but instead myopically choose the option on every trial that is believed to have the highest immediate payoff.

  10. A simple artificial life model explains irrational behavior in human decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Feher da Silva

    Full Text Available Although praised for their rationality, humans often make poor decisions, even in simple situations. In the repeated binary choice experiment, an individual has to choose repeatedly between the same two alternatives, where a reward is assigned to one of them with fixed probability. The optimal strategy is to perseverate with choosing the alternative with the best expected return. Whereas many species perseverate, humans tend to match the frequencies of their choices to the frequencies of the alternatives, a sub-optimal strategy known as probability matching. Our goal was to find the primary cognitive constraints under which a set of simple evolutionary rules can lead to such contrasting behaviors. We simulated the evolution of artificial populations, wherein the fitness of each animat (artificial animal depended on its ability to predict the next element of a sequence made up of a repeating binary string of varying size. When the string was short relative to the animats' neural capacity, they could learn it and correctly predict the next element of the sequence. When it was long, they could not learn it, turning to the next best option: to perseverate. Animats from the last generation then performed the task of predicting the next element of a non-periodical binary sequence. We found that, whereas animats with smaller neural capacity kept perseverating with the best alternative as before, animats with larger neural capacity, which had previously been able to learn the pattern of repeating strings, adopted probability matching, being outperformed by the perseverating animats. Our results demonstrate how the ability to make predictions in an environment endowed with regular patterns may lead to probability matching under less structured conditions. They point to probability matching as a likely by-product of adaptive cognitive strategies that were crucial in human evolution, but may lead to sub-optimal performances in other environments.

  11. Energy spectra unfolding of fast neutron sources using the group method of data handling and decision tree algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl; Afrakoti, Iman Esmaili Paeen

    2017-04-01

    Accurate unfolding of the energy spectrum of a neutron source gives important information about unknown neutron sources. The obtained information is useful in many areas like nuclear safeguards, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. In the present study, the energy spectrum of a poly-energetic fast neutron source is reconstructed using the developed computational codes based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and Decision Tree (DT) algorithms. The neutron pulse height distribution (neutron response function) in the considered NE-213 liquid organic scintillator has been simulated using the developed MCNPX-ESUT computational code (MCNPX-Energy engineering of Sharif University of Technology). The developed computational codes based on the GMDH and DT algorithms use some data for training, testing and validation steps. In order to prepare the required data, 4000 randomly generated energy spectra distributed over 52 bins are used. The randomly generated energy spectra and the simulated neutron pulse height distributions by MCNPX-ESUT for each energy spectrum are used as the output and input data. Since there is no need to solve the inverse problem with an ill-conditioned response matrix, the unfolded energy spectrum has the highest accuracy. The 241Am-9Be and 252Cf neutron sources are used in the validation step of the calculation. The unfolded energy spectra for the used fast neutron sources have an excellent agreement with the reference ones. Also, the accuracy of the unfolded energy spectra obtained using the GMDH is slightly better than those obtained from the DT. The results obtained in the present study have good accuracy in comparison with the previously published paper based on the logsig and tansig transfer functions.

  12. Retrohoming of a Mobile Group II Intron in Human Cells Suggests How Eukaryotes Limit Group II Intron Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Truong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile bacterial group II introns are evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retroelements in eukaryotes. They consist of an autocatalytic intron RNA (a "ribozyme" and an intron-encoded reverse transcriptase, which function together to promote intron integration into new DNA sites by a mechanism termed "retrohoming". Although mobile group II introns splice and retrohome efficiently in bacteria, all examined thus far function inefficiently in eukaryotes, where their ribozyme activity is limited by low Mg2+ concentrations, and intron-containing transcripts are subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD and translational repression. Here, by using RNA polymerase II to express a humanized group II intron reverse transcriptase and T7 RNA polymerase to express intron transcripts resistant to NMD, we find that simply supplementing culture medium with Mg2+ induces the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB intron to retrohome into plasmid and chromosomal sites, the latter at frequencies up to ~0.1%, in viable HEK-293 cells. Surprisingly, under these conditions, the Ll.LtrB intron reverse transcriptase is required for retrohoming but not for RNA splicing as in bacteria. By using a genetic assay for in vivo selections combined with deep sequencing, we identified intron RNA mutations that enhance retrohoming in human cells, but <4-fold and not without added Mg2+. Further, the selected mutations lie outside the ribozyme catalytic core, which appears not readily modified to function efficiently at low Mg2+ concentrations. Our results reveal differences between group II intron retrohoming in human cells and bacteria and suggest constraints on critical nucleotide residues of the ribozyme core that limit how much group II intron retrohoming in eukaryotes can be enhanced. These findings have implications for group II intron use for gene targeting in eukaryotes and suggest how differences in intracellular Mg2+ concentrations between bacteria and eukarya may have

  13. Preferences for engagement in health technology assessment decision-making: a nominal group technique with members of the public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortley, Sally; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    To identify characteristics (factors) about health technology assessment (HTA) decisions that are important to the public in determining whether public engagement should be undertaken and the reasons for these choices...

  14. Challenges and opportunities for judicial protection of human rights against decisions of the United Nations Security Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenberg, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the responses of domestic and regional courts when they are confronted with cases concerning individuals whose human rights are interfered with due to the implementation of UNSC decisions. The UNSC may impose, for example, economic sanction measures, or place specifically desig

  15. Acceptance patterns and decision-making for human papillomavirus vaccination among parents in Vietnam: an in-depth qualitative study post-vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cover Jane K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GAVI Alliance’s decision in late 2011 to invite developing countries to apply for funding for human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine introduction underscores the importance of understanding levels of HPV vaccine acceptance in developing country settings. In this paper, we present findings from qualitative research on parents’ rationales for vaccinating or not vaccinating their daughters (vaccine acceptance and their decision-making process in the context of an HPV vaccination demonstration project in Vietnam (2008–2009. Methods We designed a descriptive qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among parents of girls eligible for vaccination in four districts of two provinces in Vietnama. The study was implemented after each of two years of vaccinations was completed. In total, 133 parents participated in 16 focus group discussions and 27 semi-structured interviews. Results Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with parents of girls vaccinated revealed that they were generally very supportive of immunization for disease prevention and of vaccinating girls against HPV. The involvement of the National Expanded Program of Immunization in the demonstration project lent credibility to the HPV vaccine, contributing to high levels of acceptance. For parents who declined participation, concerns about side effects, the possibility that the vaccine was experimental, and the possible impact of the vaccine on future fertility rose to the surface. In terms of the decision-making process, many parents exhibited ‘active decision-making,’ reaching out to friends, family, and opinion leaders for guidance prior to making their decision. Conclusion Vietnam’s HPV vaccination experience speaks to the importance of close collaboration with the government to make the most of high levels of trust, and to reduce suspicions about new vaccines that may arise in the context of vaccine introduction in developing country settings.

  16. Operationalizing Consumer Decision Making and Choice in the VR Process. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (21st, Baltimore, Maryland, March 1995). Report from the Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    This document is the product of meetings of the Prime Study Group of the Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, whose mission was to: examine consumer choice and decision making in rehabilitation; review the legislation and consumer movements leading to greater consumer choice; identify the roles and responsibilities of the consumer, the counselor,…

  17. From evolution to revolution: understanding mutability in large and disruptive human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Felmlee, Diane; Verma, Dinesh C.; Preece, Alun; Williams, Grace-Rose

    2017-05-01

    Over the last 70 years there has been a major shift in the threats to global peace. While the 1950's and 1960's were characterised by the cold war and the arms race, many security threats are now characterised by group behaviours that are disruptive, subversive or extreme. In many cases such groups are loosely and chaotically organised, but their ideals are sociologically and psychologically embedded in group members to the extent that the group represents a major threat. As a result, insights into how human groups form, emerge and change are critical, but surprisingly limited insights into the mutability of human groups exist. In this paper we argue that important clues to understand the mutability of groups come from examining the evolutionary origins of human behaviour. In particular, groups have been instrumental in human evolution, used as a basis to derive survival advantage, leaving all humans with a basic disposition to navigate the world through social networking and managing their presence in a group. From this analysis we present five critical features of social groups that govern mutability, relating to social norms, individual standing, status rivalry, ingroup bias and cooperation. We argue that understanding how these five dimensions interact and evolve can provide new insights into group mutation and evolution. Importantly, these features lend themselves to digital modeling. Therefore computational simulation can support generative exploration of groups and the discovery of latent factors, relevant to both internal group and external group modelling. Finally we consider the role of online social media in relation to understanding the mutability of groups. This can play an active role in supporting collective behaviour, and analysis of social media in the context of the five dimensions of group mutability provides a fresh basis to interpret the forces affecting groups.

  18. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated.

  19. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  20. Application of Group-Decision-Making in Maneuvering Decision Making of Multi-fighter Cooperative Air Combat%群决策理论在多机协同空战机动决策中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 吴文海; 周思羽; 孔繁峨; 叶希贵

    2013-01-01

    Considering a close air combat with a group of fighters versus multiple hostile targets, the problem of maneuvering decision making was investigated. In this paper, the decision makers and choices are specified; then the method of attaining preference orders is designed by using risk-decision-making principle based on the situation assessment; finally a method of ordinal group decision making is proposed to collect the preferences. This new method is simulated under different air combat background, and the results indicate that the method is valid and practical.%针对近距空战中多架战机对空中的多个敌对目标进行协同攻击的机动决策问题进行了研究.将群决策理论引入多机协同空战机动决策,首先确定了决策成员与候选方案,然后基于战场态势评估提出了采用风险决策准则的偏好排序确定方法,给出了集结偏好的序数型群决策方法.在不同空战想定条件下进行仿真,结果表明,该方法合理、可行,具有良好的应用前景.

  1. Perspectives on decision making about human papillomavirus vaccination among 11- to 12-year-old girls and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Anne M; Glynn, Susan; Mullins, Tanya K; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosenthal, Susan L; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Kahn, Jessica A

    2012-06-01

    Introduction. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore (a) the factors influencing mothers' decisions to vaccinate 11- to 12-year-old daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) and (b) the mothers' and daughters' perspectives about HPV vaccine-related decision making. Methods. Participants were girls (N = 33) who had received an HPV vaccine and their mothers (N = 32), recruited from suburban and urban pediatric practices. Semistructured interviews were conducted with girls and mothers separately, and data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results. The primary factors influencing mothers' decisions to vaccinate daughters against HPV were (a) mother's beliefs and experiences; (b) interactions with clinicians, friends, and family members; and (c) exposure to media reports/marketing. Most daughters believed the decision to be vaccinated was a mutual one, although most mothers believed the decision was theirs. Conclusions. This study provides novel insights into perspectives on decision making about HPV vaccination among mothers and 11- to12-year-old daughters, which can be used in interventions to improve vaccination rates.

  2. HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to the human host is largely unknown. Previous data have shown that pandemic HIV-1 Group M, but not non-pandemic Group O or rare Group N viruses, efficiently antagonize the human orthologue of the restriction factor tetherin (BST-2, HM1.24, CD317 suggesting that primate lentiviruses may have to gain anti-tetherin activity for efficient spread in the human population. Thus far, three SIV/HIV gene products (vpu, nef and env are known to have the potential to counteract primate tetherin proteins, often in a species-specific manner. Here, we examined how long Group P may have been circulating in humans and determined its capability to antagonize human tetherin as an indicator of adaptation to humans. Results Our data suggest that HIV-1 Group P entered the human population between 1845 and 1989. Vpu, Env and Nef proteins from both Group P viruses failed to counteract human or gorilla tetherin to promote efficient release of HIV-1 virions, although both Group P Nef proteins moderately downmodulated gorilla tetherin from the cell surface. Notably, Vpu, Env and Nef alleles from the two HIV-1 P strains were all able to reduce CD4 cell surface expression. Conclusions Our analyses of the two reported HIV-1 Group P viruses suggest that zoonosis occurred in the last 170 years and further support that pandemic HIV-1 Group M strains are better adapted to humans than non-pandemic or rare Group O, N and P viruses. The inability to antagonize human tetherin may potentially explain the limited spread of HIV-1 Group P in the human population.

  3. Dealing with incomplete agents' preferences and an uncertain agenda in group decision making via sequential majority voting

    CERN Document Server

    Pini, Maria; Venable, Brent; Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    We consider multi-agent systems where agents' preferences are aggregated via sequential majority voting: each decision is taken by performing a sequence of pairwise comparisons where each comparison is a weighted majority vote among the agents. Incompleteness in the agents' preferences is common in many real-life settings due to privacy issues or an ongoing elicitation process. In addition, there may be uncertainty about how the preferences are aggregated. For example, the agenda (a tree whose leaves are labelled with the decisions being compared) may not yet be known or fixed. We therefore study how to determine collectively optimal decisions (also called winners) when preferences may be incomplete, and when the agenda may be uncertain. We show that it is computationally easy to determine if a candidate decision always wins, or may win, whatever the agenda. On the other hand, it is computationally hard to know wheth er a candidate decision wins in at least one agenda for at least one completion of the agents...

  4. Neural correlates of forward planning in a spatial decision task in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dylan Alexander; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Although reinforcement learning (RL) theories have been influential in characterizing the brain’s mechanisms for reward-guided choice, the predominant temporal difference (TD) algorithm cannot explain many flexible or goal-directed actions that have been demonstrated behaviorally. We investigate such actions by contrasting an RL algorithm that is model-based, in that it relies on learning a map or model of the task and planning within it, to traditional model-free TD learning. To distinguish these approaches in humans, we used fMRI in a continuous spatial navigation task, in which frequent changes to the layout of the maze forced subjects continually to relearn their favored routes, thereby exposing the RL mechanisms employed. We sought evidence for the neural substrates of such mechanisms by comparing choice behavior and BOLD signals to decision variables extracted from simulations of either algorithm. Both choices and value-related BOLD signals in striatum, though most often associated with TD learning, were better explained by the model-based theory. Further, predecessor quantities for the model-based value computation were correlated with BOLD signals in the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex. These results point to a significant extension of both the computational and anatomical substrates for RL in the brain. PMID:21471389

  5. Parents' decision-making about the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters: I. Quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Knäuper, Bärbel; Gilca, Vladimir; Dubé, Eve; Perez, Samara; Joyal-Desmarais, Keven; Rosberger, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is an effective primary prevention measure for HPV-related diseases. For children and young adolescents, the uptake of the vaccine is contingent on parental consent. This study sought to identify key differences between parents who obtain (acceptors) and parents who refuse (non-acceptors) the HPV vaccine for their daughters. In the context of a free, universal, school-based HPV vaccination program in Québec, 774 parents of 9-10 year-old girls completed and returned a questionnaire by mail. The questionnaire was based on the theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), along with constructs from other theoretical frameworks. Of the 774 parents, 88.2% reported their daughter having received the HPV vaccine. Perceived susceptibility of daughters to HPV infection, perceived benefits of the vaccine, perceived barriers (including safety of the vaccine), and cues to action significantly distinguished between parents whose daughters had received the HPV vaccine and those whose daughters had not. Other significant factors associated with daughter vaccine uptake were parents' general vaccination attitudes, anticipated regret, adherence to other routinely recommended vaccines, social norms, and positive media influence. The results of this study identify a number of important correlates related to parents' decisions to accept or refuse the HPV vaccine uptake for their daughters. Future work may benefit from targeting such factors and incorporating other health behavior theories in the design of effective HPV vaccine uptake interventions.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We...... identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay...... and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money...

  7. Group Decision-making on Language Distribution Assessment Information and the Consistency Analysis of Decision-making Groups%语言分布评估信息下的群决策方法及其群体一致性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建岗; 魏翠萍

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes group decision-making method based on the language distribution assessment weighted average operator .It defines the ordered consistency and numerical consistency measure of the evaluation of results between individual decision maker and decision-making groups , for the analysis of the reliability of the evaluation results of decision-making groups .Finally, we prove the effectiveness and practicality of the method with concrete examples and analyzed the ordered consistency and numerical consistency of the evaluation of results between individual decision maker and decision-making groups .%本文提出了基于语言分布评估加权平均( DAWA)算子的多属性群决策方法;定义了个体决策者评价结果与决策群体评价结果的次序一致性和数值一致性测度,以此分析决策群体评价结果的可靠性;最后,通过具体实例验证了群决策方法的有效性和实用性,分析了个体决策者评价结果与决策群体评价结果的次序一致性和数值一致性。

  8. Restructuring of Values and Probabilities: Psychological Processes in Human Decision Making under Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-07-01

    According to Differentiation and Consolidation Theory (Diff Con), the decision maker's representations of values and probabilities are interdependent and changing over time in risky decision making. This is a clear violation of most normative theories of decision making. The present contribution will present Diff Con and provide empirical illustrations of how mental representations of values and probabilities change over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings concerning expert and lay people decision making about risks and hazards.

  9. Pre-consultation educational group intervention to improve shared decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pre-Consultation Educational Group Intervention pilot study seeks to assess the feasibility and inform the optimal design for a definitive randomized controlled trial that aims to improve the quality of decision-making in postmastectomy breast reconstruction patients. Methods/design This is a mixed-methods pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial that will follow a single-center, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group superiority design. Setting: The University Health Network, a tertiary care cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants: Adult women referred to one of three plastic and reconstructive surgeons for delayed breast reconstruction or prophylactic mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction. Intervention: We designed a multi-disciplinary educational group workshop that incorporates the key components of shared decision-making, decision-support, and psychosocial support for cancer survivors prior to the initial surgical consult. The intervention consists of didactic lectures by a plastic surgeon and nurse specialist on breast reconstruction choices, pre- and postoperative care; a value-clarification exercise led by a social worker; and discussions with a breast reconstruction patient. Control: Usual care includes access to an informational booklet, website, and patient volunteer if desired. Outcomes: Expected pilot outcomes include feasibility, recruitment, and retention targets. Acceptability of intervention and full trial outcomes will be established through qualitative interviews. Trial outcomes will include decision-quality measures, patient-reported outcomes, and service outcomes, and the treatment effect estimate and variability will be used to inform the sample size calculation for a full trial. Discussion Our pilot study seeks to identify the (1) feasibility, acceptability, and design of a definitive RCT and (2) the optimal content and delivery of our proposed educational group intervention. Thirty patients have been

  10. The Identification of Recessive Community Organization in Group Decision Making%群体决策中隐性社团组织的识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春香; 顾新

    2015-01-01

    现实的群体决策问题往往是复杂的大群体问题,而群体成员之间由于联系程度、性格、心理、价值观等因素的影响可形成不同的社团组织。社团组织的结构,特别是群体中隐性社团组织的划分及其结构无疑对决策结果有重大影响。基于决策成员之间人际关系网络构成的大规模复杂网络,运用节点相似度的凝聚算法思想,研究出节点赋权网络的社团划分新算法。该算法综合考虑节点属性以及节点在网络中的结构特性,分别反映群体决策中决策个体的知识水平及交际网络,用于识别群体中的隐性组织结构,为模拟群体观点演化过程和结果奠定了基础。%A real group decision problem is often a complex large group problem,and because of the influence of such factors as personality,psychology,values and connection degree,group members can form different community organizations.The structure of community organizations,especially that of the recessive community organizations,has a significant influence on the decision results.Based on the complex network consisting of relationship between members of the group involved in decision making,this paper uses the agglomerative algorithm idea of nodes similarity to design and verify a community partition algorithm for the node empower network.The algorithm considers the properties and structural characteristics of nodes in the network,reflecting both the individual’s knowledge and communication network in group decision-making.It can be used to identify the structure of the recessive organization involved in group decision-making,thus contributing to the simulation of group evolution process and the decision results.

  11. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  12. The geography and human cultural resources working group of the EROS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    The functions, activities, and objectives of the Geography and Human-Cultural Resources Working Group of the EROS program are outlined. The Group's primary function is to coordinate remote sensing experiments of physical scientists and the needs of socioeconomic and culturally orientated planners, policy makers, administrators, and other user groups. Other functions of the Group include land use analysis, resource mapping, and development of an operational automatic information system receptive to land use and environmental data.

  13. FROM ENFORCEMENT TO INTEGRATION: INFUSING ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION-MAKING WITH HUMAN RIGHTS VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Raso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an integration approach to realize human rights values within administrative agencies.  Using social assistance as a factual context, it examines how rights enforcement has become the dominant mechanism for reforming government benefits programs.  Rights enforcement is ineffective at achieving the values underlying human rights codes, however, even where enforcement occurs at administrative tribunals.  Attention must therefore be directed towards efforts to infuse individual and institutional discretion with human rights values.  Given their quasi-constitutional status, such values have a key role to play in shaping the design of administrative agencies and the everyday decisions of front-line workers.    Dans ce document, l’auteur propose une approche axée sur l’intégration des droits afin d’assurer le respect des valeurs qui sous-tendent les droits de la personne à l’intérieur des organismes administratifs. En se servant de l’aide sociale comme toile de fond, l’auteur explique que la plupart des décisions discrétionnaires prises dans le cadre de l’exécution des droits ne sont pas contestées.  Les mécanismes d’exécution des droits ne permettent pas d’assurer le respect des valeurs qui sous-tendent les droits de la personne, notamment en ce qui concerne les programmes d’avantages sociaux du gouvernement. En conséquence, il faut tenter d’intégrer ces valeurs aux décisions administratives discrétionnaires prises au niveau tant personnel qu’institutionnel. En raison de leur statut quasi constitutionnel, ces valeurs ont un rôle clé à jouer pour façonner la conception des organismes administratifs et les décisions que les travailleurs de première ligne sont appelés à prendre tous les jours.

  14. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Alessia Passanisi,1 Mario Filippo Paolo Bellomo2 1Faculty of Human and Social Science, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Credito Emiliano Bank, Piazza Armerina, Italy Background: Forming one’s identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. Methods: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16–19 years (197 males and 220 females in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52 and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64 of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. Results: The data showed that high-school performance was positively

  15. 舰船维修经费投向的群决策分析%Group Decision Making Analysis on Input Direction of Warship Maintenance Fee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐; 张亚迪; 彭志高

    2012-01-01

    国防预算决策主体的行为决定了决策的结果.通过建立基于促进度的有序加权平均(ordered weighted averaging,OWA)算子与语言OWA算子相结合的群决策模型,分析了决策主体行为对舰船维修经费投向群决策结果的影响,极大地提高了决策结果的科学性和准确性.%Decision results are sure to be decided by decision makers'behavior of national defence budget. The group decision making model was constructed by combination between ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators based on promotion degree and language OWA operators. The model was applied to investigate the effects of decision makers'behavior on input direction of warship maintenance fee. It significantly improved the scientificity and the accuracy of decision results.

  16. Fire rehabilitation decisions at landscape scales: utilizing state-and-transition models developed through disturbance response grouping of ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the utility of ecological sites and the associated state-and-transition model (STM) for decision support, the Bureau of Land Management in Nevada partnered with Nevada NRCS and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in 2009 with the goal of creating a team that could (1) expedite developme...

  17. A meta-analysis of blood glucose effects on human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The academic and public interest in blood glucose and its relationship to decision making has been increasing over the last decade. To investigate and evaluate competing theories about this relationship, we conducted a psychometric meta-analysis on the effect of blood glucose on decision making. We identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay and willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money. Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending on the relevance of the situation to acquiring food. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Human decision making based on variations in internal noise: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygal Amitay

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making is prone to errors, especially near threshold. Physiological, behavioural and modeling studies suggest this is due to the intrinsic or 'internal' noise in neural systems, which derives from a mixture of bottom-up and top-down sources. We show here that internal noise can form the basis of perceptual decision making when the external signal lacks the required information for the decision. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG activity in listeners attempting to discriminate between identical tones. Since the acoustic signal was constant, bottom-up and top-down influences were under experimental control. We found that early cortical responses to the identical stimuli varied in global field power and topography according to the perceptual decision made, and activity preceding stimulus presentation could predict both later activity and behavioural decision. Our results suggest that activity variations induced by internal noise of both sensory and cognitive origin are sufficient to drive discrimination judgments.

  19. Cortical and hippocampal correlates of deliberation during model-based decisions for rewards in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Bornstein

    Full Text Available How do we use our memories of the past to guide decisions we've never had to make before? Although extensive work describes how the brain learns to repeat rewarded actions, decisions can also be influenced by associations between stimuli or events not directly involving reward - such as when planning routes using a cognitive map or chess moves using predicted countermoves - and these sorts of associations are critical when deciding among novel options. This process is known as model-based decision making. While the learning of environmental relations that might support model-based decisions is well studied, and separately this sort of information has been inferred to impact decisions, there is little evidence concerning the full cycle by which such associations are acquired and drive choices. Of particular interest is whether decisions are directly supported by the same mnemonic systems characterized for relational learning more generally, or instead rely on other, specialized representations. Here, building on our previous work, which isolated dual representations underlying sequential predictive learning, we directly demonstrate that one such representation, encoded by the hippocampal memory system and adjacent cortical structures, supports goal-directed decisions. Using interleaved learning and decision tasks, we monitor predictive learning directly and also trace its influence on decisions for reward. We quantitatively compare the learning processes underlying multiple behavioral and fMRI observables using computational model fits. Across both tasks, a quantitatively consistent learning process explains reaction times, choices, and both expectation- and surprise-related neural activity. The same hippocampal and ventral stream regions engaged in anticipating stimuli during learning are also engaged in proportion to the difficulty of decisions. These results support a role for predictive associations learned by the hippocampal memory system to

  20. Do humans and nonhuman animals share the grouping principles of the iambic-trochaic law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mora, Daniela M; Nespor, Marina; Toro, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    The iambic-trochaic law describes humans' tendency to form trochaic groups over sequences varying in pitch or intensity (i.e., the loudest or highest sounds mark group beginnings), and iambic groups over sequences varying in duration (i.e., the longest sounds mark group endings). The extent to which these perceptual biases are shared by humans and nonhuman animals is yet unclear. In Experiment 1, we trained rats to discriminate pitch-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in pitch. In Experiment 2, rats were trained to discriminate duration-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in duration. We found that nonhuman animals group sequences based on pitch variations as trochees, but they do not group sequences varying in duration as iambs. Importantly, humans grouped the same stimuli following the principles of the iambic-trochaic law (Exp. 3). These results suggest the early emergence of the trochaic rhythmic grouping bias based on pitch, possibly relying on perceptual abilities shared by humans and other mammals, whereas the iambic rhythmic grouping bias based on duration might depend on language experience.

  1. Ancient Human Bone Microstructure in Medieval England: Comparisons between Two Socio-Economic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Miszkiewicz, Justyna J.; Mahoney, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the links between bone microstructure and human lifestyle is critical for clinical and anthropological research into skeletal\\ud growth and adaptation. The present study is the first to report correspondence between socio-economic status and variation in bone microstructure\\ud in ancient humans. Products of femoral cortical remodeling were assessed using histological methods in a large human medieval\\ud sample (N:450) which represented two distinct socio-economic groups. Osteona...

  2. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups

  3. 模糊偏好下群决策结构的研究%Research on the Structure of Group Decision Making under Fuzzy Preferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文坤; 刘家诚; 李宗平

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies fuzzy preferences in group decision making. An impossibility theorem is proved under a series of fuzzy rational conditions. The concept of influencing set is introduced. And it discusses the structure of influencing set, which influences group decision making. Finally, a practical example is given.%研究了群决策问题的模糊偏好关系,在模糊理性条件下证明了一个不可能定理,提出了影响集的概念,讨论了对群决策产生影响的影响集的结构,并给出了一个实例.

  4. Human Well Being: A Decile Group Analysis on Indian Household Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This is an attempt to measure human well being across different sections of the society in India over time where sections have been made in terms of ten decile groups of income. In this context, the extent to which rural sector is lagging behind the urban sector is another dimension of the study. The study uses grouped household data, collected…

  5. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  6. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-06

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  7. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making Improve...to determine whether Fetal Mammary Stem Cell (fMaSC) signatures correlate with response to chemotherapy and metastasis in different breast cancer...positioned to achieve its aims. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer Prognosis, Mammary Stem Cells, Embryonic Development, Single Cell Transcriptomics 16

  8. Pattern of distribution of blood group antigens on human epidermal cells during maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Buschard, Karsten; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh

    1984-01-01

    The distribution in human epidermis of A, B, and H blood group antigens and of a precursor carbohydrate chain, N-acetyl-lactosamine, was examined using immunofluorescence staining techniques. The material included tissue from 10 blood group A, 4 blood group B, and 9 blood group O persons. Murine...... on the lower spinous cells whereas H antigen was seen predominantly on upper spinous cells or on the granular cells. Epithelia from blood group A or B persons demonstrated A or B antigens, respectively, but only if the tissue sections were trypsinized before staining. In such cases A or B antigens were found...... monoclonal antibodies were used to identify H antigen (type 2 chain) and N-acetyl-lactosamine. Human antisera were used to identify A and B antigens. In all groups N-acetyl-lactosamine and H antigen were found on the cell membranes of the spinous cell layer. N-acetyl-lactosamine was present mainly...

  9. Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315

  10. Clinical information system services and capabilities desired for scalable, standards-based, service-oriented decision support: consensus assessment of the Health Level 7 clinical decision support Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R; Haug, Peter J; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A; Rowed, David W; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service.

  11. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.

  12. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shenggang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Chemistry, Baotou Teachers’ College, Baotou 014030 (China); Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Liqiu, E-mail: zhangliqiu@163.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  13. Expression of LacdiNAc Groups on N-Glycans among Human Tumors Is Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Hirano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of proteins and lipids is one of the characteristic features of malignantly transformed cells. The GalNAcβ1 → 4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc or LDN group at the nonreducing termini of both N- and O-glycans is not generally found in mammalian cells. We previously showed that the expression level of the LacdiNAc group in N-glycans decreases dramatically during the progression of human breast cancer. In contrast, the enhanced expression of the LacdiNAc group has been shown to be associated with the progression of human prostate, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. Therefore, the expression of the disaccharide group appears to be dependent on types of tumors. The mechanism of formation of the LacdiNAc group in human tumors and cancer cells has been studied, and two β4-N-acetylgalacto-saminyltransferases (β4GalNAcTs, β4GalNAcT3 and β4GalNAcT4, have been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of this disaccharide group in a tissue-dependent manner. Transfection of the β4GalNAcT3 gene brought about significant changes in the malignant phenotypes of human neuroblastoma, indicating that this disaccharide group is important for suppressing the tumor growth.

  14. Human papillomavirus vaccine decision-making in Da Nang, Vietnam: perceived spousal and adolescent-parent concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Pearson, Heidi C; Dinh, Tri A; Tran, Bich-Chieu T; Vu, Thao; Phan, G A Bao; Ngo, Quang V; Tran, Vinh D; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2009-04-14

    This descriptive study examined parents' perceptions of the role of mothers, fathers, and daughters in the decision to have their daughter receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine; perceived concordance between spouses and between parents and daughters; and the relationships between vaccine decision-making and (1) who takes the daughter to the doctor, and (2) the daughter's age. Health care workers (N=139) with a daughter 9-21 years old completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic and HPV vaccine-related questions. Health care workers were employed by Da Nang General Hospital or the Da Nang Center for Reproductive Health Care in Vietnam. Most (73%) parents favored having their daughter receive the HPV vaccine and 84% would consult their spouse about having their daughter vaccinated. Sixty-six percent of parents believed that HPV vaccination should be a joint decision involving both parents and the daughter. Parents perceived concordance between themselves and their spouse, with 91% agreement between their own decision and what they thought their spouse would decide; less concordance (77%) was observed between themselves and what they thought their daughter would want. Most (87% of mothers and 62% of fathers) would consider his/her spouse's opinion in the decision regarding HPV vaccination when accompanying the daughter to a health care visit in the absence of the spouse. Perceived spousal concordance was 94% for parents of daughters under the age of consent in Vietnam (16 years). Decisions regarding HPV vaccination will likely be made jointly by parents and adolescents. Educating fathers about HPV vaccination may be important.

  15. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  16. Decision making models and human factors: TOPSIS and Ergonomic Behaviors (TOPSIS-EB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo-nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and ana-lyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in an Iranian process in-dustry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS, and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi-dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were collect-ed. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most frequent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total unergonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least at-tractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry ne-cessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.

  17. 支持群决策过程建模的层次影响图模型%Hierarchical influence diagrams for group decision process modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡笑旋; 杨善林; 张强

    2011-01-01

    The use of traditional influence diagrams (Ids) for group decision-making modeling is limited. For this reason, a framework of hierarchical influence diagrams (HIDs) was proposed. First the definition of hierarchical influence diagrams was given, which is a set of influence diagrams organized in a hierarchical way. Those influence diagrams communicate with each other by three types of message passing. Then the evaluation algorithm for hierarchical influence diagrams was defined. Finally the HIDs modeling and evaluation process was illustrated using a group decision-making case. Hierarchical influence diagrams framework is a decomposition and combination methodology for decision-making process modeling, which widen the scope of application of influence diagrams into group decision making field.%传统影响图模型不具备对群决策过程的建模能力.针对这一问题,提出了层次影响图模型.首先给出了层次影响图的定义,它是一个以层次方式排列的影响图的集合.然后建立了不同影响图之间的三种消息传递方式,研究了在能够接收外界消息情况下的影响图演算方法.最后使用一个群决策案例展示了建模和求解的过程.层次影响图采用了分解-联合的建模策略,将影响图的应用范围扩展到群决策领域.

  18. Association between the ABO blood group and the human intestinal microbiota composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkivuokko Harri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucus layer covering the human intestinal epithelium forms a dynamic surface for host-microbial interactions. In addition to the environmental factors affecting the intestinal equilibrium, such as diet, it is well established that the microbiota composition is individually driven, but the host factors determining the composition have remained unresolved. Results In this study, we show that ABO blood group is involved in differences in relative proportion and overall profiles of intestinal microbiota. Specifically, the microbiota from the individuals harbouring the B antigen (secretor B and AB differed from the non-B antigen groups and also showed higher diversity of the Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides (EREC and Clostridium leptum (CLEPT -groups in comparison with other blood groups. Conclusions Our novel finding indicates that the ABO blood group is one of the genetically determined host factors modulating the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, thus enabling new applications in the field of personalized nutrition and medicine.

  19. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society.

  20. Group decision-making method with fuzzy comparison matrices%模糊判断矩阵环境下的大型群决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰继斌; 叶新苗; 胡明明

    2012-01-01

    为解决大型的群决策问题,对传统的模糊C均值算法(FCM)进行了扩展.通过扩展的算法对专家个体模糊判断矩阵聚类,获取模糊划分矩阵和聚类原型,根据模糊划分矩阵确定类权重,进而利用WAA算子对聚类原型进行集结,求取群综合模糊判断矩阵.通过算例验证了该算法的可行性.%Based on the extended Fuzzy c-Means(FCM) algorithm, a group decision-making approach, which is a mass of decision makers, is proposed. The FCM algorithm is extended to the environment of matrices. All the individual fuzzy preference relations are classified by the extended FCM algorithm. The cluster prototypes are aggregated by WAA operator into a collective fuzzy preference relation. The overall group decision-making process is shown, and the numerical example is given.