WorldWideScience

Sample records for human greenhouse gas

  1. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  3. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  4. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone, global modelling methods and new future scenarios. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5+/-0.2, 1.3+/-0.5 and 2.2+/-0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050 and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are US$50-380 per tonne of CO2, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  5. Has Human Society Passed a Tipping Point for Effective Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent publications have indicated that a 2 C increase of global average temperature, once thought acceptable, may involve serious risks (Greg, 2004). A global mean tempurature increase of 4 C would be hotter than any time in the last 30 million years, and this increase could be realized as early as 2060-2070 (Leahy, 2009). The prospects of plans for major, immediate reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions at the climate onference at Copenhagen in December 2009 do not seem likely....

  6. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  7. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  8. Potent new greenhouse gas discovered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    Discovery of a new greenhouse gas by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, is reported. The newly detected compound --trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride -- is of industrial origin and is considered to be the most potent greenhouse gas identified to date. Its source remains a mystery, but is believed to be related to SF{sub 6}, a compound used in in high voltage electrical equipment to suppress sparks, in protecting metals during a melting process, in tennis balls, car tires and running shoes. In the past it has also been used as a noise barrier in double glazed window panes. The molecule is extremely resistant to the natural self-cleaning property of the atmosphere, has a long lifetime -- somewhere between several hundred and several thousand years. The gas was discovered during expeditions to Antarctica while extracting air samples from a thick firm layer of snow.

  9. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Agricultural Research Service 2011), which aim to improve consistency of field measurement and data collection for soil carbon sequestration and soil nitrous oxide fluxes. Often these national-level activity data and emissions factors are the basis for regional and smaller-scale applications. Such data are used for model-based estimates of changes in GHGs at a project or regional level (Olander et al 2011). To complement national data for regional-, landscape-, or field-level applications, new data are often collected through farmer knowledge or records and field sampling. Ideally such data could be collected in a standardized manner, perhaps through some type of crowd sourcing model to improve regional—and national—level data, as well as to improve consistency of locally collected data. Data can also be collected by companies working with agricultural suppliers and in country networks, within efforts aimed at understanding firm and product (supply-chain) sustainability and risks (FAO 2009). Such data may feed into various certification processes or reporting requirements from buyers. Unfortunately, this data is likely proprietary. A new process is needed to aggregate and share private data in a way that would not be a competitive concern so such data could complement or supplement national data and add value. A number of papers in this focus issue discuss issues surrounding quantification methods and systems at large scales, global and national levels, while others explore landscape- and field-scale approaches. A few explore the intersection of top-down and bottom-up data measurement and modeling approaches. 5. The agricultural greenhouse gas quantification project and ERL focus issue Important land management decisions are often made with poor or few data, especially in developing countries. Current systems for quantifying GHG emissions are inadequate in most low-income countries, due to a lack of funding, human resources, and infrastructure. Most non-Annex 1 countries

  10. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  11. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced; Comment (vraiment) reduire les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the 'Negatep' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the 'Negawatt' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the 'cost of carbon avoided' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by 'Save the Climate' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  12. The greenhouse gas balance of the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nol, Linda; Neubert, Rolf; Vermeulen, Alex; Vellinga, Olaf; Meesters, Antoon; Tolk, Lieselotte; Olivier, Jos; Peters, Wouter; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Hutjes, Ronald; Moors, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to measure or even estimate the Dutch greenhouse gas emissions of the landscape, because we cannot put a flux chamber over the entire Netherlands. Greenhouse gas emissions are usually estimated by bottom-up methods or top-down methods. The Netherlands report most emissions to the

  13. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2001-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and methan

  14. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Itterbeeck, Van J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Brand, van den H.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidi

  15. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  17. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...

  19. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; Joost van Itterbeeck; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; Henry van den Brand; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Arnold van Huis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3)), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was ...

  20. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  1. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  2. Co-benefits of Global Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Future Air Quality and Human Health via Two Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Smith, S. J.; Silva, R.; Naik, V.; Adelman, Z.; Fry, M. M.; Anenberg, S.; Zhang, Y.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lamarque, J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Global actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will also reduce co-emitted air pollutants, with immediate air quality benefits. Climate change itself affects air quality (e.g., via meteorology and biogenic emissions); therefore, actions to reduce GHG emissions will also influence air quality by slowing global climate change. These two mechanisms of air quality co-benefits - reducing co-emitted air pollutants and slowing climate change - have not previously been quantified in a self-consistent way. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG emission reductions on air quality and human health via these two mechanisms in scenarios to 2100. Future emissions scenarios were developed by the GCAM global energy-economics model as part of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) process. We simulate global air quality for a reference case scenario and a scenario with aggressive GHG controls internationally (RCP4.5). Future meteorology is from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory general circulation model (AM3) simulations of the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we simulate global changes in surface concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for RCP4.5 relative to the reference case. The two co-benefit mechanisms are isolated by simulating reference case emissions with meteorology from RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Co-benefits for future human mortality will be assessed using epidemiological concentration-response functions, and projections of future population and baseline mortality rates. Preliminary results indicate that the co-benefits of global GHG mitigation for ozone and PM2.5 are substantial globally and regionally, and that the direct co-benefits from reductions in emissions of co-emitted air pollutants exceed the co-benefits via slowing climate change. We aim to monetize the avoided mortalities as a basis for comparison with the costs of GHG mitigation.

  3. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  4. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  5. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  6. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions attributable to livestock range from 8 to 51%. This variability creates confusion among policy makers and the public as it suggests that there is a lack of consensus among scientists with regard to the contribution of livestock to global GHG...... fixed fossil C through combustion. These deviances from internationally accepted protocols create confusion and direct attention from anthropomorphic practices which have the most important contribution to global GHG emissions. Global estimates of livestock GHG emissions are most reliable when...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emission Curb Favors China's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Living affluently while breathing in polluted air is not a desirable lifestyle. The longwaited Kyoto Protocol went into force on February 16, winning big applause around the globe. China, as a developing country, doesn't have to follow Kyoto Protocol and reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, but China, as part of the global village, will not escape similar obligations in the future.

  9. Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.

    2014-01-01

      Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms stimulat

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage; (

  11. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  12. Greenhouse Gas Analysis at the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report builds on reviews of available methodologies, tools, and practices for greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, and summarizes the outcomes of pilot studies. It discusses the issues and challenges associated with GHG analysis for energy, transport and forestry projects such as setting project boundaries and accounting for indirect emissions. To do this it draws on existing United Nations...

  13. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Enteric Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Tedeschi, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock directly contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. For cost and practicality reasons, quantification of GHG has been through development of various types of mathematical models. This chapter addresses the utility and limita

  14. Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.

    2014-01-01

      Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms stimulat

  15. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A;

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...

  17. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  19. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  20. An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Greenhouse gas (GHG production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH(3, leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO₂ and average daily gain (ADG as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH₄ and nitrous oxide (N₂O as well as NH₃ by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO₂ and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO₂ production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH₃ by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH₃ emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis.

  1. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  2. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  3. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    -consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution......Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time...

  4. Greenhouse gas benefits of fighting obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelowa, Axel [University of Zuerich, Muehlegasse 21, 8001 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dransfeld, Bjoern [Perspectives GmbH, Sonnenredder 55, 22045 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem in both industrialized and rapidly industrializing countries. It increases greenhouse gas emissions through higher fuel needs for transportation of heavier people, lifecycle emissions from additional food production and methane emissions from higher amounts of organic waste. A reduction of average weight by 5 kg could reduce OECD transport CO{sub 2} emissions by more than 10 million t. While the shift from beef to other forms of meat in industrialized and countries in transition has lead to lifecycle emissions savings of 20 million t CO{sub 2} equivalent between 1990 and 2005, emissions due to obesity-promoting foodstuffs have increased by more than 400 million t in advanced developing countries. Emissions in OECD countries could be reduced by more than 4 million t through reduction of associated food waste. Due to the intimate behavioural nature of the obesity problem, policies to reduce obesity such as food taxation, subsidization of human-powered transport, incentives to reduce sedentary leisure and regulation of fat in foodstuffs have not yet been implemented to any extent. The emissions benefits of fiscal and regulatory measures to reduce obesity could accelerate the tipping point where a majority of voters feels that the problem warrants policy action. (author)

  5. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  6. Sectoral Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores sectoral approaches as a new set of options to enhance the effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction policies and to engage emerging economies on a lower emission path. It surveys existing literature and recent policy trends in international climate change discussions, and provides an overview of sectoral approaches and related issues for trade-exposed, greenhouse-gas intensive industries (cement, iron and steel and aluminium). It is also based on interviews conducted by the IEA Secretariat in Australia, China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. Sectoral approaches were also discussed during workshops on technology and energy efficiency policies in industry, following the IEA's mandate under the Gleneagles Plan of Action.

  7. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through energy action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, X. [Schneider Electric (France)

    2010-07-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have increased dramatically in recent years for a number of reasons and this is a cause of serious concern. This paper discusses how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through energy action. It is important to save the planet from irreversible climate change. Energy efficiency (EE) should be the priority; cleaner fuels are necessary but EE is quick and cheap. Passive EE is not enough, active EE is needed and it is the only way to sustain real change. With energy action there are energy savings with ROI value, a structured methodology to identify areas of savings, prioritization of energy efficiency management plans, and increased awareness of energy consumption. Energy action is explained using the example of a mine and the results are given. The paper concludes that it is important to use existing technology to maximize efficient use of available energy in the interests of saving the planet.

  8. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  9. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  10. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas int

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  13. Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Management under Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    To curb global warming man has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) created to the atmosphere by human activities, and it cannot neglect the efforts of corporate communities. Indeed, companiesa direct emissions are dwarfed by supply chain GHGs from an industry sector. No matter to prepare for future environmental regulations or to improve competitive advantages, companies are realizing that they have to reduce and mitigate GHGs from the supply chain perspective. Emission trading (also ca...

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  15. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen;

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial....... Firstly the full CRF format was implemented significantly increasing the level of detail. For the cross-cutting elements of the reporting a tier 1 uncertainty estimation was made. The uncertainty estimation showed a total uncertainty of the GHG emission of 5.8 %. A tier 1 key category analysis was made...

  16. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...... the methodologies that had been previously used. The changes made to the Greenlandic GHG inventory as a result of this project resulted in recalculations of the GHG emission of 14.3 Gg of CO2 equivalents in 2007, which roughly corresponds to 2 % of the total GHG emissions...

  17. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  18. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  19. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  20. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  1. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, M.A.; Leonard, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, several industries are looking into new technologies to mitigate GHG production. This paper described the ongoing research regarding composting and its application to the waste management sector. Baseline data has been collected on emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides, the primary greenhouse gases. Four test trials were performed at a composting facility which involved windrows with: high carbon to nitrogen ratio, turned; high carbon to nitrogen ratio, unturned; low carbon to nitrogen ratio, turned; and, low carbon to nitrogen ratio, unturned. The objective was to verify the hypothesis that high carbon to nitrogen ratio could suppress nitrous oxide emissions due to less available nitrogen for mineralization and subsequent denitrification. Another objective was to confirm if turning the compost promotes an aerobic environment in which methane production is decreased. Concurrent bench-scale composting experiments were conducted to measure and analyze off-gases to evaluate the feasibility of field-scale composting operations.

  2. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Aoustin, E.

    2009-01-01

    for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.......Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental...... Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  4. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods exist to calculate global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHG) as measures of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agroecosystems. Little is, however, known about net GWP and GHGI that account for all sources and sinks of GHG emissions. Sources of GHG include...

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  6. Improving Empirical Approaches to Estimating Local Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, M.; Azevedo, I. L.; Lattanzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates our changing climate will have significant global impacts on public health, economies, and ecosystems. As a result, local governments have become increasingly interested in climate change mitigation. In the U.S., cities and counties representing nearly 15% of the domestic population plan to reduce 300 million metric tons of greenhouse gases over the next 40 years (or approximately 1 ton per capita). Local governments estimate greenhouse gas emissions to establish greenhouse gas mitigation goals and select supporting mitigation measures. However, current practices produce greenhouse gas estimates - also known as a "greenhouse gas inventory " - of empirical quality often insufficient for robust mitigation decision making. Namely, current mitigation planning uses sporadic, annual, and deterministic estimates disaggregated by broad end use sector, obscuring sources of emissions uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity that influence mitigation opportunities. As part of AGU's Thriving Earth Exchange, Ari Lattanzi of City of Pittsburgh, PA recently partnered with Dr. Inez Lima Azevedo (Carnegie Mellon University) and Dr. Michael Blackhurst (University of Pittsburgh) to improve the empirical approach to characterizing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gas emissions. The project will produce first-order estimates of the underlying sources of uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity influencing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gases and discuss implications of mitigation decision making. The results of the project will enable local governments to collect more robust greenhouse gas inventories to better support their mitigation goals and improve measurement and verification efforts.

  7. 2013 Update of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Elkins, James W.; Masari, Kenneth A.; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter P.

    2013-04-01

    Indexes are becoming increasingly important in communicating messages about climate change to a diverse public. Indexes exist for a number of climate-related phenomena including heat, precipitation, and extreme events. These help communicate complex phenomena to the public and, at times, policy makers, to aid in understanding or making decisions. Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (DJ Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B 614-619). Essentially a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core record that go back to 1750. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. At the end of 2011, the AGGI was 1.30, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 30% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing. In addition to presenting the AGGI for 2012, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission inventory for Senegal, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokona, Y

    1995-01-01

    The first greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Senegal, for the year 1991, were produced according to the draft IPCC/OECD guidelines for national inventories of GHGs. Despite certain discrepancies, nonavailability of data, the quality of some of the data collected, and the methodology, the estimates provide a provisional basis for Senegal to fulfill its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This inventory reveals that GHG emissions in Senegal, like those in many developing countries, can mainly be attributed to the use of biomass for energy, land-use change and forestry, and savanna burning. Taking into account the direct global warming potential of the main GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O), Senegal's emissions are estimated at 17.6 Tg ECO2. The major gases emitted are CO2 (61% of GHG emissions), followed by CH4 (35%) and N2O (4%). Energy accounts for 45% of total emissions (12% from fossil energy and 33% from traditional biomass energy); land-use change and forests, 18%; agriculture, 24%; waste, 12%; and industry, 1%.

  9. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  10. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  11. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2010-08-01

    greenhouse gas balance, including CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes are likely to be reduced in the near future, with data being collected from more sites, and improved up-scaling methods.

  12. Preface: Towards a full greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merbold, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    quantification of the exchange of these three major greenhouse gases from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is still missing. Therefore, approaches to develop full greenhouse gas monitoring networks, as currently undertaken in larger environmental research infrastructures such as ICOS...

  13. Can savannas help balance the South African greenhouse gas budget?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the South African Greenhouse Experiment on Savannas (SAGES) study conducted by the CSIR' Division of Forest Science and Technology (Foretek) on the role of savannas in the balance of the greenhouse gas budget of South Africa...

  14. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be de...

  15. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2001-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be de...

  16. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be de...

  17. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon dio

  18. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  19. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  20. FY2010 Federal Government Greenhouse Gas Inventory by Agency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — The comprehensive Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory for the Federal Government accounts for emissions associated with Federal operations in FY 2010. Attached...

  1. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Gerber, James S.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Herrero, Mario; MacDonald, Graham K.; Brauman, Kate A.; Havlik, Petr; O'Connell, Christine S.; Johnson, Justin A.; Saatchi, Sassan; West, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics--including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (`production intensity’)--can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal-1)--concentrated in Europe and Indonesia--accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities.

  3. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  4. Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions (Chapter 3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas development (SGD) presents opportunities and risks with regards to air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a potential opportunity to reduce emissions, if shale gas replaces ‘dirtier’ (more emissions-intensive) fuels...

  5. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  6. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  7. Attributing greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use and land use change to direct and indirect human and natural drivers: a modelling study to estimate their relative importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Astley; Abdalla, Mohamed; Bell, Madeleine; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Datta, Arindam; Dondini, Marta; Fitton, Nuala; Jones, Ed; Klumpp, Katja; Nemoto, Rie; Richards, Mark; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    , fertilizer amount, timing and type, crop residue management, catch crops, field drainage and animal stock numbers. For each experimental site we have also run the model from the current conditions to the future using climate predictions applicable to the site for both high and low emissions scenario to look at the overall impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In general, we conclude that anthropogenic drivers have a larger impact on net GHG emissions than natural drivers with the exception of extreme drought in peatlands.

  8. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  9. Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Bannink, A.; Chadwick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important

  10. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  11. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  12. Climate Golden Age or Greenhouse Gas Dark Age Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on the IPCC Assessments, this paper assesses legacy from total committed global warming over centuries, correlated with comprehensive projected impacts. Socio-economic inertia, climate system inertia, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, amplifying feedback emissions, and unmasking of cooling aerosols are determinants. Stabilization of global temperature (and ocean acidification for CO2) requires emissions of "long lived greenhouse gases" to be "about zero," including feedbacks. "The feedback … is positive" this century; many large feedback sources tend to be self- and inter-reinforcing. Only timely total conversion of all fossil fuel power to clean, virtually zero-carbon renewable power can achieve virtual zero carbon emissions. This results in multiple, increasing benefits for the entire world population of today's and all future generations, as laid out here. Conversions of methane- and nitrous oxide-emitting sources have large benefits. Without timely conversion to virtual zero emissions, the global climate and ocean disruptions are predicted to become progressively more severe and practically irreversible. "Continued emission of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems." Crop yields in all main food-producing regions are projected to decline progressively with rising temperature (as proxy to multiple adverse effects) (AR5). Ocean heating, acidification, and de-oxygenation are projected to increase under all scenarios, as is species extinction. The legacy for humanity depends on reducing long-lived global emissions fast enough to virtual zero. Today's surface warming with unprecedented and accelerating atmospheric GHG concentrations requires an immediate response. The only IPCC scenario to possibly meet this and not exceed 2ºC by and after 2100 is the best-case RCP2.6, which requires CO2 eq. emissions to peak right away and decline at the latest by 2020.

  13. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  14. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  15. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  16. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  17. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  18. Effect of land use on greenhouse gas emission in tropical ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Tropical ecosystems play an important role for the regional and global climate system through the exchange of greenhouse gases and provide important ecosystems services such as carbon sequestration, produce, and biodiversity. Human activities have, however, resulted in intensive transformation of tropical ecosystems impacting the cycling of nutrients, water and carbon underlying the greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, best-bet agricultural practices can reduce greenhouse gas emission, those directly emitted from the agricultural fields, but also indirectly through less demand on new land and hence forest conservation. Here, I will provide some insights into the main factors affecting the exchange of greenhouse gases from the plot to continental scale through some specific case studies. Experimental data, stable isotopes and modeling results will be presented.

  19. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.-K.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Winther, M. [and others

    2013-02-15

    This report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. This report updates and expands on the first version of the quality manual published in 2005. The report fulfils the mandatory requirements for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan as lined out in the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and the specifications related to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. The report describes all elements of the internal QC procedures as well as the QA and verification activities carried out in connection with the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. (Author)

  20. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...... rather than petrochemical diesel. Given that it is the production of the substitute for the poultry fat which mainly eliminates the benefit from using poultry fat for biodiesel, it is argued that whenever assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel made from by-products (such as rendered animal...

  1. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects...... of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts......Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG....... They did not account for the complex interrelated effects on other GHGs or their relation with other aspects of sustainability, such as eutrophication, animal welfare, land use or food security. Current decisions on GHG mitigation in animal production, therefore, are hindered by the complexity...... and uncertainty of the combined effect of GHG mitigation options on climate change and their relation with other aspects of sustainability. There is an urgent need to integrate simulation models at animal, crop and farm level with a consequential life cycle sustainability assessment to gain insight...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D. Y. C.; Lee, Y. T.

    This study provides a quantitative review of the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4), the two most significant greenhouse gases (GHGs) in Hong Kong. Study indicated that CO 2 accounts for 90% of the local GHG emissions in Hong Kong. Among the different types of fuels coal is identified as the major source of CO 2, which constitutes about 50% by fuel type. On the other hand, CH 4, which mainly comes from waste decomposition, contributes to 5% of the total GHG emissions. Correlation study revealed that energy consumption and waste quantity were strongly correlated with population and gross domestic products (GDP), implying that not much has been done in Hong Kong to re-mediate GHG emissions. Regression analysis concluded that supply side management (fuel switch) was more effective than demand side management (energy conservation) in mitigating CO 2 emissions in Hong Kong.

  4. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  6. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of

  7. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of

  8. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear

  9. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of cle

  10. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, Le L.; Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava

  11. Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arto, Inaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions.

  12. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of curr

  13. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J.; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems

  14. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  15. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  16. Danish greenhouse gas reduction scenarios for 2020 and 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, K.; Joergensen, Kaj. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (DK)); Werling, J.; OErsted Pedersen, H.; Kofoed-Wiuff, A. (Ea energy Analysis, Copenhagen (DK))

    2008-02-15

    The aim of the project presented in this report was to develop scenarios for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and 2050. The scenarius provide a basis for estimating which technologies should be combined in order to obtain future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way. The scenarios include all emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, industry and oil extraction activities in the North Sea as well as the transport and energy sectors. Foreign air and sea carriage is not included because emissions related to such activities are not yet subject to international climate change agreements. The scenarios focus particularly on the technological possibilities and the necessary system changes in the Danish energy system and transport sector. Parallel to this, COWI has carried out analyses for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency focussing primarily on the reduction potentials in the transport sector and other emissions. COWI's results regarding agriculture and other emissions have been included in this analysis. Two timeframes are applied in the scenarios: the medium term, 2020, and the long term, 2050. For each timeframe, we have set up indicative targets that the scenarios must reach: 1) 2020: 30 and 40 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 2) 2050: 60 and 80 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990. The scenarios for 2020 focus primarily on technologies that are already commercially available, whereas the scenarios for 2050 also examine technological options at the experimental or developmental stage. This includes hydrogen technologies and fuel cells as well as CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The scenarios should be seen in connection with the EU objectives of a 20-30 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 and 60-80 % in 2050 compared to 1990. The EU's 30 % objective is contingent upon global efforts to reduce the world's greenhouse gas

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Educational Facilities and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Actions You Need to Take Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmbrand, Mitchell M.; Klotz, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    On September 22, 2009, The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reporting. The informational literature that EPA has published to support the rule clearly states that EPA believes the vast majority of smaller GHG-emitting facilities, such as educational facilities, will not be…

  18. 77 FR 10373 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing: Revisions to Heat Transfer Fluid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR09 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Electronics Manufacturing... category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule related to fluorinated heat transfer fluids. More... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs...

  19. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations... is (202) 566- 1742. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office...

  20. 75 FR 41452 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance (74 FR 52117) in order to establish an... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting...

  1. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance.'' 74 FR 52117, Oct. 8, 2009. The purpose of... QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting,'' is...

  2. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Supplier GHG Emissions Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  5. 78 FR 5347 - Denial of Reconsideration Petition on Model Year 2012-2016 Light Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... ameliorating global climate change. PLF petitioned EPA to reconsider its greenhouse gas standards. Because the... Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Denial... final rules establishing greenhouse gas emissions standards from light duty motor vehicles for...

  6. Requirements for a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R.; Boland, S.; Lempert, R.; Miller, C.

    2008-12-01

    A global greenhouse gas information system will prove a critical component of any successful effort to mitigate climate change which relies on limiting the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The system will provide the situational awareness necessary to actively reduce emissions, influence land use change, and sequester carbon. The information from such a system will be subject to intense scrutiny. Therefore, an effective system must openly and transparently produce data of unassailable quality. A global greenhouse gas information system will likely require a combination of space-and air-based remote- sensing assets, ground-based measurements, carbon cycle modeling and self-reporting. The specific requirements on such a system will be shaped by the degree of international cooperation it enjoys and the needs of the policy regime it aims to support, which might range from verifying treaty obligations, to certifying the tradable permits and offsets underlying a market in greenhouse gas emission reductions, to providing a comprehensive inventory of high and low emitters that could be used by non-governmental organizations and other international actors. While some technical studies have examined particular system components in single scenarios, there remains a need for a comprehensive survey of the range of potential requirements, options, and strategies for the overall system. We have initiated such a survey and recently hosted a workshop which engaged a diverse community of stakeholders to begin synthesizing requirements for such a system, with an initial focus on carbon dioxide. In this paper we describe our plan for completing the definition of the requirements, options, and strategies for a global greenhouse gas monitoring system. We discuss our overall approach and provide a status on the initial requirements synthesis activity.

  7. Multi-fingerprint detection and attribution analysis of greenhouse gas, greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol and solar forced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G.C.; Hasselmann, K.; Cubasch, U.; Roeckner, E.; Voss, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mitchell, J.F.B. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom). Meteorological Office; Waszkewitz, J. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    A multifingerprint analysis is applied to the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change. While a single fingerprint is optimal for the detection of climate change, further tests of the statistical consistency of the detected climate change signal with model predictions for different candidate forcing mechanisms require the simultaneous application of several fingerprints. Model-predicted climate change signals are derived from three anthropogenic global warming simulations for the period 1880 to 2049and two simulations forced by estimated changes in solar radiation from 1700 to 1992. In the first global warming simulation, the forcing is by greenhouse gas only, while in the remaining two simulations the direct influence of sulfate aerosols is also included. From the climate change signals of the greenhouse gas only and the average of the two greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol simulations, two optimized fingerprint patterns are derived by weighting the model-predicted climate change patterns towards low-noise directions. The optimized fingerprint patterns are then applied as a filter to the observed near-surface temperature trend patterns, yielding several detection variables. The space-time structure of natural climate variability needed to determine the optimal fingerprint pattern and the resultant signal-to-noise ratio of the detection variable is estimated from several multicentury control simulations with different CGCMs and from instrumental data over the last 136 y. Applying the combined greenhouse gas-plus-aerosol fingerprint in the same way as the greenhouse gas only fingerprint in a previous work, the recent 30-y trends (1966-1995) of annual mean near surface temperature are again found to represent a significant climate change at the 97.5% confidence level. (orig.) With 13 figs., 3 tabs., 63 refs.

  8. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its

  9. 75 FR 41173 - Call for Information: Information on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Bioenergy and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). \\2\\ US EPA. 2010. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and.... Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2008. U.S. EPA 430-R-10-06. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1996. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared......

  10. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  11. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  12. Vision for an Open, Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Butler, J. H.; Rotman, D.; Ciais, P.; Greenhouse Gas Information System Team

    2010-12-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through the earth system. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, synthesis analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about anthropogenic and natural sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at temporal and spatial scales relevant to decision making. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a vision for an open, global GHGIS including latest analysis of system requirements, critical gaps, and relationship to related efforts at various agencies, the Group on Earth Observations, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  13. Towards a Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, Riley; Butler, James; Rotman, Doug; Miller, Charles; Decola, Phil; Sheffner, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Mitchiner, John; Jonietz, Karl; Dimotakis, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Over the next few years, an increasing number of entities ranging from international, national, and regional governments, to businesses and private land-owners, are likely to become more involved in efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. In such a world, geospatially resolved information about the location, amount, and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be needed, as well as the stocks and flows of all forms of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems and in the oceans. The ability to implement policies that limit GHG concentrations would be enhanced by a global, open, and transparent greenhouse gas information system (GHGIS). An operational and scientifically robust GHGIS would combine ground-based and space-based observations, carbon-cycle modeling, GHG inventories, meta-analysis, and an extensive data integration and distribution system, to provide information about sources, sinks, and fluxes of greenhouse gases at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. The GHGIS effort was initiated in 2008 as a grassroots inter-agency collaboration intended to rigorously identify the needs for such a system, assess the capabilities of current assets, and suggest priorities for future research and development. We will present a status of the GHGIS effort including our latest analysis and ideas for potential near-term pilot projects with potential relevance to European initiatives including the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the Integrated Carbon Observing System (ICOS).

  14. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  15. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  16. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  17. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    that accelerated emissions of N2O associated with the production of biomass for bio-fuel purposes will outweigh the avoided emissions of fossil fuel-derived CO2 (Crutzen et al., 2008). In the present study we examined the effects on N2O and CH4 emissions when residues from bio-energy production were recycled...... associated with the use of nitrogen based fertilizers in agricultural production. Replacing fossil fuel-derived energy by biomass-derived energy is commonly and with increasing emphasis proposed as a mean to mitigate the CO2 emissions. However, a recent analysis of global emission data proposes...... as fertilizer for a maize energy crop within an organic cropping system. Furthermore, we assessed sustainability in terms of greenhouse gasses for co-production of bio-ethanol and bio-gas from maize. This was compared to estimated greenhouse gas balances for rye and grass-clover as alternative raw materials....

  18. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... these circumstances emissions trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. To counter non-compliance due to trading a range of liability proposals have been suggested. Using a simple global model, we analyze the economic and environmental performance of these proposals for the first...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  20. The impact of international greenhouse gas emissions reduction on Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susandi, A.

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation represents a summary of three papers addressing impacts of climate policy on Indonesia. The extended version of MERGE (Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies) has been used to project Indonesian’s energy production, consumption and export to the year 2100, for a reference scenario and mitigation scenarios. In addition to the international trade of energy, coal has been included in this version. The study also analyzes the in...

  1. The impact of international greenhouse gas emissions reduction on Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susandi, Armi

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation represents a summary of three papers addressing impacts of climate policy on Indonesia. The extended version of MERGE (Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies) has been used to project Indonesian’s energy production, consumption and export to the year 2100, for a reference scenario and mitigation scenarios. In addition to the international trade of energy, coal has been included in this version. The study al...

  2. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Stored Dairy Slurry from Multiple Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Riche, Etienne L; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Wood, Jeffrey D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Dunfield, Kari; Ngwabie, N Martin; McCabe, John; Gordon, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    A significant need exists to improve our understanding of the extent of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of livestock manure to both improve the reliability of inventory assessments and the impact of beneficial management practice adoption. Factors affecting the extent and variability of greenhouse gas emissions from stored dairy manure were investigated. Emissions from six slurries stored in clean concrete tanks under identical "warm-season" conditions were monitored consecutively over 173 d (18°C average air temperature). Methane (CH) emissions varied considerably among the manures from 6.3 to 25.9 g m d and accounted for ∼96% of the total CO equivalent greenhouse gas emissions. The duration of the lag period, when methane emissions were near baseline levels, varied from 30 to 90 d from the beginning of storage. As a result, CH emissions were poorly correlated with air temperature prior to the time of peak emissions (i.e., the initial 48 to 108 d of storage) but improved afterward. The air temperature following the time of the peak CH flux and the length of the active methanogenesis period (i.e., when the daily CH emissions ≥ 7.6 g m d) were highly correlated with CH emissions ( = 0.98, < 0.01). Methane conversion factors (MCFs) ranged from 0.08 to 0.52 for the different manures. The MCFs generated from existing CH emission models were correlated ( = 0.68, = 0.02) to MCFs calculated for the active methanogenesis period for manure containing wood bedding. A temperature component was added that improved the accuracy ( = 0.82, < 0.01). This demonstrated that an improved understanding of lag period dynamics will enhance stored dairy manure greenhouse gas emission inventory calculations.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  5. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kuai, Le; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, Helen M.; Herman, Robert L.; Susan S. Kulawik

    2017-01-01

    The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG) effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE), which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and troposphe...

  6. Greenhouse-gas payback times for crop-based biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshout, P. M. F.; van Zelm, R.; Balkovic, J.; Obersteiner, M.; Schmid, E.; Skalsky, R.; van der Velde, M.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A global increase in the demand for crop-based biofuels may be met by cropland expansion, and could require the sacrifice of natural vegetation. Such land transformation alters the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the original system, and causes significant greenhouse-gas emissions, which should be considered when assessing the global warming performance of crop-based biofuels. As an indicator of this performance we propose the use of greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT), that is, the number of years it takes before the greenhouse-gas savings due to displacing fossil fuels with biofuels equal the initial losses of carbon and nitrogen stocks from the original ecosystem. Spatially explicit global GPBTs were derived for biofuel production systems using five different feedstocks (corn, rapeseed, soybean, sugarcane and winter wheat), cultivated under no-input and high-input farm management. Overall, GPBTs were found to range between 1 and 162 years (95% range, median: 19 years) with the longest GPBTs occurring in the tropics. Replacing no-input with high-input farming typically shortened the GPBTs by 45 to 79%. Location of crop cultivation was identified as the primary factor driving variation in GPBTs. This study underscores the importance of using spatially explicit impact assessments to guide biofuel policy.

  7. Communicating the Uncertainty in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Whitmore, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Effective communication of the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions is important. It allows an individual, whether they are a scientist, policy maker or member of the public, to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. Communicating uncertainty is challenging, however. There is no single best method for communicating uncertainty and the success of a particular method will depend on the subject matter and the target audience. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from a national inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: calibrated phrases such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely'; probabilities, whereby the probability of being within a defined range of values is given; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots and shaded arrays. We asked 64 individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory for their opinions on how successfully these methods communicated uncertainty. We analysed the results to see which methods were preferred and to see whether this preference was affected either by the professional group to which individuals belonged or the level of mathematics to which they were educated. The professional groups represented in our study were categorised as (i) those who influence policy (ii) research scientists (iii) those representing the environment and (iv) those representing the agricultural industry. The responses to our questionnaire were varied but some clear messages came through. Our analysis showed that although calibrated phrases were thought to be a good method of communication they did not convey enough information and were open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticized for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best indication of uncertainty when individuals were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas

  8. 78 FR 19801 - 2013 Revisions to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and Proposed Confidentiality Determinations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Climate Change and to add global warming potentials for certain fluorinated greenhouse gases not currently... Panel on Climate Change ISBN International Standard Book Number F-GHG fluorinated greenhouse gas F-HTF... proposing to amend the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule and to clarify or change specific...

  9. 77 FR 22391 - Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... report, ``Each additional ton of greenhouse gases emitted commits us to further change and greater risks... Greenhouse Gas Concentrations; Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division of Earth and Life Sciences... Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources; Electric Utility Generating Units; Proposed Rule...

  10. 78 FR 11619 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... protection, Administrative practice and procedures, Air pollution control, Greenhouse gases, Monitoring... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available...

  11. Germany 2050 a greenhouse gas-neutral country. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kathrin; Nissler, Diana (eds.)

    2013-10-15

    For several years, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has been looking at the question how the climate target of a GHG-neutral Germany can be achieved. In a multi-disciplinary project launched by the agency, the first point of call was power generation because of its high emissions. It was shown in 2010 that power generation from 100 % renewable energy is possible. Even then it was understood that a renewable energy supply alone would not be enough to completely abolish greenhouse gas emissions. Other sectors of the economy would have to follow suit and undergo major changes, relying on low-GHG technology. Consequently, the study now submitted, ''Greenhouse gas-neutral Germany 2050'', includes in its research all relevant emission sources that are described in the annual National Inventory Report (NIR) on emissions and removal of greenhouse gases. Alongside complete energy supply, including heating and transport, we also look at emissions from industry, waste disposal, agriculture and forestry as well as changes in land use. We develop a target scenario. The transformations that lead to the target and related economic considerations or the selection of appropriate policy instruments, however, are not part of our study. The scenario analysis is based on the assumption that in 2050, Germany will still be an exporting industrial country with an average annual growth of 0.7 % of its gross domestic product.

  12. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  13. Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Zaccheo, T. Scott [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Blume, Nathan [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Pernini, Timothy [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Braun, Michael [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Botos, Christopher [Exelis Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the development and testing of a novel system, the Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE), for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 at Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) sites. The system consists of a pair of laser based transceivers, a number of retroreflectors, and a set of cloud based data processing, storage and dissemination tools, which enable 2-D mapping of the CO2 in near real time. A system was built, tested locally in New Haven, Indiana, and then deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) facility in Bozeman, MT. Testing at ZERT demonstrated the ability of the GreenLITE system to identify and map small underground leaks, in the presence of other biological sources and with widely varying background concentrations. The system was then ruggedized and tested at the Harris test site in New Haven, IN, during winter time while exposed to temperatures as low as -15 °CºC. Additional testing was conducted using simulated concentration enhancements to validate the 2-D retrieval accuracy. This test resulted in a high confidence in the reconstruction ability to identify sources to tens of meters resolution in this configuration. Finally, the system was deployed for a period of approximately 6 months to an active industrial site, Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP), where >1M metric tons of CO2 had been injected into an underground sandstone basin. The main objective of this final deployment was to demonstrate autonomous operation over a wide range of environmental conditions with very little human interaction, and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system for long term deployment in a GCS environment.

  14. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob

    times and the emissions ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg methane per hour, with the lowest emissions from the oldest and smallest landfills and the highest emissions from the bigger landfills. It was not possible to correlate the measured emission with a single factor such a landfill age, size or mitigation...... gas, and that this error becomes smaller with increasing measurement distance. A measurement protocol was developed and the methane emission was quantified from a series of landfills with different size, age and gas recovery and mitigation conditions. The landfills were measured between one and four...... actions. As an example the highest emission was measured at a landfill with active methane recovery and utilization. Compared with national and European greenhouse gas reporting schemes the measurement showed a large difference, with reporting ranging a factor of 100 above to a factor of 10 below...

  15. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions in Australian landscapes: Comparing ground based mobile surveying data to GOSAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, S.; Iverach, C.; Kelly, B. F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is threatening the health and stability of the natural world and human society. Such concerns were emphasized at COP21 conference in Paris 2015 which highlighted the global need to improve our knowledge of sources of greenhouse gas and to develop methods to mitigate the effects of their emissions. Ongoing spatial and temporal measurements of greenhouse gases at both point and regional scales is important for clarification of climate change mechanisms and accounting. The Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from orbit. As existing ground monitoring stations are limited and still unevenly distributed, satellite observations provide important frequent, spatially extensive, but low resolution observations. Recent developments in portable laser based greenhouse gas measurement systems have enabled the rapid measurement of greenhouse gases in ppb at the ground surface. This study was conducted to map major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the eastern states of Australia at the landscape scale and to compare the results to GOSAT observations. During April 2016 we conducted a regional CH4 and CO2 mobile survey, using an LGR greenhouse gas analyzer. Measurements were made along a 4000 KM circuit through major cities, country towns, dry sclerophyll forests, coastal wetlands, coal mining regions, coal seam gas developments, dryland farming and irrigated agricultural landscapes. The ground-based survey data were then compared with the data (L2) from GOSAT. Ground-based mobile surveys showed that there are clear statistical differences in the ground level atmospheric concentration of CH4 and CO2 associated with all major changes in land use. These changes extend for kilometers, and cover one or more GOSAT pixels. In the coal mining districts the ground-level atmospheric concentration of CH4 exceeded 2 ppm for over 40 km, yet this was not discernable in the retrieved data (L2

  16. Optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies to suppress energy cannibalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.M. [Queen' s Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Energy cannibalism refers to an effect where rapid growth of an entire energy producing (or conserving) technology industry creates a need for energy that uses (or cannibalizes) the energy of existing power plants or devices. For the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to grow while remaining net greenhouse gas emission mitigators, they must grow at a rate slower than the inverse of their energy payback time. This constraint exposes a current market failure that significantly undervalues the physical reality of embodied energy in products or processes deployed to mitigate GHG emissions and indicates potential solutions. (author)

  17. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712-0276 (United States); Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sharrard, Aurora L [Green Building Alliance, 333 East Carson Street, Suite 331, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Azevedo, Ines Lima, E-mail: mblackhurst@gmail.com, E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu, E-mail: auroras@gbapgh.org, E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  18. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the level...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  19. Quality manual for the Danish greenhouse gas inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    The report outlines the quality work undertaken by the emission inventory group at the Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University in connection with the preparation and reporting of the Danish greenhouse gas inventory. The report updates and expands on the first version of the quality...... manual published in 2005. The report fulfils the mandatory requirements for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan as lined out in the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and the specifications related to reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. The report describes all elements of the internal QC...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  1. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Matthews, H. Scott; Sharrard, Aurora L.; Hendrickson, Chris T.; Lima Azevedo, Inês

    2011-07-01

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  2. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents scenarios for power production without greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden by 2050. The Nordic region already has a high share of renewables in its power production portfolio (about 60% in 2010), and possibilities for further deployment are very...... profitable investments in transmission grids with particular focus on the interconnections between the Nordic region and Continental Europe - Technical simulations of the power system with focus on balancing of large shares of non-dispatchable renewable resources in a future system. - Assess impacts...

  3. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  4. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  5. Leaking Methane from Natural Gas Vehicles: Implications for US Greenhouse Gas Reductions from the Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the US automobile market is used to test the role that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) might play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since natural gas (methane) emits less CO2 per unit of energy than petroleum products, NGVs are an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions. High and low demand scenarios are used to forecast the emissions from unrestricted growth and a modest program of conservation, respectively. Based on these scenarios, a reference scenario is developed that projects...

  6. ICT and greenhouse gas emissions; IKT og klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    ICT can go from being a part of the climate challenge to be an important part of the solution by simplify, rationalize and replace a variety of features and services. ICT's contribute through production and operation for approx. 2.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time estimates show that ICT could help to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by up to 15 % by 2020 through a series of measures. ICT can, for example. contribute to reduce travel activity through remote collaboration, the transition from material to virtual products and by greater energy efficiency in buildings and vehicles. Through remote collaboration, green tender rounds and change of focus from products to services, can authorities reduce their own emissions. In addition, the authorities go ahead as good examples by illustrating how environment benefits from governmental ICT investments. If we assume that video conferencing can replace 1 of 5 flights among the 140 000 state employees, this can lead to a reducted emission of 14 600 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year. (AG)

  7. Local benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, G.; Zuk, M.; Hojer, M.; Avalos, M.; Gonzalez, I.; Iniestra, R.; Laguna, I.; Martinez, M.; Osnaya, P.; Reynales, L.; Valdes, R.; Martinez, J.

    2003-12-01

    For Mexico City, we estimate public health improvements due to air pollution reductions that could occur simultaneously with greenhouse gas emission mitigation, and we compare the costs and benefits of 5 specific policy measures. Reduced-form air quality models are used to calculate the impacts of changed emissions on exposure. Dose-response methodology is applied to estimate public health improvements, and several valuation metrics are applied to determine the monetized health benefits to society of the control measures. Implementation of these 5 measures in Mexico City could reduce annualized exposure to particulate air pollution by 1% and to maximum daily ozone by 3%, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2% (more than 300,000 tons C equivalent per year). We estimate that over 4400 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per year could be saved, with monetized health benefits on the order of \\200 million USD per year. In contrast, total costs are under \\70 million USD per year. The mean cost per QALY is under \\$40,000. Of the measures considered, those that improve transportation efficiency are most promising for the simultaneous reduction of local and global pollution in the region.

  8. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by recycling plastics and textiles into products

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Marja-Riitta; Dahlbo, Helena

    2007-01-01

    Waste management generates greenhouse gas emissions. New waste management concepts for reducing these emissions are continuously being developed. In this study the potential of material recovery to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was assessed. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase the material recovery concepts used in Finland were identified and approximate greenhouse gas emission savings calculations were conducted for some of the concepts. In the second phase two promis...

  9. Influences of Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes within Mixed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, J.; Contosta, A.; Deng, J.; Lepine, L. C.; Li, C.; Ollinger, S. V.; Ouimette, A.; Tang, J.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities (e.g., urbanization, land use planning) have led to complex patterns of urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes. Ecosystems within these landscapes play an important role in climate regulation by acting as regulators of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and altering surface albedo and other biophysical properties. The overarching goal of our work is to examine the interactions among carbon cycling, land use, and climate change in a human-dominated, mixed land use region that includes urban, suburban, agriculture, and forest land uses. We combine field measurements of carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O), an improved process-based biogeochemical model - DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) designed to predict C fluxes and trace gas emissions, and historical and projected land use change data derived from Landsat imagery and cellular automata/agent-based modeling. Our specific objectives designed to achieve the overarching goal are to: (1) Measure C pools and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) in urban, suburban, agricultural, and forested landscapes; (2) Improve and parameterize the DNDC (DeNitrification and DeComposition) model and validate model predictions; (3) Develop historical land use change data for the last three decades from Landsat imagery and projections of future land use change; (4) Generate spatially continuous predictions of C pools and greenhouse gas emissions using Urban-DNDC and assess how land use interacts with C cycling and climate change and how future land use change will influence carbon sequestration potential within these complex landscapes. Our results will have implications for crafting effective land management policies that balance C sequestration and climate mitigation with food production, forest resources and many other services that these landscapes provide.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from septic systems in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, A. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Brooks, R. A.; Nadeau, S. A.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Onsite septic systems are a practical way to treat wastewater in rural or less-densely populated areas. Septic systems utilize microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). At each of nine septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O from the soil over the leach field and sand filter, and from the roof outlet vent. These are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal operation of the septic system. The majority of all septic system gas emissions were released from the roof vent. However, our comparisons of the gas fluxes from these locations suggest that biological processes in the soil, especially the soil over the leach field, can influence the type and quantity of gas that is released from the system. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.12, 0.045, and 0.046 tonne CO2e capita-1 year-1, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the US.

  11. Designing building energy efficiency programs for greenhouse gas reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael, E-mail: mfb@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lima Azevedo, Ines, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Scott Matthews, H., E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Hendrickson, Chris T., E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. The analysis includes electricity and natural gas consumption, covering 75% of building energy consumption in Pittsburgh and 85% in Austin. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings, and GHG reductions. Results suggest uncertainty in local stocks, demands, and efficiency significantly impacts anticipated outcomes. Annual GHG reductions of 1 ton CO{sub 2} eq/capita/yr in Pittsburgh could cost near nothing or over $20 per capita annually. Capital-constrained policies generate slightly less social savings (a present value of a few hundred dollars per capita) than policies that maximize social savings. However, sectors and end uses targeted for intervention vary depending on policy objectives and constraints. Optimal efficiency investment strategies for some end uses vary significantly (in excess of 100%) between Pittsburgh and Austin, suggesting that resources and guidance conducted at the national scale may mislead state and local decision-makers. Results are used to provide recommendations for efficiency program administrators. - Highlights: > We use public data to estimate local building energy costs, benefits and greenhouse gas reductions. > We use optimization to evaluate trade-offs between program objectives and capital constraints. > Local energy market conditions significantly influence efficiency expectations. > Different program objectives can lead to different effective investment strategies. > We reflect on the implications of our results for efficiency program design.

  12. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  13. ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue which has attracted the attention of many scientists is the climate change and global warming due to greenhouse gas emission which has caused the world faced with a great human and environmental disaster. In this study, the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions was estimated in the semi-traditional and semi-mechanized rice production systems in Dargaz region, Iran. All the agricultural and consuming inputs procedures responsible for greenhouse gas emissions were collected and recorded in both systems. The amount of GHG emission in semi-traditional and semi-mechanized was 813.17 and 968.31 kg CO2-eq ha-1, respectively. The fuel consumption with the share of 38.22% in semi-traditional method and 43.32% in semi-mechanized system had the largest share in GHG emission and using Nitrogen fertilizer on farms with the share of 31.97% in semi-traditional method and 26.91% in semi-mechanized system is in the second place of GHG emission. The semi-traditional system had greater GHG emissions in the unit of tone of harvested grain and unit of energy output. The use of alternative methods such as conservation tillage and organic fertilizers can be effective in improving the environmental status of the production area.

  14. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  15. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and Japan: sector-specific estimates and managerial and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masao

    2007-10-01

    Many firms generate large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases when they burn fossil fuels in their production processes. In addition, production of raw materials and other inputs the firms procure for their operations also generates greenhouse gases indirectly. These direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions occur in many sectors of our economies. In this paper, we first present sector-specific estimates for such greenhouse gas emissions. We then show that estimates for such sector-specific greenhouse gas emissions are often required for various types of corporate as well as public policy analyses in both domestic and international contexts. Measuring greenhouse gas emissions resulting from firms' multi-stage production processes in a multi-sector context is relevant for policies related to the Kyoto protocol, an international agreement to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. For example, since the protocol allows firms to engage in trading and offsetting of their greenhouse gas emissions across national borders, provided that emissions are correctly measured, the firms can take advantage of such trading schemes by placing their energy-intensive production facilities globally and strategically. We present several case studies which illustrate the importance of this and other aspects of greenhouse gas emissions in firms' environmental management. We also argue that our modeling and estimation methods based on input-output analyses are suitable for the types of research goals we have in this paper. Our methods are applied to data for Canada and Japan in a variety of environmental management circumstances.

  17. Understanding Human Development Potentials and Demands for Greenhouse Gas Emissions:with Empirical Analysis using time series and cross-sectional data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiahua

    2004-01-01

    Based on an investigation of the meaning of development, the neo-dassical economic approach to development, and the post-welfarist theory of development, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for understanding human development potentials, while undertaking empirical analysis using cross-sectional and time series data on human development. Human development is associated with basic necessities for subsistence, the quality of life,and political and civil rights, in addition to income indicators. Our analysis suggests that the concept of human development potentials has two dimensions:the rights of development and limits to human development. Both are largely ignored in the neoclassical theory of development. However, human development is not unbounded, which approaches to a relatively fixed constant at given economic,technological and institutional conditions. This conceptual understanding is supported by results from the empirical examination of the relationships between demands for carbon emissions and other elements of human development.

  18. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  19. The Effect of Taxation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga KOTNIK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of governmental environmental taxes on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using a panel data set of 19 EU countries for the time period 1995-2010. We estimate both direct and indirect effects of governmental environmental taxes on GHG emissions in industrial processes. The indirect effect in particular operates through the effect of environmental expenditure for reduction of GHG emissions in industry. To take into account the dynamic nature and to properly address the potential endogeneity, adequate econometric methods are applied. We have shown that the direct effect of environmental taxes on GHG emissions is negative, while the indirect effect through environmental expenditures is also negative and even more statistically significant. Consequently, some policy implications may be derived from the results.

  20. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    the nutritional value of alternative food choices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. METHODS: We created eight dietary scenarios......BACKGROUND: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider...... with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995-2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation...

  2. Australia’s Consumption-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the World Input-Output Database in a multiregional input–output model to analyse Australian consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1995 to 2009. We find that the emission content of Australian macroeconomic activity has changed over the 15-year period. Consumpti...... consumption emissions. Our results suggest that tracking consumption emissions together with production emissions provides a more complete picture of Australian emissions.......-based emissions have been growing faster than production-based emissions since 2001. We show that emissions embodied in Australian imports are increasingly becoming a significant source of emissions. We investigate emissions in Australian imports and find that increased trade with China contributed substantially...

  3. Radiative forcing due to greenhouse gas emission and sink histories in Finland and its future control potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The effective atmospheric lifetimes of the greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}),nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and many of the CFCs are of the order of 100 years. Human activities, as an example GDP, very often change at rates of a few per cents per year,corresponding time constants of some tens of years. Also the forest ecosystems have time constants of this order. Even the human population of the globe is increasing by about two percent per year. Because so many natural and human-linked processes, which are relevant to global warming, have slow change rates of about same order, a time-dependent consideration of the greenhouse warming and its control can give useful information for the understanding of the problem. The objective of the work is to study the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in Finland and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of radiative forcing which describes the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. The idea behind the calculations is that Finland should in some way steer its share of the global radiative forcing and greenhouse effect. This presentation describes the calculation model REFUGE and the projects in which it has been used

  4. Unconventional Heavy Oil Growth and Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduagu, Experience I; Gates, Ian D

    2015-07-21

    Enormous global reserves of unconventional heavy oil make it a significant resource for economic growth and energy security; however, its extraction faces many challenges especially on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and recently, social acceptability. Here, we question whether it makes sense to extract and use unconventional heavy oil in spite of these externalities. We place unconventional oils (oil sands and oil shale) alongside shale gas, coal, lignite, wood and conventional oil and gas, and compare their energy intensities and life cycle GHG emissions. Our results reveal that oil shale is the most energy intensive fuel among upgraded primary fossil fuel options followed by in situ-produced bitumen from oil sands. Lignite is the most GHG intensive primary fuel followed by oil shale. Based on future world energy demand projections, we estimate that if growth of unconventional heavy oil production continues unabated, the incremental GHG emissions that results from replacing conventional oil with heavy oil would amount to 4-21 Gt-CO2eq GtCO2eq over four decades (2010 by 2050). However, prevailing socio-economic, regional and global energy politics, environmental and technological challenges may limit growth of heavy oil production and thus its GHG emissions contributions to global fossil fuel emissions may be smaller.

  5. Greenhouse gas source identification and flux measurements using an optical remote sensing method and a photoacoustic multi-gas analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil properties such as particle size, soil organic carbon (SOC) and moisture contents, tillage operations and crop management practices influence greenhouse gas emission or consumption patterns from agricultural lands. Greenhouse gas (GG) emissions have been measured on small field plots, although ...

  6. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  7. Microbial mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfill cover soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    Landfills are one of the major sources of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential (GWP) ˜23 times higher than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Although some effective strategies have been formulated to prevent methane emissions from large landfills, many landfills allow methane to be freely emitted to the atmosphere. In such situations, it is often proposed to stimulate methanotrophs, a group of bacteria that consume methane, in the cover soil to prevent fugitive methane emissions. Several factors, however, must be addressed to make such a biogenic removal mechanism effective. First, methanotrophic activity can be inhibited by nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) that are commonly found in landfill soil gas. Second, although methanotrophs can be easily stimulated with the addition of nitrogenous fertilizers, biogenic production of nitrous oxide with a GWP ˜296 times higher than that of carbon dioxide, is also stimulated. To consider these issues, two general areas of research were performed. First, a dimensionless number was developed based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics that describes the effects of the presence of multiple NMOCs on methanotrophic growth and survival. This model was validated via experimental measurements of methanotrophic growth in the presence of varying amounts of NMOCs. Second, the effects of nutrient amendments on methane oxidation and nitrous oxide production were examined by constructing soil microcosms using landfill cover soils. Here, it was shown that the addition of ammonium in the presence of phenylacetylene stimulated methane oxidation but inhibited nitrous oxide production. Furthermore, to understand the methanotrophic community structure and activity in response to these amendments, DNA microarray and transcript analyses were performed. The results indicated the predominance of Type II methanotrophs but that Type I methanotrophs responded more significantly to these amendments. Also, substantial activity

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands: summary Report 1990-1997 (IPCC Tables 7A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Spakman J; Berg JC van den; LAE

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the Netherlands' annual greenhouse gas emission inventory submitted for 1998 according to the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Emissions of CO2 and N2O increased from 1990 to 1997 (with a

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2001. National Inventory Report 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; Brandes LJ; Peters JAHW; Coenen PWHG; Vreuls HHJ; KMD; IMP

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the 2003 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed tr

  10. 78 FR 25392 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available monitoring methods to the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric Programs...

  11. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE m

  12. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin McNicol; Whendee L. Silver

    2014-01-01

    Soils are large sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and both the magnitude and composition of soil gas emissions are strongly controlled by redox conditions. Though the effect of redox dynamics on greenhouse gas emissions has been well studied in flooded soils, less research has focused on redox dynamics without total soil inundation. For the latter, all that is...

  13. Targeting Energy Management : Analysing targets, outcomes and impacts of corporate energy and greenhouse gas management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced drastically to limit global increases in temperature to the relatively safe level of maximum 2 degrees Celsius. In the coming decades, energy efficiency improvement will be the main strategy for reducing energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Energy

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian beef and sheep industries; on farms, in feedlots and in transport and meat processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Australian livestock and livestock processing industries are thought to be major sources of greenhouse gas emissions in Australia. The meat industry contributes 8% of greenhouse gas emissions, other agriculture and forest use 19%, transport 14%, manufacturing 10%, other human activity 9% and the remaining 40% comes from energy production, distribution and use. This report considers the emission control options and their applicability to the meat industry. Emission control policies like emission taxes will reduce annual farm income by $652 million for a 20% reduction in gas emissions. An alternative approach is tradeable emission quotas, but its application to Australian agriculture must be investigated. The report concludes that the small contribution of meat industries to national greenhouse emissions must be recognised and that continued research into the management of animal production systems and the economic consequences of global warming are priority issues for agriculture. Figs., tabs.

  15. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  17. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  18. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.. Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentrations gradient with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations.

    The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500–700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the global values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000–2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr−1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr−1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr−1; for CO no significant trend could be detected.

    The strong local sources and sinks reflect in the amplitude of mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2 is 25–30 ppm (higher

  19. Greenhouse gas observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Vermeulen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.. Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertical gradients at 4 levels of the gases CO2, CH4, SF6, N2O, H2, CO and gradients at 2 levels for 222Rn. In this paper the measurement systems and measurement results are described for the main greenhouse gases and CO, for the whole period. The automatic measurement system now provides half-hourly concentration gradients with a precision better than or close to the WMO recommendations.

    The observations at Cabauw show a complex pattern caused by the influence of sources and sinks from a large area around the tower with significant contributions of sources and sinks at distances up to 500–700 km. The concentration footprint area of Cabauw is one the most intensive and complex source areas of greenhouse gases in the world. Despite this, annual mean trends for the most important greenhouse gases, compatible with the values derived using the global network, can be reproduced from the measured concentrations at Cabauw over the entire measurement period, with a measured increase in the period 2000–2009 for CO2 of 1.90 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1, for CH4 of 4.4 ± 0.6 ppb yr−1, for N2O of 0.86 ± 0.04 ppb yr−1, and for SF6 of 0.27 ± 0.01 ppt yr−1; for CO no significant trend could be detected.

    The influences of strong local sources and sinks are reflected in the amplitude of the mean seasonal cycles observed at Cabauw, that are larger than the mean Northern Hemisphere average; Cabauw mean seasonal amplitude for CO2

  20. Glacial greenhouse-gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D

    2008-11-20

    Earth's climate and the concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) varied strongly on millennial timescales during past glacial periods. Large and rapid warming events in Greenland and the North Atlantic were followed by more gradual cooling, and are highly correlated with fluctuations of N(2)O as recorded in ice cores. Antarctic temperature variations, on the other hand, were smaller and more gradual, showed warming during the Greenland cold phase and cooling while the North Atlantic was warm, and were highly correlated with fluctuations in CO(2). Abrupt changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) have often been invoked to explain the physical characteristics of these Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations, but the mechanisms for the greenhouse-gas variations and their linkage to the AMOC have remained unclear. Here we present simulations with a coupled model of glacial climate and biogeochemical cycles, forced only with changes in the AMOC. The model simultaneously reproduces characteristic features of the Dansgaard-Oeschger temperature, as well as CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations. Despite significant changes in the land carbon inventory, CO(2) variations on millennial timescales are dominated by slow changes in the deep ocean inventory of biologically sequestered carbon and are correlated with Antarctic temperature and Southern Ocean stratification. In contrast, N(2)O co-varies more rapidly with Greenland temperatures owing to fast adjustments of the thermocline oxygen budget. These results suggest that ocean circulation changes were the primary mechanism that drove glacial CO(2) and N(2)O fluctuations on millennial timescales.

  1. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karion

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a large area, traveling from Kodiak up to Barrow, Alaska, with altitude profiles near the coast and in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes a flask sampling system, a continuous cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS carbon dioxide (CO2/methane (CH4/carbon monoxide (CO/water vapor (H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction and present an assessment of analyzer performance over a three-year period. Overall analytical uncertainty of CRDS measurements in 2011 is estimated to be 0.15 ppm, 1.4 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, considering short-term precision, calibration uncertainties, and water vapor correction uncertainty. The stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 4 ppb for CO2, CH4, and CO, respectively, based on differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to deployment. This stability is not affected by variation in pressure or temperature during flight. We conclude that the uncertainty reported for our measurements would not be significantly affected if the measurements were made

  2. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Neff, D.; Tans, P.

    2012-10-01

    In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG) to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG) sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA) flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering differences of on-board reference tank measurements from a laboratory calibration performed prior to

  3. Long-term greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karion

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In March 2009 the NOAA/ESRL/GMD Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group collaborated with the US Coast Guard (USCG to establish the Alaska Coast Guard (ACG sampling site, a unique addition to NOAA's atmospheric monitoring network. This collaboration takes advantage of USCG bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness (ADA flights, conducted with Hercules C-130 aircraft from March to November each year. NOAA has installed window-replacement inlet plates on two USCG C-130 aircraft and deploys a pallet with NOAA instrumentation on each ADA flight. Flights typically last 8 h and cover a very large area, traveling from Kodiak, AK in the south up to Barrow, AK in the north, and making altitude profiles near the coast as well as in the interior. NOAA instrumentation on each flight includes: a flask sampling system, a continuous CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer, a continuous ozone analyzer, and an ambient temperature and humidity sensor. GPS time and location from the aircraft's navigation system are also collected. Air samples collected in flight are analyzed at NOAA/ESRL for the major greenhouse gases and a variety of halocarbons and hydrocarbons that influence climate, stratospheric ozone, and air quality. Instruments on this aircraft are designed and deployed to be able to collect air samples and data autonomously, so that NOAA personnel visit the site only for installation at the beginning of each season. We present an assessment of the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS CO2/CH4/CO/H2O analyzer performance operating on an aircraft over a three-year period. We describe the overall system for making accurate greenhouse gas measurements using a CRDS analyzer on an aircraft with minimal operator interaction. Short and long-term stability of the CRDS analyzer over a seven-month deployment period is better than 0.15 ppm, 2 ppb, and 5 ppb for CO2, CH4, CO respectively, considering

  4. Numerical Simulation of Dispersion from Urban Greenhouse Gas Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, Anders; Tan, Sze; He, Yonggang; Winkler, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Cities are characterized by complex topography, inhomogeneous turbulence, and variable pollutant source distributions. These features create a scale separation between local sources and urban scale emissions estimates known as the Grey-Zone. Modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques provide a quasi-deterministic, physically based toolset to bridge the scale separation gap between source level dynamics, local measurements, and urban scale emissions inventories. CFD has the capability to represent complex building topography and capture detailed 3D turbulence fields in the urban boundary layer. This presentation discusses the application of OpenFOAM to urban CFD simulations of natural gas leaks in cities. OpenFOAM is an open source software for advanced numerical simulation of engineering and environmental fluid flows. When combined with free or low cost computer aided drawing and GIS, OpenFOAM generates a detailed, 3D representation of urban wind fields. OpenFOAM was applied to model scalar emissions from various components of the natural gas distribution system, to study the impact of urban meteorology on mobile greenhouse gas measurements. The numerical experiments demonstrate that CH4 concentration profiles are highly sensitive to the relative location of emission sources and buildings. Sources separated by distances of 5-10 meters showed significant differences in vertical dispersion of plumes, due to building wake effects. The OpenFOAM flow fields were combined with an inverse, stochastic dispersion model to quantify and visualize the sensitivity of point sensors to upwind sources in various built environments. The Boussinesq approximation was applied to investigate the effects of canopy layer temperature gradients and convection on sensor footprints.

  5. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  6. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  7. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  8. Research Advances of Effects of Land Use Pattern on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Grassland Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng; Leixing; Chen; Kelong; Wang; Shiping

    2014-01-01

    The grassland is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in China,and greenhouse gas fluxes such as CO2,CH4 and N2O play an important role in the global climate change. The differences in grazing,cultivation and management measures will affect greenhouse gas emissions in grassland ecosystem. Studies suggest that reclamation will lead to increased CO2 fluxes,and fertilization will lead to increased N2 O fluxes; no grazing in summer can reduce greenhouse gas emissions,but impacts of grazing and management measures on greenhouse gas fluxes have not yet reached the same conclusion. The different results may be related to local natural conditions,management measures and research methods. Future research should be focused on unity and standardization in these areas,making the results scientific and comparable,and finally providing the basis for emission reduction of greenhouse gases in grassland ecosystem.

  9. Review of Mitigation Costs for Stabilizing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; O'Neill, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to avoid future climate change comes at a cost, because low-emission technologies are more expensive than GHG-emitting technology options. The increase in mitigation cost is not linearly related to the stabilization level, though: the first emission reductions are relatively cheap, but deeper emission reductions become more expensive. Therefore, emission reduction to medium levels of GHG concentrations , such as 4.5 or 6 W/m2, is considerably cheaper than emission reduction to low levels of GHG concentrations, such as 2.6 or 3.7 W/m2. Moreover, mitigation costs are influenced by many other aspects than the targeted mitigation level alone, such as whether or not certain technologies are available or societally acceptable (Kriegler et al., 2014); the rate of technological progress and cost reduction of low-emission technologies; the level of final energy demand (Riahi et al., 2011), and the level of global cooperation and trade in emission allowances (den Elzen and Höhne, 2010). This paper reviews the existing literature on greenhouse gas mitigation costs. We analyze the available data on mitigation costs and draw conclusions on how these change for different stabilization levels of GHG concentrations. We will take into account the aspects of technology, energy demand, and cooperation in distinguishing differences between scenarios and stabilization levels. References: den Elzen, M., Höhne, N., 2010. Sharing the reduction effort to limit global warming to 2C. Climate Policy 10, 247-260. Kriegler, E., Weyant, J., Blanford, G., Krey, V., Clarke, L., Edmonds, J., Fawcett, A., Luderer, G., Riahi, K., Richels, R., Rose, S., Tavoni, M., Vuuren, D., 2014. The role of technology for achieving climate policy objectives: overview of the EMF 27 study on global technology and climate policy strategies. Climatic Change, 1-15. Riahi, K., Dentener, F., Gielen, D., Grubler, A., Jewell, J., Klimont, Z., Krey, V., McCollum, D., Pachauri, S

  10. The economics of biomass for power and greenhouse gas reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jay Brooker

    The power cost and optimum plant size for power plants using straw fuel in western Canada was determined. The optimum size for agricultural residues is 450 MW (the largest single biomass unit judged feasible in this study), and the power cost is 50.30 MWh-1. If a larger biomass boiler could be built, the optiμm project size for straw would be 628 MW. For a market power price of 40 MWh-1 the cost of the GHG credit generated by a straw-fired plant is 11 tonne-1 CO2. Straw was evaluated as a possible supplement to the primary coal fuel at the Genesee power station in order to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity. Cofiring straw at the Genesee power station does not compete favorably with other GHG abatement technologies, even the lowest cost option is estimated at 22 tonne-1 CO2. The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry is determined. The pipeline would be economical at large capacity (>0.5 M dry tonnes per year for a one way pipeline, and >1.25 M dry tonnes per year for a two way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances (>75 km (one way) and >470 km (two way) at a capacity of 2 M dry tonnes per year). Pipelining was determined to be unsuitable for combustion applications. Pipeline transport of corn is evaluated against a range of truck transport costs. At 20% solids, pipeline transport of corn stover costs less than trucking at capacities in excess of 1.4 M dry tonnes/yr when compared to a mid range of truck transport. Pipelining of corn stover gives the opportunity to conduct simultaneous transport and saccharification (STS) but would require a source of waste heat at the pipeline inlet in order to be economical. Transport of corn stover in multiple pipelines offers the opportunity to develop a large ethanol fermentation plant, avoiding some of the diseconomies of scale that arise from smaller plants whose capacities are limited by issues of truck congestion

  11. What we learn from updates of NOAA's Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James H.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dlugokencky, Edward; Elkins, James W.; Masarie, Kenneth; Schnell, Russell C.; Tans, Pieter; Dutton, Geoff; Miller, Ben R.

    2014-05-01

    Several years ago, NOAA introduced a unique index for expressing the influence of human-emitted, long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (D.J. Hofmann et al., Tellus, 2006, S8B, 614-619). Being a condensation and normalization of radiative forcing from long-lived gases, the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a standard that could be easily understood and followed. The index each year is calculated from high quality, long-term observations by NOAA's Global Monitoring Division, which includes real-time measurements extending over the past five decades, as well as published ice core records that go back to 1750. The AGGI is radiative forcing from these long-lived gases, normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. For 2012, the AGGI was 1.32, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 32% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing (and the AGGI) by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 80-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) has increased measurably over the past 6 years, as did its contribution to radiative forcing (and the AGGI). This year, in addition to updating the AGGI for 2013, increases in radiative forcing will be evaluated and discussed with respect to time-dependent changes in the contributions from CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other emerging greenhouse gases.

  12. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  13. 77 FR 11533 - Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reporting guidelines. The Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas... AGENCY Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010; Notice of Availability and... availability and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Draft Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and...

  14. Assessment of the impact of the greenhouse gas emission and sink scenarios in Finland on radiative forcing and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, I.; Sinisalo, J.; Pipatti, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work is to study greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their greenhouse impact as a function of time. The greenhouse impact is expressed in terms of global average radiative forcing, which measures the perturbation in the Earth`s radiation budget. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes of the greenhouse gases and the radiation absorption properties of the gases. It takes into account the relatively slow changes in the concentrations due to natural removal and transformation processes and also allows a comparison of the impact of various greenhouse gases and their possible control options as a function of time. In addition to the applications mentioned above, the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission histories of Nordic countries have been estimated, and the radiative forcing caused by them has been calculated with REFUGE. The dynamic impact of aerosol emissions both from the global point of view and in the context of different energy sources (coal, oil and natural gas) have also been studied. In some instances the caused radiative forcing has been examined on a per capita basis. The radiative forcing calculations contain considerable uncertainty due to inaccurately known factors at several stages of the calculation (emission estimation, concentration calculation and radiative forcing calculation). The total uncertainty of the results is typically on the order of +- 40 %, when absolute values are used. If the results are used in a relative way, e.g. to compare the impacts of different scenarios, the final uncertainty is considerably less (typically + 10 %), due to correlations in almost all stages of the calculation process

  15. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management approaches in the islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Concerns about waste generation and climate change have attracted worldwide attention. Small islands, which account for more than one-sixth of the global land area, are facing problems caused by global climate change. This study evaluated the greenhouse gas emissions from five small islands surrounding Taiwan. These islands - Penghu County, Liuqui Island, Kinmen County, Matsu Island and Green Island - have their own waste management approaches that can serve as a guideline for waste management with greenhouse gas mitigation. The findings indicate that the total annual greenhouse gas emissions of the islands ranged from 292.1 to 29,096.2 [metric] tonne CO2-equivalent. The loading waste volumes and shipping distances were positively related to greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. The greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy plants, mainly carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, can be offset by energy recovery (approximately 38.6% of greenhouse gas emissions from incineration). In addition, about 34% and 11% of waste generated on the islands was successfully recycled and composted, respectively. This study provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for waste management approaches for greenhouse gas mitigation.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  17. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  18. Income-Based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Zeqi; Guan, Dabo; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-03

    Accounting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of nations is essential to understanding their importance to global climate change and help inform the policymaking on global GHG mitigation. Previous studies have made efforts to evaluate direct GHG emissions of nations (a.k.a. production-based accounting method) and GHG emissions caused by the final consumption of nations (a.k.a. consumption-based accounting method), but overlooked downstream GHG emissions enabled by primary inputs of individual nations and sectors (a.k.a. income-based accounting method). Here we show that the income-based accounting method reveals new GHG emission profiles for nations and sectors. The rapid development of mining industries drives income-based GHG emissions of resource-exporting nations (e.g., Australia, Canada, and Russia) during 1995-2009. Moreover, the rapid development of sectors producing basic materials and providing financial intermediation services drives income-based GHG emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, Indonesia, India, and Brazil) during this period. The income-based accounting can support supply side policy decisions and provide additional information for determining GHG emission quotas based on cumulative emissions of nations and designing policies for shared responsibilities.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exelis has recently developed a novel laser-based instrument to aid in the autonomous real-time monitoring and mapping of CO2 concentration over a two-dimensional area. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE instrument uses two transceivers and a series of retroreflectors to continuously measure the differential transmission over a number of overlapping lines of sight or “chords”, forming a plane. By inverting the differential transmission measurements along with locally measured temperature (T, pressure (P and relative humidity (RH the average concentration of CO2 along each chord can be determined and, based on the overlap between chords, a 2D map of CO2 concentration over the measurement plane can be estimated. The GreenLITE system was deployed to the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT center in Bozeman, Montana, in Aug-Sept 2014, where more than 200 hours of data were collected over a wide range of environmental conditions, while utilizing a controlled release of CO2 into a segmented underground pipe [1]. The system demonstrated the ability to identify persistent CO2 sources at the test facility and showed strong correlation with an independent measurement using a LI-COR based system. Here we describe the measurement approach, instrument design, and results from the deployment to the ZERT site.

  20. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  1. Manure management and greenhouse gas mitigation techniques : a comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langmead, C.

    2003-09-03

    Alberta is the second largest agricultural producer in Canada, ranking just behind Ontario. Approximately 62 per cent of the province's farm cash receipts are attributable to the livestock industry. Farmers today maintain large numbers of a single animal type. The drivers for more advanced manure management systems include: the trend towards confined feeding operations (CFO) is creating large, concentrated quantities of manure; public perception of CFO; implementation of provincial legislation regulating the expansion and construction of CFO; ratification of the Kyoto Protocol raised interest in the development of improved manure management systems capable of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and rising energy costs. The highest methane emissions factors are found with liquid manure management systems. They contribute more than 80 per cent of the total methane emissions from livestock manure in Alberta. The author identified and analyzed three manure management techniques to mitigate GHG emissions. They were: bio-digesters, gasification systems, and composting. Three recommendations were made to establish a strategy to support emissions offsets and maximize the reduction of methane emissions from the livestock industry. The implementation of bio-digesters, especially for the swine industry, was recommended. It was suggested that a gasification pilot project for poultry manure should be pursued by Climate Change Central. Public outreach programs promoting composting of cattle manure for beef feedlots and older style dairy barns should also be established. 19 refs., 11 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  3. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  4. California's new mandatory greenhouse gas reporting regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gaffney; Doug Thompson; Richard Bode [California Air Resources Board, CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Beginning in early 2009, approximately 1000 California businesses will begin reporting their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on the requirements of a new regulation adopted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in December 2007. California's mandatory GHG reporting regulation is the first rule adopted as a requirement of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, passed by the California Legislature as Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32; Nunez, Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006) and signed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in September 2006. The regulation is the first of its kind in the United States to require facilities to report annual GHG emissions. In general, all facilities subject to reporting are required to report their on-site stationary source combustion emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}). Some industrial sectors, such as cement producers and oil refineries, also must report their process emissions, which occur from chemical or other noncombustion activities. Fugitive emissions from facilities are required to be reported when specified in the regulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use is prevalent in electricity facilities and must be reported. CO{sub 2} emissions from biomass-derived fuels must be separately identified during reporting, and reporters must also provide their consumption of purchased or acquired electricity and thermal energy; these requirements will assist facilities in evaluating changes in their fossil fuel carbon footprints. 1 tab.

  5. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kuai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG effect of tropospheric ozone (O3 is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE, which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and tropospheric O3column. The zonally averaged subtropical LWRE is ~0.2 W m-2higher than the zonally averaged tropical LWRE, generally due to lower water vapor concentrations and less cloud coverage at the downward branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropics. The largest values of O3LWRE over the Middle East (>1 W/m2 are further due to large thermal contrasts and tropospheric ozone enhancements from atmospheric circulation and pollution. Conversely, the low O3LWRE over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (on average 0.4 W m-2 is due to strong water vapor absorption and cloudiness, both of which reduce the tropospheric O3absorption in the longwave radiation. These results show that changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate change could affect the magnitude and distribution of ozone radiative forcing.

  6. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission from In-situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2013-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication, which continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Two primary processes for removing excess NO3- from water are biological assimilation and denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria use NO3- as the electron acceptor for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG). A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs), though research has been limited to NO3- level reduction and omitted process mechanisms. DNBRs work by providing an anaerobic environment with plenty of organic matter (commonly woodchips) for denitrifying bacteria to flourish. While, initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, GHG emission could be an unintended consequence. The study's goal is to determine how bioreactor design promotes microbial denitrification while limiting N2O production. It specifically focuses on expanding the body of knowledge concerning DNBRs in the areas of design implications and internal processes by measuring intermediate compounds and not solely NO3-. Nutrient samples are collected at inflow and outflow structures and tested for NO3- and nitrite (NO2-). Dissolved and headspace gas samples are collected and tested for N2O. Additional gas samples will be analyzed for naturally-occurring isotopic N2 to support proposed pathways. Designs will be analyzed both through the N2O/N2 production ratio and NO2- production caused by various residence times and inflow NO3- concentrations. High GHG ratios and NO2- production suggest non-ideal conditions or flow patterns for complete denitrification. NO3- reduction is used for comparison with previous studies. Few

  8. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  9. Greenhouse gas emission factors associated with rewetting of organic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils may reduce GHG emissions and could also create suitable conditions for return of the carbon (C sink function characteristic of undrained organic soils. In this article we expand on the work relating to rewetted organic soils that was carried out for the 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Wetlands Supplement. We describe the methods and scientific approach used to derive the Tier 1 emission factors (the rate of emission per unit of activity for the full suite of GHG and waterborne C fluxes associated with rewetting of organic soils. We recorded a total of 352 GHG and waterborne annual flux data points from an extensive literature search and these were disaggregated by flux type (i.e. CO2, CH4, N2O and DOC, climate zone and nutrient status. Our results showed fundamental differences between the GHG dynamics of drained and rewetted organic soils and, based on the 100 year global warming potential of each gas, indicated that rewetting of drained organic soils leads to: net annual removals of CO2 in the majority of organic soil classes; an increase in annual CH4 emissions; a decrease in N2O and DOC losses; and a lowering of net GHG emissions. Data published since the Wetlands Supplement (n = 58 generally support our derivations. Significant data gaps exist, particularly with regard to tropical organic soils, DOC and N2O. We propose that the uncertainty associated with our derivations could be significantly reduced by the development of country specific emission factors that could in turn be disaggregated by factors such as vegetation composition, water table level, time since rewetting and previous land use history.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation of the GTL Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Grant S; Hahn, Tristan E; Jensen, Scott D

    2011-10-15

    Gas to liquids (GTL) products have the potential to replace petroleum-derived products, but the efficacy with which any sustainability goals can be achieved is dependent on the lifecycle impacts of the GTL pathway. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally established tool (with GHG emissions as a subset) to estimate these impacts. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 standard advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the "displacement method" or the "substitution method") for life-cycle analyses, application of this method for the GTL pathway has been limited until now because of the difficulty in quantifying potential products to be displaced by GTL coproducts. In this paper, we use LCA methodology to establish the most comprehensive GHG emissions evaluation to date of the GTL pathway. The influence of coproduct credit methods on the GTL GHG emissions results using substitution methodology is estimated to afford the Well-to-Wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of GTL Diesel. These results are compared to results using energy-based allocation methods of reference GTL diesel and petroleum-diesel pathways. When substitution methodology is used, the resulting WTW GHG emissions of the GTL pathway are lower than petroleum diesel references. In terms of net GHGs, an interesting way to further reduce GHG emissions is to blend GTL diesel in refineries with heavy crudes that require severe hydrotreating, such as Venezuelan heavy crude oil or bitumen derived from Canadian oil sands and in jurisdictions with tight aromatic specifications for diesel, such as California. These results highlight the limitation of using the energy allocation approach for situations where coproduct GHG emissions reductions are downstream from the production phase.

  11. Uncertainty estimation of continuous in-situ greenhouse gas observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karion, A.; Verhulst, K. R.; Kim, J.; Sloop, C.; Salameh, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-12-01

    Global trends in urbanization have focused community interest in urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, leading to many recent studies on GHG emissions from cities. Many efforts to quantify urban GHG emissions have focused on establishing long-term, relatively dense networks of tower or roof-based continuous in-situ GHG observations. Here we introduce in-situ measurements from a network of tower sites in the Washington DC and Baltimore urban regions (NorthEast Corridor), designed specifically for use in atmospheric inversions to determine fossil-fuel emissions of carbon dioxide (Lopez-Coto et al, in review). Such flux estimation techniques rely on an understanding of the uncertainty associated with each observation, however, and how this uncertainty changes with concentration or site conditions. We have developed an uncertainty estimation method for continuous measurements made using the Earth Networks, Inc. GHG observing system, based on Picarro CRDS analyzers and GCWerks processing software. We find that the largest uncertainty component is due to the extrapolation of the calibration based on one reference gas standard, and that this uncertainty component is linearly dependent on the measured mole fraction. The uncertainty estimation has been developed for and applied to the LA Megacities project (Verhulst et al., in prep) and the NorthEast Corridor measurements, but can also be applied at other sites across the US. Establishing robust uncertainty estimates for these GHG observations relative to the WMO scales will allow these data to be incorporated in atmospheric inversion models along with other continental and global observations. *Certain commercial equipment is identified in this work in order to specify the experimental procedure adequately. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by NIST, nor is it intended to imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  12. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p < 0.05) during the wet versus the dry seasons for some, but not all, crop types. The heterogeneity and seasonality of fluxes suggest that the available data describing soil fluxes in Africa, based on measurements of limited duration of only a few crop types and agroecological zones, are inadequate to use as a basis for estimating the impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  13. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  14. Evaluation of Options for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Changes in Household Consumption Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, S.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Lifestyle project (funded in NRP-1) studied energy requirements of entire household consumption patterns. There, it was concluded that a substantial reduction potential existed for the total household energy requirement and related greenhouse gas emissions. The GreenHouse project, reported in he

  15. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse g

  16. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the U.S. forest products industry value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; Van Maltby; Reid Miner; Kenneth E. Skog; James E. Smith; Jay Unwin; Brad Upton

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  19. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

  20. Greenhouse Gas reduction for scenarios of power sources development of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant I.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions, Moldova power sources development options up to 2033 are evaluated, and for the six scenarios selected the greenhouse gas reduction impact is determined.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  2. Executive Summary: EPA's Waiver Decision on California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This letter from EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson to Governor Schwarzenegger denies California's request for a waiver of Federal preemption for motor vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards submitted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  3. The impact of demographic change on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Tobias [Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    This paper estimates the impact of demographic change on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. Since old people display different consumption patterns than young people, an increase in the proportion of old people affects overall consumption patterns. Micro data from a household survey are used to identify age-specific consumption patterns and to project the impact of demographic change on the structure of total consumption expenditure up to the year 2030. The resulting final demand vectors are entered into an environmental input-output model, which allows the calculation of sectoral production, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The model results suggest that until 2030, demographic change raises the share of methane in total greenhouse gas emissions and does not contribute to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. The model is also used to explore the effects of redistributing income between age groups and a policy-induced switch from motor vehicle use to public transport. (author)

  4. Climate Leadership webinar on Greenhouse Gas Management Resources for Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small businesses can calculate their carbon footprint and construct a greenhouse gas inventory to help track progress towards reaching emissions reduction goals. One strategy for this is EPA's Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator.

  5. Soil C storage and greenhouse gas emission perennial grasses managed for bio energy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses like switchgrass or big bluestem when managed as bioenergy feedstock require nitrogenous inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer frequently cause nitrous oxide emission. Therefore, managing grasses as feedstock may reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential expected from perennial. ...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Three Cage Layer Housing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Feddes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the World’s total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québec’s egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of “A” frame layer cages located over a closed pit containing the hens’ droppings to which water is added to facilitate removal by pumping. Manure belt techniques imply that manure drops on a belt beneath each row of battery cages where it is either dried naturally or by forced air until it is removed. The experiment was replicated with 360 hens reared into twelve independent bench-scale rooms during eight weeks (19–27 weeks of age. The natural and forced air manure belt systems reduced CO2 (28.2 and 28.7 kg yr−1 hen−1, respectively, CH4 (25.3 and 27.7 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively and N2O (2.60 and 2.48 g yr−1 hen−1, respectively emissions by about 21, 16 and 9% in comparison with the deep-pit technique (36.0 kg CO2 yr−1 hen−1, 31.6 g CH4 yr−1 hen−1 and 2.78 g N2O yr−1 hen−1. The shift to manure belt systems needs to be encouraged since this housing system significantly decreases the production of GHG.

  8. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  9. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2 performed by Ziehn et al. (2014 to also minimize the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to 5 new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  10. a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR CONTAINER SHIPPING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shimin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the onset of the first ever Greenhouse Gas (GHG regulation for ships by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO in 2011, the container shipping industry requires the combined use of technical and operational emissions reduction measures to improve the environmental performance of its vessels. Studies show that most existing measures are cost effective with a range of emissions reduction potential. However, the level of implementation is not depicted and the potential of the measures may be over-estimated. An evaluation of the emissions reduction measures is conducted through the examination of 3 factors, namely level of implementation, emissions reduction potential and cost effectiveness. Strategies to overcome the critical barriers of implementation are suggested in this study. Lastly, recommendations for companies with regards to GHG issues are made. The strong link between cost effectiveness and level of implementation is highlighted in this study. It is also shown that there is immense potential to reduce emissions from ships given the availability of measures with significant reduction potential. However, the top barriers of implementation, namely cost of measure and lack of information, need to be addressed for a higher level of adoption. This report serves as the first step to map strategy for managing GHG in the shipping industry. The importance of cost effectiveness in decision making from a ship operators perspective prompts the adoption of measures that are the most cost effective first before measures with high emissions reduction potential. It is prudent for shipping companies to adopt a more environmentally friendly operation as green is the way forward in the shipping industry.

  12. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  13. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  14. Supplanting ecosystem services provided by scavengers raises greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Zebensui; Pérez-García, Juan M; Moleón, Marcos; Botella, Francisco; Carrete, Martina; Lazcano, Carolina; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Margalida, Antoni; Donázar, José A; Sánchez-Zapata, José A

    2015-01-15

    Global warming due to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most debated topics among environmentalists and politicians worldwide. In this paper we assess a novel source of GHG emissions emerged following a controversial policy decision. After the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the sanitary regulation required that livestock carcasses were collected from farms and transformed or destroyed in authorised plants, contradicting not only the obligations of member states to conserve scavenger species but also generating unprecedented GHG emission. However, how much of this emission could be prevented in the return to traditional and natural scenario in which scavengers freely remove livestock carcasses is largely unknown. Here we show that, in Spain (home of 95% of European vultures), supplanting the natural removal of dead extensive livestock by scavengers with carcass collection and transport to intermediate and processing plants meant the emission of 77,344 metric tons of CO2 eq. to the atmosphere per year, in addition to annual payments of ca. $50 million to insurance companies. Thus, replacing the ecosystem services provided by scavengers has not only conservation costs, but also important and unnecessary environmental and economic costs.

  15. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at £1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a ‘wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our

  16. Indicators for Danish greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.

    2009-12-15

    The indicators defined according to the obligations under decisions of the EU Monitoring Mechanism have been worked out for 1990-2007. Discussions and comments on the definitions and the guidance of the indicators and their numerator and denominator were worked out. For many indicators the definitions and guidance were clear, for some indicators further text as definition and guidance would have been appropriate. Explanations on the data collection for the indicators for Denmark are given in this report. For the greenhouse gas emissions the source is the Danish inventories and the Danish inventory databases. For Economic data the source is Eurostat and for building data the source is Statistics Denmark. Only the energy, industry and transport sectors and only emissions of CO{sub 2} are covered by the indicators defined. A major result is that the main indicator (macro indicator 1) shows that the steady increase of gross domestic product is decoupled from the trend of the Danish national emissions of CO{sub 2}, since the indicator (the emissions divided by the GDP) in 2005-2007 decreased by 23-30 % compared to 1990. This decrease is mainly caused by higher efficiency in the heat and electricity production, a gradual shift to lesser CO{sub 2} emitting fuels, e.g. from coal to gas, and an increased use of biomass fuels. An important indicator for the industry sector is the CO{sub 2} emission over gross value added (priority indicator 4). The overall trend is a decrease from 1996 to 2007 after slightly fluctuating levels for the years 1990 to 1996. The rather steady increase of gross value added of industry, in 2007 27% above the 1990 level, simultaneously with an increase of CO{sub 2} emission of 5% only, is as for the macro indicator a decoupling. This causes the indicator in 2007 to be at 83 % of the 1990 level. The change to lower emitting fuels plays a role probably interplaying with the changes in industry structure towards less energy demanding industry. For

  17. Nitrogen and carbon interactions in controlling terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineson, Phil; Toet, Sylvia; Christiansen, Jesper

    2016-04-01

    The increased input of N to terrestrial systems may have profound impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHGs) fluxes and, consequently, our future climate; however, fully capturing and quantifying these interactions under field conditions urgently requires new, more efficient, measurement approaches. We have recently developed and deployed a novel system for the automation of terrestrial GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scales, using the approach of 'flying' a single measurement chamber to multiple points in an experimental field arena. As an example of the value of this approach, we shall describe the results from a field experiment investigating the interactions between increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) additions on net ecosystem exchanges of N2O, CH4 and CO2, enabling the simultaneous application of 25 treatments, replicated five times in a fully replicated block field design. We will describe how the ability to deliver automated GHG flux measurements, highly replicated in space and time, has revealed hitherto unreported findings on N and C interactions in field soil. In our experiments we found insignificant N2O fluxes from bare field soil, even at very high inorganic N addition rates, but the interactive addition of even small amounts of available C resulted in very large and rapid N2O fluxes. The SkyGas experimental system enabled investigation of the underlying interacting response surfaces on the fluxes of the major soil-derived GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) to increasing N and C inputs, and revealed unexpected interactions. In addition to these results we will also discuss some of the technical problems which have been overcome in developing these 'flying' systems and the potential of the systems for automatically screening the impacts of large numbers of treatments on GHG fluxes, and other ecosystem responses, under field conditions. We describe here technological advances that can facilitate the development of more robust GHG mitigation

  18. Uncertainty in greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections: Experiences from Mexico and South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel

    This report outlines approaches to quantify the uncertainty associated with national greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections. It does so by describing practical applications of those approaches in two countries – Mexico and South Africa. The goal of the report is to promote uncertainty...... quantification, because quantifying uncertainty has the potential to foster more robust climate-change mitigation plans. To this end the report also summarises the rationale for quantifying uncertainty in greenhouse-gas emission scenario projections....

  19. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  20. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Sukanda Chuersuwan; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Nares Chuersuwan

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs) used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF) and free water surface flow (FWS) CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p

  1. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A...

  2. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. In particular, airborne...

  3. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric interaction. We studied the interactions in the atmosphere between the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion from the point of view of past and future emissions of the anthropogenic com...

  4. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric interaction. We studied the interactions in the atmosphere between the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion from the point of view of past and future emissions of the anthropogenic com...

  5. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  6. [Study on greenhouse gas emissions from urban waste disposal system: a case study in Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Cui, Sheng-Hui; Lin, Jian-Yi; Li, Fei

    2012-09-01

    Waste disposal is one of the sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban human activities. According to the method recommended by IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2006, a calculation model was established to assess GHG emissions of waste disposal in Xiamen. Then GHG emissions from waste disposal in Xiamen during the year of 2005-2010 were estimated, including solid waste landfill, solid waste incineration and wastewater treatment. The results showed that total GHG emissions quantified in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) from waste disposal was 406.3 kt in 2005, and increased to 704.6 kt in 2010. Because of the improvement of wastewater treatment process and rapid increasing municipal solid waste (MSW), the main source of emissions was from wastewater treatment turning to solid waste landfill. GHG emissions from solid waste landfill accounted for about 90% of total emissions from solid waste disposal process in 2005, and the proportion decreased to 75% in 2010. GHG emissions (quantified in CO2e) from waste water treatment reached the highest value 325.5 kt in 2007. Chemical raw materials and chemical industry have been the highest CH4 emission industry during 2005-2010, which accounted for more than 55% of total CH4 emission from industrial wastewater treatment.

  7. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    {sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{sub 2} capture on an existing air-fired CFB plant. ALSTOM received a contract award from the DOE to conduct a project entitled 'Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control', under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42205 that is the subject of this topical report.

  8. Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Wheat Fields with Different Returning Methods of Maize Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xin-hua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different returning methods of maize straw on the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields, we explored the greenhouse gas CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from the wheat fields using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique from December 2013 to May 2014. The experiments set four treatments including no maize straw returning(CK, direct maize straw returning directly(CS, maize straw-rumen-cattle dung returning(CGS and maize straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS, and the four treatments were investigated under the same watering and fertilizing conditions. The results showed that the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields all had distinct seasonal variations and the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gas emissions were different. During the maize growing season, the cumulative emissions of both CO2 and N2O were emitted and in the order of CK >CGS >CS >CMS while the cumulative absorptions of CH4 were in the order of CS >CGS >CK >CMS with the significant difference between different treatments(PCGS >CK >CMS under the different returning methods of maize straw, which indicated that direct straw returning could significantly increase the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field, followed by CGS while the straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS could decrease the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field. The method of straw-mushroom residue returning should be recommended from the viewpoint of reducing GWP of the greenhouse gas. In all, our study could provide the scientific foundation for the efficiency straw recycle and reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  9. Enhanced greenhouse gas emissions from the Arctic with experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Lind, Saara E.; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Biasi, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Temperatures in the Arctic are projected to increase more rapidly than in lower latitudes. With temperature being a key factor for regulating biogeochemical processes in ecosystems, even a subtle temperature increase might promote the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. Usually, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the GHGs dominating the climatic impact of tundra. However, bare, patterned ground features in the Arctic have recently been identified as hot spots for nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is a potent greenhouse gas, which is almost 300 times more effective in its global warming potential than CO2; but studies on arctic N2O fluxes are rare. In this study we examined the impact of temperature increase on the seasonal GHG balance of all three important GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from three tundra surface types (vegetated peat soils, unvegetated peat soils, upland mineral soils) in the Russian Arctic (67˚ 03' N 62˚ 55' E), during the course of two growing seasons. We deployed open-top chambers (OTCs), inducing air and soil surface warming, thus mimicking predicted warming scenarios. We combined detailed CO2, CH4 and N2O flux studies with concentration measurements of these gases within the soil profile down to the active layer-permafrost interface, and complemented these GHG measurements with detailed soil nutrient (nitrate and ammonium) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements in the soil pore water profile. In our study, gentle air warming (˜1.0 ˚ C) increased the seasonal GHG release of all dominant surface types: the GHG budget of vegetated peat and mineral soils, which together cover more than 80 % of the land area in our study region, shifted from a sink to a source of -300 to 144 g CO2-eq m-2 and from -198 to 105 g CO2-eq m-2, respectively. While the positive warming response was governed by CO2, we provide here the first in situ evidence that warming increases arctic N2O emissions: Warming did not only enhance N2O emissions from

  10. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of a Typical High-End Industrial Park in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which severely limits the development of human society and threatens the survival of humanity, has drawn the international community's long-term attention. Gathering the most important production factors in the region, an industrial park usually represents the development level of specific industries in the region. Therefore, the industrial park should be regarded as the base unit for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical high-end industrial park in Beijing, we analyze the carbon sources within the system boundary and probe into the emission structure in view of life-cycle analysis. A GHG inventory is thereby set up to calculate all GHG emissions from the concerned park. Based on the results, suggestions are presented to guide the low-carbon development of the high-end industrial park.

  11. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Indianapolis using a High-Density Surface Tower Network and an Atmospheric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Davis, K. J.; Richardson, S.; Deng, A.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Wu, K.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Podolske, J. R.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods of detection and attribution of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Indianapolis is intended to serve as a test bed for these methods; the results will inform efforts at measuring emissions from urban centers worldwide, including megacities. The generally accepted method for determining urban greenhouse gas emissions is inventories, which are compiled from records of land use and human activity. Atmospheric methods, in which towers are instrumented with sensors to measure greenhouse gas mole fractions and these data are used in an inversion model, have the potential to provide independent determination of emissions. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2. A subset of five towers additionally measure CH4, and a different subset measure CO. The subset measuring CO also include weekly flask samples of a wide variety of trace gases including 14CO2. Here we discuss the observed urban spatial and temporal patterns in greenhouse gas mole fraction in Indianapolis, with the critical result being the detectability of city emissions with this high-density network. We also present the first atmospheric inversion results for both CO2 and CH4, compare these results to inventories, and discuss the effects of critical assumptions in the inversion framework. The construction of unbiased atmospheric modeling systems and well-defined prior errors remains an important step in atmospheric emissions monitoring over urban areas. In order to minimize transport model errors, we developed a WRF-Chem FDDA modeling system ingesting surface and profile measurements of horizontal mean wind, temperature, and moisture. We demonstrate the impact of the meteorological data assimilation system on

  13. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting through Integrated Business Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Given the risks posed by global climate change, it is important that society as a whole responds in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) into the atmosphere. Whether you are an environmentalist, a small-to-medium business owner, or a corporate risk manager - the need to act is now in order to reduce future environmental damage. While this sounds overwhelming, it’s really quite simple. Carbon Management is the process of understanding where your commercial activities generate GHG emissions, so that you can reduce those emissions in a planned, financially responsible way. Specifically, governments have the capacity to lead in this area and reduce these costs throughout their cities. Village Green Global develops and manages demonstration projects for the government that act as exemplar models to assist in gathering verifiable GHG reporting within selected regions and cities. This model highlights opportunities for the capture of conservation and energy credit commodities for local financial markets to use in global trading. Information gathered will prepare government for the ongoing changing global requirements and mitigate risk of unnecessary market exposure and cost; allow government to take a measured, responsible approach to its environmental responsibilities; reduce operational costs, improving the government’s asset utilization and more effectively streamlining its operations; and establish the government as responsible and proactive due to its creative approach to environmental challenges. Village Green Global’s government partnership model aims to deliver new jobs and technologies in the emerging “green economy;” a linkage to education at both at College and University levels, then assisting industry and community needs; and the involvement of industry leaders ensures training is targeted to job creation and local capacity building opportunities, in turn creating new skills and career pathways for the displaced workforce from the

  15. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  16. Nordic regionalisation of a greenhouse-gas stabilisation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyser, Klaus; Rummukainen, Markku; Strandberg, Gustav

    2006-10-15

    The impact of a CO{sub 2} stabilisation on the Swedish climate is investigated with the regional climate model RCA3 driven by boundary conditions obtained from a global coupled climate system model (CCSM3). The global model has been forced with observed greenhouse gas concentrations from pre-industrial conditions until today's, and with an idealised further increase until the stabilisation level is reached. After stabilisation the model integration continues for another 150+ years in order to follow the delayed response of the climate system over a period of time. Results from the global and regional climate model are compared against observations and ECMWF reanalysis for 1961-1990. For this period, the global model is found to be too cold over Europe and with a zonal flow from the North Atlantic towards Europe that is too strong. The climate of the driving global model controls the climate of the regional model and the same deviations from one are thus inherited by the other. We therefore analyse the relative climate changes differences, or ratios, of climate variables between future's and today's climate. Compared to pre-industrial conditions, the global mean temperature changes by about 1.5 deg C as a result of the stabilisation at 450 ppmv equivalent CO{sub 2}. Averaged over Europe, the temperature change is slightly larger, and it is even larger for Sweden and Northern Europe. Annual mean precipitation for Europe is unaffected, but Sweden receives more precipitation under higher CO{sub 2} levels. The inter-annual and decadal variability of annual mean temperature and precipitation does not change with any significant degree. The changes in temperature and precipitation are not evenly distributed with the season: the largest warming and increased precipitation in Northern Europe occurs during winter months while the summer climate remains more or less unchanged. The opposite is true for the Mediterranean region where the precipitation decreases

  17. Historical greenhouse gas concentrations for climate modelling (CMIP6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinshausen, Malte; Vogel, Elisabeth; Nauels, Alexander; Lorbacher, Katja; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Etheridge, David M.; Fraser, Paul J.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Rayner, Peter J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Beyerle, Urs; Canadell, Josep G.; Daniel, John S.; Enting, Ian G.; Law, Rachel M.; Lunder, Chris R.; O'Doherty, Simon; Prinn, Ron G.; Reimann, Stefan; Rubino, Mauro; Velders, Guus J. M.; Vollmer, Martin K.; Wang, Ray H. J.; Weiss, Ray

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are at unprecedented, record-high levels compared to the last 800 000 years. Those elevated GHG concentrations warm the planet and - partially offset by net cooling effects by aerosols - are largely responsible for the observed warming over the past 150 years. An accurate representation of GHG concentrations is hence important to understand and model recent climate change. So far, community efforts to create composite datasets of GHG concentrations with seasonal and latitudinal information have focused on marine boundary layer conditions and recent trends since the 1980s. Here, we provide consolidated datasets of historical atmospheric concentrations (mole fractions) of 43 GHGs to be used in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 6 (CMIP6) experiments. The presented datasets are based on AGAGE and NOAA networks, firn and ice core data, and archived air data, and a large set of published studies. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, the new datasets are latitudinally resolved and include seasonality. We focus on the period 1850-2014 for historical CMIP6 runs, but data are also provided for the last 2000 years. We provide consolidated datasets in various spatiotemporal resolutions for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as 40 other GHGs, namely 17 ozone-depleting substances, 11 hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 9 perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2). In addition, we provide three equivalence species that aggregate concentrations of GHGs other than CO2, CH4 and N2O, weighted by their radiative forcing efficiencies. For the year 1850, which is used for pre-industrial control runs, we estimate annual global-mean surface concentrations of CO2 at 284.3 ppm, CH4 at 808.2 ppb and N2O at 273.0 ppb. The data are available at https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/search/input4mips/ and http

  18. Idaho National Laboratory’s FY14 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frerichs, Kimberly Irene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. In recent years, concern has grown about the environmental impact of GHGs. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of an inventory of the total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions. INL’s GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries, but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated 73,521 metric tons (MT) of CO2 equivalent (CO2e ) emissions during FY14. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL’s FY14 GHG inventory: • Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were

  19. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution: Measurements Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Safta, Cosmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sargsyan, Khachik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFranchi, Brian W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Schrader, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michelsen, Hope A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bambha, Ray P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In this project we have developed atmospheric measurement capabilities and a suite of atmospheric modeling and analysis tools that are well suited for verifying emissions of green- house gases (GHGs) on an urban-through-regional scale. We have for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate atmospheric CO2 . This will allow for the examination of regional-scale transport and distribution of CO2 along with air pollutants traditionally studied using CMAQ at relatively high spatial and temporal resolution with the goal of leveraging emissions verification efforts for both air quality and climate. We have developed a bias-enhanced Bayesian inference approach that can remedy the well-known problem of transport model errors in atmospheric CO2 inversions. We have tested the approach using data and model outputs from the TransCom3 global CO2 inversion comparison project. We have also performed two prototyping studies on inversion approaches in the generalized convection-diffusion context. One of these studies employed Polynomial Chaos Expansion to accelerate the evaluation of a regional transport model and enable efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior for Bayesian inference. The other approach uses de- terministic inversion of a convection-diffusion-reaction system in the presence of uncertainty. These approaches should, in principle, be applicable to realistic atmospheric problems with moderate adaptation. We outline a regional greenhouse gas source inference system that integrates (1) two ap- proaches of atmospheric dispersion simulation and (2) a class of Bayesian inference and un- certainty quantification algorithms. We use two different and complementary approaches to simulate atmospheric dispersion. Specifically, we use a Eulerian chemical transport model CMAQ and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model - FLEXPART-WRF. These two models share the same WRF

  1. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  2. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that

  3. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric i

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block rubb

  5. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  6. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, A.; Bikker, P.; Herrmann, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that unde

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  8. Synthesis and Review: Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olander, L.P.; Wollenberg, E.; Tubiello, F.N.; Herold, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions of agricultural greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane and nitrous oxide, and sequestering carbon in the soil or in living biomass can help reduce the impact of agriculture on climate change while improving productivity and reducing resource use. There is an increasing demand fo

  9. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  10. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India. Financial mechanisms and opportunities for EU-India collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Nilsson Axberg, Goeran; Goel, Nitu; Kumar, Atul; Lazarus, Michael; Ostwald, Madelene; Polycarp, Clifford; Tollefsen, Petter; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Upadhyaya, Prabhat; Zetterberg, Lars

    2009-10-15

    This report illuminates potential areas for collaboration between the EU and India on actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in India. If human-induced climate change is to have any hope of being limited to 2 degrees, it is essential that ways are found to address rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions in India, as elsewhere. This is a challenging proposition: even though India's per capita emissions are very low, her 1.15 billion people are collectively a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. This fact, coupled with the immediate task of tackling widespread poverty, means that the international community must play a major role in providing financial and technological resources to support India's domestic efforts. As India's 2008 National Action Plan on Climate Change recognises, tackling the country's greenhouse gas emissions means not least finding ways to transform a rapidly growing energy sector. International financial mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Global Environment Facility have been unable to deliver the scale of transformative change needed to shift India's emissions trajectory. While the Indian government has already initiated some ambitious policy measures - particularly pertaining to solar energy and energy efficiency- the effectiveness of international finance mechanisms and other forms of international partnership will be crucial in determining the success of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. The EU India Summit is held a month before COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen. While this provides challenges in terms of seeking concrete agreements on questions of finance, it is also an important opportunity to devise complementary efforts outside the UNFCCC process. Genuine, productive collaboration could not only be used to foster the sorts of transformative changes that are needed in India's growing economy but could also create a spirit of cooperation that spills over into UNFCCC

  11. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under-utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fired power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide-equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base.

  12. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodies

  13. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Brook, B.W. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart TAS (Australia); Meneley, D.A. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Misak, J. [UJV-Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Blees, T. [Science Council for Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Van Erp, J.B. [Illinois Commission on Atomic Energy, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  14. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to

  15. Methane; the other greenhouse gas research and policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel AR van; Swart RJ; Krol MS; Beck JP; Bouman AF; Hoek KW van der

    1993-01-01

    The increase of anthropogenic activities is the main reason for the increase of methane emissions in the Netherlands. Methane is an important greenhouse gas. The most important sources in the Netherlands are landfills, cattle, manure and the exploration, transport and distribution of oil and gas. In

  16. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  17. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  18. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  19. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL

  20. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation.

  1. Environmental Accounts of the Netherlands. Greenhouse gas emissions by Dutch economic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Climate change is one of the major global challenges of our time. There is abundant scientific evidence that the emission of greenhouse gases caused by economic activities contributes to climate change. Accelerating emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases since the beginning of the 20th century have increased the average global temperature by about 0.8C and altered global precipitation patterns. Combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, but also specific agricultural activities and industrial processes are the main drivers of the increased emission of greenhouse gasses. Enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere will increase global temperatures by radiative forcing. Likewise, climate change has a direct impact on all kinds of economic processes. These impacts may be positive or negative, but it is expected that the overall impact will be primarily negative. In order to design effective mitigation policies, one must have a good conception of the economic driving forces of climate change. The air emission accounts can be used to analyse the environmental implications in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, of production and consumption patterns. Because of their compatibility with the national accounts, greenhouse gas data can be directly linked to the economic drivers of global warming. There are several frameworks for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions for a country, yielding different results. Well-known are the emissions reported to the UNFCCC (United National Framework Convention on Climate Change) in particular under the Kyoto Protocol, but also environment statistics as well as the air emission accounts provide independent greenhouse gas estimates. The differences are not the result of disputes about the accuracy of the estimates themselves, but arise from different interpretations of what has to be counted. The inclusion or exclusion of certain elements depends on the concepts and definitions that underlie

  2. Role of Pakistan in Global Climate Change through Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHGs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wajeeha Malik; Hajra Shahid; Rabeea Zafar; Zaheer Uddin; Zafar Wazir; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Syed Shahid Ali

    2012-01-01

    The increasing concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) is warming the earth’s atmosphere and the phenomenon is known as Climate Change or Global Warming. The major factors contributing to the global climate change include polluted emissions by excessive burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Pakistan contributes very little to the overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions however it remains severely impacted by the negative effects of climate change. Pakistan, in particular is estimated to ...

  3. Study on trend analysis of greenhouse gas reduction policy and its countermeasure in Korea: concentrated on transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Oh, So Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to recommend a countermeasure to climate change and energy saving. It analyzed reduction policies in domestic and abroad relating to the greenhouse gas reduction especially on automobiles among transportation sector, which shows the highest increase rate of greenhouse gas emission among major greenhouse gas emission sector. Then it estimated a reduction capacity for each reduction scenario concentrated on estimable measures with the potential reduction amount. 26 refs., 23 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Forsythe; Grace Ding

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to...

  5. Agriculture's role in greenhouse gas emissions and capture

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhouse Gas Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This working paper addresses changes in climate and how the rising global temperature can be partially attributed to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Six percent of all US GHG emissions, including CO2, CH4, and N2O, are released from agricultural activities. This paper offers solutions to sequester carbon and reduce the amount of GHGs that are emitted by upgrading agricultural systems and switching to more sustainable practices. A full life cycle analy...

  6. Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission from Animal Manure Using the Closed Chamber Method for Gas Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Călin VAC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is an important source of anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gas: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The livestock contributes with 37% of global CH4 emission. The sources of GHG (CO2 and CH4 are the liquid manure or slurry storage and the compact solid manure. Measurement systems of GHG emission are important for the selection of the appropriate technology. By using the closed chamber method for soil, landfills, volcanoes etc., the present study evaluates the estimation of total emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from an experimental farm in Cluj County, Romania. The investigated area covered with sheep solid manure was about 579 m2 and ~5 cm thick, for cattle was about 12 m2 and 5 m thick and for swine was about 1.5 m5 and 0.5 m thick. The total methane emission measured for sheep manure was 0.83 t CH4/year and for cattle manure was 0.185 t CH4/year. The total carbon dioxide emission measured for sheep manure was 61.3 t CO2/year and for cattle manure was 4.7 t CO2/year. The measurement for pigs manure was high and this could be due to the freshness of the manure. The estimated emissions showed that a considerable amount of CH4 and CO2 is produced also by an experimental farm and an appropriate management of manure is important for reducing greenhouse gas. In this respect, we believe that the future solution for a green economy is to use manure in biogas plants.

  7. Spatially-Explicit Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Fire and Land-Use Change in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Spera, S. A.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, C., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the multiple types of land-use changes that can occur within an ecosystem provides a comprehensive picture of the human's impact on natural systems. We use the Cerrado (savanna) of Brazil to examine the primary and secondary impacts of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions. The primary land-use changes include fires for land-clearing, conversions to pasture and row-crop agriculture, and shifting management practices of agricultural lands. Secondary land-use changes include savanna degradation due to fires that escape from intended burn areas. These escape fires typically have a lower combustion completion coefficient than clearing fires, so it is important to distinguish them to correctly estimate the regional greenhouse gas budget. We have created a first-order spatio-temporal model of greenhouse gas emissions that can be easily modified for other savanna regions using globally available data products as inputs. Our data inputs are derived from publically available remote sensing imagery. Initial biomass is estimated by Baccini et al. 2012, which is derived from LiDAR and MODIS imagery. All other input data sets give annual estimates. Clearing of the savanna is documented by LAPIG of Universidade Federal de Goias using MODIS (MOD13Q1), LANDSAT and CBERS images. MODIS burned area products delineate annual fires; in combination with the savanna clearing database we determine primary and escape fires. Pastures and row-crop agriculture are documented by LAPIG and Spera et al. 2014, respectively. The row-crop agriculture dataset enables us to estimate greenhouse gas emissions associated with specific crops (e.g., soy or maize) and management (e.g., fertilizer use). Recent contributions to the literature have provided many in situ measurements from the land-use changes of interest needed to estimate a regional greenhouse gas budget, including combustion coefficients of savanna sub-types, carbon emission soil stocks, nitrogen emissions from fertilizer

  8. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  9. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  10. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.

  11. What are the health and greenhouse gas implications of travel patterns in different European settings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodcock, J.; Götschi, T.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    Modelling studies have indicated the potential for substitution of car use with walking and cycling to achieve both large health benefits and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. There is considerable variation in walking, cycling, car and public transport use between different European settings....... However, there has been limited rigorous investigation of the impact of these differences on health and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we present modelled results on what would be the health and greenhouse gas implications if a setting with high levels of car use and low levels of cycling (urban...... with greater active travel. Policies should be carefully designed and evaluated to try and achieve both health and climate goals....

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, D.C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, G.M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  14. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  15. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H.; Gjerald, Eilev; Hoem, Britta; Ramberg, Simen Helgesen; Haugland, Hege; Valved, Hilde; Nelson, George Nicholas; Asphjell, Torgrim; Christophersen, Oeyvind; Gaustad, Alice; Rubaek, Birgitte; Hvalryg, Marte Monsen

    2012-07-01

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory.(eb)

  16. National inventory report. Greenhouse gas emissions 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions of the following greenhouse gases are covered in this report: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). In addition, the inventory includes calculations of emissions of the precursors NO{sub x}, NMVOC, and CO, as well as for SO{sub 2}. Indirect CO{sub 2} emissions originating from the fossil part of CH{sub 4} and NMVOC are calculated according to the reporting guidelines to the UNFCCC, and accounted for in the inventory. (AG)

  17. Governance Mechanism for Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Stochastic Differential Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today developed and developing countries have to admit the fact that global warming is affecting the earth, but the fundamental problem of how to divide up necessary greenhouse gas reductions between developed and developing countries remains. In this paper, we propose cooperative and noncooperative stochastic differential game models to describe greenhouse gas emissions decision makings of developed and developing countries, calculate their feedback Nash equilibrium and the Pareto optimal solution, characterize parameter spaces that developed and developing countries can cooperate, design cooperative conditions under which participants buy the cooperative payoff, and distribute the cooperative payoff with Nash bargaining solution. Lastly, numerical simulations are employed to illustrate the above results.

  18. Biofuels, land use change, and greenhouse gas emissions: some unexplored variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Greenhouse gas release from land use change (the so-called "carbon debt") has been identified as a potentially significant contributor to the environmental profile of biofuels. The time required for biofuels to overcome this carbon debt due to land use change and begin providing cumulative greenhouse gas benefits is referred to as the "payback period" and has been estimated to be 100-1000 years depending on the specific ecosystem involved in the land use change event. Two mechanisms for land use change exist: "direct" land use change, in which the land use change occurs as part of a specific supply chain for a specific biofuel production facility, and "indirect" land use change, in which market forces act to produce land use change in land that is not part of a specific biofuel supply chain, including, for example, hypothetical land use change on another continent. Existing land use change studies did not consider many of the potentially important variables that might affect the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. We examine here several variables that have not yet been addressed in land use change studies. Our analysis shows that cropping management is a key factor in estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use change. Sustainable cropping management practices (no-till and no-till plus cover crops) reduce the payback period to 3 years for the grassland conversion case and to 14 years for the forest conversion case. It is significant that no-till and cover crop practices also yield higher soil organic carbon (SOC) levels in corn fields derived from former grasslands or forests than the SOC levels that result if these grasslands or forests are allowed to continue undisturbed. The United States currently does not hold any of its domestic industries responsible for its greenhouse gas emissions. Thus the greenhouse gas standards established for renewable fuels such as corn ethanol in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set a

  19. CO2 Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is an effort by nine Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states to develop a regional, mandatory, market-based cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity sector. The initiative is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the RGGI region and beyond. The implications of these changes for the value of electricity-generating assets and the market value of the firms that own them depends on the init...

  20. No effect of cropping system on the greenhouse gas N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette S.; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is comparable to conventional in terms of field emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our study points to the need for increased yields in organic farming as measure to reduced emissions per unit of produce.......Organic farming is comparable to conventional in terms of field emissions of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our study points to the need for increased yields in organic farming as measure to reduced emissions per unit of produce....

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from shallow uncovered coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses a method of quantifying emissions from surface coal mining that has been trialled in Australia. The method is based on direct measurement of surface emissions from uncovered coal seams in mine pits, concurrent measurement of residual gas content of blasted coal in mine pits, and measurement of pre-mining gas content of the same seam from cores retrieved from exploration boreholes drilled away from active mining. The results from one of the mines studied are presented in this paper. In this mine, the pre-mining gas content of the target seam was measured using cores from an exploration borehole away from active mining. Gas content varied from 0.7 to 0.8 m3/t and gas composition varied from 16% to 21% CH4 (84-79% CO2). In-pit measurements included seam surface emissions and residual gas content of blasted and ripped coal. Residual gas content varied from 0.09 to 0.15 m3/t, less than twofold across the mine pit. Composition of the residual gas was in general 90%CO2 and 10%CH4, with slight var-iation between samples. Coal seam surface emissions varied from 1.03 to 7.50 mL of CO2-e per minute and per square meter of the coal seam surface, a sevenfold variation across the mine pit.

  2. The Strategy and Technology Selection for Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ya-Min; FENG Yong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The emission control of non-CO2 greenhouse gases is conducive to slowing down global warming. It is also helpful in controlling environmental pollution, and beneficial in improving the local health benefits. This paper aims at six kinds of non-CO2 greenhouse gases under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). This paper analyzes the emission status and trend of China’s non-CO2 greenhouse gases, and provides some technology selections for non-CO2 emission reduction. Through strategic policy arrangements and appropriate technology choices, China can gain environmental protection and greenhouse gas control.

  3. Uncertainties in the attribution of greenhouse gas warming and implications for climate prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Gareth S; Mitchell, John F B

    2016-01-01

    Using optimal detection techniques with climate model simulations, most of the observed increase of near surface temperatures over the second half of the twentieth century is attributed to anthropogenic influences. However, the partitioning of the anthropogenic influence to individual factors, such as greenhouse gases and aerosols, is much less robust. Differences in how forcing factors are applied, in their radiative influence and in models' climate sensitivities, substantially influence the response patterns. We find standard optimal detection methodologies cannot fully reconcile this response diversity. By selecting a set of experiments to enable the diagnosing of greenhouse gases and the combined influence of other anthropogenic and natural factors, we find robust detections of well mixed greenhouse gases across a large ensemble of models. Of the observed warming over the 20th century of 0.65K/century we find, using a multi model mean not incorporating pattern uncertainty, a well mixed greenhouse gas warm...

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  5. Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-03-17

    Natural gas (NG) has been regarded as a bridge fuel toward renewable sources and is expected to play a greater role in future global energy mix; however, a high degree of uncertainty exists concerning upstream (well-to-tank, WtT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of NG. In this study, a life-cycle (LC) model is built to assess uncertainty in WtT GHG emissions of liquefied NG (LNG) supplied to Europe by Nigeria. The 90% prediction interval of GHG intensity of Nigerian LNG was found to range between 14.9 and 19.3 g CO2 eq/MJ, with a mean value of 16.8 g CO2 eq/MJ. This intensity was estimated considering no venting practice in Nigerian fields. The mean estimation can shift up to 25 g CO2 eq when considering a scenario with a higher rate of venting emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the time horizon to calculate GHG intensity was also performed showing that higher GHG intensity and uncertainty are obtained for shorter time horizons, due to the higher impact factor of methane. The uncertainty calculated for Nigerian LNG, specifically regarding the gap of data for methane emissions, recommends initiatives to measure and report emissions and further LC studies to identify hotspots to reduce the GHG intensity of LNG chains.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions through cap barriers of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourc, J.P.; Staub, M.; Simonin, R. [Grenoble Univ. (France). LTHE

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the environmental impacts of landfill cap covers used to produce biogas. The sensitivity of the environmental performance of landfills on biogas collection and recovery systems as well as on cap cover characteristics was investigated. The study examined both soil and geosynthetic landfill cap covers used to maintain impermeability at landfill sites as well as to enable biogas recovery. Two types of cap cover were discussed: (1) a cover that enabled passive wetting of the landfill wastes through rainfall; and (2) an impermeable cap used to control leachate recirculation. The environmental impacts of both caps were discussed. The study showed that landfill cap covers are a significant means of sequestering greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  7. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzers for measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)...

  8. Mobile Greenhouse Gas Flux Analyzer for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for eddy flux covariance...

  9. ENERGY SUPPLY OF COMMERCIAL GREENHOUSE WITH THE GAS DRIVEN HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the work is to develop energy efficient schemes of industrial greenhouse designed for year-round production of plants that requires year-round maintenance of strongly prescribed temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse. The complex "gas driven “water-air” heat pump – electric generator" (for use during the heating season as well as the "gas driven heat pump “water-air” – electric generator – desiccant - evaporative chiller" which work in the off-season. The developed system produces heat and electricity (during the heating season as well as cold and electricity (the rest of the year. Comparative analyses of greenhouse cooling by water and air cooling systems have been performed. Proposed structures have a high efficiency as compared with conventional circuits (boiler - chiller.

  10. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  11. 77 FR 64051 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards... standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for vehicles manufactured for sale in... and address global climate change. Need for Correction As published, the final...

  12. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and... that power them, except for medium-duty passenger vehicles already covered by the greenhouse gas...

  13. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate...

  14. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissi

  15. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  16. Bringing a needle to a laser fight: comparing greenhouse gas sampling methods with gas chromatography and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    As scientists, producers, policymakers, and the general public become more concerned about impacts of climate change, there is an increasing need to understand and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural practices, which often feed into global, multi-institution databases. Current best p...

  17. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  18. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K.; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy. PMID:23576835

  19. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of 'additional biomass' - biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy - can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy.

  20. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O' Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  1. PROTOTYPE TOOL FOR EVALUATING THE COST AND EFFECTIVENESS OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper introduces the structure of a tool, being developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, that will be able to analyze the benefits of new technologies and strategies for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. When completed, the tool will be able ...

  2. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  3. 77 FR 14507 - Revision to Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Accounting and Reporting''. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13514, ``Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance'' (74 FR 52117), in order to... QUALITY Revision to Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council...

  4. 75 FR 49913 - Draft Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., Energy, and Economic Performance (74 FR 52117) in order to establish an integrated strategy toward... QUALITY Draft Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... and accounting procedures. On April 5, 2010, DOE-FEMP submitted the final recommendations on...

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel-bas

  6. The Efficiency of Informality: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Informal Recycling in Bogotá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Gomez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    in the Global South seeking to modernize their city, in part by formalizing their recycling system. This article asks: What are the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission implications of this modernization? Using interviews and observation in combination with life cycle assessment, we compare GHG emissions resulting...

  7. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different

  8. Groundwater pollution potential and greenhouse gas emission from soils amended with different swine biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there exist numerous research studies in the literature on greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with plant-based biochar made from traditional dry pyrolysis (hereafter referred as pyrochar), a very few such studies exist for hydrochar made from hydro...

  9. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with different swine biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with various biochars using different biomass feedstocks and thermal processing conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed; control soil consisting of Histi...

  10. Greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of soils amended with raw and carbonized swine solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to study the greenhouse gas emission and groundwater pollution potentials of the soils amended with raw swine solids and swine biochars made from different thermochemical conditions. Triplicate sets of small pots were designed: 1) control soil with a 50/50 mixture o...

  11. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  13. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  14. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  15. Net farm income and land use under a U.S. greenhouse gas cap and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin S. Baker; Bruce A. McCarl; Brian C. Murray; Steven K. Rose; Ralph J. Alig; Darius Adams; Greg Latta; Robert Beach; Adam. Daigneault

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, the U.S. agricultural sector has experienced high prices for energy related inputs and commodities, and a rapidly developing bioenergy market. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation would further alter agricultural markets and increase land competition in forestry and agriculture by shifting input costs, creating an agricultural GHG abatement...

  16. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Zijlema, P.J. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Arets, E.J.M.M. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [Rijkswaterstaat, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emissions Authority NEa, P.O. Box 91503, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space heating decreased due to the mild winter compared with the very cold 2010 winter. In 2011, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) in The Netherlands amounted to 194.4 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 9 per cent below the emissions in the base year 2 (213.2 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the Netherlands' 2012 annual submission of its greenhouse gas emissions inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  18. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector, revisions and updates related to the Dutch NIR 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyngaert, van den I.J.J.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a full description of revisions and updates of the Dutch Greenhouse gas calculations and reporting of the LULUCF sector used for the 2009 submission. Parts were earlier described in Nabuurs et al. (2003, 2005), De Groot et al (2005), Kuikman et al. (2003; 2005) and Van den Wynga

  19. 76 FR 5368 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Greenhouse Gas Regulations; Within-the... thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  20. 78 FR 51724 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Tractor-Trailer Greenhouse Gas... shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor..., inspection or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor...

  1. Contribution of N2O to the greenhouse gas balance of first-generation biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.W.M.; Bouwman, A.F.; Stehfest, E.; Vuuren, van P.; Posthuma, A.

    2009-01-01

    n this study, we analyze the impact of fertilizer- and manure-induced N2O emissions due to energy crop production on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels (also taking account of other GHG emissions during the

  2. A life cycle greenhouse gas inventory of a tree production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa Kendall; E. Gregory McPherson

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThis study provides a detailed, process-based life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of an ornamental tree production system for urban forestry. The success of large-scale tree planting initiatives for climate protection depends on projects being net sinks for CO2 over their entire life cycle....

  3. Water and greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with a transition to a low carbon transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation fuels are heavily dominated by the use of petroleum, but concerns over oil depletion, energy security, and greenhouse gas emissions from petroleum combustion are driving the search for alternatives. As we look to shift away from petroleum-based transportation fuels...

  4. The EU 40 % greenhouse gas emission reduction target by 2030 in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, A. F.; den Elzen, M. G J; Mendoza Beltran, A.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the fairness and ambition level of the EU’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of reducing domestic greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 % relative to 1990. For this, we calculate which reduction targets for other major emitting economies are comparable to the EU target,

  5. National post-2020 greenhouse gas targets and diversity-aware leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinshausen, M.; Jeffery, Louise; Guetschow, Johannes; Hoehne, N.E.; Schaeffer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the collective goal of limiting warming to below 2 °C or 1.5 °C compared to pre-industrial levels requires a transition towards a fully decarbonized world. Annual greenhouse gas emissions on such a path in 2025 or 2030 can be allocated to individual countries using a variety of allocation

  6. Flushing meadows : the influence of management alternatives on the greenhouse gas balance of fen meadow areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier-Uijl, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of peatlands is a major and growing source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and small changes in the management of peatlands can lead to drastic changes in GHG emissions and changes in carbon storage and in the past have indeed done so. GHG emissions from peatlands an

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands 1990-2012; National inventory report 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Baas, K.; Berghe, van den A.C.W.M.; Biesebeek, te J.D.; Nijkamp, M.M.; Huis, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from the Netherlands in 2012 decreased by approximately 1.7 per cent, compared with 2011 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (increased electricity import) and in road transport. In 2012, total direct greenhou

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands 1990-2011. National Inventory Report 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Baas, K.; Berghe, van den A.C.W.M.; Biesebeek, te J.D.; Brandt, A.T.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Molder, te R.; Dröge, R.; Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Total greenhouse gas emissions from The Netherlands in 2011 decreased by approximately 7 per cent compared with 2010 emissions. This decrease is mainly the result of decreased fuel combustion in the Energy sector (less electricity production) and in the petrochemical industry. Fuel use for space hea

  9. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  10. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  11. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Environmental Valuation: Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to environmental valuation is applied to analyze the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions with a fairness-adjustment in the valuation exercise. Results indicate that industrialized countries have high willingness-to-pay to reduce emissions. Developing countries differ in their valuations. Results indicate that…

  12. Greenhouse gas emission analysis of an Egyptian rice straw biomass-to-energy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A common practice in Egypt has been the burning of rice straw, as a measure to prepare agricultural land for follow-up crops. This practice has caused significant greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to aerial pollution. By using straw residue for the production of pellets and shipping these pellet

  13. The effect of food consumption and production trends on energy, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkett, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we assess the trends in food consumption and food-related environmental impacts (in terms of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use) for three regions: Western Europe, the USA and China. The environmental impacts were determined by two methods: a product level analysis, in

  14. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from reed canary grass in paludiculture: effect of groundwater level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Audet, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Combination of rewetting and wetland crop cultivation (paludiculture) is pursued as a wider carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation option in drained peatland. However, information on the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) balance for paludiculture is lacking. We investigated the GHG balance...

  15. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of digestibility improving enzymes to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in broiler production. The product examined was a new enzyme called Axtra XAP, developed by DuPont, Danisco Animal Nutrition. Two scenarios were compared: one where...

  16. Better greenhouse gas emissions accounting for biofuels : A key to biofuels sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Yue, Taotao

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels are promoted by governments as a replacement for fossil fuels in the transport sector. However, according to current scientific evidence, their use does not necessarily significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines issues related to the regulation of biofuels’

  17. The effect of food consumption and production trends on energy, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkett, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we assess the trends in food consumption and food-related environmental impacts (in terms of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use) for three regions: Western Europe, the USA and China. The environmental impacts were determined by two methods: a product level analysis, in

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2010. National Inventory Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2009. National Inventory Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, P.W.H.G.; Van der Hoek, K.W.; Te Molder, R.; Droege, R. [Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Maas, C.W.M.; Zijlema, P.J.; Van den Berghe, A.C.W.M. [NL Agency, P.O. Box 8242, NL-3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Baas, K. [Statistics Netherlands CBS, P.O. Box 24500, NL-2490 HA Den Haag (Netherlands); Te Biesebeek, J.D.; Brandt, A.T. [Dutch Emission Authority, P.O. Box 91503, IPC 652, NL-2509 EC Den Haag (Netherlands); Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, P.O. Box 303 NL-3720 AH Bilthoven (Netherlands); Montfoort, J.A.; Peek, C.J.; Vonk, J.; Van den Wyngaert, I. [Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47 NL-6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The total greenhouse gas emission from the Netherlands in 2010 increased by approximately 6% compared to the emission in 2009. This increase is mainly the result of increased fuel combustion in the energy sector and space heating. In 2010, total direct greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from LULUCF - land use, land use change and forestry) in the Netherlands amounted to 210.1 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 1.5% below the emissions in the base year (213.3 Tg CO2 eq). This report documents the 2012 Netherlands' annual submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory in accordance with the guidelines provided by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism. The report comprises explanations of observed trends in emissions; a description of an assessment of key sources and their uncertainty; documentation of methods, data sources and emission factors applied; and a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from an irrigated dairy forage rotation as influenced by fertilizer and manure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer source on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from irrigated semiarid agricultural soils. In this study, conducted in south-central Idaho, we report nitrous oxide emissions along with carbon dioxide and methane fro...

  1. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co

  2. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products creat

  3. ObsPack: a framework for the preparation, delivery, and attribution of atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masarie, K. A.; Peters, W.; Jacobson, A. R.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Observation Package (ObsPack) is a framework designed to bring together atmospheric greenhouse gas observations from a variety of sampling platforms, prepare them with specific applications in mind, and package and distribute them in a self-consistent and well-documented product. Data products creat

  4. Sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems: Integrating carbon dynamics, erosion, water quality, and greenhouse gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of several rationales for developing renewable biomass energy. Unfortunately, there are few studies reporting direct impacts of harvesting biomass feedstocks on GHG, especially effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Overzealous biomass harvest may accelera...

  5. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  6. Energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of farming systems in north Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Rafiee, Shahin; Jafari, Ali; Keyhani, Alireza; Mousavi-Avval, Seyed Hashem; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    Efficient use of energy resources in crop production is an important goal in sustainable agriculture. This study compares the energy flow in farming systems across farm size with their corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - presented in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) - in the n

  7. Better greenhouse gas emissions accounting for biofuels : A key to biofuels sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Yue, Taotao

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels are promoted by governments as a replacement for fossil fuels in the transport sector. However, according to current scientific evidence, their use does not necessarily significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines issues related to the regulation of biofuels’ life-cy

  8. Identity-based estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Soussana, Jean-Francois;

    2012-01-01

    In order to feed the world we need innovative thinking on how to increase agricultural production whilst also mitigating climate change. Agriculture and land-use change are responsible for approximately one-third of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but hold potential for climate...

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions profiles of neighbourhoods in Durban, South Africa – an initial investigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jagarnath, M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Because current emissions accounting approaches focus on an entire city, cities are often considered to be large emitters of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with no attention to the variation within them. This makes it more difficult to identify...

  10. Projecting insect voltinism under high and low greenhouse gas emission conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi Chen; Shelby J. Fleischer; Patrick C. Tobin; Michael C. Saunders

    2011-01-01

    We develop individual-based Monte Carlo methods to explore how climate change can alter insect voltinism under varying greenhouse gas emissions scenarios by using input distributions of diapause termination or spring emergence, development rate, and diapause initiation, linked to daily temperature and photoperiod. We show concurrence of these projections with a field...

  11. Greenhouse gas emission analysis of an Egyptian rice straw biomass-to-energy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppens, R.P.; Bakker, R.

    2012-01-01

    A common practice in Egypt has been the burning of rice straw, as a measure to prepare agricultural land for follow-up crops. This practice has caused significant greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to aerial pollution. By using straw residue for the production of pellets and shipping these

  12. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is available about management practice effects on the net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) under dryland cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of cropping sequences (conventional-tillage malt barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.]–fallow [CTB-F], no-ti...

  13. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  14. Challenges for a Greenhouse Gas Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tans, P. P.

    2009-12-01

    Coping with global climate change requires both adaptation and mitigation. The former requires improved prognoses of likely climate futures, including natural emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The latter includes bringing down net emissions of greenhouse gases in order to first slow down, halt, and then decrease the forcing of climate change. The task implies a complete reorganization of society's energy system, which will require investments of the order of one to several percent of global gross domestic product for several decades. The political and economic stakes are very large, which is likely to put much pressure on self-reported emissions inventories to show success. There need to be observation based tools that can provide credible and objective evidence of the degree of success of emissions reduction policies and carbon sequestration efforts at scales that are relevant to policy makers. The atmosphere itself can provide such evidence, but several developments are necessary. The current international GHG observing system of in-situ chemical measurements needs to be enhanced by intensification as well as placement near large source regions. National inventories need to become specific in where and when emissions take place, so that the expected enhancements of the GHG mole fractions can be tested against observations. Atmospheric chemical transport models, that translate emissions into expected atmospheric GHG patterns, need to be improved, especially in the area of boundary layer mixing and dynamics. The GHG abundances in the atmosphere reflect the accumulation of many years of sources and surface exchange. Therefore the signals produced by recent emissions are relatively small compared to a common global background, which translates into a requirement for very accurate measurements. The integration of satellite observations, which provide global coverage, into the GHG observing system demands very careful and ongoing comparison with independent

  15. Low Power Greenhouse Gas Sensors for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate compact, low power, lightweight laser-based sensors for measuring trace gas species in the atmosphere designed specifically for electronic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. The sensors utilize non-intrusive optical sensing techniques to measure atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations with unprecedented vertical and horizontal resolution (~1 m within the planetary boundary layer. The sensors are developed to measure greenhouse gas species including carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane in the atmosphere. Key innovations are the coupling of very low power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs to low power drive electronics and sensitive multi-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopic techniques. The overall mass of each sensor is between 1–2 kg including batteries and each one consumes less than 2 W of electrical power. In the initial field testing, the sensors flew successfully onboard a T-Rex Align 700E robotic helicopter and showed a precision of 1% or less for all three trace gas species. The sensors are battery operated and capable of fully automated operation for long periods of time in diverse sensing environments. Laser-based trace gas sensors for UAVs allow for high spatial mapping of local greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmospheric boundary layer where land/atmosphere fluxes occur. The high-precision sensors, coupled to the ease-of-deployment and cost effectiveness of UAVs, provide unprecedented measurement capabilities that are not possible with existing satellite-based and suborbital aircraft platforms.

  16. Avoided deforestation as a greenhouse gas mitigation tool: economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohngen, Brent; Beach, Robert H; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is a significant contributor to accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. GHG emissions from deforestation in the tropics were in the range of 1 to 2 Pg C yr(-1) for the 1990s, which is equivalent to as much as 25% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. While there is growing interest in providing incentives to avoid deforestation and consequently reduce net carbon emissions, there is limited information available on the potential costs of these activities. This paper uses a global forestry and land use model to analyze the potential marginal costs of reducing net carbon emissions by avoiding deforestation in tropical countries. Our estimates suggest that about 0.1 Pg C yr(-1) of emissions reductions could be obtained over the next 30 to 50 yr for $5 per Mg C, and about 1.6 Pg C yr(-1) could be obtained over the same time frame for $100 per Mg C. In addition, the effects of carbon incentives on land use could be substantial. Relative to projected baseline conditions, we find that there would be around 3 million additional hectares (ha) of forestland in 2055 at $5 per Mg C and 422 million ha at $100 per Mg C. Estimates of reductions in area deforested, GHG mitigation potential, and annual land rental payments required are presented, all of which vary by region, carbon price paid, and time frame of mitigation.

  17. Tropical deforestation as a source of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, R.A. [The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Tropical deforestation, including both the permanent conversion of forests to croplands and pastures and the temporary or partial removal of forests for shifting cultivation and selective logging, is estimated to have released on the order of 1-2 PgC/yr (15-35% of annual fossil fuel emissions) during the 1990s. The magnitude of emissions depends on the rates of deforestation, the biomass of the forests deforested, and other reductions in biomass that result from forest use. If, in addition to carbon dioxide, one considers the emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, and other chemically reactive gases that result from deforestation and subsequent uses of the land, annual emissions during the 1990s accounted for about 25% of the total anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Trends in the rates of tropical deforestation are difficult to predict, but at today's rates, another 85 to 130 PgC will be released over the next 100 years, the emissions declining only as tropical forests are eliminated.

  18. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  19. Developing Water Resource Security in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained Context - A Case Study in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Samuelsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of drought conditions in regions such as California due to shortfalls in precipitation has brought refreshed attention to the vulnerability of our water supply paradigm to changes in climate patterns. In the face of a changing climate which can exacerbate drought conditions in already dry areas, building resiliency into our water supply infrastructure requires some decoupling of water supply availability from climate behavior through conservation, efficiency, and alternative water supply measures such as desalination and water reuse. The installation of these measures requires varying degrees of direct energy inputs and/or impacts the energy usage of the water supply infrastructure (conveyance, treatment, distribution, wastewater treatment). These impacts have implications for greenhouse gas emissions from direct fuel usage or impacts on the emissions from the electric grid. At the scale that these measures may need to be deployed to secure water supply availability, especially under climate change impacted hydrology, they can potentially pose obstacles for meeting greenhouse gas emissions reduction and renewable utilization goals. Therefore, the portfolio of these measures must be such that detrimental impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are minimized. This study combines climate data with a water reservoir network model and an electric grid dispatch model for the water-energy system of California to evaluate 1) the different pathways and scale of alternative water resource measures needed to secure water supply availability and 2) the impacts of following these pathways on the ability to meet greenhouse gas and renewable utilization goals. It was discovered that depending on the water supply measure portfolio implemented, impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and renewable utilization can either be beneficial or detrimental, and optimizing the portfolio is more important under climate change conditions due to the scale of measures required.

  20. Fighting global warming by greenhouse gas removal: destroying atmospheric nitrous oxide thanks to synergies between two breakthrough technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Tingzhen; de Richter, Renaud; Shen, Sheng; Caillol, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Even if humans stop discharging CO2 into the atmosphere, the average global temperature will still increase during this century. A lot of research has been devoted to prevent and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one of the technologies that might help to limit emissions. In complement, direct CO2 removal from the atmosphere has been proposed after the emissions have occurred. But, the removal of all the excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 will not be enough, due to the fact that CO2 outgases from the ocean as its solubility is dependent of its atmospheric partial pressure. Bringing back the Earth average surface temperature to pre-industrial levels would require the removal of all previously emitted CO2. Thus, the atmospheric removal of other greenhouse gases is necessary. This article proposes a combination of disrupting techniques to transform nitrous oxide (N2O), the third most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of current radiative forcing, which is harmful for the ozone layer and possesses quite high global warming potential. Although several scientific publications cite "greenhouse gas removal," to our knowledge, it is the first time innovative solutions are proposed to effectively remove N2O or other GHGs from the atmosphere other than CO2.

  1. ICOS, Integrated Carbon Observing System, a Research Infrastructure to Integrate Greenhouse Gas observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.; Rivier, L.; Ceulemans, R.; Dolman, A. J.; Flaud, J.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Papale, D.; Ramonet, M.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Kaukolehto, M.; Watson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research infrastructure. ICOS's mission is to collect data for monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes over Europe and adjacent regions, and to provide the long-term observations required to quantify and to predict the behavior of the carbon cycle. ICOS builds upon the measurement networks and expertise developed under many European and national projects by a research community of more that 2000 researchers and students. ICOS received initial funding for the period 2008-2013 for the preparation of a Research Infrastructure hat will be operational in 2014 and run during the next 20 years a data collection for essential GHG variables including The presentation of ICOS will focus 1) on the mechanisms that have enabled the agencies / networks / governments to produce work products (data products, modeling products, and sensor acquired or human acquired measurements), and 2) on strategies to enable all identified user families, to take those products into assessments and analyses of European time varying maps GHG fluxes, including information on the attribution of these fluxes to underlying human and natural drivers and policy relevant information to improve GHG inventories at regional to national scale. These mechanisms take the form of adherence to technical standards (data, measurements, calibration/validation, modelling protocols), data policies, and governance mechanisms, which may prove complex when many different research councils and ministries are involved, as in the case of the ICOS preparation.

  2. Proposed global trading schemes for ocean disposal of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nove, J.E.

    2000-07-01

    Current levels of climate change compared to those existing over the last 15000 years show that a major event has and is occurring. Such a major event requires major reductions in greenhouse emissions. This paper sets a policy framework for a transition between our current growth lifestyle and our desire for sustainability. Disposal of greenhouse gas emissions into select ocean locations and issuing carbon trading rights are consequently recommended. This paper concludes that UNESCO needs to be appointed the authority to control ocean disposal and the resulting trading in environmental credits. UNICEF needs to be appointed to the task of environmental education of future generations of children.

  3. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  4. Research to Support California Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, B. E.; Charrier-Klobas, J. G.; Chen, Y.; Duren, R. M.; Falk, M.; Franco, G.; Gallagher, G.; Huang, A.; Kuwayama, T.; Motallebi, N.; Vijayan, A.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act in 2006, California state agencies have developed comprehensive programs to reduce both long-lived and short-lived climate pollutants. California is already close to achieving its goal of reducing greenhouse (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, about a 30% reduction from business as usual. In addition, California has developed strategies to reduce GHG emissions another 40% by 2030, which will put the State on a path to meeting its 2050 goal of an 80% reduction. To support these emission reduction goals, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the California Energy Commission have partnered with NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program on a comprehensive research program to identify and quantify the various GHG emission source sectors in the state. These include California-specific emission studies and inventories for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission sources; a Statewide GHG Monitoring Network for these pollutants integrated with the Los Angeles Megacities Carbon Project funded by several federal agencies; efforts to verify emission inventories using inversion modeling and other techniques; mobile measurement platforms and flux chambers to measure local and source-specific emissions; and a large-scale statewide methane survey using a tiered monitoring and measurement program, which will include satellite, airborne, and ground-level measurements of the various regions and source sectors in the State. In addition, there are parallel activities focused on black carbon (BC) and fluorinated gases (F-gases) by CARB. This presentation will provide an overview of results from inventory, monitoring, data analysis, and other research efforts on Statewide, regional, and local sources of GHG emissions in California.

  5. An industrialist`s perspective on the greenhouse gas challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, G. [ABB Corporate Research Ltd., Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The President and CEO of ABB discusses the challenges facing the power sector and gives some examples of how ABB tries to contribute to the solution. ABB is involved in developing technologies for generation of electricity by coal-fired power plants, gas turbine power plants, nuclear power plants, and cogeneration and is also involved in transmission and distribution of electricity. The text includes inserts of 12 overheads used in the talk.

  6. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  7. Transportation: meeting the dual challenges of achieving energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Quanlu WANG; Hong HUO

    2009-01-01

    As the population and economy continue to grow globally, demand for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector relies solely on petroleum for its energy supply. The United States and China are the top two oil-importing countries. A major issue both countries face and are addressing is energy insecurity as a result of the demand for liquid fuels. Improvements in the energy efficiency of vehicles and the substitution of petroleum fuels with alternative fuels can help contain growth in the demand for transportation oil. Although most alternative transportation fuels - when applied to advanced vehicle technologies - can substantially reduce greenhouse emissions, coal-based liquid fuels may increase greenhouse gas emissions by twice as much as gasoline. Such technologies as carbon capture and storage may need to be employed to manage the greenhouse gas emissions of coal-based fuels. At present, there is no ideal transportation fuel option to solve problems related to transportation energy and greenhouse gas emissions. To solve these problems, research and development efforts are needed for a variety of transportation fuel options and advanced vehicle technologies.

  8. GASDUC-3: a gas pipeline with neutralization of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Paula, Eliane H. de; Freire, Dilian A.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS seeks to develop its projects following the contemporary premises of sustainable development. The Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline (GASDUC-3), an undertaking from the Transportadora Associada de Gas - TAG (Associated Gas Transporter) in progress by PETROBRAS, is an example showing that interfacing with the environment can overcome legal questions to reach the realm of awareness and community spirit. In addition to the many programs directed specifically towards the fulfillment of environmental regulations, as defined by competent agencies, the GASDUC-3 is also inserted in the Carbon Free Program. In the Carbon Free Program, all the GHG emissions into the atmosphere during the construction of the gas pipeline will be compensated for with the neutralization of carbon through reforestation. Such initiative is considered unheard of in works with pipelines worldwide. An inventory that quantified the emission of GHG during the implementation of GASDUC-3 made it possible to quantify the reforestation to be implemented and to calculate the number of native species to be planted for absorption - during the course of their growth - of this same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The trees are being planted especially in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA), located in the Unidades de Conservacao do Bioma Mata Atlantica (Conservation Units of the Atlantic Forest Biome), inside the influence region of the gas pipeline, in accordance with the competent environmental agencies and owners. In this way, in addition to fixing carbon and contributing to the deceleration of global warming, the project also cooperates with the preservation of hydro and soil resources and the local and regional biodiversity. The recapturing of the already emitted GHG through reforestation faces bureaucratic and economic difficulties in order to be implemented, different from the emission reduction projects which are widely disseminated by means of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM

  9. Land use change and the impact on greenhouse gas exchange in north Australian savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. P. Grover

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Savanna ecosystems are subject to accelerating land use change as human demand for food and forest products increases. Land use change has been shown to both increase and decrease greenhouse gas fluxes from savannas and considerable uncertainty exists about the non-CO2 fluxes from the soil. We measured methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and carbon dioxide (CO2 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle at three replicated sites of each of three land uses: savanna, young pasture and old pasture (converted from savanna 5–7 and 25–30 yr ago, respectively in the Douglas Daly region of northern Australia. The effect of break of season rains at the end of the dry season was investigated with two irrigation experiments.

    Land use change from savanna to pasture increased net greenhouse gas fluxes from the soil. Pasture sites were a weaker sink for CH4 than savanna sites and, under wet conditions, old pastures turned from being sinks to a significant source of CH4. Nitrous oxide emissions were generally very low, in the range of 0 to 5 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1, and under dry conditions soil uptake of N2O was apparent. Break of season rains produced a small, short lived pulse of N2O up to 20 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1, most evident in pasture soil. Annual cumulative soil CO2 fluxes increased after clearing, with savanna (14.6 t CO2-C ha−1 yr−1 having the lowest fluxes compared to old pasture (18.5 t CO2-C ha−1 yr−1 and young pasture (20.0 t CO2-C ha−1 yr−1. Clearing savanna increased soil-based greenhouse gas emissions from 53 to ~70 t CO2-equivalents, a 30% increase dominated by an increase in soil CO2 emissions and shift from soil CH4 sink to source

  10. Soil greenhouse gas emissions reduce the contribution of mangrove plants to the atmospheric cooling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Chen, Bin; Yu, Dan; Tam, Nora F. Y.; Ye, Yong; Chen, Shunyang

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove soils have been recognized as sources of greenhouse gases, but the atmospheric fluxes are poorly characterized, and their adverse warming effect has rarely been considered with respect to the potential contribution of mangrove wetlands to climate change mitigation. The current study balanced the warming effect of soil greenhouse gas emissions with the plant carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration rate derived from the plants’ net primary production in a productive mangrove wetland in South China to assess the role of mangrove wetlands in reducing the atmospheric warming effect. Soil characteristics were also studied in the summer to examine their relationships with gas fluxes. The soil to atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and CO2 ranged from -1.6 to 50.0 μg m-2 h-1, from -1.4 to 5360.1 μg m-2 h-1 and from -31 to 512 mg m-2 h-1, respectively, which indicated that the mangrove soils act as sources of greenhouse gases in this area. The gas fluxes were higher in summer than in the cold seasons and were variable across mangrove sites. Gas fluxes in summer were positively correlated with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and ammonia contents. The mangrove plants sequestered a considerable amount of atmospheric CO2 at rates varying from 3652 to 7420 g CO2 m-2 yr-1. The ecosystem acted as a source of CH4 and N2O gases but was a more intense CO2 sink. However, the warming effect of soil gas emissions accounted for 9.3-32.7% of the plant CO2 sequestration rate, partially reducing the benefit of mangrove plants, and the two trace gases comprised 9.7-33.2% of the total warming effect. We therefore propose that an assessment of the reduction of atmospheric warming effects by a mangrove ecosystem should consider both soil greenhouse gas emissions and plant CO2 sequestration.

  11. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology

  12. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available.

  13. A generic model for estimating biomass accumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from perennial crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Alicia; Heathcote, Richard; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Hillier, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is essential to maintain humankind but is, at the same time, a substantial emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With a rising global population, the need for agriculture to provide secure food and energy supply is one of the main human challenges. At the same time, it is the only sector which has significant potential for negative emissions through the sequestration of carbon and offsetting via supply of feedstock for energy production. Perennial crops accumulate carbon during their lifetime and enhance organic soil carbon increase via root senescence and decomposition. However, inconsistency in accounting for this stored biomass undermines efforts to assess the benefits of such cropping systems when applied at scale. A consequence of this exclusion is that efforts to manage this important carbon stock are neglected. Detailed information on carbon balance is crucial to identify the main processes responsible for greenhouse gas emissions in order to develop strategic mitigation programs. Perennial crops systems represent 30% in area of total global crop systems, a considerable amount to be ignored. Furthermore, they have a major standing both in the bioenergy and global food industries. In this study, we first present a generic model to calculate the carbon balance and GHGs emissions from perennial crops, covering both food and bioenergy crops. The model is composed of two simple process-based sub-models, to cover perennial grasses and other perennial woody plants. The first is a generic individual based sub-model (IBM) covering crops in which the yield is the fruit and the plant biomass is an unharvested residue. Trees, shrubs and climbers fall into this category. The second model is a generic area based sub-model (ABM) covering perennial grasses, in which the harvested part includes some of the plant parts in which the carbon storage is accounted. Most second generation perennial bioenergy crops fall into this category. Both generic sub

  14. Creating a Methodology for Coordinating High-resolution Air Quality Improvement Map and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies in Pittsburgh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Klima, K.; Blackhurst, M.

    2016-12-01

    In order to tradeoff global impacts of greenhouse gases with highly local impacts of conventional air pollution, researchers require a method to compare global and regional impacts. Unfortunately, we are not aware of a method that allows these to be compared, "apples-to-apples". In this research we propose a three-step model to compare possible city-wide actions to reduce greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants. We focus on Pittsburgh, PA, a city with consistently poor air quality that is interested in reducing both greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants. First, we use the 2013 Pittsburgh Greenhouse Gas Inventory to update the Blackhurst et al. model and conduct a greenhouse gas abatement potentials and implementation costs of proposed greenhouse gas reduction efforts. Second, we use field tests for PM2.5, NOx, SOx, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data to inform a Land-use Regression Model for local air pollution at a 100m x 100m spatial level, which combined with a social cost of air pollution model (EASIUR) allows us to calculate economic social damages. Third, we combine these two models into a three-dimensional greenhouse gas cost abatement curve to understand the implementation costs and social benefits in terms of air quality improvement and greenhouse gas abatement for each potential intervention. We anticipated such results could provide policy-maker insights in green city development.

  15. Development of coal mine methane concentration technology for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahisa; UTAKI

    2010-01-01

    In coal mines in such countries as China and Russia,most of the coal mine methane(CMM) generated during mining is emitted to the atmosphere without any effective usage,because the methane concentration of CMM is relatively low and not allowed to be used as fuel for safety reasons.Methane is one of the greenhouse gases.Therefore,if it becomes possible to concentrate CMM to an acceptable level for use as fuel,this will greatly contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.With the aim of gaining approval as a greenhouse gas emission reduction of the clean development mechanism(CDM) or joint implementation(JI) project,we developed a CMM concentration system to apply the vacuum pressure swing adsorption(VPSA) technology using a high methane-selective adsorbent by Osaka Gas Co.,Ltd.The pilot-scale plant of a CMM concentration system was installed in a coal mine in Fuxin City in the northeastern China and a demonstration test was commenced in December 2008.As the result,the pilot-scale plant successfully concentrated the raw material gas with a methane concentration of 21% and a flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h to 48%,which exceeded the target of the methane concentration performance(a 25% increase).The methane recovery rate reached 93%.

  16. Organic Amendment Effects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Long-Term Stockpiled Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvomuya, F.; Laskosky, J.

    2014-12-01

    In oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada, salvaged soils are often placed in large stockpiles where they are stored for the duration of the project, typically 20-30 years. Alberta regulations require that topsoil and subsoil are salvaged in two distinct operations - a process known as two-lifting. Reclamation using long-term stockpiled soils often gives poor results, characterized by lower soil organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations compared with equivalent natural, undisturbed soils. It is thought that the change from an aerobic to an anaerobic environment during soil stockpiling and back again to aerobic during placement are largely responsible for the low carbon and nitrogen due to microbial activity transforming C and N in the soil into CO2, CH4 and N2O and releasing them to the atmosphere. Evidence from recent studies indicates that biochar improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and hence could mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. We postulate that documented improvements in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in soils treated with amendments such as biochar may help mitigate C and N losses due to greenhouse gas emissions from the soil indirectly. This laboratory incubation experiment tested the effects of differential rates (0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar carbon equivalents kg-1 dry soil) of biochar, peat, and humalite on greenhouse gas emissions from a 25-year old two-lift stockpiled soil. The soils were fertilized according to standard practice, placed in 120-mL plastic containers, and incubated at 25°C for 45 days. Gas samples were taken at 1- to 7-day intervals and analyzed for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Data on treatment differences in emissions will be presented. Results from this experiment will provide an insight into the potential for organic amendments to mitigate greenhouse gas emission during reclamation using degraded soils.

  17. Nitrification Inhibitors: A Perspective Tool to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K. Malyan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields are significant contributors of greenhouse gases mainly methane and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Increasing concentrations of these greenhouse gases play significant role in changing atmospheric chemistry such as mean air temperature, rainfall pattern, drought, and flood frequency. Mitigation of greenhouse gases for achieving sustainable agriculture without affecting economical production is one the biggest challenge of twenty first century at national and global scale. On the basis of published scientific studies, we hereby assess the use of nitrification inhibitors for greenhouse gas mitigation from rice soil. Biologically oxidation of ammonium to nitrate is termed as nitrification and materials which suppress this process are known as nitrification inhibitors. Soil amendment by addition of certain nitrification inhibitors such as neem oil coated urea, nimin-coated urea; dicyandiamide, encapsulated calcium carbide, and hydroquinone reduce cumulative methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice. Firstly, these inhibitors reduce nitrous oxide emissions both directly by nitrification (by reducing NH4+ to NO3- as well as indirectly by de-nitrification (by reducing NO3- availability in soil. Secondly, methane emission from rice soil can be reduced by enhancing methane oxidation and suppressing methane production and further by reducing the aerenchymal transportation through rice plant. Application of some of the nitrification inhibitors such as calcium carbide and encapsulated calcium carbide reduce methane production by releasing acetylene gas which helps in reducing the population of methanogenic microbes in the soil. Application of nitrification inhibitors also helps to maintain soil redox potential at higher level subsequently reducing cumulative methane emission from soil. Plant derived organic nitrification inhibitors (neem oil, neem cake, karanja seed extract are eco-friendly and possess substantial greenhouse gas mitigation

  18. The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in Colombia: a preliminary analysis. II. Greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Henson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding paper we examined carbon sequestration in oil palm plantations and in mill products and by-products as part of a study of the greenhouse gas balance of palm oil production in Colombia, showing how this has changed over time. Here, we look at the opposing processes of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and calculate the resulting net carbon budget for the industry. The main emission sources, in decreasing order of magnitude, assessed using "default" or "most probable" options, were found to be land use change (40.9% of total, mill methane production (21.4%, direct use of fossil fuel (18.5%, indirect use of fossil fuel (11.9% and nitrous oxide production (7.3%. The total (gross emissions, expressed in carbon equivalents (Ceq., were less than the amount of sequestered carbon, resulting in a positive net Ceq. balance. All oil palm growing regions showed a net gain with the exception of the western zone, where emissions due to land-use change were judged to be substantial. Of the 11 alternative scenarios tested, only three resulted in Ceq. balances lower than the default and only two gave a negative balance

  19. Autonomous taxis could greatly reduce greenhouse-gas emissions of US light-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Saxena, Samveg

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are conveyances to move passengers or freight without human intervention. AVs are potentially disruptive both technologically and socially, with claimed benefits including increased safety, road utilization, driver productivity and energy savings. Here we estimate 2014 and 2030 greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and costs of autonomous taxis (ATs), a class of fully autonomous shared AVs likely to gain rapid early market share, through three synergistic effects: (1) future decreases in electricity GHG emissions intensity, (2) smaller vehicle sizes resulting from trip-specific AT deployment, and (3) higher annual vehicle-miles travelled (VMT), increasing high-efficiency (especially battery-electric) vehicle cost-effectiveness. Combined, these factors could result in decreased US per-mile GHG emissions in 2030 per AT deployed of 87-94% below current conventionally driven vehicles (CDVs), and 63-82% below projected 2030 hybrid vehicles, without including other energy-saving benefits of AVs. With these substantial GHG savings, ATs could enable GHG reductions even if total VMT, average speed and vehicle size increased substantially. Oil consumption would also be reduced by nearly 100%.

  20. Increased greenhouse-gas intensity of rice production under future atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; van Kessel, Chris; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-03-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are expected to affect rice yields and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from rice paddies. This is important, because rice cultivation is one of the largest human-induced sources of the potent GHG methane (CH4) and rice is the world's second-most produced staple crop. The need for meeting a growing global food demand argues for assessing GHG emissions from croplands on the basis of yield rather than land area, such that efforts to reduce GHG emissions take into consideration the consequences for food production. However, it is unclear whether or how the GHG intensity (that is, yield-scaled GHG emissions) of cropping systems will be affected by future atmospheric conditions. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased atmospheric CO2 (ranging from 550 to 743ppmV) and warming (ranging from +0.8°C to +6°C) both increase the GHG intensity of rice cultivation. Increased atmospheric CO2 increased GHG intensity by 31.4%, because CH4 emissions are stimulated more than rice yields. Warming increased GHG intensity by 11.8% per 1°C, largely owing to a decrease in yield. This analysis suggests that rising CO2 and warming will approximately double the GHG intensity of rice production by the end of the twenty-first century, stressing the need for management practices that optimize rice production while reducing its GHG intensity as the climate continues to change.

  1. A Worldwide Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Drained Organic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nicola Tubiello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of organic soils, including peatlands, in the global carbon cycle, detailed information on regional and global emissions is scarce. This is due to the difficulty to map, measure, and assess the complex dynamics of land, soil, and water interactions needed to assess the human-driven degradation of organic soils. We produced a new methodology for the comprehensive assessment of drained organic soils in agriculture and the estimation of the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Results indicated that over 25 million hectares of organic soils were drained worldwide for agriculture use, of which about 60% were in boreal and temperate cool areas, 34% in tropical areas, and 5% in warm temperate areas. Total emissions from the drainage were globally significant, totaling nearly one billion tonnes CO2eq annually. Of this, the CO2 component, about 780 million tonnes, represented more than one-fourth of total net CO2 emissions from agriculture, forestry, and land use. The bulk of these emissions came from a few tropical countries in Southeast Asia, and was linked to land clearing and drainage for crop cultivation. Geospatial data relative to this work were disseminated via the FAO geospatial server GeoNetwork, while the national aggregated statistics were disseminated via the FAOSTAT database.

  2. Compositions and greenhouse gas emission factors of flared and vented gas in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2012-09-01

    A significant obstacle in evaluating mitigation strategies for flaring and venting in the upstream oil and gas industry is the lack of publicly available data on the chemical composition of the gas. This information is required to determine the economic value of the gas, infrastructure and processing requirements, and potential emissions or emissions credits, all of which have significant impact on the economics of such strategies. This paper describes a method for estimating the composition of solution gas being flared and vented at individual facilities, and presents results derived for Alberta, Canada, which sits at the heart of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Using large amounts of raw data obtained through the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a relational database was created and specialized queries were developed to link production stream data, raw gas samples, and geography to create production-linked gas composition profiles for approximately half of the currently active facilities. These were used to create composition maps for the entire region, to which the remaining facilities with unknown compositions were geographically linked. The derived data were used to compute a range of solution gas composition profiles and greenhouse gas emission factors, providing new insight into flaring and venting in the region and enabling informed analysis of future management and mitigation strategies. Accurate and transparent determination of environmental impacts of flaring and venting of gas associated with oil production, and potential benefits of mitigation, is severely hampered by the lack of publicly available gas composition data. In jurisdictions within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, frameworks exist for regulating and trading carbon offset credits but current potential for mitigation is limited by a lack of standardized methods for calculating CO2 equivalent emissions. The composition and emission factor data derived in this paper

  3. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission Potentials from Integrated Pig Manure Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2010-01-01

    of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management......Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios...... based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types...

  4. International markets for greenhouse gas emission reduction policies - possibilities for integrating developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.; Olhoff, A.

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit princ...... principles that can be applied to the assessment of global markets for GHG emission reduction options and evaluates the scope for and the potential economic gains of such markets.......Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit...

  5. Contribution of plastic waste recovery to greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sevigné Itoiz, Eva; Martínez Gasol, Carles; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of post-consumer plastic waste recovery (material or energy) by considering the influence of the plastic waste quality (high or low), the recycled plastic applications (virgin plastic substitution or non-plastic substitution) and the markets of recovered plastic (regional or global). The aim is to quantify the environmental consequences of different alternatives in order to evaluate opportunities and limitations t...

  6. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc

    2012-01-01

    and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon...... emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy....

  7. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Heather L. MacLean

    2014-01-01

    While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international...

  8. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Environmental Valuation: Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Beja Jr., Edsel L.

    2011-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to environmental valuation is applied to analyze the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions. Dimensions like population and income are then incorporated into the valuation to get the fairness-adjusted marginal value of emissions. The results indicate that the industrialized countries have high willingness-to-pay to reduce emissions with the United States and Japan reporting the largest figures. Developing countries differ in their valuations, albeit they are ...

  9. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Impact of Ridership on Sheppard Subway Line, Toronto, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Saxe, Shoshanna; Cruickshank, Heather; Miller, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This is a metadata record relating to an article that cannot be shared due to publisher copyright. Changes in travel behavior near the Sheppard Subway Line in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and the associated greenhouse gas impacts were examined. A study looked at initial changes in mode share after the line opened in 2002 and examined ongoing mode share trends through 2012. The initial mode shift was assessed through an analysis of bus boardings, subway platform counts, and traffic counts made...

  11. Options for Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Guiyang, China: A Cost-Ancillary Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Cao

    2004-01-01

    This study provides information on the additional "ancillary" benefits that China would experience by reducing emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. It investigates a number of options for mitigating CO2 emissions in the power and industrial sectors of Guiyang City. It calculates the impact these options would have on the city's overall air pollution and effects these changes in air quality would have on the health improvements and looks at the overall cost and benefit that each of ...

  12. Reducing California's Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Product Life-Cycle Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; WORRELL Ernst

    2005-01-01

    Product life-cycle optimization addresses the reduction of environmental burdens associated with the production, use, and end-of-life stages of a product s life cycle. In this paper, we offer an evaluation of the opportunities related to product life-cycle optimization in California for two key products: personal computers (PCs) and concrete. For each product, we present the results of an explorative case study to identify specific opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reducti...

  13. The effect of phosphogypsum on greenhouse gas emissions during cattle manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Larney, Francis J; Chang, Chi; Travis, Greg R; Nichol, Connie K; Bremer, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, reduces N losses when added to composting livestock manure, but its impact on greenhouse gas emissions is unclear. The objective of this research was to assess the effects of PG addition on greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting. Sand was used as a filler material for comparison. The seven treatments were PG10, PG20, PG30, S10, S20, and S30, representing the rate of PG or sand addition at 10, 20, or 30% of manure dry weight and a check treatment (no PG or sand) with three replications. The manure treatments were composted in open windrows and turned five times during a 134-d period. Addition of PG significantly increased electrical conductivity (EC) and decreased pH in the final compost. Total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and mineral nitrogen contents in the final composted product were not affected by the addition of PG or sand. From 40 to 54% of initial TC was lost during composting, mostly as CO(2), with CH(4) accounting for <14%. The addition of PG significantly reduced CH(4) emissions, which decreased exponentially with the compost total sulfur (TS) content. The emission of N(2)O accounted for <0.2% of initial TN in the manure, increasing as compost pH decreased from alkaline to near neutral. Based on the total greenhouse gas budget, PG addition reduced greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)-C equivalent) during composting of livestock manure by at least 58%, primarily due to reduced CH(4) emission.

  14. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity influenced by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information exists about sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) affected by management practices to account for net emissions from agroecosystems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas...

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  16. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  17. Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFries, R. [Department of Geography and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Achard, F. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission 21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Brown, S. [Winrock International, Ecosystem Services Unit 1621 N. Kent Street, Suite 1200, Arlington, VA 22207 (United States); Herold, M. [Department of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 6596, JKPWB, Jakarta 10065 (Indonesia); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); De Souza, C. Jr [Instituto Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia, Imazon, Caixa Postal 5101, Belem, PA 66613-397 (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process investigating the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in developing countries, this paper reviews technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation and estimating emissions. Implementation of policies to reduce emissions from deforestation require effective deforestation monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented at the national level. Remotely sensed data supported by ground observations are key to effective monitoring. Capacity in developing countries for deforestation monitoring is well-advanced in a few countries and is a feasible goal in most others. Data sources exist to determine base periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Forest degradation (e.g. from high impact logging and fragmentation) also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions but it is more technically challenging to measure than deforestation. Data on carbon stocks, which are needed to estimate emissions, cannot currently be observed directly over large areas with remote sensing. Guidelines for carbon accounting from deforestation exist and are available in approved Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and can be applied at national scales in the absence of forest inventory or other data. Key constraints for implementing programs to monitor greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standard and consensual protocols for data interpretation and analysis.

  18. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, July 1, 1994--July 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1995-07-21

    The objective of this research is to assembly and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and validation of General Circulation Models. In addition to changes due to variations in anthropogenic forcing, including greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the anthropogenic effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to coupled atmosphere ocean General Circulation Models. These analyses are oriented towards obtaining early evidence of anthropogenic climatic change that would lead either to confirmation, rejection or modification of model projections, and towards the statistical validation of General Circulation Model control runs and perturbation experiments.

  19. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  20. Greenhouse gas exchange in tropical mountain ecosystems in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kikoti, Imani; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Tropical mountain ecosystems with their mostly immense biodiversity are important regions for natural resources but also for agricultural production. Their supportive ecosystem processes are particularly vulnerable to the combined impacts of global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes. Data of impacts of climate and land use change on soil-atmosphere interactions due to GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) exchange from these ecosystems are still scarce, in particular for Africa. Tropical forest soils are underestimated as sinks for atmospheric CH4 with regard to worldwide GHG budgets (Werner et al. 2007, J GEOPHYS RES Vol. 112). Even though these soils are an important source for the atmospheric N2O budget, N2O emissions from tropical forest ecosystems are still poorly characterized (Castaldi et al. 2013, Biogeosciences 10). To obtain an insight of GHG balances of selected ecosystems soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4 and CO2 was investigated along the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We will present results for tropical forests in three different altitudes (lower montane, Ocotea, and Podocarpus forest), home garden (extensive agro-forestry), and coffee plantation (intensive agro-forestry). Therefore we used a combined approach consisting of a laboratory parameterization experiment (3 temperature and 2 moisture levels) and in situ static chamber measurements for GHG exchange. Field measurements were conducted during different hygric seasons throughout two years. Seasonal variation of temperature and especially of soil moisture across the different ecosystems resulted in distinct differences in GHG exchange. In addition environmental parameters like soil bulk density and substrate availability varying in space strongly influenced the GHG fluxes within sites. The results from parameterization experiments and in situ measurements show that natural forest ecosystems and extensive land use had higher uptakes of CH4. For the investigated

  1. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  2. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  3. A critical review of wetland greenhouse gas measurement techniques and scaling considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. T.; Krauss, K. W.; Stagg, C. L.; Neubauer, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The role of wetlands in terrestrial greenhouse gas fluxes is disproportionately large compared to the relatively small terrestrial area they encompass. There is an established and growing interest in accurately measuring these fluxes, and extrapolating inferences to larger spatial scales. However, a lack of uniformity in measurement approaches impedes progress because it is a challenge to synthesize data, parameterize models, and develop generalizable concepts from disparate data. Furthermore, pairing different methods can result in double-accounting and other aggregation errors. Our objective is to review gas flux measurement techniques and synthesize concepts, factors, and constraints associated with measuring and scaling greenhouse gas fluxes. This work will contribute to a conceptual framework designed to aid in the collection and use of gas flux data obtained by different methods. This review focuses specifically on wetlands which have both distinct transport processes and a unique biogeochemical environment, causing gas fluxes that are not prominent in other terrestrial or aquatic systems. We review techniques and implications of measuring at different steps along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum; an emphasis of this work is identifying pathways and transit times for different fluxes in different wetland hydrogeomorphic settings. Measurement location along the path from source to atmosphere connotes the spatial and temporal scales at which a technique is applied, the spatiotemporal representation, and the factors that constrain extrapolation.

  4. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  5. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  6. Bridging the data gap: engaging developing country farmers in greenhouse gas accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Keith

    2013-06-01

    -based measurements, environmental variables, process models and monitoring networks described above. The second part of the equation is generally referred to as activity data, which includes the type and amount of human-activities (i.e., management) responsible for the emissions. In most developed countries, there is a well-developed infrastructure to collect and analyze data on land use and management activities that are used for a variety of purposes, including greenhouse gas inventories. For example, the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) conducts a variety of surveys of farmers to collect information on management practices as well as economic and demographic data; other entities such as USDA National Resource Inventory use remote sensing and field visits to gather agricultural resource use data. These and other data sources are utilized for the national agricultural emissions inventory in the US (EPA 2012). However, even these well-established and resourced (e.g., 2011 NASS budget was 165 million) data collections lack some variables of interest for GHG estimates and more importantly tend to be available only as aggregated averages (e.g., state or county level) that do not fully capture the local interaction of environmental variables (e.g. climate and soil properties) and management practices that determine GHG emissions. In most developing countries, this type of agricultural activity data is much scarcer and most countries do not have the resources to collect extensive survey data on agricultural practices as in the developed world. Country-level statistics such as compiled in FAOSTAT provide a useful first-order estimate of agricultural activities that can be used in national and global GHG accounting (see Tubiello et al 2013), but are inadequate for finer scale and more accurate emissions estimates. Given financial and resource constraints, there is little expectation of dramatic near-term improvements in the availability

  7. Forest Conversion: Impact on Total Greenhouse Gas Balance and Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papen, H.; Brueggemann, N.; Gasche, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2006-12-01

    At present, large efforts are undertaken in wide parts of Germany and Europe to create the scientific and socio-economic data basis that can be used by political decision makers and foresters for developing and implementing a future-oriented forestry allowing a sustainable use of forests under changing environmental conditions (e.g. climate change and increasing N-deposition). Different forest management strategies are available to initiate forest conversion, in particular "clear-cutting" and "selective cutting". Although these forest conversion strategies are widely used, little information is available about their individual effects on the biosphere-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange and on the total greenhouse gas balance (CO2 + N2O + CH4) of the system. The results obtained from continuous long-term measurements (1999-2005) of N2O and CH4 fluxes from the soil of different experimental sites (untreated spruce control site, selective-cutting site, clear-cut site) at the Höglwald Forest, Bavaria, Germany show that conversion of N-affected forest plantations by clear-cutting leads to an enormous release of N2O from the soil into the atmosphere, not only during the first year after treatment, but for several consecutive years, and simultaneously to a marked reduction in the uptake capacity of the soil for CH4. Although selective cutting also enhances the source strength for N2O and reduces the CH4 sink strength, respectively, the effects are by far less pronounced as compared to clear-cutting. Establishing the total greenhouse gas balance (CH4, N2O, CO2) for a forest rotation time of 80 years by considering the huge differences in global warming potentials of these greenhouse gases revealed that the enhanced N2O emissions and reduced CH4 deposition rates due to different forest conversion practices can compensate CO2 sequestration benefits to a significant extent.

  8. Progress toward an Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCola, P.; Butler, J. H.; Stanitski, D.; Tarasova, O. A.; Terblanche, D. E.; Duren, R. M.; Gurney, K. R.; Manning, A.; Reimann, S.; Ciais, P.; Arnold, T.; Burston, J.; Rayner, P. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Hamburg, S.; Zavala-Araiza, D.; Miller, J. B.; Gerbig, C.; Vogel, F. R.; Canadell, J.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate and precise atmospheric long-term measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have revealed the rapid and unceasing rise of global GHG concentrations due to human socioeconomic activity. Long-term observations also show a resulting rise in global temperatures and evidence of negative impacts on society. In response to this mounting evidence, nations, sub-national governments, private enterprises and individuals are establishing and accelerating efforts to reduce GHG emissions while meeting the needs for global development and increasing energy access. With this motivation, WMO and its partners have called for an Integrated Global Greenhouse Information System (IG3IS). The IG3IS will serve as an international coordinating mechanism to establish and propagate consistent methods and standards to help assess emission-reduction actions. For the IG3IS initiative to succeed the end users must understand, trust, and recognize the value of the information they receive, and act more effectively in response. Over time, the IG3IS framework will be capable of promoting and accepting advancing technical capabilities (e.g., new satellite observations), continually improving the quality of and confidence in such information. By combining accurate atmospheric measurements with enhanced socioeconomic activity data and model analyses we can meet the overarching goals of IG3IS to: Reduce uncertainty of emission inventory reporting, Locate, quantify and prioritize previously unknown emission reduction opportunities, and Provide national and sub-national governments with timely and quantified information to support their assessment of progress towards their mitigation goals. An effective IG3IS will provide on-going, observation-based information on the relative success of GHG management efforts on policy-relevant scales and the response of the global carbon cycle to a warming world. The presentation will cover the principles and objectives of IG3IS, as well as progress

  9. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Arets, E. J. M. M.; Hoek, van der, D.J.; Kramer, H.; P. J. Kuikman; J. P. Lesschen

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissions over the year 2011. It includes detailed description of the methodologies used to calculate activity data and emissions and it gives the full text of the NIR-II for KP-LULUCF, as well as a desc...

  10. Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada’s voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement appro...

  11. The importance of addressing methane emissions as part of a comprehensive greenhouse gas management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylin, Carey [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Robinson, Donald; Cacho, Mariella; Russo, Ignacio; Stricklin, Eric [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rortveit, Geir Johan [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Chakraborty, A.B. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India); Pontiff, Mike [Newfield, The Woodlands, TX, (United States); Smith, Reid [British Petroleum (BP), London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Given the climate forcing properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the current state of the global economy, it is imperative to mitigate emissions of GHGs cost-effectively. Typically, CO{sub 2} is the main focus of most companies' and governments' GHG emissions reductions strategies. However, when considering near-term goals, it becomes clear that emissions reductions of other GHGs must be pursued. One such GHG is methane, the primary component of natural gas. Reducing GHG emissions and generating profits are not necessarily a mutually exclusive endeavor as illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program. The Program is a worldwide voluntary, flexible partnership of oil and gas companies which promotes cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations. In an effort to meet environmental goals without sacrificing profitability, Natural Gas STAR partner companies have identified over 60 cost-effective best practices to reduce their methane emissions, which they report to the EPA. This paper discusses: 1) the importance of reducing methane emissions and its economic impact, 2) a comparison of methane emission reduction projects relative to other greenhouse gas reduction projects in the oil and gas industry, 3) the value of source-specific methane emissions inventories, and 4) methane emission reduction opportunities from hydraulically fractured gas well completions and centrifugal compressor wet seals. From the analyses and examples in this paper, it can be concluded that methane emission reduction projects can be readily identified, profitable, and effective in mitigating global climate change. (author)

  12. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  13. Optimizing Location of Bulk Metallic Minerals Processing Based on Greenhouse Gas Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk minerals iron ore and bauxite cause significant greenhouse emissions in their processing to steel and aluminum respectively. The level of these emissions is highly dependent on the source of electrical and thermal energy. However, they also cause significant greenhouse gas emissions from their transportation across the globe for processing. This study examines these minerals from the perspective of greenhouse gas avoidance, examining the location of processing as an option for reducing transportation-based and process-based emissions. The analysis proposes a “radius of reduction” to define the potential for transporting ore to reduce emissions by offshore processing. Overall scenarios for localized steel production indicate potential for 85% reduction of transport emissions in the steel industry and 14% of overall industry emissions. Local high-carbon electricity grids and inefficient production mean that the benefit of reduced transportation is partially counteracted by increased processing emissions. The transportation of all global bauxite to Norway and other nations with low-emissions electricity for production of aluminum could result in an overall reduction of industry emissions of up to 44%.

  14. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal.

  15. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  16. A new Masters program in Greenhouse Gas Management and Accounting at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, R. T.; Ogle, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Management guru Peter Drucker said that "what gets measured gets managed." But the unstated implication is that what doesn't get measured doesn't get managed. Accurate quantification of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts is central to the clean technology sector. Very soon professionals of all kinds (business people, accountants, lawyers) will need to understand carbon accounting and crediting. Over the next few decades food production is expected to double and energy production must triple in order to meet growing global demands; sustainable management of land use and agricultural systems will be critical. The food and energy supply challenges are inextricably linked to the challenge of limiting anthropogenic impacts on climate by reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. To avoid serious disruption of the climate system and stabilize GHG concentrations, society must move aggressively to avoid emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O and to actively draw down CO2 already in the atmosphere. A new cadre of technically adept professionals is needed to meet these challenges. We describe a new professional Masters degree in greenhouse gas management and accounting at Colorado State University. This effort leverages existing, internationally-recognized expertise from across campus and partners from agencies and industry, enabling students from diverse backgrounds to develop the skills needed to fill this emerging demand.

  17. National inventory report 1990-2009: greenhouse gas sourcesand sinks in Canada - The Canadian Government's submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document is the national inventory report for 1990 to 2009 on greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada. Herein is provided an inventory of the emissions of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs), perfluorocarbon (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) by the energy, industrial and agricultural sectors in Canada for every year between 1990 and 2009. An analysis of every Canadian province and territory in terms of electricity consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is then provided. Finally, an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions, electricity generation and greenhouse gas intensity is provided for the years 1990 and 2000 to 2009.

  18. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  19. Effects of nitrogen loading on greenhouse gas emissions in salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Morkeski, K.; Mora, J.; Chen, X.; Carey, J.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes play an important role in global and regional carbon and nitrogen cycling. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic nitrogen loading alters greenhouse gas (GHG, including CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions and carbon sequestration in salt marshes. We measured GHG emissions biweekly for two growing seasons across a nitrogen-loading gradient of four Spartina salt marshes in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. In addition, we conducted nitrogen addition experiments in a pristine marsh by adding low and high nitrate to triplicate plots bi-weekly during the summer. The GHG flux measurements were made in situ with a state-of-the-art mobile gas measurement system using the cavity ring down technology that consists of a CO2/CH4 analyzer (Picarro) and an N2O/CO analyzer (Los Gatos). We observed strong seasonal variations in greenhouse gas emissions. The differences in gas emissions across the nitrogen gradient were not significant, but strong pulse emissions of N2O were observed after nitrogen was artificially added to the marsh. Our results will facilitate model development to simulate GHG emissions in coastal wetlands and support methodology development to assess carbon credits in preserving and restoring coastal wetlands.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from solid waste in Beijing: The rising trend and the mitigation effects by management improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Disposal of solid waste poses great challenges to city managements. Changes in solid waste composition and disposal methods, along with urbanisation, can certainly affect greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. In this study, we analysed the changes in the generation, composition and management of municipal solid waste in Beijing. The changes of greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management were thereafter calculated. The impacts of municipal solid waste management improvements on greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation effects of treatment techniques of greenhouse gas were also analysed. Municipal solid waste generation in Beijing has increased, and food waste has constituted the most substantial component of municipal solid waste over the past decade. Since the first half of 1950s, greenhouse gas emission has increased from 6 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)to approximately 200 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in the early 1990s and 2145 CO2-eq Gg y(-1)in 2013. Landfill gas flaring, landfill gas utilisation and energy recovery in incineration are three techniques of the after-emission treatments in municipal solid waste management. The scenario analysis showed that three techniques might reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 22.7%, 4.5% and 9.8%, respectively. In the future, if waste disposal can achieve a ratio of 4:3:3 by landfill, composting and incineration with the proposed after-emission treatments, as stipulated by the Beijing Municipal Waste Management Act, greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste will decrease by 41%.

  1. Greenhouse Gas and Particulate Emissions and Impacts from Cooking Technologies in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, D. M.; Bailis, R.; Kituyi, E.; Ezzati, M.

    2003-12-01

    In much of Africa, the largest fraction of energy consumption occurs within the residential sector and is derived primarily from woodfuels burned in simple stoves with poor combustion characteristics. Many of the products of incomplete combustion (PICs) are damaging to human health, particularly when they are concentrated in poorly ventilated indoor environments. Incomplete combustion also has potentially harmful impacts on the climate. Prevalent PICs include methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is among the pollutants subject to controls under the Kyoto Protocol as well as carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter (PM), which can all have an effect on climate, but are not subject to controls under Kyoto. In addition, when woodfuels are used at a rate that reduces standing stocks of trees over the medium or long term, the CO2 released by combustion also has an impact. The choice of stove and fuel technology can have a significant impact on the emission of GHGs as well as on human exposure to health damaging pollutants. In this paper we analyze the emissions of different household energy technologies on a life-cycle basis. We use emission factors to estimate the emissions associated with production, distribution and end-use of common household fuels and assess the likely impacts of these emissions on public health and the global environment. We focus largely on charcoal, a popular fuel in many sub-Saharan African countries. Charcoal is produced by heating wood in the absence of sufficient air for complete combustion to occur. This process removes moisture and most of the volatile compounds. The compounds driven off in the process consist of condensable tars as well as many gaseous hydrocarbons, including ~40 g CH4 per kg of charcoal produced. Combining upstream and end-use emissions, every meal cooked with charcoal has 2-10 times the global warming effect of cooking the same meal with firewood and 5-12 times the effect of

  2. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  3. Consistency of policy instruments. How the EU could move to a -30% greenhouse gas reduction target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Moltmann, S.; Escalante, D. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The report provides options for how to achieve a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, in the EU, from 1990 to 2020. The EU has agreed a set of goals (objectives) and related instruments for 2020. The most significant objectives are the 20% or 30% reduction of greenhouse gases (all emissions, both within and outside the Emissions Trading System), the 20% improvement of energy efficiency and the 20% of renewable energy use by 2020. The stringency of the instruments used to reach these goals, must be set carefully to ensure overall consistency. Particularly after the economic crisis of 2008/2009, the Climate and Energy Package has to be 'tuned' again to be fully consistent, e.g. fast take up of renewable energy and fewer emissions due to the recession may cause an over-allocation in the EU-ETS.

  4. A perspective on cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction solutions in water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution systems (WDSs) face great challenges as aging infrastructures require significant investments in rehabilitation, replacement, and expansion. Reducing environmental impacts as WDSs develop is essential for utility managers and policy makers. This study quantifies the existing greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of common WDS elements using life-cycle assessment (LCA) while identifying the greatest opportunities for emission reduction. This study addresses oversights of the related literature, which fails to capture several WDS elements and to provide detailed life-cycle inventories. The life-cycle inventory results for a US case study utility reveal that 81% of GHGs are from pumping energy, where a large portion of these emissions are a result of distribution leaks, which account for 270 billion l of water losses daily in the United States. Pipe replacement scheduling is analyzed from an environmental perspective where, through incorporating leak impacts, a tool reveals that optimal replacement is no more than 20 years, which is in contrast to the US average of 200 years. Carbon abatement costs (CACs) are calculated for different leak reduction scenarios for the case utility that range from -130 to 35 t-1 CO2(eq). Including life-cycle modeling in evaluating pipe materials identified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cement-lined ductile iron (DICL) as the Pareto efficient options, however; utilizing PVC presents human health risks. The model developed for the case utility is applied to California and Texas to determine the CACs of reducing leaks to 5% of distributed water. For California, annual GHG savings from reducing leaks alone (3.4 million tons of CO2(eq)) are found to exceed California Air Resources Board’s estimate for energy efficiency improvements in the state’s water infrastructure.

  5. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  6. Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E

    2013-08-20

    Climate sensitivity measures the response of Earth's surface temperature to changes in forcing. The response depends on various climate processes that feed back on the initial forcing on different timescales. Understanding climate sensitivity is fundamental to reconstructing Earth's climatic history as well as predicting future climate change. On timescales shorter than centuries, only fast climate feedbacks including water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, and snow/sea ice albedo are usually considered. However, on timescales longer than millennia, the generally higher Earth system sensitivity becomes relevant, including changes in ice sheets, vegetation, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, etc. Here, I introduce the time-dependent climate sensitivity, which unifies fast-feedback and Earth system sensitivity. I show that warming projections, which include a time-dependent climate sensitivity, exhibit an enhanced feedback between surface warming and ocean CO2 solubility, which in turn leads to higher atmospheric CO2 levels and further warming. Compared with earlier studies, my results predict a much longer lifetime of human-induced future warming (23,000-165,000 y), which increases the likelihood of large ice sheet melting and major sea level rise. The main point regarding the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is that, even if the fast-feedback sensitivity is no more than 3 K per CO2 doubling, there will likely be additional long-term warming from slow climate feedbacks. Time-dependent climate sensitivity also helps explaining intense and prolonged warming in response to massive carbon release as documented for past events such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  7. Impact of reduced tillage on the greenhouse gas balance - a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Axel; Jantz, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Minimum tillage and no-tillage has been acknowledged as human induced measure for climate mitigation due to its potential to sequester additional soil carbon. However, there is increasing evidence that reduced tillage affects the vertical distribution of carbon in the soil profile, but hardy increases soil carbon stocks. Additionally, reduced tillage may increase the N2O emissions that would counterbalance the positive effects of soil carbon sequestration. Here we present a new meta-analysis on the full field scale effect of reduced tillage and no-tillage for the temperate zone including soil organic carbon, N2O and diesel derived fossil fuel emissions for field management. This analysis was performed using strict selection criteria and included data from more than 115 sites on soil carbon stock changes and from more than 30 sites with measured N2O fluxes on paired fields with conventional and reduced tillage. Soil organic carbon stocks did hardly increase (mean ±standard deviation: 2 ±11 Mg C ha-1) under no tillage as compared to moldboard ploughing. At 38% of all sites decreasing soil carbon stocks were detected under no-tillage as compared to conventional tillage. On the other hand, N2O emissions increased by around 40% on no-tillage fields with large deviations between sites. Thus, the total greenhouse gas balance turned out to be more negative for most no-tillage fields as compared to conventional tillage fields. The large observed scatter and deviations between sites and their controlling factors are discussed.

  8. Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community's greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-23

    This Decision determines the contribution of Member States to meeting the Community's greenhouse gas emission reduction commitment from 2013 to 2020 for greenhouse gas emissions from sources not covered under Directive 2003/87/EC (sources outside the EU ETS). It provides for the evaluation of the achieved emissions reductions resulting from the implementation of this Decision. It also promotes flexibility in achieving this effort through allowing for the use of certified emission reductions resulting from clean development mechanism projects under Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol and resulting from emission reduction activities in third countries to implement this effort. The implementation by Member States of EU wide measures outside the EU ETS contributes to the achievement of the target for each Member State. Member State reduction efforts should be based on the principle of solidarity between Member States and the need for sustainable economic growth across the Community, taking into account the relative per capita GDP of Member States. To further ensure a fair contribution of each Member State to the implementation of the Community's independent commitment to achieve at least a 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1990, no country should be required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 to more than 20% below 2005 levels and no country should be allowed to increase its greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 to more than 20% above 2005 levels. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions should take place between 2013 and 2020. This proposal allows each Member State to carry forward from the following year a quantity equal to 2% of the greenhouse gas emission limit of that Member State. It also allows a Member State of which the emissions are below its limit to carry over its excess emission reductions to the subsequent year. Four accompanying COM documents are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  9. Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level of A Natural Gas Pipeline – Case Study from A to B Point in West Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dianita Cindy; Saputra Asep Handaya

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the highest greenhouse emitters in the world. As a response of this problem, Indonesia declared the national action plan to focus on national greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by 26 % by 2020. To achieve this target, Government puts energy sector as one of the top priorities since it is the second strongest contributor to national GHG emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to apply the method of fugitive emissions calculation to the existing natural gas pipeline in Indo...

  10. Obliquity-Controlled Water Vapor/Trace Gas Feedback in the Martian Greenhouse Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischna, M. A.; Baker, V. R.; Milliken, R.; Richardson, M. I.; Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have explored possible mechanisms for the generation of warm, wet climates on early Mars as a result of greenhouse warming by both water vapor and periodic volcanic trace gas emissions, using the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) general circulation model. The presence of both water vapor (a strong greenhouse gas) and other trace greenhouse gases (such as SO2) in a predominantly CO2 atmosphere may act, under certain conditions, to elevate surface temperatures above the freezing point of liquid water, at least episodically. The levels of warming obtained in our simulations do not reach the values seen in Johnson et al., (2008, JGR, 113, E08005), nor are they widespread for extended periods. Rather, warming above 273 K is found in more localized environments and for geologically brief periods of time. Such periodic episodes are controlled by two factors. First is the obliquity of the planet, which plays a significant role is ';activating' extant surface water ice reservoirs, allowing levels of atmospheric water vapor to rise when obliquity is high, and fall precipitously when the obliquity is low. During these low-obliquity periods, the atmosphere is all but incapable of supporting warm surface temperatures except for brief episodes localized wholly in the tropics; thus, there is a natural regulator in the obliquity cycle for maintaining periodic warming. Second is the presence of a secondary trace gas 'trigger', like volcanically released SO2, in the atmosphere. In the absence of such a trace gas, water vapor alone appears incapable of raising temperatures above the melting point; however, by temporarily raising the baseline global temperatures (in the absence of warming by water vapor) by 10-15 K, as with SO2, the trigger gas keeps atmospheric temperatures sufficiently warm, especially during nighttime, to maintain levels of water vapor in the atmosphere that provide the needed warming. Furthermore, we find that global warming can be achieved more

  11. High accuracy Primary Reference gas Mixtures for high-impact greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Zalewska, Ewelina; Pearce-Hill, Ruth; Brewer, Paul; Resner, Kate; Mace, Tatiana; Tarhan, Tanil; Zellweger, Christophe; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, due to increased man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, poses one of the greatest risks to society worldwide. High-impact greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirect drivers for global warming (e.g. CO) are measured by the global monitoring stations for greenhouse gases, operated and organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Reference gases for the calibration of analyzers have to meet very challenging low level of measurement uncertainty to comply with the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) set by the WMO. Within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), a project to improve the metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases was granted (HIGHGAS, June 2014-May 2017). As a result of the HIGHGAS project, primary reference gas mixtures in cylinders for ambient levels of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air have been prepared with unprecedented low uncertainties, typically 3-10 times lower than usually previously achieved by the NMIs. To accomplish these low uncertainties in the reference standards, a number of preparation and analysis steps have been studied and improved. The purity analysis of the parent gases had to be performed with lower detection limits than previously achievable. E.g., to achieve an uncertainty of 2•10-9 mol/mol (absolute) on the amount fraction for N2O, the detection limit for the N2O analysis in the parent gases has to be in the sub nmol/mol domain. Results of an OPO-CRDS analyzer set-up in the 5µm wavelength domain, with a 200•10-12 mol/mol detection limit for N2O, will be presented. The adsorption effects of greenhouse gas components at cylinder surfaces are critical, and have been studied for different cylinder passivation techniques. Results of a two-year stability study will be presented. The fit-for-purpose of the reference materials was studied for possible variation on isotopic composition between the reference material and the sample. Measurement results for a suit of CO2 in air

  12. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  13. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  14. Making Small-Scale Classroom Greenhouse Gas Flux Calculations Using a Handmade Gas Capture Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Peter W.; Sharma, Ashok; Burn, Stewart; Goodman, Nigel; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan; Lemckert, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The emissions of various types of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from natural and industrial sources are undergoing a great deal of scrutiny around the world. The three main GHGs that are of most concern are carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]), nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) and methane (CH[subscript 4]). CO[subscript 2], N[subscript 2]O and CH[subscript…

  15. Greenhouse gas balance of harvesting stumps and logging residues for energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Eva-Lotta; Hansson, Per-Anders (Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: eva-lotta.lindholm@slu.se; Stendahl, Johan (Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berg, Staffan (Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    In this case study, forest fuel procurement chains of stumps and logging residues were evaluated using a Life Cycle Assessment perspective. Direct emissions from combustion were not included, but soil organic carbon change was included as changes in carbon stocks in litter and soil. The results showed that primary forest biomass for energy has a climate impact which is time dependent. However, in long-time perspectives, there are large greenhouse gas (GHG) savings. In a short term (20 years), there were no GHG savings when natural gas or coal was replaced. This is due to the fact that the harvest lead to decreased input of organic matter to the soil which is compared to a reference where biomass are left to decompose. The reduction in soil organic carbon may have been underestimated in the stump harvest systems studied, as the effect of soil disturbance per se was not included. Important factors when assessing GHG balance of forest fuels, besides the time horizon used, were site productivity, geographical position and forest fuel resource (stumps or logging residues). When assessing the greenhouse gas savings, efficiency of the end-use, allocation method between heat and power and type of fossil fuel replaced were also important

  16. Evaluation of constructed wetlands by wastewater purification ability and greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, P; Inamori, R; Matsumura, M; Inamori, Y

    2007-01-01

    Domestic wastewater is a significant source of nitrogen and phosphorus, which cause lake eutrophication. Among the wastewater treatment technologies, constructed wetlands are a promising low-cost means of treating point and diffuse sources of domestic wastewater in rural areas. However, the sustainable operation of constructed wetland treatment systems depends upon a high rate conversion of organic and nitrogenous loading into their metabolic gaseous end products, such as N2O and CH4. In this study, we examined and compared the performance of three typical types of constructed wetlands: Free Water Surface (FWS), Subsurface Flow (SF) and Vertical Flow (VF) wetlands. Pollutant removal efficiency and N2O and CH4 emissions were assessed as measures of performance. We found that the pollutant removal rates and gas emissions measured in the wetlands exhibited clear seasonal changes, and these changes were closely associated with plant growth. VF wetlands exhibited stable removal of organic pollutants and NH3-N throughout the experiment regardless of season and showed great potential for CH4 adsorption. SF wetlands showed preferable T-N removal performance and a lower risk of greenhouse gas emissions than FWS wetlands. Soil oxidation reduction potential (ORP) analysis revealed that water flow structure and plant growth influenced constructed wetland oxygen transfer, and these variations resulted in seasonal changes of ORP distribution inside wetlands that were accompanied by fluctuations in pollutant removal and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions reductions in Ukraine through energy efficiency policies and technologies implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapstun, M. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed potential strategies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Ukraine as a result of the country's recent ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. The Ukraine has been identified as a key supplier to the carbon market due to the fact that many of its energy technologies need to be modernized. Key sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Ukraine were presented, as well as the emissions reduction potential of existing technologies in various sectors. An ENPEP model was used to examine emissions levels under different development scenarios. A summary of the main environmental and economic parameters of energy efficiency investment projects developed by ARENA-ECO were also presented. Results of the study showed that the Ukraine has the potential to supply more than 650 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission reductions over the 2008-2012 Kyoto Protocol commitment period. Priority sectors included the power and heat production sector; the metallurgy industry; the natural gas industry; petroleum and petroleum refining industries; chemical and petrochemical industries; the construction industry; municipal utility services; agriculture; and transport. It was concluded that many of the proposed emissions abatement projects suggested in the paper were also cost-effective. Payback periods ranged from between 1 and 8 years, and investment requirements for the projects ranged between $4 to $20 per tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent. 8 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Increasing insolation and greenhouse gas concentration trigger Bølling-Allerød warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obase, Takashi; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako

    2017-04-01

    During the last deglaciation, a major global warming was punctuated by several abrupt climate changes, likely related to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Curculation (AMOC) (Clark et al. 2012). Transient deglaciation experiments from the Last Glacial Maximum have been conducted by applying time-dependent insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, and glacial meltwater forcing (Liu et al. 2009). They have showed that reduction in glacial meltwater discharge rate into North Atlantic induces abrupt recovery of AMOC, warming of Greenland and cooling of Antarctica (bipolar response) during the period of Bølling-Allerød (BA, 14.6 ka). We conduct a transient simulation from the Last Glacial Maximum to BA using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM) MIROC 4m (an IPCC-class Japanese community model). The model is initialized with the 21ka, and we change insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations and meltwater fluxes following the protocol of PMIP4 (Ivanovic et al. 2016). Glacial meltwater is derived from ice sheet reconstruction (ICE6g, Peltier et al. 2015). We assume the glacial meltwater due to ice sheet loss is uniformly applied to the area of 50-70N North Atlantic Ocean. We conduct additional experiments branched from 16 ka, where 50-80% of ICE6g meltwater fluxes are applied without reducing the meltwater fluxes before the BA. The model results show that abrupt resumption of AMOC and warming of Greenland occurred at around the period of BA even under hosing of 0.06 Sv. Transition from cold stadial mode to warm interstadial mode occurs in about 100 years, which is consistent with reconstructions (Buizert et al. 2014). The result implies that increasing summer insolation and greenhouse gas concentration trigger abrupt AMOC recovery and warming in the Northern Hemisphere, and large fluctuation of meltwater due to ice sheet melting may not be necessary.

  19. Tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the design of urban transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Julia B.; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-12-01

    Recent investments in the transit sector to address greenhouse gas emissions have concentrated on purchasing efficient replacement vehicles and inducing mode shift from the private automobile. There has been little focus on the potential of network and operational improvements, such as changes in headways, route spacing, and stop spacing, to reduce transit emissions. Most models of transit system design consider user and agency cost while ignoring emissions and the potential environmental benefit of operational improvements. We use a model to evaluate the user and agency costs as well as greenhouse gas benefit of design and operational improvements to transit systems. We examine how the operational characteristics of urban transit systems affect both costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The research identifies the Pareto frontier for designing an idealized transit network. Modes considered include bus, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail transit (LRT), and metro (heavy) rail, with cost and emissions parameters appropriate for the United States. Passenger demand follows a many-to-many travel pattern with uniformly distributed origins and destinations. The approaches described could be used to optimize the network design of existing bus service or help to select a mode and design attributes for a new transit system. The results show that BRT provides the lowest cost but not the lowest emissions for our large city scenarios. Bus and LRT systems have low costs and the lowest emissions for our small city scenarios. Relatively large reductions in emissions from the cost-optimal system can be achieved with only minor increases in user travel time.

  20. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to flood risk in England and Wales in autumn 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí A; Stott, Peter A; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno G J; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles R

    2011-02-17

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing. Yet climate models used to study the attribution problem typically do not resolve the weather systems associated with damaging events such as the UK floods of October and November 2000. Occurring during the wettest autumn in England and Wales since records began in 1766, these floods damaged nearly 10,000 properties across that region, disrupted services severely, and caused insured losses estimated at £1.3 billion (refs 5, 6). Although the flooding was deemed a 'wake-up call' to the impacts of climate change at the time, such claims are typically supported only by general thermodynamic arguments that suggest increased extreme precipitation under global warming, but fail to account fully for the complex hydrometeorology associated with flooding. Here we present a multi-step, physically based 'probabilistic event attribution' framework showing that it is very likely that global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions substantially increased the risk of flood occurrence in England and Wales in autumn 2000. Using publicly volunteered distributed computing, we generate several thousand seasonal-forecast-resolution climate model simulations of autumn 2000 weather, both under realistic conditions, and under conditions as they might have been had these greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting large-scale warming never occurred. Results are fed into a precipitation-runoff model that is used to simulate severe daily river runoff events in England and Wales (proxy indicators of flood events). The precise magnitude of the anthropogenic contribution remains uncertain, but in nine out of ten cases our model results indicate that twentieth-century anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions increased the risk of floods occurring in England and Wales in autumn 2000 by more than 20%, and in two out of three cases by more than 90%.

  1. Open Source Tools for Numerical Simulation of Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottrott, A.; Tan, S. M.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    There is a global movement toward urbanization. Approximately 7% of the global population lives in just 28 megacities, occupying less than 0.1% of the total land area used by human activity worldwide. These cities contribute a significant fraction of the global budget of anthropogenic primary pollutants and greenhouse gasses. The 27 largest cities consume 9.9%, 9.3%, 6.7% and 3.0% of global gasoline, electricity, energy and water use, respectively. This impact motivates novel approaches to quantify and mitigate the growing contribution of megacity emissions to global climate change. Cities are characterized by complex topography, inhomogeneous turbulence, and variable pollutant source distributions. These features create a scale separation between local sources and urban scale emissions estimates known as the Grey-Zone. Modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques provide a quasi-deterministic, physically based toolset to bridge the scale separation gap between source level dynamics, local measurements, and urban scale emissions inventories. CFD has the capability to represent complex building topography and capture detailed 3D turbulence fields in the urban boundary layer. This presentation discusses the application of OpenFOAM to urban CFD simulations of natural gas leaks in cities. OpenFOAM is an open source software for advanced numerical simulation of engineering and environmental fluid flows. When combined with free or low cost computer aided drawing and GIS, OpenFOAM generates a detailed, 3D representation of urban wind fields. OpenFOAM was applied to model methane (CH4) emissions from various components of the natural gas distribution system, to investigate the impact of urban meteorology on mobile CH4 measurements. The numerical experiments demonstrate that CH4 concentration profiles are highly sensitive to the relative location of emission sources and buildings. Sources separated by distances of 5-10 meters showed significant differences in

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Albert H., E-mail: Albert.H.Baur@campus.tu-berlin.de; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  3. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  4. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  5. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  6. Ecology and genomics of microorganisms reducing the greenhouse gas N₂O

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Daniel Robert Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a potent greenhouse gas and the major ozone depleting substance in the stratosphere. One major source of N₂O is incomplete denitrification, whereas the only known tropospheric sink of N₂O is the microbial enzyme nitrous oxide reductase. Denitrification is defined as the stepwise reduction of nitrite to dinitrogen via nitric oxide and N₂O by facultative anaerobic microorganisms. This thesis aims to elucidate the phylogenetic diversity of the N₂O reductase encoding gene n...

  7. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of value a corporate guide to voluntary climate action

    OpenAIRE

    Randers, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the globa...

  9. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf; Klimagasskvoter paa sokkelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from forest and agroecosystems in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    The Sub-Saharan African (SSA) landscape is vulnerable to ongoing land use change and climatic variability, which significantly influences carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics. However, empirical data on GHG emissions from SSA ecosystems is lacking; hence, limiting our understanding of the potential effects of rapid land use and climate change. Here, I will present information on GHG dynamics in agroecosystems, aquatic ecosystems and forest ecosystems across multiple spatial and temporal scales to elucidate key drivers of GHG emissions from plots to regions.

  11. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  12. Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations on the U.S. Sugar Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard D; Koo, Won W.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the changes in U.S. sugar production and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the sugar industry if the United States regulates GHG emissions from domestic sugar processing facilities. A spatial equilibrium model is developed to optimize sugar production in the United States under a base scenario and three different levels of CO2e taxes or prices of carbon offsets. This research focuses on U.S. sugar production, both beet and cane sugar. In the model ...

  13. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  14. Synthesizing greenhouse gas fluxes across nine European peatlands and shrublands - responses to climatic and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Klaus, Larsen; Emmett, B;

    2012-01-01

    , and in annual precipitation from 300 to 1300mmyr-1. The effects of climate change, including temperature increase and prolonged drought, were tested at five shrubland sites. At one peatland site, the long-term (>30 yr) effect of drainage was assessed, while increased nitrogen deposition was investigated...... shrubland where drought tended to increase soil respiration. In terms of fractional importance of each greenhouse gas to the total numerical global warming response, the change in CO2 efflux dominated the response in all treatments (ranging 71–96 %), except for NO- 3 addition where 89% was due to change...

  15. Combustion efficiency: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power generation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, R.; South, D.W.; Fish, A.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Upton, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Concern for the possibility of an enhanced greenhouse effect and global climate change (GCC) has often been associated with energy use in general, and fossil fuel combustion in particular, because of associated emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases (GHG). Therefore, energy policies play a significant role in determining greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of electricity and power from more efficient fossil energy technologies provides an opportunity to significantly lower GHG emissions, together with other pollutants. The U.S. government oversees a broad-based program to facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of these technologies. Advanced fossil technologies offer other benefits as well, in that they permit continued use of widely available fuels such as coal. An international perspective is critical for assessing the role of these fuels, since countries differ in terms of their ability to maximize these benefits. Often, new technologies are considered the domain of industrialized countries. Yet more efficient technologies may have their greatest potential - to concurrently permit the utilization of indigenous fuels and to lower global GHG emissions in developing countries, especially those in the Asia-Pacific region.

  16. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  17. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the Finnish built environment; Rakennetun ympaeristoen energiankaeyttoe ja kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehvilaeinen, I.; Pesola, A. (Gaia Consulting Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Heljo, J.; Vihola, J.; Kalenoja, H. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)); Jaeaeskelaeinen, S. (Ministry of Transport and Communications, Helsinki (Finland)); Lahti, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Maekelae, K. (Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)); Ristimaeki, M. (Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    This report analyses energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the Finnish built environment. Main emphasis is on the current situation represented by the year 2007. The study analyses future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions until 2050 on the basis of current policy measures and market trends. Scenarios from previous studies provide additional insights on potential alternative developments. The built environment accounted for 59 % of the final energy use and 56 % of the greenhouse gas emissions in Finland in 2007. Energy use and emissions of the built environment have been increasing at least until the first years of the 2000's. Energy use varies due to the variations in temperature dependent heating. The largest share of energy use and emissions in the built environment originates from the energy use in buildings. Heating with fossil fuels, district heating, and electric heating are responsible for the majority of emissions. Electricity use in lighting, appliances, and equipment also contributes to this. Majority of the energy use and emissions in the transport sector results from the use of fossil fuels in road traffic. Private cars are responsible for more than half of the road emissions, but the share of trucks and vans is also sizeable. Slightly less than half of the passenger traffic consists of daily trips to work, to school or to run errands. Other passenger traffic originates from free-time activities. Energy related emissions result from the use of fossil fuels in the Finnish energy production. District heating, as well as combined heat and power production rely largely on fossil fuels. Emissions from electricity production have varied from one year to another. During some years, electricity is produced with domestic fossil fuel fired condensing power while during others it is imported. Energy use for heating in buildings is expected to peak and start to decline after 2020. Short term effects are dependent on the amount of energy efficiency

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation: A Comparative Analysis of Australian Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hynes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation is one of the major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Transitioning the World’s energy economy to a lower carbon future will require significant investment in a variety of cleaner technologies, including renewables and nuclear power. In the short term, improving the efficiency of fossil fuel combustion in energy generation can provide an important contribution. Availability of life cycle GHG intensity data will allow decision-makers to move away from overly simplistic assertions about the relative merits of certain fuels, and focus on the complete picture, especially the critical roles of technology selection and application of best practice. This analysis compares the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG intensities per megawatt-hour (MWh of electricity produced for a range of Australian and other energy sources, including coal, conventional liquefied natural gas (LNG, coal seam gas LNG, nuclear and renewables, for the Australian export market. When Australian fossil fuels are exported to China, life cycle greenhouse gas emission intensity in electricity production depends to a significant degree on the technology used in combustion. LNG in general is less GHG intensive than black coal, but the gap is smaller for gas combusted in open cycle gas turbine plant (OCGT and for LNG derived from coal seam gas (CSG. On average, conventional LNG burned in a conventional OCGT plant is approximately 38% less GHG intensive over its life cycle than black coal burned in a sub-critical plant, per MWh of electricity produced. However, if OCGT LNG combustion is compared to the most efficient new ultra-supercritical coal power, the GHG intensity gap narrows considerably. Coal seam gas LNG is approximately 13–20% more GHG intensive across its life cycle, on a like-for like basis, than conventional LNG. Upstream fugitive emissions from CSG (assuming best practice gas extraction techniques do not materially alter the life cycle

  19. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Cremonese, L.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Several European countries with domestic shale gas reserves are considering extracting this natural gas resource to complement their energy transition agenda. Natural gas, which produces lower CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, has the potential to serve as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables. However, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact climate as well as local and regional air quality. In this study, we explore the impact of a potential shale gas development in Europe, specifically in Germany and the United Kingdom, on emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In order to investigate the effect on emissions, we first estimate a range of wells drilled per year and production volume for the two countries under examination based on available geological information and on regional infrastructural and economic limitations. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to the well development, gas production and processing stages of shale gas generation to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different storylines of potential shale gas development, including low emissions (high level of regulation), high emissions (low level of regulation) and middle emissions scenarios, which influence fleet make-up, emission factor and activity data choices for emissions quantification. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to promote discussion and communication of potential impacts, and to construct possible visions for a future shale gas development in the two study countries. In a follow-up study, the impact of pollutant emissions from these scenarios on air quality will be explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model.

  20. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...